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Characteristics of Urban Transportation Systems

Revised Edition September 1992

Characteristics of Urban Transportation Systems
Revised Edition September 1992

Prepared by Cambridge Systematics, Inc. with The Urban Institute Sydec, Inc. Herbert S. Levinson Abrams-Cherwony and Associates Lea and Elliott

Prepared for Federal Transit Administration U.S. Department of Transportation Washington, D.C: 20590 Distributed in Cooperation with Technology Sharing Program U.S. Department of Transportation Washington, D.C. 20590

DOT-T-93-07

with assistancefrom William A. The authors would also like to thank Walt Kulyk (FTA) for providing policy direction. Sam Zimmerman (FTA). and Dane Ismart (FHWA) for providing source data and advice on the contents of this document. Joe Ossi (FTA). was prepared by Harry Cohen and Arlee Reno (originally with the Urban Institute and now with Cambridge Systematics). Herbert S. the seventh since the report first produced in 1974. Joseph R. however. and Hyun-Young Park (Lea and Elliott). Edward Abrams (Abrams-Cherwony and Associates). and they alone are responsible for the accuracy of the material presented . Levinson. Ron JensonFisher (FTA). The authors would like to thank Ross Adams (FTA). Stowers (Sydec). Hyman and Ted Miller (The Urban Institute).ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This revision and updating of Characteristics of Urban Transportation Systems (CUTS). The contents of this document reflect the authors own views.

AND THE HIGHWAY SYSTEM AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT HIGH-OCCUPANCY VEHICLE LANES APPENDICES A B C D E CONSUMER PRICE AND COST INDICES BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON RAIL TRANSIT BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON BUS TRANSIT BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEMS METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS .TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 2 3 4 5 6 INTRODUCTION RAIL TRANSIT BUS TRANSIT AUTOMOBILES. TRUCKS.

LIST OF TABLES 2-l 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 AVERAGE RAIL TRANSIT SPEEDS RAIL TRANSIT ACCIDENTS PER MILLION PASSENGER MILES RAIL TRANSIT OPERATING COSTS DISTRIBUTION OF RAIL TRANSIT OPERATING COSTS BY OBJECT CLASS RAIL TRANSIT EMPLOYEES PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE MILES RAIL TRANSIT EMPLOYEES PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS RAIL TRANSIT EMPLOYEES PER VEHICLE OPERATED IN MAXIMUM SERVICE RAIL RAPID TRANSIT ENERGY CONSUMPTION LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT ENERGY CONSUMPTION COMMUTER RAIL ENERGY CONSUMPTION CAPITAL COSTS OF RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED RAIL RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS DISTRIBUTION OF RAIL RAPID TRANSIT CAPITAL COSTS BY SUBSYSTEM CAPITAL COSTS FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF LIGHT RAIL CAPITAL COSTS BY COST CATEGORY CAPITAL COST PER ROUTE MILE FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS CAPITAL COSTS FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL GUIDEWAYS CAPITAL COSTS FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL STATIONS CAPITAL COSTS FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT YARDS AND SHOPS COSTS OF RAIL RAPID TRANSIT ROLLING STOCK .

LIST OF TABLES (continued) 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-24 2-25 3-l 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 COSTS OF LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT ROLLING STOCK COSTS OF COMMUTER RAIL ROLLING STOCK COSTS OF VEHICLE REHABILITATION LIGHT RAIL VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS TYPICAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS PASSENGERS FOR SEATED AND STANDING RAIL TRANSIT STATION DWELL TIMES TYPICAL PEAK HOUR BUS TRAVEL TIMES BY COMPONENT EFFECTS OF STOPS AND TRAFFIC DELAY ON BUS SPEEDS BUS OPERATING COSTS PER UNIT OF SERVICE BY SYSTEM SIZE AND PEAK TO BASE RATIO BUS OPERATING COSTS AND EMPLOYEES PER PLACE MILE BY SYSTEM SIZE BUS LABOR INPUTS PER UNIT OF SERVICE BY SYSTEM SIZE BUS LABOR INPUTS PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE MILES BY TYPE OF EMPLOYEE AND BY SYSTEM SIZE BUS LABOR INPUTS PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS BY TYPE OF EMPLOYEE AND BY SYSTEM SIZE BUS FACILITY CONSTRUCTION COSTS REHABILITATION COSTS FOR 35 FOOT BUSES FOR TRANSIT BUS ENGINE AND TYPICAL COST AND MILEAGE TRANSMISSION REBUILDS COSTS OF HEAVY DUTY BUSES COST RANGE FOR SMALL BUSES .

1970-89 MILES PER GALLON OF HIGHWAY VEHICLES RETAIL PRICES FOR GASOLINE EFFECT OF PAVEMENT CONDITION ON OPERATING COSTS EFFECT OF SPEED ON AUTOMOBILE OPERATING COSTS VALUE OF VEHICLE TRAVEL TIME BY VEHICLE CLASS PASSENGER PASSENGER .LIST OF TABLES (continued) 3-13 3-14 3-15 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-19 3-20 4-l 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-11 DIMENSIONS OF TYPICAL TRANSIT BUSES DIMENSIONS OF SMALL BUSES TYPICAL TRANSIT BUS PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS TYPICAL BUS CAPACITIES MINIMUM DESIRABLE LENGTHS FOR CURB BUS LOADING ZONES BOARDING AND ALIGHTING TIMES BUS ACCIDENT RATES PER REVENUE VEHICLE MILE BY SYSTEM SIZE BUS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SYSTEM SIZE EFFECT OF LATERAL CLEARANCE AND LANE WIDTHS ON FREEWAY CAPACITIES EFFECT OF TRAFFIC VOLUME ON FREEWAY SPEEDS PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENTS FOR FREEWAY CAPACITY AVERAGE OPERATING COST FOR AN INTERMEDIATE-SIZED CAR (CURRENT DOLLARS) AVERAGE OPERATING COST FOR AN INTERMEDIATE-SIZED CAR (CONSTANT DOLLARS) AVERAGE PRICE OF A NEW CAR.

LIST OF TABLES (continued) 4-12 4-13 4-14 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-18 4-19 5-l 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 6-l 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 PARKING CONSTRUCTION COSTS ILLUSTRATIVE ANNUAL OPERATING COSTS FOR PARKING GARAGES PARKING CONTROL SERVICE RATES TAXI COMPANY UNIT COSTS HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENT COSTS IN URBAN AREAS ILLUSTRATIVE EMISSION FACTORS BY SPEED AND CALENDAR YEAR INCIDENTS PER MILLION VEHICLE MILES BY HIGHWAY FUNCTIONAL CLASS COSTS OF POLICE-REPORTED CRASHES BY HIGHWAY CLASS AUTOMATED SPEEDS GUIDEWAY FUNCTIONAL AND TRANSIT FLEET SIZES. CAPACITIES. OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE TRANSIT SYSTEMS COSTS FOR AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT VEHICLE COSTS AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY SYSTEM CAPITAL COST SUMMARY LABOR INPUTS FOR AGT SYSTEMS SYSTEM CAPITAL COSTS FOR SELECTED HOV PROJECTS OPERATION FACILITIES AND MAINTENANCE COST FOR CONTRAFLOW HOV OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE SEPARATED HOV FACILITIES COST FOR BARRIER AND BUFFER ENFORCEMENT-RELATED INFORMATION FOR SELECTED HOV PROJECTS COMPARISON OF HOV AND ADJACENT FACILITY ACCIDENT RATES .

ALL URBAN CONSUMERS HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION PRICE TRENDS COST TRENDS FOR HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL RAIL RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS COMMUTER RAIL SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS OF RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS OBSERVED PEAK-HOUR PASSENGER VOLUMES ON RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS OBSERVED PEAK-HOUR PASSENGER VOLUMES ON STREET CAR AND LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS RAPID TRANSIT TRAIN AND CAR CAPACITIES CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL BUSES CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS BUS SYSTEMS WITH 500 OR MORE BUS SYSTEMS WITH 250-499 BUSES TROLLEY BUS SYSTEMS AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SERVICE AND EMPLOYEE DATA FOR LABOR INPUTS-AGT SYSTEMS SI (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS .LIST OF TABLES (continued) 6-6 6-7 6-8 A-l A-2 A-3 B-l B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 C-l c-2 c-3 D-l D-2 E-l HOV DESIGN GUIDELINES PEAK HOUR HOV LANE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS PEAK HOUR FREEWAY AND HOV LANE VOLUME COMPARISONS CONSUMER PRICES INDICES -.

including the following: a 0 0 0 0 0 l 0 Speed Capacity Operating costs Labor inputs Capital costs Energy consumption Emission of air pollutants Accident rates and costs Organization of This Handbook The substantive material in this handbook is organized into five chapters: 0 0 0 Rail Transit (rapid. unspecified. and measurementdifferences can result in statistics being misleadingly compared or grouped. This handbook does not deal explicitly with passenger demand. the data presentedare often out-of-date. light. The very number of sourcescan confuse rather than help in the searchfor pertinent information. The literature offers many tools for estimating these characteristics.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Good decisions about transportation investments and policies require accurate information on characteristics of transportation system alternatives. The objective of this document is to provide a single source of sketch planning data on the most important performance characteristics of contemporary urban transportation systemsin a format that lends itself to easy reference. inconclusive. however. and the Highway System . and commuter) Bus Transit Automobiles. but assessesonly the supply or performance characteristic of urban transportation systems. or highly local in nature. Trucks.

Congress. How To Acquire Additional or Updated Information This section provides a brief description of key annual and monthly statistical sources that can be used to update the information in this handbook.(202)-523-1239 Producer Price Index detail -. published monthly by the Joint Economic Committee of the U. U. D. U. or detailed design. is a comprehensive source of price and income data. Department of Commerce. Government Printing Office. Washington. labor. It contains many detailed cost indices. Nothing in this handbook should be used to supersedeor confute competently developed site-specific estimates.(202)-523-9658 Consumer Price Index detail -. published monthly by the Bureau of Economic analysis of the U. To the extent possible. Orders should be sent to the Superintendent of Documents. tables in this handbook are designed to stand alone. dollar values presentedin this handbook will need to be adjusted for inflation as time passes. these relationships are not sufficiently refined for use in detailed studies such as transit operations analysis. Phone: (202)-783-3238.S.0 0 High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) Each chapter consists of a brief introduction and a series of tables providing quantitative information on system characteristics. Caveats Regarding Use of This Handbook This handbook is specifically for use by transportation planners in the preliminary evaluation of alternative systems. Consumer. D.S. Obviously.C. and so the relationships presentedare purposely simplified. Recorded information on price indices and other economic indicators compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is available on the following numbers: 0 0 0 Major BLS Indicators -. Survey of Current Business. Phone: (202)-783-3238. Government Printing Office.(202)-523-1765 Economic Indicators. Orders should be sent to the Superintendent of Documents. 20402.C. .S. In most cases. and construction cost price indices are presented in Appendix A. transportation. Washington. summarizes general price indices and other economic indicators.S. traffic engineering. with sourcesand definitions repeated on individual tables. as well as other information on economic activity. 20402.

contains information about each transit operation in the U. Each issue presentsan up-todate review of the principal statistical series collected by the BLS.O. Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures. N. safety. published annually by the Federal Highway Administration. contains data on motor fuel consumption. 20402. contains a wealth of price. P. fleet size. Washington. U. 300 New Center Building. This document is available from American Public Transit Association. and highway performance. production. accidents. The Statistical Abstract can be ordered from the superintendent of Documents. Highway Statistics is available from the Superintendentof Documents. motor vehicle registration. CPZ Detailed Report. Hightstown. published annually by the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association. Monthly Labor Review.S. It includes data on transit revenues. and productivity. U. and fleet age. Box 430. Phone: (202)-783-3238.C. employee counts. production. including data on employment. energy consumption. drivers licenses. contains information on construction and construction prices.S. U.S. prices. The document is available from the Office of Technical Assistance. D. that receives FTA support. Single copies or subscriptions can be ordered from the Superintendentof Documents. unemployment. Suite 400. fleet composition. Copies can be ordered from the Communications Department.C. Washington. fuel economy.S. S.S. mileage.C. highway finance. published weekly by McGraw Hill. Phone: (202)-783-3238. services. maintenance. National Urban Mass Transportation Statistics. D. 20590. 20402.S. operating cost. provides a statistical profile of U.C. Phone: (202)-426-9157. . published monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 20402.Engineering News-Record. Phone: (202)-898-4000. Washington... Single copies or subscriptions can be ordered from the Superintendentof Documents. Government Printing Office. and other data of interest to transportation planners. Statistical Abstract of the United States. highway travel. wages. reports monthly consumer price movements (including gasoline prices) in urban areas. Inc. Government Printing Office. 20005. 20402. Detroit. consumer and producer prices.W. published annually by the Federal Transit Administration. and fuel economy data assembled from various primary sources. 1201 New York Avenue. gives price. Michigan 48202. Bureau of the Census. Federal Transit Administration.C. published annually by the American Public Transit Association (APTA).W. and economic growth. Washington. expenses. Engineering News-Record. Phone: (202)-783-3238. wages. published monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. D. Government Printing Office. U. D. published annually by the U. NJ 08520. Phone: (202)-783-3238. Highway Statistics.. income. productivity. 400 7th Street. D.C. Transit Fact Book. Subscription orders should be sent to Fulfillment Manager. Government Printing Office.S. Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association. provides articles on labor force. Washington. D. transit and trends of transit finances and operations. Washington.

Data on the characteristics of individual rail systems are presented in Appendix B. and commuter rail systems: 0 0 l speeds Accident rates Operating costs Labor requirements Energy consumption Capital costs Capacities 0 0 0 0 Information on speeds. light rail. accident rates. high. and low values) from 1989 UMTA Section 15 reports.CHAPTER 2 RAIL TFUNSIT This chapter provides quantitative information on the following characteristics of rapid rail. . labor requirements. operating costs. and energy consumption in this chapter are summarized (in the form of average.

8 8.02.2 mph).1 Light Rail (12) Commuter Rail (9) SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 'Systemwide speed is actual vehicle revenue miles per vehicle revenue hour of operation.5 12. The ratio of total vehicle miles to revenue miles is shown in Tables B-l.04. Revenue miles exclude all vehicle miles traveled when not in regular passenger service (i. 2Low and high values unrepresentative: Seattle's and Staten Island Rapid classified as commuter rail omit two small systems that may be two car streetcar operation (5.08 for the three rail modes.03 hours per mile.6 Speed (MPH)' High2 29. unweighted by system size. and B-3 in Appendix B for each rail rapid transit system. and 1.04 hours per mile respectively. B-2. respectively. deadheading). and (3) inverting the result.02 and 0. Harmonic means are calculated by (1) inverting speeds for each system to get hours per mile.e. a 36 car system which is (21. light rail system.0 mph) Transit. (2) taking the arithmetic mean of hours per mile.0 30.5 Average3 22. For example.3 36.0 23. .3 mph. The ratios average 1.. the harmonic mean of 50 mph and 25 mph is calculated by (1) inverting the two speeds to get 0.TABLE 2-1 AVERAGE RAIL TRANSIT SPEEDS Systemwide Low2 Rapid Rail (12)4 15. 4Number of systems used in calculating averages. 3Average speeds are harmonic means. 1. and (3) inverting the result to get 33.9 27. and commuter rail system. (2) taking the arithmetic mean to get 0.

21 2.43 0.91 0.00 2.000 0.52 0.59 0.020 0.017 0.000 0.00 1.000 0.21 2.91 6.007 0. .029 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 'Number of systems used in calculating averages.003 0.83 Deaths 0.TABLE 2-2 RAIL TRANSIT ACCIDENTS PER MILLION PASSENGER MILES Accidents Rapid Rail (12)' 0.37 0.91 0.98 0. 1<!51 0.93 0.38 Average Low High Light Rail Average (13) Low High Commuter Rail Average (10) Low High Injuries 0.08 15.00 7.21 3.

261 0.438 0.0876 Cost Per Passenger Mile $0.578 0.53 3.282 0.504 9.TABLE 2-3 RAIL TRANSIT OPERATING COSTS Cost Per Revenue Vehicle Mile Rapid Rail Average (12)2 Low High Light Rail Average (13) Low High Commuter Rail Average (10) Low Hiah SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data $6.1578 .61 125 30 0.31 3.0163 0. 262 9.419 0. 2Number of systems used in calculating averages.201 1. .0469 0.33 18.127 0.0180 0.33 Cost Per Revenue Vehicle Hour $152 56 272 Cost Per Place Mile' $0.0960 0.96 5.135 0.0687 0.0492 0.1519 the 'Place miles (or revenue capacity miles) are calculated as revenue vehicle miles times average passenger capacity (seated plus standing) of the active vehicles in the fleet.93 23.31 10.39 for 1989 307 178 724 0.

2 8.2 9.1 24.7 29.4 11.5 26.6 28.7 100.1% 34.0% Light Rail' (13 systems) 18.0% 29.0% Salaries Benefits SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 'Percentages are calculated from average costs in each category for all systems reporting.7 100.1 100. .3% 40.TABLE 2-4 DISTRIBUTION OF RAIL TRANSIT OPERATING COSTS BY OBJECT CLASS Rapid Rail' (12 systems) Operator Other Fringe Utilities All Total Other Costs Salaries and Wages and Wages 9.7 12.6 6.0% Commuter Rail' (10 systems) 11.

2 192.4 107.5 278.2 98.4 24.4 Administration 21.8 Maintenance 49.2 5.5 15.2 Rail (10) 48.7 35.8 27.3 1.8 121.5 89.1 80.8 57.0 Rail (12)' 32.5 Average Low High Commuter Average Low High 23.4 All Employees 103.4 Average 14.5 4.O 72. .7 178.3 33.8 28.6 74.6 53.8 62.8 142.6 25.2 41.0 175.5 26.2 77.9 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 'Number of systems used in calculating averages.TABLE 2-5 RAIL TRANSIT EMPLOYEES PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE MILES Transportation Rapid Low High Light Rail (12) 70.

TABLE 2-6 RAIL TRANSIT EMPLOYEES PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS Transportation Rapid Rail Average (12)' Low High Light Rail Average (12) Low High Commuter Rail Average (10) Low High 734 372 1.276 5.179 4.141 605 2.480 806 2.392 1.583 932 312 38 885 4.- 499 1.636 465 21 1.17.353 Administration 492 135 All Employees 2.450 1. .412 Maintenance 1.748 755 2.222 538 2.421 887 1.697 2.234 3.428 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 "Number of systems used in calculating averages.694 2.362 1.366 1.

TABLE 2-7 RAIL TRANSIT EMPLOYEES PER VEHICLE OPERATED IN MAXIMUM SERVICE Transportation Rapid Rail 1.28 Administration 1.46 2.68 9.21 2.10 1.58 2.34 1.97 0.30 5.75 0.33 2.76 2.98 0.17 4.11 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 'Number of systems used in calculating averages.20 3.36 1. .96 3.52 1.12 0.74 4.38 0.67 9.93 6.42 9.47 Average (12)' Low High Light Rail Average (12) Low High Commuter Rail Average Low High (10) Maintenance 2.85 3.10 1.78 All Employees 6.04 1.27 0.69 0.30 4.95 1.97 3.14 3.

04 14.6 24. *Number of systems used in calculating averages. .63 5.TABLE 2-8 RAIL RAPID TRANSIT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Kilowatt Per Revenue Vehicle Mile Average Low High (12)* 7.35 Per Revenue Vehicle Hour 179 110 378 Hours Per Thousand Place Miles' 60.8 116 Per Thousand Passenger Miles 323 205 482 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 the 'Place miles (or revenue capacity miles) are calculated as revenue vehicle miles times average passenger capacity (seated plus standing) of the active vehicles in the fleet.

85 Per Revenue Vehicle Hour 161 35 626 Hours Per Thousand Place Miles' 99. . 2Number of systems used in calculating averages.6 22.89 41.3 377 Per Thousand Passenger Miles 542 149 1.09 3.723 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 the 'Place miles (or revenue capacity miles) are calculated as revenue vehicle miles times average passenger capacity (seated plus standing) of the active vehicles in the fleet.TABLE 2-9 LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Kilowatt Per Revenue Vehicle Mile Average Low High (13)2 11.

lows. the power -New York- 2Place miles (or revenue capacity miles) are calculated as revenue vehicle miles times average passenger capacity (seated plus standing) of the active vehicles in the fleet. Chicago-Commuter Rail Board.68 9. and New York-MTNR.37 Per Revenue Vehicle Hour 321 191 451 (continued) SOURCE: TJMTA Section 15 data for * 1989 Hours' Per Thousand Place Miles 76. Newark-NJT.TABLE 2-10 COMMUTERRAIL ENERGY CONSUMPTION Kilowatt Per Revenue Vehicle Mile Average Low High 12.4 101.6 51. Four systems consume both electric and diesel power -LIRR. and highs are for the two systems that consume only electric Staten Island and SEPTA.7 Per Thousand Passenger Miles 480 438 522 'Averages.00 16. .

Boston.6 Per Revenue Vehicle Hour 26.5 17.4 32.57 0. and Chicago-Burlington that consume only Northern.7 22.808 0.1 Per Thousand Place Miles 5.99 and Other Liquid Petroleum Fuel (Gallons)3 Per Thousand Passenger Miles 18. lows.68 4.80 3Averages.TABLE 2-10 (continued) Diesel Per Revenue Vehicle Mile Average Low High 0. and highs are for the four systems Chicago & NW.80 6. diesel power -- .0 13. SF Caltrans.

Administration.6 21. 1989. October.8 7.86 131.49 169.341 7.289 1. Projects: Forecast Grants Management. Versus Urban Actual Mass Ridership and Transportation .70 Source: Urban Rail Transit Don Pickrell.720 1.5 Percent Underground 42% 56 0 57 Stations 26 9 20 57 Capital Cost (millions) $2.968 Cost Per Line-Mile (millions) $101.61 63. prepared for Office of costs.TABLE 2-11 CAPITAL COSTS OF RECENTLY CONSTRUCTEDRAIL RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS (1988 DOLLARS) Location Atlanta Baltimore Miami Washincton Line-Miles 26.0 60.

DISTRIBUTION

TABLE 2-12 OF RAIL RAPID TRANSIT CAPITAL COSTS BY SUBSYSTEM (PERCENT)

Subsystem Land Guideway Stations Trackwork Power Control Facilities Eng./Mgt./Test Vehicles Total

San Francisco BART All 7% 37 19 3 2 4 2 14 12
100%

Atlanta MARTA Phase A 9% 33 20 2 1 2 3 23 7
100%

Baltimore MTA Phase I 2% 25 30 2 2 4 2 24 9 100%

Chicago CTA O'Hare 0% 20 28 7 5 8 4 8 20 100%

Boston MBTA Red Line South 11% 15 33 7 6 7 0 6 15 100%

Source:

Thomas Dooley;

Transportation

Systems

Center,

U.S.

DOT; 1982.

TABLE 2-13 CAPITAL COSTS FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTEDLIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS (MILLIONS OF 1990 NATIONAL' DOLLARS)

Cost Category Guideway Elements Yards and Shops Systems Stations Vehicles Special Conditions2 Right of Way Soft Costs3 Total

Portland $106.6 13.4 23.8 16.9 33.2 6.5
17 6. ."n 65.1 282.5

Sacramento $47.9 4.1 20.0 10.5 34.9 12.5 17.9 40.2 188.1

San Jose $56.1 18.9 26.5 4.0 51.7 7.5 49.4 120.8 334.8

Pittsburgh $124.0 42.8 66.1 38.5 64.4 11.3 24.8 252.2 624.1

Los Angeles $135.1 40.2 104.7 59.9 72.6 150.7 54.6 208.4 826.2

'Actual
Construction

construction
Cost Indices

costs were converted to by city and year. National tlSpecial include Conditions" demolitions,

1990 National Dollars using costs represent the average category are for utility roadway changes, and

Means for 30

major

cities. relocations. environmental project finance

2Most of the costs in the Other costs in this category treatments.

3Soft Costs include feasibility studies, engineering and design studies, initiation (insurance, mobilization, management, project maintenance of traffic), charges, training, and testing.

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION

TABLE 2-14 OF LIGHT RAIL CAPITAL COSTS BY COST CATEGORY

cost Category Guideway Elements Yards and Shops Systems Stations Vehicles Special Conditions' Right of Way Soft costs2 Total Source:

Portland 37.7% 4.7 8.4 6.0 11.8 2.3 6.0 23.0 100.0

Sacramento 25.5% 2.2 10.7 5.6 18.5 6.7 9.5 21.4 100.0 Light

San Jose 16.8% 5.6 7.9 1.2 15.4 2.2 14.7 36.1 100.0 Rail Office

Pittsburgh 19.9% 6.9 10.6 6.2 10.3 1.8 4.0 40.4 100.0

Los Angeles 16.4% 4.9 12.7 7.2 8.8 18.2 6.6 25.2 100.0

Average 23.2% 4.9 10.1 5.2 13.0 6.3 8.2 29.2 100.0

Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc.; Federal Transit Administration, 5, 1991.

Transit Capital Cost Study; prepared for of Technical Assistance and Safety; April

'Most of the costs in the Other costs in this category treatments.

"Special include

Conditionsl' demolitions,

category are for utility roadway changes, and

relocations. environmental project finance

2Soft Costs include feasibility studies, engineering and design studies, management, project initiation (insurance, mobilization, maintenance of traffic), charges, training, and testing.

581 19.221 36.289 974 2. were converted to and year. and Means for 30 2Most of the costs in the Other costs in this category treatments.187 427 1.559 Average $4. project initiation (insurance.608 936 1.283 18.111 2.905 685 979 2.196 10.826 Pittsburgh $3.094 2.185 Los Angeles $5.567 276 604 6. National Conditions" demolitions.013 879 1. "Special include relocations.634 2.600 376 2.417 9. .136 15.666 2.480 6.980 1.095 576 1. 1990 National Dollars using costs represent the average category are for utility roadway changes. engineering and design studies.618 223 1.278 San Jose $2. environmental project finance 3Soft Costs include feasibility studies.295 1.047 1. mobilization. charges! training.585 Sacramento $2.486 'Actual Construction construction Cost Indices costs by city major cities.520 5.686 1.016 1.072 16.777 4.118 4.567 1. and testing.332 200 2.TABLE 2-15 CAPITAL COST PER ROUTE MILE FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS (THOUSANDS OF 1990 NATIONAL DOLLARS') Cost Category Guideway Yards Systems Stations Vehicles Special Conditions2 Right of Way Soft Costs3 Total Elements and Shops Portland $7.042 1. maintenance of traffic).649 3.819 948 1. management.214 6.

077 San Jose $609 Pittsburgh $460 636 961 Los Angeles $636 2. presented in this table. Design. .133 7. Right-of-way costs are also not included.986 943 Average $665 1.973 265 4.904 3.041 Sacramento $413 410 1.TABLE 2-16 CAPITAL COSTS FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTEDLIGHT RAIL GUIDEWAYS' (1990 NATIONAL DOLLARS2 PER LINEAR FOOT) Type of Construction At-Grade Elevated Structure Elevated Retained Elevated Subway Retained Portland $1. to costs were converted National by city and year.768 999 Fill Fill Cut 4. Cost Study* prepared Technical Assistance for and 'Guideway costs constructed light rail in the guideway costs 'Actual Construction Cost account for 16 to 38 percent of all capital costs for recently costs are not included and other "soft" systems. Urban Mass Transportation Safety. engineering. 1991.319 Source: Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Light Rail Transit Capital Office of Administration.205 3. April 5.001 3.. 1990 National Dollars using costs represent the average Means construction Indices for 30 major cities.

April 5. provision .. include costs were converted to by city and year.TABLE 2-17 CAPITAL COSTS FOR RECENTLY CONSTRUCTEDLIGHT RAIL STATIONS' (1990 NATIONAL DOLLARS2 IN THOUSANDS) Type of Construction At-Grade Platform At-Grade Platform /I Elevated il 11Subway j Portland $492 539 Sacramento San Jose $156 Pittsburgh Los Angeles3 $981 Average $543 771 2. Urban Mass Transportation Safety. Lisht Rail Transit Capital Administration. and other "soft" costs.806 Source: Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. National for connections into 1990 National Dollars using costs represent the average other portions of the regional Means for rail 30 3Costs network. engineering.157 6. Office of Cost Study* prepared Technical Assistance for and costs 'Station costs are also not 2Actual do not include included. Right-of-way construction Cost Indices Construction major cities.661 25.924 830 2. design.661 15.982 I/ Center Side $377 185 $1. 1991.

863 42. presented in this table. . prepared Technical Assistance for and 'Design. April 5.169 Yard and Shop Capacity (Vehicles) 100 50 50 97 54 Cost Per Unit Capacity (thousands) $133.6 743. in the guideway costs construction Cost Indices costs were converted to National by city and year. 1990 National Dollars using costs represent the average Means for 30 major cities.087 18.838 40. engineering.TABLE 2-18 CAPITAL COSTS FOR REC%NTLY CONSTRUCTED LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT YARDS AND SHOPS' (1990 NATIONAL DOLLARS21 Location Portland Sacramento San Jose Pittsburgh Los Angeles Averacre Yard and Shop Capital Costs (thousands) $13.6 81.7 377. Transit Capital Office of Cost Study. Light Rail Administration. Urban Mass Transportation Safety. 1991.6 of Source: Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc.356 4.3 441.9 355.. *Actual Construction and other Right-of-way rtsofts' costs costs are not included are also not included.

TABLE 2-19 COSTS OF RAIL RAPID TRANSIT ROLLING STOCK' (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)

City Chicago Los Angeles New York San Francisco Washington, SOURCE: DC

Year 1991 1989 1990 1989 1989

Quantity Ordered 256 54 19 150 68

Price for Total Order $207.6 63.2 39.3 228.3 83.3 Public Transit

Price

Per Car

$0.81 1.17 2.07 1.52 1.23 Association, January 2,

Passenger Transport; published by American 1989 to September 30, 1991 issues.

'Costs of vehicle,

are actual dollars as of order size of order, and options.

date.

Variations

in unit

costs

are

due to type

TABLE 2-20 COSTS OF LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT ROLLING STOCK' (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)

City Boston San Diego St. Louis

Year 1991 1991 1990

Quantity Ordered 86 75 31

Price for Total Order $132.0 122.0 45.4

Price

Per Car

$1.53 1.63 1.46

SOURCE:

Passenger Transport; published by American 1990 to September 30, 1991 issues.

Public

Transit

Association,

January

15,

'Costs of vehicle,

are actual dollars as of order size of order, and options.

date.

Variations

in unit

costs

are due to type

TABLE 2-21 COSTS OF COMMUTERRAIL ROLLING STOCK' (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)

Location Florida Los Angeles New Jersey New York Indiana

Year 1990 1990 1991 1990 1991

Car Type Bi-Level Bi-Level M-6 7 motorized 10 trailers

Quantity Ordered 6 40 50 39 17

Price for Total Order $5.9 51.0 45.2 91.0 27.5

Price Per Car $0.98 1.28 0.90 2.33 1.62

SOURCE:

Passenger Transport; published by American 1990 to September 30, 1991 issues.

Public

Transit

Association,

January

15,

'Costs of vehicle,

are actual dollars as of order size of order, and options.

date.

Variations

in unit

costs

are due to type

date.53 0.97 SOURCE: Passenqer Transport. 1991 issues. published by American 1990 to September 30.0 223.41 0.4 36.0 $0. Public Transit Association. Variations in unit costs are due to type .TABLE 2-22 COSTS OF VEHICLE REHABILITATION' (MILLIONS OF DOLLARS) Location RAPID TRANSIT New York New York New York COMMUTER RAIL Maryland New Jersey Year Car Type Quantity Rehabilitated Price for Total Order Price Per Car 1991 1991 1990 R33 Subway R44 Subway R44 Subway 494 280 64 $201.1 0.20 0.0 148. 'Costs are actual dollars as of order of rehabilitation work specified. January 15.56 1990 1991 35 230 7.

68 9.6 2.68 46 56 1.4 2.56 1.8 Unit Canadian Light Rail Vehicle 15.TABLE 2-23 LIGHT RAIL VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS Single Vehicle Characteristics Length Width (m) (m) PCC Car 14.5 2 (m) 1.78 11.0 No.57 Not Available 32.2 2.Edmonton.34-2. Calgary 23. of Doors Size Seated of Doors Capacity 1.7 4 per side 1.7 3 per side 1.61 1.6 4 per side Articulated San Diego. 2nd Edition .92 1.47 1.0 San Francisco Boston 21.30 64 97 1.32 Not Available Not Available 35.12-1.40 52-68 167 1.25 1.0 Standing Capacity Acceleration Rate (m/s/s) Braking Rate (m/s/s) Jerk Rate (m/s/s/s) Minimum Horizontal Curve Radius (m) SOURCE: Canadian Transit Manual.1 2.52 46 55 1.

8 SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity Manual 'Excludes space between standee. For seated passengers.8 loads) I.TABLE 2-24 TYPICAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR SEATED AND STANDING PASSENGERS Square Commuter Rail STANDING PASSENGERS Maximum scheduled load capacity recommended by the 1985 Highway Capacity Manual Maximum practical capacity (crush Feet Per Passenger 4 to 6 (net)' 2.4 to 2. includes space consumed by seat plus For standing passengers. based on clear floor area per . nonusable space. seats for legs.

TABLE 2-25 RAIL TRANSIT STATION DWELL TIMES (SECONDS) Line Lexington Ave. Express New York City Evanston Express Chicago Green Line (LRV) Boston Milwaukee Line Time of Day PM Peak PM Peak PM Peak Post PM Peak Mean Dwell 53 42 58 19 Time Standard Deviation 17 14 24 6 SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity Manual .

Section 15 data on the characteristics of individual bus systems with more than 250 vehicles operated in maximum service are presentedin Appendix C. Section 15 data on trolley bus systems are also presented in Appendix C. and low values) from 1989 UMTA Section 15 reports. . high. and energy consumption in this chapter are summarized (in the form of average. operating costs. labor requirements. accident rates. .CHAPTER 3 BUS TRANSIT This chapter provides quantitative information on the following characteristics of bus systems: speeds Operating costs Labor requirements Energy consumption Capital and rehabilitation costs Performance characteristics Capacities Accident rates Information on speeds.

70 0.00 5.00 3.50 11.00 4.TABLE 3-l TYPICAL PEAK HOUR BUS TRAVEL TIMES BY COMPONENT (MINUTES PER MILE) Component Traffic Delay' Passenger Stops Moving Total Weed SOURCE: in miles ner hour CBD 3. Suburbs 0.90 1.2 "Analyzing Transit City 0.50 3.20 3.00 10. ‘Traffic delay is the added travel time due to other vehicles and traffic control devices. 1983.90 6. .20 14.3 Transportation Research Herbert S. Levinson.0 Time Performance".50 5. Record 915.

5 5.3 8.2 6.0 9.1 6.4 15.8 Transit Time Performance".8 17.0 10.5 7.0 18.7 min.6 8.0 min.9 6.2 6.3 9.9 7.0 10.2 7.0 10.1 9.6 22. (mph) by Traffic Delay' 3.0 5.4 15. time due to other vehicles a free-flow speed of 35 miles and traffic per hour with control no stops .5 8.TABLE 3-2 EFFECTS OF STOPS AND TRAFFIC DELAY ON BUS SPEEDS (MILES PER HOUR) Speed Time Per Stop (seconds) Stops Per Mile 0.0 min.5 "Analyzing 5.0 11.9 5.4 Transportation 10 2 4 6 8 10 20 2 4 6 8 10 30 2 4 6 8 XJRCE: Herbert 1983.6 6.8 7./mile (Typical CBD Peak Period) 11./mile (Typical Suburban Peak Period) 19.3 11.5 4. S.0 8.5 13.3 14.5 Research Record 915 0./mile (No Traffic Delay) 25.3 8.0 15. 'Traffic delay is the added travel devices.9 11.0 7.5 13.0 6.1 12. 10 Levinson.1 9. Speeds are calculated assuming or traffic delay.9 19.

TABLE 3-3 BUS OPERATING COSTS PER UNIT OF SERVICE BY SYSTEM SIZE AND PEAK TO BASE RATIO Operatins Cost Per Per Revenue Revenue Per Peak Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Mile Hour (thousands) $4.85 2.50 (56) All Motor Buses Buses (363)4 Trolley SOURCE: (5)5 UMTA Section operated 'Vehicles in maximum service.70 $60.80 3.00 < 2.28 38.35 38. 2Vehicles operated in average operated in average base period. systems for which peak to base ratios missing for some of the above variables for a few transit the 5Four of the five largest size class trolley above.00 (20) (30) (18) (15) (28) (45) 50-99 Buses Ratio 2 1.00 (16)3 Ratio < 2. bus systems are part of systems in Dayton is in the second size class.00 34.94 $42.50 Ratio < 1.62 52.53 55.79 3.24 59.50 Fewer Than 25 Buses Ratio 2 1.50 (30) Ratio < 1.54 2.56 $3.00 (18) loo-249 Ratio Ratio Buses 12.75 3.77 57.10 36.81 47.88 2. are the number of bus systems 4The complete motor bus data base includes several are not available.09 $5. . data 3Numbers in parentheses are available.59 2.82 3.75 Ratio c 1.61 4.97 1989 $148 184 120 138 103 136 96 116 83 101 $112 $169 System Size' and Peak to Base Ratio2 250 or More Buses Ratio 2 2.75 25-49 Buses Ratio 2 1. PM peak divided by vehicles for which transit Data are systems.77 15 data for $64.

91 0. are the number of bus systems size classes exclude for which 3Numbers in parentheses are available.30 0.18 0.000 Place Miles (34)3 $ 70 45 137 58 26 115 59 30 114 52 25 95 (156) 64 19 182 $ 60 Size of Svstem2 Employees Per 1. 2Vehicles data with operated in maximum service. in these a few systems .20 1.63 4.30 1.36 0.09 1.25 0.66 2>i)5 1.54 2.64 2.24 1. 4Lows and highs extreme values.90 2.TABLE 3-4 BUS OPERATING COSTS AND EMPLOYEES PER PLACE MILE' BY SYSTEM SIZE Operating Cost Per 1.28 250 or More Buses Average Low High loo-249 Buses Average Low4 High 50-99 Buses Average Low High 25-49 Buses Average Loti High4 (53) (38) (82) Fewer Than 25 Buses Average Low4 High4 All Motor Buses Buses (5) (363) Trolley SOURCE: $ 83 15 data for 1989 UMTA Section 'Place miles (or revenue capacity miles) are calculated as revenue vehicle miles times the average passenger capacity (seated plus standing) of the active vehicles in the fleet.56 2.000 Place Miles 1.

88 3.61 1.037 0.04 2.058 0. trolley above.87 9.48 1. are the number of bus systems smallest size category for which a few 2Numbers in parentheses are available. Veh.000 Per 1.08 2.73 1. Passenger Peak Miles Hours Miles Vehicle (34)2 0.50 0.57 1.71 Size of System' 250 or More Buses Average Low High loo-249 Buses Average Low High 50-99 Buses Average Low High 25-49 Buses Average Low High (53) (38) Fewer Than 25 Buses Average Low3 High3 All Motor Buses Buses (363) (5)4 Trolley SOURCE: UMTA Section 'Vehicles data operated in maximum service.45 14.39 0.76 1.57 1.157 0.70 0.55 2.00 5.13 0.073 0. Veh. 3Lows and highs systems with extreme the 4Four of the five largest size class exclude bus systems are part of systems in Dayton is in the second size class. Rev.043 0.77 2.23 11.54 3.75 3.46 22.29 4.TABLE 3-5 BUS LABOR INPUTS PER UNIT OF SERVICE BY SYSTEM SIZE Emplovees (Full Time Equivalents) Per 1.138 (82) 0.76 36.162 0.45 15.61 4.54 3.01 1.60 7.69 2. for the values.98 0.89 1.46 0.64 7.160 15 data for 1989 0.070 0.067 0.82 12.19 0.89 96.38 7.045 0.51 1.077 0.01 13. .091 0.90 0.047 0.72 1.78 2.075 0.77 1.000 Per 1.000 Per Rev.099 (156) 0.19 2.57 24.219 0.42 3.62 1.05 0.06 1.

010 0.075 0. Veh.008 0.015 0.008 0.044 0.003 0.160 Vehicle Mechanics3 Per 1.027 0. Miles (34)2 0.012 0.002 0.000 Rev.000 Rev.047 0.003 0.034 0.033 0.058 0.007 0.002 0. Veh.047 0.007 0.020 0.037 0.031 0.219 0.072 (156) 0.020 0.043 0.099 0.020 0.016 0.019 0.029 0.023 0.019 0.050 0. Miles Total Employees Per 1.045 0.028 0.000 0.028 0. are the number of bus systems vehicle size inspection classes and for which j 2Numbers in parentheses are available. with the maintenance" a few systems 4Lows and highs extreme values.070 0.088 0. exclude bus systems are part of systems in Dayton is in the second size class. Miles Other Employees Per 1.044 0.082 0.008 0.138 0.021 1989 0. Veh.022 0.030 0. "revenue 311Mechanics11 are employees.048 0.078 15 data for 0.009 0.085 0.073 0.006 0.118 0.007 0. Miles Size of System' 250 or More Buses Average Low High loo-249 Buses Average Low4 High4 50-99 Buses Average Low High 25-49 Buses Average Low High (53) (38) (82) Fewer Than 25 Buses Average Low4 High All Motor Buses Buses (363) Trolley SOURCE: (5)5 UMTA Section operated 'Vehicles data in maximum service.089 0.077 0.031 0.061 0.157 0.015 0.126 0.045 0.051 0.000 Rev. Veh.091 0.000 Rev. 'Four largest of the five size class in these trolley above. .TABLE 3-6 BUS LABOR INPUTS PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE MILES BY TYPE OF EMPLOYEE AND BY SYSTEM SIZE Vehicle Operators Per 1.068 0.019 0.

22 0.61 0.03 0.13 0. are the number of bus systems vehicle size inspection classes and for which *Numbers in parentheses are available.30 0.43 0.19 0.29 0. Veh. 'Four largest of the five size class these trolley above.12 0.27 0.10 0. Veh.66 0.000 Rev.62 1.73 1.54 0.88 (156) 0.48 0.04 1.01 1.98 0.11 0.66 0.06 0.10 0.000 Rev.27 0.89 1. Hours Size of Svstem' 250 or More Buses Average Low High loo-249 Buses Average Low High 50-99 Buses Average Low High 25-49 Buses Average Loti High (53) (38) Fewer Than 25 Buses Average Low4 High4 All Motor Buses Buses (363) Trolley SOURCE: (5)5 UMTA Section operated 'Vehicles data in maximum service.32 0. exclude bus systems are part of systems in Dayton is in the second size class.76 1.63 0.44 1.04 0.11 0.23 0.48 1. Veh.TABLE 3-7 BUS LABOR INPUTS PER THOUSAND REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS BY TYPE OF EMPLOYEE AND BY SYSTEM SIZE Vehicle Operators Per 1. "revenue in 3W'Mechanics11 are employees.05 0. Hours Total Employees Per 1.98 0.50 0.12 0.61 0.72 0.58 0. Veh.22 0.02 0. Hours (34)' 0.20 0.53 1.57 0.27 0.67 0.61 (82) 0.32 0.10 0.61 1. .99 0.000 Rev.69 2.44 0.05 0.35 1. Hours Other Employees Per 1. with the maintenance" a few systems 4Lows and highs extreme values.10 0.19 0.76 15 data for 1989 0.000 Rev.77 1.23 0.37 0.38 Vehicle Mechanics3 Per 1.15 0.91 0.59 0.13 0.

.700 44. published by American 1989 to September 30.000 to 140.300 Vehicle Range Cost Per Square Average $89 Foot ($) Range $71 to 112 7 $62.000 Without Indoor Vehicle Storage 7 91.TABLE 3-8 BUS FACILITY CONSTRUCTION COSTS (1990 DOLLARS) Facility Type With Indoor Vehicle Storage Number of Projects Cost Per Assigned ($1 Average $142.000 141 70 to 207 SOURCE: Passenser Transport. January 2. 1991 issues Public Transit Association.700 to 240.

of wheelchair lift which added about $20.000 140. published by American 1990 to September 30. 1991 issues Public Transit Association.REHABILITATION TABLE 3-9 COSTS FOR 35 FOOT BUSES Location Dubuque Monterey Westchester County Year 1990 1990 1991 Quantity Rehabilitated 10 15 20 Price Per Bus $80. January 15.000 per bus to the .000' 50.000 SOURCE: Passenqer Transport. 'Includes rehabilitation addition cost.

1990. R. Sims.000 120. Drake. Opportunities for Efficiencies". Transportation "Vehicle Research Replacement Strategies: Record 1266.000 Engine Transmission $4.150 SOURCE: Based on D.850 $2. Carter. and J.TABLE 3-10 TYPICAL COST AND MILEAGE FOR TRANSIT BUS ENGINE AND TRANSMISSION REBUILDS cost Mileage 225. W. .

000 150.000 Range of Cost Per Bus $193. published by American 1990 to September 30. and options. 1991 issues.000-297.000 Bus Type 60' Articulated 40' 40' 35' 30' Suburban Transit Transit Transit SOURCE: Passenger Transport.000-174.900 228. NOTE: Variations in costs are due to size of order.000 174.700 170.000 172.400 178.TABLE 3-11 COSTS OF HEAVY DUTY BUSES (1990 DOLLARS) Number of Purchases 2 1 9 2 2 Total Number of Buses Purchased 30 162 686 45 43 Average Cost Per Bus $279. Public Transit Association. January 15.000-201.900 160. .000-196. vehicle configuration.

000 65. Bus Ride.500-26.000-60.000 Light Duty (motorhome-type chassis) (rear Medium Duty engine chassis) Heavy Duty (integrated body and chassis) SOURCE: F.000-175.000 45.000-110. Johnson.000 125.500-18. July 1991 . "What About Small Buses".500-12.500-20.500 22.000-75.500 14.TABLE 3-12 COST RANGE FOR SMALL BUSES (1990 DOLLARS) Type Gross Vehicle Weight (pounds) 9.000 Rating Cost Range Light (truck-type Duty cab chassis) $30.500 16.

480 36. Fuhs.558 (16.2 (2.66 Ground Opening Opening Door Clear 2'6" 2'2" Rear Door Clear Empty Weight Gross Weight Wheelbase 25.1 (14. Desisn.2 kg) kg) m) SOURCE: Charles A.2 m) m) m) m) m) m) m) m) m) m) m) (11.640 23'9" pounds pounds (7. .3 (2. Hish-Occunancv Vehicle Facilities: A Parsons. Brinckerhoff.3 Outside Turning with Overhang Steps Front from 51'2"' 1'5tv (15. and Operation Manual.43 (0. Plannina.76 (0. 1990. & Douglas.TABLE 3-13 DIMENSIONS OF TYPICAL TRANSIT BUSES Length Width Height Front Overhang 40' 8'6" (12. Quade.6 (3.620 1Or911 7'41t Rear Overhang Inside Outside Turning Turning Radius Radius Radius 9'5" 30' 47' (2.6 (0.9 (9.

800 29.VIP .500 25' 25' 24' 24' 28' 20' 20' 20' 31' 25' 6" 6" 6" to 5" 28' 7" Length (feet and inches) 16' 25' 24' 11" 11" Passenger Seats 17 22 24 23 25 18 to 25 23 to 15 14 to 17 to 14 to 30 4" 21 23 19 28 29 25 Wheelbase (inches) 125 236 110 170 136 to 176 176 139 138 145 158 to 158 to 181 158 186 190 176 Width (inches) 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 80 87 96 90 96 96 Manufacturer Amtran .000 America 18.900 24.000 18.GC II & Stevenson or 30' 21' Thomas .Reddi Coach .Chaperone SOURCE: "Shuttle Buses Come of Age.340 28.500 to 16.300 11.Citiliner/ Transitliner Wayne . July/August 1991 .Aerotech .Spirit Mfg.Model Bus Industries .000 11. Metro Magazine.Orion II Champion Chance Collins Diamond Eldorado Gillig Lewis National New Goshen Stewart S-25 of .200 2500 11.000 12.000 11.Squire .Vanguard .RT52 . Modes Uses Growl'.TABLE 3-14 DIMENSIONS OF SMALL BUSES Gross Weight (pounds) 10.000 II 11.500 Bus 9. .Challenger .Diplomat Coach .500 10.

Design.22 0.8 105 Deceleration Top Speed (km/h) SOURCE: Charles A.95 (mph/set) 2-3 65 Deceleration Top Speed (mph) Metric Units (km/h/set) Acceleration O-16 km/h 16-48 km/h 48-80 km/h Normal 5.57 1. Hiqh-Occunancv Vehicle Facilities: A Parsons. Quade.TABLE 3-15 TYPICAL TRANSIT BUS PERFORMANCECHARACTERISTICS Acceleration O-10 mph lo-30 30-50 Normal mph mph (mph/set) 3.36 3. and Operation Manual.33 2. . Fuhs.53 (km/h/set) 3. 1990. & Douglas.2-4. Planning. Brinckerhoff.

scheduling.0 8. the Highway Capacity Manual recommends a maximum scheduled load capacities for load capacity of 85 load of 80 passengers.TABLE 3-16 TYPICAL BUS CAPACITIES Type of Bus Length (feet) Width (feet) Typical Seats Crush-Load Standees o-15 19 25 32 34 37 Capacity' I Total 15-40 55 80 85 100 110 Minibus Conventional Transit 18-25 30 35 40 55 60 1985 Highway Capacity 6.5 8. .0 8.5-8.5 Manual 15-25 36 45 53 66 73 Articulated Transit SOURCE: 'The Highway Capacity Manual recommends against using crush For the 53-seat.5 8. 340 square foot bus with a crush passengers.0 8.

TABLE 3-17 MINIMUM DESIRABLE LENGTHS FOR CURB BUS LOADING ZONES Single Type of Stop Near side Far side 40'+ street width 32-39 J street width Midblock 40'+ street width street width 32-39' Wheel Bus (L=Bus Length in feet) curb Each Additional L+5 Bus 6" from curb L + 85 Wheel 1' from L + 65 L + 55 L + 70 L + 40 L + 55 L L L + 135 L + 150 L + 100 L + 115 L L SOURCE: Operation Charles Manual. Brinckerhoff. and . 1990. Fuhs. A. Quade. & Douglas. Hiqh-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities: Parsons. Desisn. A Plannincr.

5-2.TABLE 3-18 BOARDING AND ALIGHTING TIMES (SECONDS PER PASSENGER) ALIGHTING PASSENGERS Very little hand baggage and parcels.5 2.0 4.0-6. few transfers Moderate amount of hand baggage many transfers Considerable baggage from racks (intercity runs) 1.0 6. includina reaistration on bus SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity Manual .5 or 2.0 BOARDING PASSENGERS No fare payment on boarding Single coin or token with fare box Multiple coin cash fares Zone fares prepaid and registered on bus Multiple zone fares.0-3.0 1.0-4. cash.0 3.5-4.5-2.0 4.0-6.0-8.

. bus systems are part of systems in Dayton is in the second size class.08 0.22 0.07 1.TABLE 3-19 BUS ACCIDENT RATES PER REVENUE VEHICLE MILE BY SYSTEM SIZE Accidents Per Million Revenue Vehicle Miles (34)2 65 59 51 44 (156) 37 46 133 Fatalities Per Million Revenue Vehicle Miles 0.38 0. are the number of bus systems for which 2Numbers in parentheses are available. 3Four of the five largest size class trolley above.00 Injuries Per Million Revenue Vehicle Miles 39 25 20 19 14 20 55 Size of System' 250 or More Buses loo-249 50-99 25-49 Buses Buses Buses (53) (38) (82) Fewer Than 25 Buses All Motor Buses Buses (363) Trolley (5)3 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 'Vehicles data the operated in maximum service.09 0.11 0.

0 4.9 2.6 3.5 3.0 (156) 4.9 26.1 23.4 27.1 25.TABLE 3-20 BUS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SYSTEM SIZE Size 1.7 2.7 4.7 3.2 3.7 25.6 28.2 3.3 2.2 2.9 28.6 Gallons Per Hundred Vehicle Miles 30.7 500-999 250-499 loo-249 50-99 25-49 (38) (82) Fewer Than 25 Buses All Motor Buses (363) SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 'Vehicles data operated in maximum service.9 4.000 of System' or More Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses Buses (12) (16) (53) (6)2 Miles Per Gallon 3. are the number of bus systems for which 2Numbers in parentheses are available. .0 3.0 Gallons Per Hundred Passenger Miles 2.

and the highway system. including the following: Freeway capacity and the effects of traffic volumes on speed Gasoline prices and fuel economies of highway vehicles Automobile ownership and operating costs Effects of congestion and pavement condition on vehicle operating costs Air pollutant emission rates Unit costs for various types of highway improvements Construction and operating costs for parking lots and garages Value of vehicle travel time Accident rates and costs . AND THE HIGHWAY SYSTEM This chapter provides quantitative information on characteristics of automobiles. trucks.CHAPTER 4 AUTOMOBILES. TRUCKS.

00 0.99 0. .or Wane Freeway (3 or 4 lanes each direction) 12’ Lanes 1.d.88 0.TABLE 4-l EFFECT OF LATERAL CLEARANCE AND LANE WIDTHS ON FREEWAY CAPACITIES (ADJUSTMENT FACTOR’) Distance from Obstruction to Travelled Pavement2 6’ or more 4’ 2’ 0’ Comments See next page SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity h4am.94 0.95 0.88 0.96 0.97 0.91 0. 4-Lane Freeway (2 lanes each direction) 12’ Lanes 1.90 11’ Lanes 0.82 6.94 11’ Lanes 0.89 0. 20bstructions are assumedon one side of the roadway only.85 ‘Ideal capacities are multiplied by the factors in this table to account for the effects of lane widths and lateral clearances.97 0.91 10’ Lanes 0.96 0.87 10’ Lanes 0.97 0.93 0.00 0.90 0.99 0.87 0. The other side of the roadway is assumedto have lateral clearances of 6 or more feet.

The 1985 Highway Capacity Manual recommended a value of 2. buses. 3Passenger equivalents for trucks. car .000 vehicles per lane per hour as the capacity of a freeway under the following ideal conditions: 0 l Twelve-foot minimum lane widths Six-foot minimum lateral clearances to the nearestroadside obstacle All passengercars in the traffic streams3 Driver characteristics typical of weekday commuter traffic 0 0 Recommendedvalues for highway capacities will probably be increased in the next edition of the Highway Capacity Manual.200 in the ideal capacity of a multilane highway. The Subcommitteeon Multilane Highways of the Transportation ResearchBoard’s Committee on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service recently approved an increase from 2. The time period used in most capacity analysesis 15 minutes.TABLE 4-l EFFECT OF LATERAL CLEARANCE AND LANE WIDTHS ON FREEWAY CAPACITIES (continued) Comments The capacity of a highway segmentis the maximum hourly rate at which vehicles can reasonably be expected to pass a given point on the segment during a given time period.000 to 2. and recreational vehicles are presented in Table 4-3.

speedsdrop sharply as volumeto-capacity ratios approach 1.70.OO. When the number of vehicles attempting to use a freeway segmentexceedsits capacity. resulting in stop-and-go conditions with average speedsbelow 30 miles per hour.00 Comments Average Travel Speed (mph)’ 60 58 55 52 48 44 30 Speedsare relatively insensitive to traffic volume at volume-to-capacity ratios below 0.30 0.90 0.TABLE 4-2 EFFECT OF TRAFFIC VOLUME ON FREEWAY SPEEDS Volume-to-Capacity Ratio 0. However.95 1.50 0.70 0. SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity Manual ‘A design speedof 70 miles per hour is assumed. . traffic flow breaks down.80 0.

.6 Rolling 4.7 1.TABLE 4-3 PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENTS FOR FREEWAY CAPACITY PassengerCar Equivalents by Type of Terrain Vehicle Type Trucks’ Buses Recreational Vehicles Level 1.0 4.5 1.0 3. the effect of heavy vehicles on congestion is greater on hills. Primarily becauseof their acceleration characteristics.0 Mountainous 8. heavy vehicles usually have a greater effect on congestion than lighter vehicles. SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity Manual ‘A weight-to-horsepower ratio of 200 is assumed. on a per vehicle basis.0 3.0 5.0 Comments Passengercar equivalents are used to account for the fact that.

2 5.1 Tires 0.4 Fixed Cost’ 19.2 4. .0 25.” published by the American Automobile Association.0 SOURCE: Compiled by the Motor Vehicle Manufacturer’s Association from “Your Driving Costs.4 Maintenance 1.6 7.4 25.6 1.TABLE 4-4 AVERAGE OPERATING COST FOR AN INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PASSENGER CAR (Cents Per Mile.4 38.0 6.9 8. 60.4 1.6 32.9 2.2 41. *Fixed cost includes insurance. and finance charge.6 0.2 1.7 0.5 4. The primary source of this data is Runzheimer and Company.9 Subtotal 8. depreciation. Current-Year Dollars) Variable Cost YlZil1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Gas & Oil 6.6 Total Cost 27.000 mile retention cycle is assumedin estimating fixed cost.8 0.6 7.2 23.8 0.6 33.3 32.8 0.2 7.8 30. license and registration.6 1.2 29. A six-year.8 5.2 5.

0 Comments The variable cost of operating an automobile decreasedfrom 1985 to 1990.8 0.7 5.8 2. The primary source of this data is Runzheimer and Company.5 5. due to a decreasein fuel costs.3 27.6 Total Cost 33.9 8. However. A six-year.7 7.5 5. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) was used to convert current-year to constant dollars.5 36.4 Fixed Cost’ 23. SOURCE: Compiled by the Motor Vehicle Manufacturer’s Association from “Your Driving Costs.3 8.8 0.0 35.5 31.9 40.9 Subtotal 9. .4 29.” published by the American Automobile Association.7 1. license and registration.5 1.0 2. depreciation.2 28.7 0.4 8.3 41. the total cost per mile of owning and operating an automobile has been increasing faster than the rate of inflation.1 Tires 0.TABLE 4-5 AVERAGE OPERATING COST FOR AN INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PASSENGER CAR (Cents Per Mile. and fmance charge. 1990 Dollars) Variable Cost Y&U 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Gas & Oil 7.3 8.3 37.4 5.9 0.4 Maintenance 1.9 32. ‘Fixed cost i ncludes insurance.9 0. 60.000 mile retention cycle is assumed in estimating fixed cost.5 5.8 1.

899 12.022 12.910 9.TABLE 4-6 AVERAGE PRICE OF A NEW CAR.316 11.247 13.665 13.169 11.894 13. Prices were converted to constant dollars using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) .052 4.613 14.485 15.316 11.704 11.379 6. 1970-89 YfSl1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Current Year Dollars 3.879 4.742 3.450 12.640 11.574 8.440 4.890 10.588 14.183 15.814 6.847 7.403 Constant 1989 Dollars 11.950 5.403 12.131 11.859 15.154 12.418 5.403 SOURCE: MVMA Motor Vehicle Facts & Figures ‘90.708 13.462 11.807 11.410 11.854 14.496 11.542 3.

34 15.81 7.98 PassengerCars 2-Axle 4-Tire Trucks Other Single Unit Trucks Multiple Unit Trucks All Motor Vehicles SOURCE: Highway Statistics 1989 .17 5.TABLE 4-7 MILES PER GALLON OF HIGHWAY VEHICLES (1989) II Motorcycles Type of Vehicle Miles Per Gallon 20.54 50.00 13.

5 131.1 135. Department of Energy.3 106.6 Gasoline Price in Constant 1988 Dollars 118. Energy Information Administration.TABLE 4-8 RETAIL PRICES FOR GASOLINE (CENTS PER GALLON INCLUDING TAX) YC!U 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Gasoline Price in Current Dollars 65.6 96.0 121.5 119.6 93.2C 143.0 157.2 103.5 99.S.2 122.3 101.3 128.3 176.8 175.2C 88.7 119.1 145.9 SOURCE: U.1 95.1 110.6 100.4 136. .1 122.8 119.7 96.

al.398 1. oil.5 3. Report No.ooo 1.048 1.000 1.380 1.092 1.ooo 1. pavements are in extremely deteriorated condition and may even need complete reconstruction. maintenance.048 1.176 1.000 1.0 Automobile 1. Operating Cost Factor at a Constant Speed of 55 MPH Serviceability Index 4.0.TABLE 4-9 EFFECT OF PAVEMENT CONDITION ON OPERATING COSTS A.0 3. ‘The operating cost factor has been set to 1.079 1.134 1.0 1.062 1.0 3.5 1.019 1.000 1.502 B.000 1.423 3 Axle Single Unit Truck 1.5 2.5.022 1.110 1.126 1.363 5 Axle Combination 1.222 1.025 1.0 2.154 1.OOO a serviceability index of 4.019 1.500 3 Axle Single Unit Truck 1.5 1.240 1. Fuel Consumption.019 1.190 1.083 1.5 3.0.398 5 Axle Combination 1. 2Pavementcondition is measuredin terms of a serviceability index running from 5.290 1. The riding qualities of pavements below 3.0.282 1.317 1.196 1.332 1.0 1.052 1. Operating for costs include fuel. tires.020 1. Below 2.148 1.109 1. Below 1.260 1.046 1.060 1.096 1. prepared for the Federal Highway Administration by Texas Researchand Development Foundation.0 down to 0. repairs. pavements have deteriorated to such an extent that they are in need of resurfacing. O-peratinyCost Factor’ at a Constant Speed of 35 MPH Serviceability Index2 4.266 1.5 4.605 SOURCE: Zaniewski et.5 4. Vehicle Operating Costs.0 are noticeably inferior to those of new pavements and may be barely tolerable for high speed traffic.0 2.5 2.183 1. and use-related depreciation.0 Automobile 1. FHWA-PL-82-001. . June 1982. and Pavement Tvne and Condition Factors.

129 $0.228 55 $0.110 $0.219 $0. Adams. automobile operating costs State Department of Transportation Highway User Cost Accounting MicroThe model is described Package (adjusted to represent 1990 conditions).075 $0. January 1990.TABLE 4-10 EFFECT OF SPEED ON AUTOMOBILE OPERATING COSTS' (1990 DOLLARS PER VEHICLE MILE) Posted Ooer.147 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 $0. Develops Micro-Computer-Based Pasko and L.190 $0. costs include gasoline.085 $0. and repair. "New York State to Determine the User Benefits of Highway Capacity Improvements".236 fmoh) 30 35 $0.069 $0.117 $0.150 $0.185 $0. operating insurance.097 $0.104 $0. 'Vehicle Depreciation.172 $0.068 $0.081 $0.078 $0. oil.073 $0.193 $0. included. and other fixed costs are not tires.H.202 40 $0.107 $0.081 $0.094 $0.S.082 $0.092 $0.084 $0.140 $0.079 Comments As speeds fall below increase sharply.097 $0.117 $0.089 $0.120 $0.075 $0. prepared Annual Meeting.100 $0.089 $0.082 $0.158 $0.087 $0.195 $0.075 $0.132 $0.077 $0. Programs for TRB the posted speed limit due to congestion.134 $0.107 $0.083 $0. .Speed 5 Speed (mph) 45 50 $0.084 $0.088 $0.159 $0. maintenance. SOURCE: New York Computer in M.211 $0.

74 22. SOURCE: Highway Economic Requirements System (199 1) .33 72.92 13. and inventory costs.Urban All Vehicles -.TABLE 4-l 1 VALUE OF VEHICLE TRAVEL TIME BY VEHICLE CLASS (1990 DOLLARS PER VEHICLE HOUR) Value of Travel Time’ (Dollars Per Vehicle Hour) $10.11 25.Rural l Costs for on-the-job travel include labor wages and fringes. For off-the-job travel.79 10. vehicle costs.45 Vehicle Class Automobiles 4-Tire Trucks B-Tire Trucks 3+ Axle Single Unit Trucks 4 Axle Combinations 5 Axle Combinations Transit Buses All Vehicles -.34 11.42 28.16 28. the value of time was assumed to be 60 percent of the wage rate for drivers and 45 percent of the wage rate for passengers.

00 32. Weant and Herbert S. .830 8.240 18. architecture.TABLE 4-12 PARKING CONSTRUCTION COSTS’ (1989 DOLLARS) RepresentativeConditions (1989) Type of Facility Cost Per Square Foot $6.00 58. Levinson. ‘Construction costs include 15 percent for engineering. Parking. 1990.190 10.560 II IISurface Lot 2 Level Garage 3+ Level Garage Underground Garage SOURCE: Robert A. and contingencies.00 Square Feet Per Space 305 315 320 320 Cost Per Space $1.00 26. Eno Foundation for Transportation. Laud costs are m included.

Parking. and cashier collection of parking fees. Weant and Herbert S. ‘Operating costs assume a 600 space garage.the operating cost per space would be lower. Levinson. 21ncludingfring e benefits. . 1990. 168-hour per week operation. For garages with more spaces. and training. Eno Foundation for Transportation. security patrols.ILLUSTRATIVE TABLE 4-13 ANNUAL OPERATING COSTS FOR PARKING GARAGES’ (1989) Item Payroll2 Utilities Maintenance Insurance Supplies Miscellaneous Administrative Total Cost Per Space 360 60 60 30 18 12 30 600 SOURCE: Robert A.

TABLE 4-14 PARKING CONTROL SERVICE RATES Design Service Rates (Vehicles Per Hour) Difficult l-Y Approach’ Apnroach’
525 450 375 350 500 150 200 250 800 300 250 200 225 275

TvDe Of COntrOl

Entrance Automatic ticket dispenser Push button ticket dispenser Machine read ticket dispenser Coded-card reader Proximity-card reader Coin or token operated gate Fixed fee to cashier with gate Fixed fee to cashier without gate No required stop Exit Coded-card reader Proximity-card reader Token-operated gate Fixed fee to cashier with gate Fixed fee to cashier without gate Variable fee to cashier Validated ticket Machine read ticket with manual license plate check with camera license plate check No required stop

100 150
200 550

350 500 150 200 250 150 300 375

225 275

100 150
200

100
200 200

100
75 375

100
75 250

SOURCE: Robert A. Weant and Herbert S. Levinson; Parking; Eno Foundation for Transportation; 1990.

%asy or straight approach to control service position 2For example, sharp turn within 100 feet of either side of the control position or patrons generally unfamiliar with the facility.

TABLE 4-15 TAXI COMPANY UNIT COSTS (1990 DOLLARS)

Cost Per Taxi Cost Per Vehicle Mile Cost Per Vehicle Trip Cost Per Passenger

$38,780 $0.95 $6.84 $4.73

SOURCE:

Gorman C. Gilbert, Raymond J. Burby, and Charles E. Feibel; Taxicab ODerating Characteristics; Center for Urban and Regional Studies, University of North Caroliria at Chapel Hill; September 1982.

TABLE 4-16 HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENT COSTS IN URBAN AREAS (THOUSANDS OF 1989 DOLLARS PER LANE MI:LE)' Facilitv/Improvement Freeways Tvoe Built-Up Areas Outlying Areas

and Expressways
2,283

Reconstruction with More Lanes Reconstruction with Wider Lanes Pavement Reconstruction Major Widening Minor Widening Resurfacing with Shoulder Improv. Resurfacing Other Divided Highways

1,676
1,171

935
676

1,720 1,210 1,055 750

319 139

519 279
128

Reconstruction with More Lanes Reconstruction with Wider Lanes Pavement Reconstruction Major Widening Minor Widening Resurfacing with Shoulder Improv. Resurfacing Undivided Highways

2,056 1,510 1,058 842 608 288 126

1,548

1,089 950
676 466 252 114

Reconstruction with More Lanes Reconstruction with Wider Lanes Pavement Reconstruction Major Widening Minor Widening Resurfacing with Shoulder Improv. Resurfacing SOURCE:

1,850

1,359 954
757 547 260 113

1,393 980
856 608 420 226 104

Jack Faucett Associates; The Hishwav Economic Requirements System Technical Reoort; prepared for Highway Needs and Investment Branch, Office of Policy Development, Federal Highway Administration; July 1991

'The improvement costs in this following unit costs (in thousands assumed for right-of-way: Freeways and Expressways Other Divided Roads Undivided Roads Built-Up
$455

table include right-of-way. of dollars per lane-mile) Outlvinq
$182 165 150

The were

410
370

25 15.08 44.83 21.75 16.29 49.04 45.88 3.02 45.55 69.12 96.79 17.65 14.15 12.38 16.57 13.41 14.92 4.46 24.47 ‘Non-methane hydrocarbons 2Carbon monoxide 30xides of nitrogen .06 7.89 4.39 3.ILLUSTRATIVE TABLE 4-17 EMISSION FACTORS BY SPEED AND CALENDAR YEAR (GRAMS PER MILE) 1985 Heavy Duty Vehicles --------____--------___ ---------___----------co NMHC NOX ------------132.75 1.61 69.22 3.04 13.64 38. Calendar Year Speed ----10 20 30 40 50 60 B.01 2.38 79.44 10.75 6.46 11.94 3.57 36.44 21.01 2.96 6.57 18.36 11.52 4. Calendar Light Duty Vehicles -------------_-_______ ---------------_______ NMHC' co2 NOX3 ----------9.45 3.44 2.92 0.84 1.34 4.62 8.20 2.17 6.14 1.'21 (continued) Heavy Duty Vehicles -------------_________ --------------_-______ NMHC co NOX ---------9.20 41.59 2.16 1.30 1.81 9.36 5.42 26.69 36.44 1.73 6.55 7.56 2.65 11.05 Speed ----10 20 30 40 50 60 Heavy Duty Vehicles --------------------NMHC co NOX ---------6.78 A.05 26.00 9.53 16.65 2.76 1.77 Year 1990 Speed ----10 20 30 40 50 60 C.20 16.18 3. Calendar Light Duty Vehicles --------------------------NMHC co NOX ---------6.15 16.80 2.76 4.92 48.16 1.60 19.09 18.49 1.29 2.92 1.12 13.10 2.83 27.55 0.69 26.73 26.11 19.06 3.46 2.45 24.28 9.88 14.83 21.52 17.16 21.06 0.63 4.57 3.15 Year 1995 Light Duty Vehicles -----------------__-__ ---------------------NMHC co NOX ---------4.73 16.93 2.88 1.12 11.99 2.84 13.

3 0.7 (Over 8.1 (US EPA Mobile Emission .51 7.90 7.98 2.1 does not model most 1993 or later Air Act Requirements.23 11.7 Model) 0 Motorcycles Automobiles Gasoline Diesel Light Trucks Gasoline Diesel 0 Heavy Duty Gasoline Diesel SOURCE: MOBILE 4.8 68.84 2.4 70.2 1.86 0.69 0.95 0.8 66.28 0.06 Clean for MOBILE 4.66 5. running loss.4 2.7 0.1 Mix 2000 27.3 72.36 0.27.78.61 1.49 1. Refueling NMHC are not included. Emission factors calendar years 1993 and later are affected.7 Source 1990 0.3 0.4 67.98 9.9 70. Percent of vehicles in cold start mode -.0 27.500 feet No Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Program No Anti-Tampering Program Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) include exhaust.3 61.84 (F) Minimum Temperature -.6 Vehicle 1995 0.32 8.46 4.70 1.23 30.35 1.18 9.79 3. and resting loss.90 2.1 a72.5 30.7 0.0 0.56 11. evaporative.15 2.83 Heavy Duty Vehicles ---------------D-B-----------_____----------NMHC co NOX ---------4.1 Vehicle 1995 29.93 34.51 10.32 9.1 (F) Altitude -.2 Pounds) 1990 32. Calendar Year 2000 (continued) Speed ----10 20 30 40 50 60 WARNING: Light Duty Vehicles -------B-B----------------------------------NMHC co NOX ---------4.30 18.2 32.TABLE 4-17 D.60 (F) Ambient Temperature -.1 23.82 0.04 8.6 Factor Mix 2000 0.90 11.25 7. for Emission Factor Calculations Assumed Conditions 0 0 Maximum Temperature -.20.6 Percent of vehicles in hot start mode -.73 15.61 1.9 0.500 Pounds) 1985 1.3 Light Duty (O-8.500 1985 38.

52 8.20 10.83 5. Injuries.34 1.96 Fatalities: Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS).66 3.52 0. and Vehicles: National Accident Sampling System (NASS).52 3.09 4.69 3.49 0.72 4.45 2.29 8.85 3. .019 0.70 1. Minor Arterial Collector Rural Interstate Other Prin.08 11.017 0.009 0.015 0.73 0.52 1.90 2.91 13.06 3.032 0.43 2.031 0.TABLE 4-18 INCIDENTS PER MILLION VEHICLE MILES BY HIGHWAY FUNCTIONAL CLASS Police-Reported Crashes Urban Interstate Other Freeway Other Prin.96 1.015 0. Vehicle Miles: Highway Statistics.018 0.57 3.019 0.033 0. 1988-1989. Art. Crashes.08 0.63 Deaths Nonfatal Injuries Crash-Involved Vehicles 0.48 1.13 5.042 0.69 1. Minor Arterial Major Collector Minor Collector Local SOURCES: 0.92 1.74 5. Art.06 1.88 2. 1982-1984.064 0.75 2.12 3.

mO 94.ooOVehicle Miles .554 25.662 36.971 37.472 $62 71 221 216 193 220 Cost Per Crash Cost Per 1.224 (continued) 70 161 166 188 336 269 $58.068 76.TABLE 4-19 COSTS OF POLICE-REPORTED CRASHES BY HIGHWAY FUNCTIONAL CLASS (1990 DOLLARS) Highway Functional Class Urban Interstate Other Freeway Other Principal Arterial Minor Arterial Collector Rural Interstate Other Principal Arterial Minor Arterial Major Collector Minor Collector 101.679 108.937 62.829 37.470 94.866 91.

workplace disruption. Federal Highway Administration. travel delay for uninvolved motorists. lost household production. Source: Miller. emergency services.TABLE 4-19 COSTS OF POLICE-REPORTED CRASHES BY HIGHWAY FUNCTIONAL CLASS (continued) Notes Costs cover medical services. insurance administration. John Viner.1. The Costs of Hiahwav Crashes. lost wages. Per fatality and per injury costs were as follows: Cost/fatality = $2. et al. .732 Costs were computed using injury distributions from 1982-1984 NASS data. 1991. Costs were computed using the willingness to pay methodology prescribed for valuing life-saving benefits by the U. Office of Management and Budget in Regulatory Program of the United Statesand by FHWA Technical Advisory T-7570.550 Cost/Possible Injury (Severity Class C) = $18..457 Cost/Evident Injury (Severity Class B) = $36. lost quality of life. Ted.016 Cost/Incapacitating Injury (Severity Class A) = $186.632. and property damage. ancillary services.S. legal and court. Nancy Pindus.

including the following: 0 System configuration Guideway elevation and length Number of stations Daily operating hours Annual system vehicle miles and vehicle hours 0 0 0 e .CHAPTER AUTOMATED 5 TRANSIT characteristics of 23 GUIDEWAY This chapter presents quantitative information automated guideway transit systems: l on the following Vehicle capacities Maximum and average speeds Operating and maintenance costs Vehicle costs Capital costs Labor requirements 0 0 l 0 0 Appendix D provides more detailed information on the characteristics of each of the 23 AGT systems.

5 sq.Parking Garage U. Senate Subway ’ 51 16 12 72 4 2 18 2 4 4 6 12 73 72 18 4 24 10 6 12 17 2 13 10 18 23 10 11 12 18 14 19 6 16 17 18 10 8 15 14 9 4 9 9 4 N/A It is measured at 2. 2 These values are for 6-car train.S.AUTOMATED TABLE 5-l GUIDEWAY TRANSIT FLEET SIZES. 3 These values are for 4-car train. feet per standee for urban system and 5. N/A Not Available . feet per standee for airport system. CAPACITIES AND SPEEDS Fleet Size Vehicle Capacity Standing’ Seated 16 16 8 16 14 34 20 4 10 6 12 4 12 2 16 8 122 0 323 12 0 8 9 34 69 49 12 42 66 0 14 14 6 80 48 33 50 69 13 542 51 3g3 45 50 9 3 Vehicle Speed (mDh) Max. Avg.0 sq. 27 30 50 17 32 30 45 28 30 15 41 25 30 30 27 30 28 30 8 26 30 12 14 System Atlanta Airport Busch Gardens Chicago O’Hare Airport Dallas/Fort Worth Airport AIRTRANS Denver Airport Detroit DPM Disney World Duke Fairlane Houston WEDway Jacksonville DPM Las Vegas McCarran Airport Las Colinas APT Miami Airport Miami Metromover Morgantown Newark Airport Orlando Airport Pearlridge Seattle-Tacoma Airport Tampa Airport Tampa Airport .

12 0.43 0.17 28.23 61.64 4.85 3.21 1.25 3.Parking Garage $51.08 2.08 0.82 1.63 31.06 0.61 2.12 0.10 24.36 0.21 0.23 2.29 106.86 3.30 ’ ’ Equivalent place miles are computed by multiplying the vehicle capacities (seated plus standing) shown in Table 5-1 by vehicle-miles travelled for each system.10 0.53 97.71 255.22 12.14 178. .07 0.42 5.35 4.18 73.12 18.08 Cost Per Equivalent Place Mile’ $0.05 0.73 29.18 Cost Per Vehicle-Hour System Atlanta Airport Busch Gardens Chicago O’Hare Airport Dallas/Fort Worth Airport AIRTRANS Denver Airport Detroit DPM Duke Houston WEDway Jacksonville DPM Las Vegas McCarran Airport Las Colinas APT Miami Airport Morgantown Newark Airport Orlando Airport Pearlridge Seattle-Tacoma Airport Tampa Airport Tampa Airport .03 0.TABLE 5-2 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEMS (1990 Dollars) Cost Per Vehicle-Mile Traveled $5.10 0.27 16.39 0.15 0.90 30.29 6.00 38.34 16.74 292.97 5.24 35.21 6.61 21.52 48.54 0.19 0.09 0.99 155.24 704.11 9.

22 0.26 0.087 850 484 1.29 0.27 0.55 1 Equivalent passenger places per vehicle are determined by the vehicle capacities (seated plus standing) presented in Table 5-1.06 1.000) Cost Per Equivalent Passenger Place1 ($1.67 0.17 0.Parking Garage U.619 2.AUTOMATED TABLE 5-3 GUIDEWAY TRANSIT VEHICLE (1990 Dollars) COSTS Cost Per Pound (Dollars) System Cost Per Vehicle ($1.322 443 755 93 1.300 751 380 937 1.70 0.012 697 421 136 $0.95 0.17 3. Senate Subway $1.000) $22 10 17 29 23 22 31 8 29 14 18 18 18 14 25 11 Atlanta Airport Busch Gardens Dallas/Fort Worth Airport AIRTRANS Denver Airport Detroit DPM Duke Fairlane Houston WEDway Las Colinas APT Miami Airport Morgantown Orlando Airport Seattle-Tacoma Airport Tampa Airport Tampa Airport .88 0.80 0. .27 0.79 0.S.12 0.

466 259 3 130 N/A 13.007 12.898 30% $12.308 125.691 21 2. & Support Capabilities Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Power and Utility Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Vehicles Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Vehicle Command.409 9.041 9.619 27.121 $92.853 9 7.289 8 804 4.372 $26.017 15% $6.861 11 990 2.433 $14.650 64.574 N/A 25.856 27 11.183 3.899 .599 6 594 3.474 20% $1.329 11 1.477 42 32.172 20 484 25.227 $26.245 21.746 96.874 20 1.046 11 786 N/A 13.547 24 2.861 12 2.494 3 624 Included in Guideway $5.164 9 7.:72 1.052’ 4 1.699 18 850 N/A 25.815 $14.371 108.458 1.322 $6.716 12 5.896 32 1.424 36 2.488 21.:46 454 5 341 N/A 7.814 80.751 6 2.016 28 21.806 $.480 16 6.774 $5. Control & Communication Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Engineering & Project Management Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Total System Cost: $27.541 N/A 29.568 Included Elsewhere $18.664 16% $1.252 21.F83 785 8 590 N/A 10.087 1.199 231.AUTOMATED TABLE 5-4 GUIDEWAY SYSTEM CAPITAL COST SUMMARY (THOUSANDS OF 1990 DOLLARS) Busch Gardens Chicago O’Hare Airport Dallas/Fort Worth Airtrans Denver Airport Detroit DPM Atlanta Airport Guideway Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Stations Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Station Maint.

321 N/A N/A 4.143 33 8.939 15 3.941 7. Control & Communication Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Engineering & Project Management Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Duke 5-4 (continued) Fairlane Houston Jacksonville McCarran Airp.550 15 3.421 19 4.250 N/A Total System Cost: N/A 14.884 4.020 N/A N/A 5.679 5 93 6.534 11 2.074 .610 12 1.957 821 3 599 1.2302 29 6.25 1 31.455 11.079 22 5.0403 19 3.370 9.610 36 8.084 3.773 12 443 1.320 2.393 N/A N/A Included Elsewhere 1.021 22 780 3.295 22 5.203 N/A N/A Included Elsewhere 235 2 480 506 2 369 1.590 32.340 36 9. & Support Capabilities Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Power and Utility Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Vehicles Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Vehicle Command.593 N/A N/A 337 2 337 831 7 416 7.TABLE Disney World Guideway Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Stations Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Station Maint.536 1.167 4.511 12 3.844 12.580 4.650 15 3.510 12 755 1. N/A 3.340 4 957 N/A N/A 1.950 6 1.099 28 7.474 9.

Control & Communication Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Engineering & Project Management Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Total System Cost: Miami DPM Morgantown 5.564 N/A 1.892 N/A 8.73 1 13 380 N/A 7.992 25 8.678 5.056 140.202 N/A 40.447 6 1.617 830 4 1.134 16 1.432 3.807 5 1.613 28 6.896 22 9.380 24 2.633 7 3.541 16 6.TABLE Miami Airport 5-4 (continued) Newark Airport Orlando Airport Las Colinas Guideway Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Stations Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Station Maint.836 8 459 5.193 5 1. & Support Capabilities Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Power and Utility Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Vehicles Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Vehicle Command.364 4 973 N/A 3.261 N/A 59.285 19 4.249 N/A 7.961 N/A 6.097 24.994 10 2.690 N/A 9.612 1.990 N/A 3.475 7 2.717 38.197 5 1.781 1.300 4.347 22 5.534 1.477 22 7.600 N/A 53.684 N/A 8.627 N/A 13.401 4.152 1.538 14 4.506 20 751 N/A 27.218 1.200 21 1.741 25 6.415 4 963 5.943 22.932 212.671 20 5.163 8 2.496 20 937 3.221 133.400 .

506 14 6. ‘Cost includes right-of-way construction.527 23 421 1.286 29 1.248 N/A ‘Cost includes maintenance facility finish-out.696 29 14.339 443 4 869 455 3 689 N/A 3.644 16.345 1.481 15 560 583 5 83 696 4 232 N/A 5.572 19 697 2.637 10 136 N/A 4.819 26 5. 41t includes costs associated with current system providing full service while new system is being installed .807 6 1. S.307 12 2.256 1.975 4.467 2.527 8.412 15 3.357 4 1.678 17 4.768 84.745 11 2.436 N/A 11.527 6. Senate Subway Pearl-Ridge Guideway Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Stations Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Station Maint.268 1.194 5 2.256 N/A 24.804 17 3.759 3. 31t includes other subsystems costs.687 7 3.847 10 2. & Support Capabilities Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Power and Utility Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Vehicles Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Vehicle Command.584 829 5 1.058 N/A 11.20S4 51 12.871 24 5.TABLE 5-4 (continued) Tampa Airport Tampa Parking Garage U.839 4.267 11 2.563 2.090 2. Control & Communication Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Engineering & Project Management Total Cost Percent of Total System Cost Cost Per Lane Mile Total System Cost: Sea-Tat N/A 24.537 10.109 1.318 12 2.420 29.033 13 1.012 5.801 1.

000 Vehicle-Miles Personnel per 100.19 0.07 0.46 0.75 0.13 0.83 0.25 ’ Equivalent place miles are computed by multiplying the vehicle capacities (seated plus standing) shown in Table 5-1 by vehicle-miles travelled for each system.52 3.91 0.46 0.50 0.06 0.58 0.82 0.61 0.000 Equivalent Place Miles’ 0.20 2.10 6.22 0.75 16.12 0.59 0.07 0.22 0.09 0.11 1.82 1.66 0.15 1.04 0.20 0. .21 0.52 2.52 11.05 Atlanta Airport Busch Gardens Chicago O’Hare Airport Dallas/Fort Worth Airport AIRTRANS Detroit DPM Disney World Duke Houston WEDway Jacksonville DPM Las Vegas McCarran Airport Las Colinas APT Miami Airport Morgantown Orlando Airport Pearlridge Seattle-Tacoma Airport Tampa Airport 0.48 0.88 0.09 0.66 0.TABLE 5-5 LABOR INPUTS FOR AGT SYSTEMS SYSTEM Personnel per 1000 Vehicle-Hours Personnel per 10.22 0.36 2.09 1.47 0.88 0.75 9.50 0.36 1.19 0.22 0.29 0.60 1.47 4.

clearances. design speeds.CHAPTER 6 HIGH-OCCUPANCY VEHICLE FACILITIES This chapter provides quantitative information on the following characteristicsof high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities: 0 0 0 Capital costs Operation and maintenancecosts Enforcement-related information (personnel. violation rates) HOV and adjacent facility speeds HOV and adjacent facility speeds Design guidelines for widths. costs. fine amounts. and grades 0 0 0 .

O.4 (continued) 9.09 50.20 2.0 31.7 8 1988 1988 1989 1988 1973 1989 1988 3.3 32.W.19 4.63 5. South Busway (Pittsburgh) East Busway (Pittsburgh) BARRIER-SEPARATED FREEWAY R.5 11.0 35.O.0 (inc. I-45N 1-45s (Houston) (Houston) Capital Costs (millions $) $27.TABLE 6-l CAPITAL COSTS FOR SELECTED HOV PROJECTS' HOV Facility SEPARATE R.68 29.1 6.W.00 3.0 56.8 Base Year for Cost Estimate 1977 1983 Cost Per Mile (millions $) $6.75 13. .5 11 0.0 27.0 design) Route Mileage 4 6.5 9.78 4.93 I-10 (Houston) US 290 (Houston) I-10 (Los Angeles) San Bernadino (LA) I-15 (San Diego) 'Design costs are not included unless noted.0 44. 93.

2 0.20 0.04 3. Parsons.4 0.5 design) 0. 0.j I-4 (Orlando) Montague (Santa Clara) San Tomas (Santa Clara) I-5 (Seattle) SR 520 (Seattle) I-405 (Seattle) CONTRAFLOWFREEWAY RIGHT-OF-WAY Lincoln Tunnel (NJ) (inc.86 0.1 10.32 1.2 Capital Costs (millions $) (continued) Route Mileage Base Year for Cost Estimate Cost Per Mile (millions $) 8 11 14 30 5 11 6 2. .5 3.27 0.5 2.3 design) 0. 1990.4 1. and Operation Manual. Hish-Occunancv SOURCE: Compiled from various Vehicle Facilities: A Plannins.6 0.18 0.47 0. 0.19 Long Island Xway (NYC) Gowanus Xway (NYC) I-45N (Houston) sources by Charles A.30 0.8 2.9 9.04 1. & Douglas. Brinckerhoff.5 7. Desisn.70 Route 55 (Orange Co.8 6 1984 1984 1988 1980 1985 1985 1985 1973 1986 0.TABLE 6-1 HOV Facility BUFFER-SEPARATED RIGHT-OF-WAY Route 91 (Los Angeles) (inc.44 0. Fuhs.6 1970 1971 1980 1979 0.04 0. Quade.) Route 405 (Orange Co.4 54 14 1.

000 300.000 600. &I Douglas. . Brinckerhoff. 1984. Quade. CA)' I-45N (Houston)* Deployment (persons) 6 5-6 2-3 5-6 10-12 Annual Operation and Maintenance Cost $265.000 250. Desiqn. 1990. 'Facility *Facility was terminated was terminated in in 1985. and Operation Manual.000 Vehicle Facilities: SOURCE: Compiled from various sources by Charles A.000 84.TABLE 6-2 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COST FOR CONTRAFLOWHOV FACILITIES Daily HOV Facility Route 495 --Lincoln Tunnel (New Jersey) Long Island Expressway (New York) Gowanus Expressway (New York) US 101 (Marin County. Parsons. Fuhs. Hich-Occupancy A Plannina.

000 450. 3Manual gates. 1990. & Douglas. Fuhs. I-45. Parsons. Design. (Houston) East US 290 Busway Daily Deployment (persons) 0 53 2-54 0 0 0 0 Annual Operation and Maintenance Cost $65.000 7. High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities: SOURCE: Compiled from various A Plannins. and Operation Manual. 4Remote control signs.000 I-395 (Virginia) I-4 (Orlando) I-5 (Seattle) SR 520 (Seattle) I-405 (Seattle) sources by Charles A. Quade.500 18.TABLE 6-3 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COST FOR BARRIER AND BUFFER SEPARATED HOV FACILITIES HOV Facility South Busway. gates and lane and signs. Brinckerhoff. (Pittsburgh) I-10.000 500. controls .000 205.000 18.

Parsons.~ 1 1 1 1 $53.ooo NA s35.¶m. 1990.oM) 11 11 5246 f coun 2 Route 55 and 1405 (Orange County) Route 91 (Los Angeles) I-95 (Fort Lee. Quade.50 $50-500 6 1 3 0 1-7 14 (Orlando) US 101. Fuhs.m 6 I $246 + court 6 Special citation arca Vehicles stopped Vehicles diverted Not enforced Vehicles diverted s30. vehicles divertcd Citations by mail Vehicles stopped $6o. NI) Mom&u (HmoIulu) Special citation areas 530.15 $33oo+COWt 3 4 Special citation areas.om 0 $215.ooomficer NA 5 3 15 5 $50 $246 + court 2-5 2 I-10 (Los Angeles) 2-WAY BUFFER SEPARATED Citation on shoulder $2O. I-IO.@Jo 1 14. Route 237 (San Francisco) I-5. Brinckerhoff. and Operation Manual. of P-s Assigned toEnforcemmt FACILITY IN SEPARATE ROW Charged with treqassing Citation Ottawa. Canada Pittsburgh REVERSIBLE-FLOW I-45.~ $l~. Desisn. us 290 (H~Ston) I-395 (Virginia) I-15 (San Diego) 2-WAY BARRIER SEPARATED $2~. & Douglas. High-Occupancy A Planninq.000 7 30 20 75 5 7 30 20 15 10 $246 + court $50 $40 $43.TABLE 6-4 ENFORCEMENT-RELATED INFORMATION FOR SELECTED HOV PROJECTS HOV Facility Method of lhf-eat Annual cost Peak Hour Violation Rate @ercent) Peak Period Violation Rate tpercmt) Fine Amount No. . I-405 (Seattle) License plates identified and HERO program License plates identified and HERO program NA 11 11 $47 NA SR 520 (Seattle) NA 8 8 $47 NA SOURCE: Compiled from various Vehicle Facilities: sources by Charles A.lpm $75 2 $35.

Quade.4 1.4 1. and Operation Manual. 1990.6 3.3 1. Desiqn.3 3.0 2.4 2.6 2.0 0. & Douglas. .9 Adjacent Mixed Flow Lanes 2.) I-95 (Miami) 1.1 NA 2.6 Vehicle Facilities: sources by Charles A.0 3. Hiqh-Occuoancv SOURCE: Compiled from various A Planninq.4 2.TABLE 6-5 COMPARISON OF HOV AND ADJACENT FACILITY ACCIDENT RATES Number of Accidents Per Million Vehicle Miles HOV Lanes BARRIER-SEPARATED FACILITIES I-10 (Houston) I-45 (Houston) I-10 (Los Angeles) I-395 (Virginia) BUFFER-SEPARATED AND NON-SEPARATED FACILITIES I-5 median lanes (Seattle) I-405 outside lanes (Seattle) I-10 (Los Angeles) US 101 (Marin Co. Parsons. Fuhs.1 1. Brinckerhoff.4 2.2 3.

Fuhs. CA Transitway Concept Design.5 NS 6 5 3-6 Texas Transitway Design Manual NCHRP 155 Class A Busway Washington DOT State Vehicle Facilities: SOURCE: Compiled from various sources by Charles A.0 12. Parsons.0 16.5 17.0 12.0 Left 4 2 4 2 Clearance Right 10-12 8 4 8 (ft) Outside NS 2 NS 2 Total lLane 26 26 20 22 Pavement (ft) 2-Lane Rev.5 NS 5 3-6 3 Orange Co.5 18.0 3-6 11.0 12.0 NS 5 4 4-10 10 5 8-10 10 NS 5 NS NS NS 22 NS 26 NS 38 36 40 NS 44 44 44 50 60 70 50-80 NS 16. . and Operation Manual.5 12. Quade. 1987 Ottawa Agency Transit 12.0 2-6 8-10 2-10 22-26 NS 46-56 60 15. & Douglas.0 12.0 16.0 12.5 18.TABLE 6-6 HOV DESIGN GUIDELINES Lateral Lane Width (ft) AASHTO Caltrans Busway Houston Transit I-5 Standards METRO Auth. 1985 Orange Co. (ft) Vertical Grades (%I 60+ 70 60 60 16. Desiqn. Hiqh-Occupancy A Planninq. Brinckerhoff. 12. 40 36 40 NS Width 2-Way NS 46 52 46 Design Speed (mph) Vertical Clear. Transit District Geometric Report. 1990.

050 10.300 1.100 6.945 305 395 255 3050 2400 2730 7940 940 1190 1060 1.m 7.820 2.425 90 1.500 3.990 %ooo 3.380 9.375 8.850 6.710 7.785 1.715 1450 2735 7500 4. Transportation .210 6.875 7.TABLE 6-7 PEAK HOUR HOV LANE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Average Peak-Hour Volumes BUS HOV Project and Location EXCLUSIVE FACILITIES 35 35 70 75 155 FLOW 20 10 5 195 80 45 55 500 350 80 6.525 53 47 58 55 57 29 35 24 24 26 Vehicle PersOn V&iCk Van and &pool Persm Vehicle Freeway I Person Average SpCea (mph) HOV Lane Freeway I-10 3+ HOVs (Houstm) I-10 2+ HOVs (Houston) I45 (Houston) I-10 (Los Angeles) I-395 (Viiinia) CONCURRENT Route 91 (Los Angeles) I-95 (Mi) Route 55 (Orange County) Bay Bridge (San Francisco) US 101 (San Francisco) I-5 (Seattle) SR 520 (Seattle) CONTRAFLOW NJ Route 495 (New York City) US 101 (San Francisco) 8. Lomax.625 5.655 5.415 7.575 510 2.420 4. Research Record 1280.900 53 50 60 22 56 34 16 27 39 31 5 37 26 7 8.240 6.190 2.355 8.930 5.250 1.555 3.200 1.905 725 150 34.320 5.660 4.505 2.370 1.330 180 835 1.650 4.335 1. 1990.485 893 7.450 21 50 4 50 693-J SOURCE: Timothy J.685 NA NA NA NA 4. *lEstimating Transportation Corridor Mobility".@33 5.

TABLE 6-8 PEAK HOUR FREEWAY AND HOV LANE VOLUME COMPARISONS Average Peak-Hour Person Volume Number HOV Project EXCLUSIVE I-10 I-10 I-45 I-10 I-395 and Location HOV of Lanes Freeway HOV Freeway HOV Freeway Person Volume Lane Per Person Volume Ratio (HOV/ Freeway) FACILITIES 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 1710 3900 4005 6055 12925 5420 4930 5050 10335 8525 1710 3900 4005 6055 6465 1805 1645 1685 2585 2130 0.Design Timothy J.26 9.37 2.14 1.34 3.72 Bay Bridge US 101 I-5 (San Francisco) (Seattle) (Seattle) SR 520 CONTRAFLOW NJ Route US 101 495 (San (NYC) Francisco) 1 1 3 4 34685 6000 7380 9450 34685 6000 2460 2365 14.10 2. Transportation .58 1.54 SOURCE: Research l.75 1. Corridor MobilityI'.34 1.38 2.95 2. Lomax.03 3+ HOVs (Houston) 2+ HOVs (Houston) (Houston) (Los Angeles) (Virginia) CONCURRENT FLOW Route I-95 Route 91 (Los (Miami) 55 (Orange (San County) Francisco) Angeles) 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 3 3 16 3 4 2 3550 2750 2810 14445 3725 3010 3360 8960 7240 6710 7900 8990 9000 3905 3550 2750 2810 4815 3725 3010 3360 2240 2415 2235 495 2995 2250 1955 1. costs are not included unless Transportation noted. 1990. "Estimating Record 1280.24 1.

APPENDIX A CONSUMER PRICE AND COST INDICES .

0 99.5 123.9 119.5 101.9 102.7 114.8 New Cars 97.4 102.1 110.7 77.6 114.0 125.3 Motor Fuel 102.2 Total2 97.8 99. February 1992.6 109.3 124.4 99.2 121.4 SOURCE: Economic Indicators.1 120.5 99.9 98.8 106.ALL URBAN CONSUMERS’ Transportation Y&II1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 All Items 96.2 99.9 107.6 116.6 113.6 118.4 108.0 130.4 97.1 80. ‘1982-1984 = 100 21ncludes items not shown separately.6 103.2 80.3 103. .7 136.3 105.9 88.CONSUMER TABLE A-l PRICES INDICES -.7 106.

.37 240.72 2.5 SOURCE: Federal Highway Administration.444 .010 Structural Concrete ($/cu.556 .) .28 2.0 101.) 231.40 2.64 219.52 Reinforcing Steel ($/lb.529 structural Steel ($/cu.38 Portland Cement Concrete’ Wq. Third Quarter 1991 ‘Prices for portland cement concrete surfacing assume 9” standard thickness.90 2.18 Composite Index 94.709 .52 26.762 .850 .885 .442 .HIGHWAY TABLE A-2 CONSTRUCTION PRICE TRENDS YCU 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Common Excavation ($/cu.64 14. yd.33 15.63 24.6 102. yd) 14.08 24.796 .) -790 .441 .0 106.76 1.12 283.7 108.17 13.398 .60 236.438 .03 12.63 213.6 92.407 .02 243.91 24.17 15.63 14.80 14.33 24. yd. Price Trendsfor Federal-Aid Highway Construction.91 Bituminous Concrete (Won) 25.5 87. yd.65 24.24 2.85 218.74 1.59 1.48 24.31 15.52 28.708 .27 26.494 .) 1.924 1.2 88.40 286.018 1.6 107.81 274.1 100.409 .69 13.42 2.

59 181.53 Material 159.84 182.31 171.50 Total 146.63 Overhead 130.19 209.04 166.79 157.36 235.37 177.05 234.36 141.93 176.30 204.09 228. ‘1977 Base year = 100 .73 220.79 185.78 188.27 182.58 165.43 168.86 204.64 197.44 159.28 173.53 210.05 183.TABLE A-3 COST TRENDS FOR HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE AND OPERATIONS’ YEU 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Labor 136.77 194.96 150.23 SOURCE: Highway Statistics 1990.50 256.79 254.77 219.71 202.63 217.13 218.29 160.10 270.37 193.71 Equipment 167.40 177.58 170.57 195.80 192.68 192.93 184.08 188.14 232.04 181.

APPENDIX B BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON RAIL TRANSIT .

SUPPORT New York ‘XA Chicago-CfA Washington. SUPPORT VEH. EMPLOYEE MAINTENANCE EQUIVALENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NON-VEH. & PLANG. TOTAL SUPFQRT ADMIN. REV. MAlNT. NON-VEH. & MAlNT. MAINT.-WMATA 500 202 153 75 226 40 74 128 13 33 33 13 4931 887 358 602 210 336 293 150 50 54 31 57 1027 1199 362 221 49 47 407 244 14 24 49 34 1096 184 123 123 34 19 76 23 I 26 26 10 2273 383 525 220 332 185 348 116 50 110 44 46 1565 197 n 209 46 23 109 34 14 17 14 35 1816 0 191 110 28 90 74 52 17 26 38 5 6993 842 1033 so4 442 260 381 146 77 72 123 78 100 6 89 23 27 30 26 32 1 8 4 7 8233 307 533 124 440 150 210 114 88 118 111 62 28539 4208 3444 2811 1834 1180 1997 1039 331 488 472 348 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 124 133 664 1311 306 385 146 292 386 588 195 418 2w 489 913 1857 29 31 924 2213 3891 1532 (cwtinued) SOURCE UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 . ADMIN.hd RTA Cnty TA D. MAlNT.CHARACl’ERlSTK!S TABLE OF INDIVIDUAL El RAIL RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS OPERATING TRANSPORTATION TRANSlT SYSTEM REV. MAINT.C. OPER. VEH. INSPECT. VEH. VEH. ADMIN. SUPPORT MKTG. Boston-MBTA San FmcisceBART New York-PATH Philadelphia-SEPTA Atlanta-MARTA Liidmwold-PATCO Miami-Dade BdtimoRrMTA Cleve.

02 1. YEH. Boston-MBTA San FranciscwBART New York-PATH Philadelphia-SEPTA Atlanta-MARTA Lindenwold-PATCO Miami-Dade Cnty TA D. VEH.TABLE El (continued) ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE TRANSIT SYSTEM (THOUS) REVENUE VEHICLE CAPAClTY ANNUAL VEHICLE HOURS (THOU.01 l.8 (continned) .04 0.-WMATA 325690 55158 34087 22981 33873 14203 16542 14795 4192 4746 3685 2137 312195 54630 32859 21858 33195 13190 16276 14619 4096 4657 3530 1952 42458464 4916712 739327-l 18313 3028 1498 1116 17384 2322 1406 1069 1158 628 1031 613 141 195 147 74 7376121 1050922 978315 480185 757350 294983 415800 359270 96731 95450 66871 58042 1.0 23.08 1.4 28.7 21.0 23.4 20.Cn 1.09 18.1 26.Ol 1.C.2 3. MILESPER REV.8 23.0 15. MILE REV. HOUR wm New York CTA Chicag*CTA Washingtca.9 24.04 1.02 1.4 3817436 2018012 2115838 2967741 491479 435847 432919 242009 1182 811 1048 624 145 208 156 93 BaltimOre-MTA Cleveland RTA AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 44341 86175 42755 8264l4 6117249 11687346 2352 4876 2181 4627 lc02503 1949957 1.8 29.03 23. VEH.05 I.04 1 .02 1.5 23.04 1.?) ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS (THOUS) ANNUAL PASSENGER Mm3 wow TOTAL MILESPER REV.

16 2.49 1.29 7.55 1184 2943 2 2 530 737 0 0 273835 503650 (cwtinned) .14 2.45 2.25 1.98 2.54 1. SERVICE MAX.75 10909 545 206 618 917 67 318 239 35 152 38 169 8 3 1 0 0 1 4 2 0 0 0 1 2791 786 205 582 917 66 384 238 35 152 76 128 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1911512 343786 295241 148853 172260 88051 123043 73717 34047 43187 24328 28000 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 692 1329 652 1293 370 827 2. IN AVG.67 1.58 2.-WMATA 5024 923 576 449 346 297 297 139 90 70 60 35 4873 903 416 320 346 297 278 134 90 70 60 33 3093 369 167 162 160 132 166 104 12 32 28 12 1.50 2.TABLE El (cc&&cd) TRANSIT SYSTEM VEHICLES OPERATED INMAX. VEH. BASE PERIOD PEAK TO BASE RATIO ACCIDENTS FATALITIES INJURIES GALLONS OF DIESEL FUEL mow KILOWAlT HOURS mow New York (JTA ClliUgo-tXA Washin@m. PM PEAK PERIOD MAX.C.19 2. IN AVG. VEH. Bostw-MBTA San Fmciscc+BART New York-PATH Pbiladelphia-S~A Atlanta-MARTA Lindcnwohi-PATCO Miami-Dade B&illlol-e=MTA Cleveland RTA Cnly TA D.

Boston-MBTA San Francisco-BART New York-PATH Philadelphia-SEPIA Atlanta-MARTA Lindcnwold-PATCO Miami-Dade Baltimor&ITA Cleveland RTA Cnty TA D.0 0.783 $201.3 0.8 11.2 37.531 $20.2 6.4 9.7 10.6 1.6 12.0 1.TABLE B-l (conhucd) PERCENT TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES mow SALARIES AND WAGES OPERATORS OTHFR FRINGE BENEFITS OF OPERATING EXPENSES BY OBJECI’ CLASS II MATERIALSAND SUPPLIES FUEL& LUB TIRES &OTHER UTILlTIEs TRA _ _- NSlT SYSTEM CASUALTY & LIABILITY PURCH TRAN OTHER SERVICES New York CTA Chicago-CTA Washii.6 -3.2 6.6 3.3 4.254 $165.3 10.3 7.9 25.5 6.0 0.8 0.162 $26.2 2.0 4.225 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 25.6 3.5 33.8 4.9 11.0 0.7 0.3 0.C.7 8.9 35.0 0.020.9 25.364 $535.3 5.7 16.0 0.0 0.6 19.3 4.5 39.320 $119.9 7.0 4.8 4.9 3.1 7.9 32.2 6.8 48.0 0.7 4.3 3.0 0.0 0.3 6.0 3.9 9.5 7.103 $214.5 7.0 0.7 12.0 4.5 .7 41.1 13.9 23.2 7.9 -15.0 0.9 30.0 7.3 0.3 1.2 2.8 4.3 23.7 34.8 1.1 14.3 5.0 13.6 0.7 33.2 1.6 11.8 6.7 0.0 0.7 0.5 16.9 3.-WMATA $2.5 3.7 0.9 32.9 14.474 $228.0 -0.4 19.4 1.0 0.301 $48.0 0.0 0.2 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION $263.6 14.9 0.9 5.3 8.9 39.1 0.4 30.8 1.7 1.1 0.1 0.5 22.163 9.0 0.3 13.0 0.4 43.686 $57.1 17.7 46.459 $20.0 0.7 8.0 0.5 4.133 $38.1 0.9 11.4 2.5 34.0 5.2 5.1 0.0 0.6 13.4 41.1 4.4 12.0 0.

& MAJNT. TOTAL SuppORT ADMIN. INSPECT. MALNT. VEH. REV. ADMIN. VEH. MAINT. VEH. SUPPORT NON-W%.CHARACTERISTICS TABLE B-2 OF INDIVIDUAL LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS OPER4TlNGEMFLOYEEEQUIVALENTS TRANSPORTATION TRANSIT SYSTEM REV. VEH. ADMIN. & PJANG.Fmt. SUPPORT MAINTENANCE GENERAL ADhfINISTRATION MKTG. MAlNT. SUPPORT Philadelphia-SEPTA San Francisc~MUNi Pittsburgh-PAT Cleveland RTA San Diego Trolley RTA-New Orleans 67 25 13 8 17 3 8 17 2 4 18 6 0 350 219 120 34 45 50 22 31 21 32 34 61 3 23 101 34 19 2 3 11 0 2 13 5 19 0 33 25 24 6 6 5 6 5 0 12 10 16 0 171 213 69 24 19 29 15 11 23 13 19 37 3 31 54 33 19 24 13 7 8 5 6 9 18 1 73 13 0 3 4 3 16 3 0 1 5 12 0 299 80 94 45 15 28 59 9 0 24 26 86 2 21 4 5 4 0 0 0 0 1 5 2 2 1 166 22 36 35 17 2 21 8 5 21 20 46 1 1235 756 429 198 148 136 164 92 59 130 149 303 11 Buffal~Nii. OPER. NON-VEIL MAINT. Sacramento RTD Newark-NJT Portland-MTD Santa Clara County TD Boston-MBTA Scat& Metro Carp AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 15 17 79 95 18 26 11 10 50 63 18 14 10 19 59 76 3 5 31 41 293 330 (COntiUUed) SOURCE UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 .

00 131278 1229 82 6 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 1.0 23.8 19.0 (coutiuud) .07 8.00 1 .02 0.00 1.1 5.Ol 1 .02 1.9 10.00 1.551 1433 1578 1356 203385 168670 135 153 128 149 39023 35090 1.9 546 921 1084 622 1415 538 1230 31 545 919 1c60 622 1400 534 1184 31 1.0 Buffal&lii. Sacramento RTD Newark-NJT Portland-MTD Santa Clara County TD Boston-MBTA Seattle Metro Carp 21634 8131 34957 6612 28755 203 1.TABLE B-2 (contimed) TRANSlT SYSTEM ANNUAL VEHICLE MILES tTHOUS) Philadelpbia-SEPTA San Francisco-MUNI Pittsburgh-PAT Cleveland RTA San Diego Trolley RTA-New Orleans 5046 4002 2079 1103 4832 4002 1988 1035 2367 391354 544316 228602 138625 507683 43602 110208 184459 41055 232340 566 382 138 67 132 61 85 61 42 94 43 541 382 132 44 126 60 82 54 42 73 42 79 6 104612 105475 63503 29099 75937 8719 1.9 5.0 11.9 14.3 18.2 19.00 9.04 1.8 14.Ol 1.02 14.2 12.Front.04 1.05 1.5 15.

BASE PERIOD PEAK TO BASE RATIO ACCIDENTS FATALlTIEs INJURlJ% GALLONS OF DIESEL FUEL (THOUS) KILOWAlT HOURS (THOUS) Philadelphia-SEPTA San Fmcisc~MUNI Pittsburgh-PAT Cleveland RTA San Diego Trolley RTA-New Orleans 176 103 61 29 24 24 23 23 22 22 16 6 2 170 102 33 28 94 62 14 7 1.00 164 148 83 50 204 44 439 1 Buffal&%i.47 0.89 1.80 177 189 0 0 128 166 0 0 18464 19340 (coutinucd) .92 2. VEH.88 2.00 700 252 82 122 6 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 661 113 81 66 6 69 130 60 47 210 28 195 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 63188 40503 24828 13726 11298 2120 9302 6899 2470 8615 7411 49543 125 24 23 23 16 22 8 135 2 14 12 8 7 15 9 68 2 1.Front.65 2.81 1. IN AVG. Sacramento RTD Newark-NJT Portland-MTD Santa Clara County TD Bostoll-MBTA Seattle Metro Carp AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 41 46 49 53 26 29 2.29 1.71 1.99 1. PM PEAK PERIOD MAX. SERVICE MAX.00 0.36 4.TABLE B-2 (continued) TRANSIT SYSTEM VEHICLES OPERATED INMAX. VEH. IN AVG.

0 0. Sacramento RTD Newark-NJT Portland-MTD Santa Clara County TD Boston-MBTA Seattle Metro Cots AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION $12.718 3450 28.9 2.1 11.4 12.831 $10.0 24.2 7.3 33.3 BuffaIoNii.9 0.0 15.0 22.0 0.4 26.3 36.3 9.1 0.9 1.706 $33.1 0.5 25.4 7.0 0.2 21.8 21.5 19.1 0.7 33.6 6.9 38.5 11.0 0.9 3.7 33.6 13.697 $10.8 5.6 4.6 0.1 13.0 0.4 0.4 29.0 0.0 1.9 3.8 23.7 5.6 0.8 23.4 19.2 7.0 0.O 4.2 0.8 4.0 0.0 33.8 9.1 37.0 -7.664 $9.3 0.1 14.159 $1.0 0.0 23 .4 30.5 31.6 7.3 0.2 0.953 $9.5 14.4 18.141 $5.9 6.9 0.5 0.0 0.9 4.6 0.1 6.7 4.2 32.0 9.1 3.0 0.7 -1.5 2.3 0.4 19.1 .9 5.1 0.0 1.0 0.3 1.8 8.9 6.4 17.2 7.6 22.817 $11.0 2.5 -8.0 -0.4 17.8 5.3 8.3 27.4 16.4 4.7 1.7 1.9 25.1 0.0 0.7 15.2 6.0 0.8 6.0 0.0 0.2 15.0 0.2 7.2 7.0 0.Front.0 0.1 1.2 8.4 12.2 8.9 36.0 9.634 $20.4 11.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 37.6 9.6 0.0 0.328 $5.6 0.5 9.0 44.0 2.9 23.693 17.1 0.TABLE B-2 (continued) PERCENT TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES (THOUS) SALARIES AND WAGES OPERATORS OTHER FRINGE BENEFlTS OF OPERATING EXPENSES BY OBJECT CLASS MATERIALSAND SUPPLlES FUEL& LUB TIRES &OTHER UTILlTIEs TRANSIT SYSTEM CASUALTY & LIABILITY PURCH TRAN OTHER SERVICES Philadel$ia-SEl’TA San Fmttcisc~MUNI Pittsburgh-PAT Cleveland RTA Sau Diego Trolley RTA-New Orleans $33.9 2.8 33.8 8.7 13.595 $3.1 0.9 0.944 $20.7 3.9 -5.

ADMIN. VEH. 3 4 8 1131 799 847 426 242 472 375 113 122 % 282 484 471 334 121 169 253 41 53 21 229 113 116 15 36 69 10 11 3 4 1088 1150 905 458 307 354 291 93 48 6 329 46 48 53 33 66 3 38 66 32 355 75 18 76 10 46 17 10 15 7 911 1147 627 292 186 313 3 38 0 105 65 44 33 23 22 25 0 0 0 3 798 1140 368 317 26 216 9 48 3 46 5318 5054 34% 2011 998 1797 977 395 314 328 Chicago & NW Tr Co Philadelphia-SEFI’A Boston-Amtrak/MBTA Cl&age-Burlington San FranciscMMram Staten Island Rap. WI-I. ADMIN. & PLANG. q SUPPORT REV. AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 38 39 462 337 223 162 61 70 470 405 71 88 63 101 362 382 21 21 297 366 2059 1812 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 . NON-VEH. OPERATINGFMPLOYEEEQUIVALENTS MAINTENANCE GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NON-VEH. TOTAL SUPPORT ADMIN. VEH. OPER. SUPPORT MKTG. VEIL MAINT.Tr. & MAIN-r. MAIN-r. INSPECT. SUPPORT New York-LIRR New York-MTNR Newark-NJT chicag*c-uter Carp Rail Bd 130 57 63 17 15 66 16 No. MAmT. MAINT.CHARACIEPJSTICS TABLE OF INDlVlDUAL B-3 COMMUTER RAIL SYSTEMS I TRANSPORTATION TRANSIT SYSTEM REV.

8 36.08 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 20164 19599 18254 17084 2629323 2691577 643 628 585 554 690363 635268 1.8 34. VEH. VEH.6 30.0 (coutiaued) .Tr.v ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE IaLEs (THOUS) REVENUE VEHICLE CAPACITY MILES (THOUS) ANNUAL VEHICLE HOURS (THOUS) ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS (THOUS) ANNUAL PASSENGER MILES (THOUS) TOTAL MILES PER REV.TABLE B-3 (cmtinwl) TRANSIT SYSTEM ANNUAL VEHICLE MILES m0u.08 0.14 1. MILES PER REV.00 29.7 32.8 27.2 Chicag*Commuter Chicago & NW Tr Co Philadelphia-SEPTA Boston-AmtmkMBTA Chicag~Burliitcm San Francisc&hltrans Staten Island Rap.15 1. HOUR mm New York-LIRR New York-MTNR Newark-NJT Carp F&J Bd 65380 39993 37135 12463 11970 12203 13211 No. MILE REV.06 1.04 1.5 31.5 21.09 1.00 1. 42938 1.7 4. 4580 2458 2249 57052 35045 34180 11482 11499 11555 13211 3961 2457 2089 9700487 3937610 4370868 1768027 1839764 1860292 1519305 574324 356939 365611 2160 1116 1210 397 358 447 429 133 76 108 1914 960 1120 371 350 419 429 114 76 99 2117068 1535405 9975% 612716 514791 361883 330134 1.5 30.0 32.05 30. VEH.09 1.16 1.

VEH. SERVICE MAX.25 0 15 69 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 383 294 333 289 115 148 3.94 315 0 240 0 Chicago & NW Tr Co Philadelphia-SEPTA Boston-Amtrak/MBTA Chicago-BurIii San Frattcisc&&ltrms Staten Island Rap. PM PEAR PERIOD MAX. 137 55 36 19 41 16 7. BASE PERIOD PEAR TO BASE RATIO ACCIDENTS FATALITIES INJURIES GALLONS OF DIESEL FUEL cr?Iow KILOWATT HOURS (THOUS) New Y ok-LIRR New York-MTNR Newark-NJT Chicago-C-titer Carp RaiI Bd 1040 664 613 391 331 275 245 No.78 410 692 7 11 355 537 5001 3391 116813 153911 (continued) .TABLE B-3 (contittued) TRANSlT SYSTEM VFHICLES OPERATED INMAX.34 2. 163 67 36 962 580 470 2.Tr.52 3. IN AVG.21 1. VEH.05 341 749 2372 28 0 29 5 0 0 0 0 3 0 301 719 1821 379 0 261 0 0 7 59 670-l 4077 10445 6485 8823 0 7473 3568 2428 0 453254 344290 84270 78395 0 189109 0 0 0 18807 356 289 252 116 82 64 3.07 3.34 1. IN AVG.

1 29.0 25.9 3.0 16.3 5.0 16.5 21.0 0.0 44.3 4.5 -1.7 24.2 32.6 9.8 0.6 4.9 31.7 0.5 0.0 8.6 6.6 3.Tr.7 6.9 6.5 14.5 10.566 9.0 6.917 $182.7 9.0 3.1 2.5 6.9 6.0 26.658 $78.9 9.TABLE B-3 (cmtinucd) PERCENT TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES (THOUS) SALARIES AND WAGES OPERATORS OTHER FRINGE BENEFlTS OF OPERATING EXPENSES BY OBJECT CLASS MATERIALSAND SUPPLIES FUEL& LUB TlREs & OTHER UTILITIES TRANSIT SYSTEM CASUALTY & LIABILITY PURCH TRAN OTHER SERVICES New York-LIRR New York-MTNR Newark-NJT CorF Rail Bd 5593.6 0.9 2.0 43.7 5.5 48.6 Chicago-Commuter Chicago&NWTrCo l’hiladel@ii-SEPTA Boston-AmtrakMBTA Chicago-Burlington San Francisc~Cahram Staten Island Rq.0 5.7 10.0 1.7 0.6 -2.7 0.6 0.9 7.6 24.146 $17.8 11.827 $268.4 7.8 2.2 11.0 0.9 -16.7 8.0 -7.0 28.3 16.3 7.0 3.765 $262.9 -10.0 0.9 5.1 4.563 $86.457 $401.0 11.1 2.2 54.0 0.7 3.5 1.3 13.7 17.245 $97.2 6.3 3.0 0.9 1.3 18.7 0.8 0.5 18. $32.2 4.1 4.7 11.0 20.3 15.0 7.8 1.0 3.8 0.1 0.0 0.940 $19.9 0.6 28.7 4.9 4.1 0.8 18.0 0.0 0.5 .4 26.2 11.9 3.0 0.5 0.1 7.3 9.0 1. AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION $185.9 9.0 26.9 2.9 32.2 16.0 0.1 21.399 No.2 6.775 13.8 24.2 14.6 34.

6 26 8 3850 (continued) San Jose 1987l 19.2 0.TABLE B-4 CHARACTERISTICS OF RECENTLY CONSTRUCTEDLIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS Los Angeles 19902 18.2 0. 2Metro Blue 3Total system 4Not Reported .1 2.7 0.6 43.6 0.3 5.6 22 5 1051 Portland Opening Year Route Length At-Grade Elevated Subway Open Cut Total Track Stations Parking Parking Lots Spaces Miles 1986 (miles) 9.0 18.1 62.9 5.0 0.9 40.2 29. not project-specific.7 0.3 25.43 13 NR NR 'North Line Line statistics.9 5.3 25 5 1636 Sacramento 1987 17.8 22 NR4 NR Pittsburgh 1988 27.0 0.8 41.1 22.3 3.2 15.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 19.

Liqht Rail Administration. April 5. Urban Mass Transportation Safety. Transit Capital Office of Cost Study* prepared Technical Assistance for and . 1991.TABLE B-4 (continued) Portland Total Midday Midday Revenue Vehicles Vehicles (minutes) (minutes) Vehicles Headways 26 22 12 7.5 15 16 36 28 19 11 110 Peak Period Peak Headway Sacramento 26 23 8 15 30 15 32 15 16 5 83 San Jose 50 15 15 10 10 11 58 55 53 20 197 Pittsburgh 97 70 28 NR NR NR 112 NR NR NR 503 Los Angeles 54 26 13 10 10 28 73 47 45 68 261 Staff Administrative Operators Vehicle Maintenance Facility Maintenance Other Total Source: Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc..

F.200 12. 70 50 54.500 61.060 1. PERSONS/ HOUR DtRECl LOAD SECIION) IN ION PASSENGERS PER TRAIN (ROUNDED) - New York City 1982 IND E. 8th AvcExprcss IRT 4. 5.520 670 1.400 6.400 16.500 43. F. D.430 1.200 2. 7th Ave. 75 50 50 60 60 50 50 75 75 57 56 50 50 JO 50 50 67 70 55 75 75 75 75 50.260 940 730 647 760 790 700 460 460 650 730 650 650 710 390 360 Toronto 1978 1974 1960 1976 1984 1978 Montreal Chicago Philadelphia Boston San Francisco Wnshington Atlanta Cleveland ’ Multiple track 1976 1977-78 1977 1980 1980 1976 1960 terminal. Exp.400 ::tiZ I3. 53rd St.200 28. Exp. 3.000 4. Express IND 4.Qoo 8.600 13.290 I. Lexington Ave.300 11. 5.800 32. Tunnel IND A. PATH-World Trade Center’ IND E.250 5.000 36.530 I. IND 2. Yonge St.500 36. Lexington Ave. Yonge St.100 2. D. CAR TRAINS FER CITY AND YEAR LINE/LOCATION ItOUR CARS PER HOUR l4EADWAY (RO”FOED) LENGTH PEAK (MAX. Tunnel IND A. 53rd St.000 32.070 1. 8th Ave.500 14.100 25.000 44.500 38.920 2.T&LE B-5 OBSERVED PEAK-HOUR PASSENGER VOLUMES ON RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEMS APPROX.070 1.400 12.400 62. Express Yonge St.000 IO. N Line Milwaukee Lake-Ryan North-South Lake-Ryan North-South North Broad (2 tracks) Red Line Orange Line BART-Transbay BART-Mission Blue-Orange East Line West Side West Side 26 21 25 38 32 30 31 24 30 28 28 23 I7 19 I5 21 20 23 I7 13 II IO 20 6 14 20 208 210 250 266 320 300 310 240 210 168 224 207 136 I52 120 168 I60 126 68 52 98 85 120 36 52 80 128 I59 I57 98 II2 I20 II6 I50 I20 129 129 I57 212 189 240 III 180 157 212 277 327 360 180 600 258 180 75 60. SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity Manual .

5 46.340 4.0 46.700 6.0 46.5 46.800 4.5 46.0 50. Cleveland Green Line Boston (techmere) City Subway Newark LRT Line Edmonton San Diceo LRT ’ Estimated.500 2.) Market Street Philadelphia San Francisco Market Street Shaker Hts.200 46.Oav 3. Bridge Pittsburgh Smithfield St.0 I51 9. Philadelphia Boston 1956 1976 1978 1983 1976 1978 1978 1978 1981 133 36 13 133 88 73 62 60’ 48 30 24 6 27 IO0 180 NA 120’ 225 120 300 1.0 70.5 46.9RO 4. San Francisco Market Street (before subway) Toronto Queen St.lW 600 67 192 I51 109 I43 94 50 87 200 PCC PCC FCC Boeing LRV PCC PCC FCC DUWAG DUWAG NA 30’ I6 30 I2 3 SOURCE: 1985 Highway Capacity Manual . Green Line (Boylston St.5 9.500 1. East 1949 1976 1977 1978 120 51 68 66 I20 51 68 66 30 71 53 55 46.200 75’ 74 72 64 PCC PCC FCC PCC ?N TUNNEL OR OFFSTREET Market St.OBSERVED PEAK-HOUR TABLE B-6 PASSENGER VOLUMES ON STREET CAR AND LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS TRAINS PER CITY LOCATION YEAR HOUR CARS PER HOUR HEADWAY SECONDS LENGTII OF CAR OR TRAIN PASSENGER/IIOUR IN PEAK DIRECTION PASSENGER/CAR OR TRAIN EQUIPMENT ON S7-R EET Pittsburgh Smithfield St.400 I.900 3.0 46.5 77.000 6.

31 69.33 772.83 10.00 10.15 761.81 67.76 57.08 675.00 10.8 84 62 230 174 310 233 6 a 504 496 75.00 10.6 80 120 54 100 I40 197 4 320 324 6 75.1975 1953-1958 Bay Arts Rapid Translt Montreal Urban Commumry Transrt Commission Greater Cleveland Regional framrt Authont) AKpOl-ter Other Washmeton Merropohtan Area Transtt Authonty 48.1 c.) 200 6 8 m.2 80 175 240 6 480 .25 9.5 686.3 513.5 72 I44 216 B 576 56.4 67 55 NA 115 281 (est.75 10.33 10.5 787.50 125 135 a 400 67.33 731. 10.75 8.0 502.TABLE B-7 RAPID TRANSIT TRAIN AND CAR CAPACITIES LENGTH m) WIDTH ml AREA WI SEATED PASSENGERS TUl-AL PMSENGERS SCHEDULE CRUSH MAxlMUM CARS/TRAIN SEATED PASSENGERS/ TRAIN NW York Cit? R44 R-46 75. and NJ.00 Tr&t Authorit) Pon Authonty of N.3 588.42 8.58 9.25 48.00 9.41 10.25 465.0 72-76 225 225 290 8 576608 51.Y.0 42 140 200 7 294 48.28 418.0 750. Market St. (PA’W Clucago Transit Autnontg Philadelphia (SEPTA) Broad St.33 10.50 55.5 39 157 208 29 351 70.35 10.3 403.3 722.12 loo 74.25 9 473.4 48 54 63 80 125 175 208 191 240 275 200 4 4 4 a 192 216 252 640 55.) 450 440 Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authonty Blue Line Orange Line Red Line New Jersey (PATCO) Toronto Transit Commission 1962.33 450.

1 9.22 2. Amencan Pubhc fruwr muon.3 6.69 2.98 0.480 1.52 4.5 10.64 3.01 2.2 9.88 9.09 2.800 1.9-10.43 1.01 2.90 11.04 5.34 3.07 2.73 3.182 1.600 0.05 1.03 2.47 6.92 4.98 0.16 2.38 5.73 10.52 3.64 Communny Transn Commission Greater Cleveland Reponal Transr~ Authonty AvpoRcr 1.96 2.392 1.14 4.9 3.050 1.14 2.16 3.60 2.0 3.68 2.04 9.99 4.686 1.9 2.69 11.WO 1.09 3.83 0.22 3.82 2.72 2.93 3.600 0.08 3.49 2.94 2.67 Pon Authonty of N.3 3.11 1.2 12.TABLE B-7 (continued) TOTAL DESIGN PASSENQERS/ TRAIN CRUSH SEATED PWSENGERS/ FOOT OF LENGTH TOTAL PASSENGERS / POOT OF LENCZH SCHEDULE CRUSH FF/ SEATED PASSENGERS %+/TOTAL PASJENGERS SCHEDULE CRUSH New York City Transit Authontp IRT IND R44 R46 1. Massachusetts Bay Transporration Authonty Blue Lme Orange Line Red Line New Jersey (PATCO) Toronto Transit Commission 1962-1975 1953-1958 Bay Area Rapid Transit Montreal Urban 980 1.7 9.1 9.1 3.06 0.1 NA 4.5 11.14 1.1 9.100 1. and NJ.51 3.50 2.07 4.43 NA 920 1.47 3. .35 3.09 5.47 2.61 10.99 NA 2.98 1.56 3.20 0.860 1.17 SOURCE: Computed by Herben 5.96-1.91 4.97 3.800 2200 2340 0.33 2.78 3.6 3.5 1 500 700 832 800 764 960 1.400 0.728 1.4 8.59 3.12 1.413 1.872 0. Lcvuwm from data obtamcd from Roar Schedule and crush load data UC bucd on ~nfonruuon recewed from AmA. of North Ammoan bptd fnnslt Cars 1945-1976.55 1.23 Other Washmpton Metropohtan Area Transu Aulhonc! 480 600 560 1.864 1.62 3.99 0.400 1.440 1.40 2.152 1.36 3.05 1.00 3.95 a.37 2.03 9.37 2.19 2.Y. Market St.800 1.71 2.90 1.75 2.36 l.380 1. (PATH) Chicago Tramt Authonty Philadelphia (SEI’TA) Broad St.36 3.34 2.33 3.

APPENDIX C BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON BUS TRANSIT .

C. OPER. VEH. 741 367 385 Carp D. 2082 1033 769 628 653 599 313 181 302 334 259 346 210 207 188 245 331 259 EMPLOYEE MAINTENANCE EQUIVALENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NON-VEH. SUPPORT 475 253 384 78 138 87 50 115 149 196 63 85 37 64 69 70 35 62 MKTG. VEH. SUPPORT 225 134 386 1% 101 55 69 122 177 127 93 117 66 101 25 70 99 42 VEH. 55 163 7 50 156 45 48 119 26 31 55 76 39 65 61 36 9 104 TOTAL SUPPORT 1711 693 360 549 415 392 175 228 325 235 165 523 152 229 154 302 262 285 14843 no7 7057 4530 4410 4037 2051 2482 2418 2586 1971 2591 1890 1882 1648 1806 2383 1724 ADMIN.CHARACl-ERISTICS OF INDlVIDUAL TABLE C-l BUS SYSTEMS WITH 500 OR MORE BUSES OPERATING TRANSPORTATION TRANSIT SYSTEM REV. MAINT. 8 15 0 0 44 18 2 30 6 0 14 1 2 27 28 8 26 8 NON-VEH. ADMIN.. ADMIN. MAINT. 821 187 207 54 107 104 16 129 110 63 41 112 37 33 36 17 27 71 (continued) SOURCE: UMTA Se&m 15 data for 1989 REV. SUPPORT 712 423 414 214 148 127 42 99 77 174 95 143 81 118 102 116 120 79 Philadelphia-SEFTA Minneapolis Seattle Metro Bostm-MBTA Pittsburgh-PAT Baltimore-MTA Houston-MTA Alameda-Contra Denver-RTD St his-Bi-State Cleveland RTA Atlanta-MARTA Dallas Area Rapid Transit MTC . & MAINT. New York (STA Los AngelesSCRTD ChiCagd-TA Newark-NJT Wmhiqton. MAIN-r.-WMATA 178 131 198 212 83 73 46 55 34 Costa 81 33 45 66 81 44 8015 4439 4085 2524 2518 2411 1125 1376 1233 1374 1131 1149 1185 1005 942 877 1393 770 VEH. MAINT. JNSPECl. & PLANG.

25 1. Cm-p D.16 1. VEH.9 13.4 13.13 1.14 1.9 13.17 1.15 1.02 1.15 1.7 12.30 1.6 10.13 1.8 10.21 REV.2 12.9 17.-WMATA 104039 101115 74285 73171 49ca3 39832 27615 31781 26180 30872 24443 34794 Costa 24992 26424 24475 23019 29133 19982 ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE MILES (THOUS) 94676 86150 72199 60958 39350 35151 21260 23349 23240 26821 20812 27753 21954 22347 18652 19769 25362 16509 REVENUE VEHICLE CAPACITY MILES mow 6627309 5851ooO 5532687 4018495 2636460 2144212 1967242 1914617 15058% 17701% 1173880 1740134 1496191 1454413 1182216 1516246 1826084 1139131 ANNUAL VEHICLE HOURS DEW 12829 7464 73% 4841 3995 3930 19% 2044 2182 2250 2186 2233 1900 1733 1729 1763 2139 1358 ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS mow 11989 6862 7247 3315 2861 3486 1537 1406 1959 1955 1929 1883 1708 1290 1280 1300 1959 1192 ANNUAL PASSENGBR rn~~~~ 1514915 1648700 1034122 911149 53w9 491684 267559 348581 232548 316721 309679 437402 275408 199205 174844 179055 271371 168434 TOTAL MILES PER REV.25 I .17 1.C.31 1. MILES PER REV.0 18.10 1. VEX HOUR ww 7.20 1.18 1. VEH.1 13. MILE 1.6 11.6 15.8 16.7 10.9 12.TABLE C-l (continued) ANNUAL VEHICLE TRANslT SYSTEM (THOUS) New York CTA LQS Angeles-SCRTD ChicagC4TA Newark-NJT Washington.8 14.36 1.8 Philadelphia-SE!PTA Minucapolis Seattle Metro Boston-MBTA Pittsburgh-PAT BaltimoreMTA Houston-MTA Alameda-Contra Denver-RTD St Louis-Bi-State Cleveland RTA Atlanta-MARTA Dallas Area Rapid Tr MTC .3 14.

12 2. VEH.30 1.07 1.81 3.53 1.81 2.91 2.81 1. PM PEAK PERIOD New York CTA Los AngeksSCRTD Chi~O-CTA Nmark-NJT Cap 3103 1939 1803 1648 1400 1169 833 832 814 776 734 718 Costa 653 603 598 578 566 524 2873 1826 1786 1460 1331 1058 821 832 693 664 654 690 604 565 553 572 565 509 MAX.&hlOf&lTA Houstm-MTA AlamedaContra Denver-RTD St Louis-Bi-State Cleveland RTA Atlanta-MARTA Dallas Area Rapid Tr 1136 1083 715 2945 714 1007 5 1 1 0 0 3 309 610 514 1216 137 937 7609 6707 6534 5997 8822 6420 .-WMATA PllihiCipti~EpTA Mirmeapolis MTC Seattle Metro Boston-MBTA Pittsbu&-PAT B. D.TABLE C-l (contiaued) MAX.99 2.14 2.98 2.53 2. IN AVG. BASE PERIOD 1874 1253 986 683 473 584 271 279 314 348 259 300 304 273 278 275 266 185 PEAK TO BASE RATIO 1. IN AVG.21 1.C.99 2.75 ACCIDENTS 4921 5223 5227 5112 2344 2779 2135 1427 2044 1813 2055 FATAL lTIE?s 27 9 8 6 4 3 5 1 1 2 7 6968 4351 6222 1483 907 2809 1149 241 671 919 3767 GALLONS OFFUEL mow 34456 27980 24272 19034 16433 14247 7063 7750 7184 10246 7539 9985 Washington.08 2.46 1.03 2. VEH.

4 3.4 2.7 3.6 25.6 20.4 2.3 26.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.5 25.9 2.0 0.7 18.2 1.9 1.9 3.2 39.TABLE C-l (eontinucd) PERCENT TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES mow SAURIES AND WAGES OPERATORS OTHER New Yak CTA $905.7 18.1 29.0 4.2 5.055 $63. PllildC~4EPTA Miurteapolis SeatlleMem.2 25.0 FRINGE BBNEFITS OF OPERATING EXPENSES BY ORJIXT CLASS MATERIALSAND SUPPLIES FUEL& LUB TIRES &OTHER UTILITIES TRANSIT SYSTEM CASUALTY L LIABILITY PURCH TRAN OTHER SFXVRXS 2.1 4.6 18.9 21.9 1.1 1.778 $95.3 0.8 5.4 32.7 19.7 30.0 2.8 3.081 29.4 5.4 2.1 19.3 28.2 7.7 0.2 0.1 5.4 5.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 26.3 9.2 4.4 36.1 24.1 4.1 2.3 28.5 7.8 15.4 29.2 5.0 -0.2 4.8 0.5 3.363 $91.476 Cap D.6 2.6 6.1 25.4 0.0 1.6 0.8 22.1 -1.2 3.3 39.1 2.6 4.7 26.1 5.2 10.9 0.3 24.0 0.6 6.8 22.9 6.6 0.3 36.562 $520.4 27.2 0.4 9.4 0.9 19.553 Costa $119.7 5.3 10.301 WI.6 0.878 $102.1 1.2 0.5 3.5 4.7 7.0 0.2 9.3 3.6 17.8 22.0 1.0 1.3 4.1 0.0 -2.2 13.957 $82.5 1.6 24.533 587.-WMATA $300.0 0.9 0.7 39.3 0.491 $113.889 $332.1 10.2 -2.2 20.0 2.011 MTC $103.854 $280.2 5.7 12.0 10.4 5.0 LusAngek.9 23.9 38.7 2.6 19.2 2.8 5.6 22.8 3.0 -7.9 39.3 3.6 0.4 -0.3 22.8 19.1 30.4 0.8 0.9 1.8 12.275 $107.7 3.2 3.3 36.8 -7.4 1.5 1.5 33.9 0.3 0.1 2.4 2.5 21.2 2.8 0.2 21.7 30. Bostm-MBTA Pittsburgh-PAT BdthlOP%WA Houstowh4TA Alamda-Ca~tm Denver-RTD St Louis-Bite Cleveland RTA Atlanta-MARTA Dallas Am Rauii Tr .4 6.6 23.5 1.9 5.3 1.0 6.681 $133.5 0.8 22.4 7.C.0 6.6 1.4 25.6 32.0 0.9-scRTD CbiWgO-CTA Newark-NJT Wast&tcm.6 5.9 0.5 3.493 $159.

& PLANG. MAlNT. 16 49 57 28 60 76 24 24 34 38 46 31 21 12 31 18 (eontiuued) SOURCE: UMTA Sect& 15 data for 1989 REV. MAINT. SUPFORT 49 73 39 19 22 33 1 16 47 28 15 14 26 29 12 23 MKTG. INSPECT. SuppoRT Milwaukee Portland-Tri-Ccmty SantaclaraCOUUtyTD Miami-Da& Cnty TA Hmoluh~ DOT Service RTA-New S. 116 399 147 143 227 177 149 155 229 139 112 94 136 59 94 77 EMPLOYEE MAINTENANCE EQUIVALENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NON-VEH. VEH. 42 13 84 53 52 62 20 36 41 35 65 45 12 Ohio TA 11 46 35 660 975 788 7% 868 964 5% 607 849 510 712 425 443 399 451 491 VEH. & MAINT. San AntonhVIA cii of Detroit Couuty TS Metro Tr SUPPORT 36 119 70 71 47 71 37 32 67 38 39 5 27 28 39 23 VEH. MAINT. 37 37 22 27 45 39 25 22 14 10 58 38 30 24 15 36 TOTAL SUPPORT 78 131 87 116 81 144 59 111 82 41 186 53 32 63 96 63 1069 1870 1343 1326 1481 1655 971 1077 1442 893 1298 743 754 672 836 811 ADMIN.CHARACTERISTRX TABLE C-2 OF INDIVIDUAL BUS SYSTEMS WlTH 250499 BUSES OPERATING TRANSPORTATION TRANSIT SYSTEM REV. VEH.F. ADMIN. 35 68 48 72 74 78 60 70 73 50 61 39 25 45 53 43 1 6 2 I 4 13 2 4 6 5 4 0 2 3 0 2 NON-VEH. Buffal~Niagara Omge county TD Salt Lake City-Utah C~~M&SORTA Columbus-Central East M&OW-MSBA Phoenix Transit System . OPER.MUNI Orleans Motor Bus Front. MAlNT. ADMIN.

BuffaleNiagara Orange County TD Salt Lake City-Utah Cmcionati-SORTA Columbus-Central East Meadow-MSBA Pbomix Transit System Ohio TA 9046 10719 10688 .9 9.16 1. VEH.12 1.21 1.2 14.1 10.2 13.13 REV.13 1.7 16.1 13.2 14. VEH.3 11.9 14.5 12.3 San Antonio-VIA cityofDetmit Milwaukee M&o Tr 17962 24759 16609 22404 17098 18197 19373 18474 14841 12077 12703 9774 15576 12838 9678 7491 9176 9445 124.5 1915 1528 1498 1514 1618 1142 1197 1474 874 1256 863 831 650 827 755 (continued) county TS 18649 21003 22743 20886 16986 13049 14706 9946 17998 14324 11376 Portland-Tri-County SantaCkuaCountyTD Miami-Dade Cnty TA Honolulu DOT Service RTA-New S.MUNl Orleans Motor Bus Front.1 12.6 14. Mm3 1. VEH.09 1.15 1.18 1.16 1.14 1.9 12.17 1.TABLE C-2 (wntinocd) TRANslT SYSTEM ANNUAL VEHICLE MILES rn~W ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE DEW REVENUE VEHICLB CAPAClTY (THOUS) 798575 1344253 1236364 1294421 1317353 1043090 1078358 736679 937465 801460 1169671 577276 600017 408818 770762 77’2228 ANNUAL VEHICLE HOURS mow ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS wow 1197 1821 1456 1125 13n 1520 1054 1106 1366 872 1164 672 718 580 627 661 ANNUAL PASSENGER DEW 152321 265673 190388 159700 140541 214933 322870 170883 209556 65466 167430 108745 125204 82789 151010 98085 TOTAL MILESPER REV.02 1.11 1. MILESPER REV.4 19.F.08 1.17 1.08 1.3 11. HOUR w-m 13.

40 1.06 1.56 3.F. VEH. IN AVG.72 1.TABLE C-2 (umtioued) TRANSlT SYSTEM VEHICLES OPERATED INMAX. SERVICE 462 457 452 420 417 413 405 379 373 361 331 324 321 MAX. BuffaloNiagara Orange County TD Salt Lake City-Utah Cincinnati-SORTA Columbus-Central East Meadow-MSBA Phoenix Transit Svstem Ohio TA 273 265 264 .98 2.98 1. IN AVG.MUNl Orleans Motor Bus Front. VEH.05 2.33 2.28 1.49 ACCIDENTS 690 1832 1246 865 719 1236 1193 133 1387 747 792 675 655 368 473 466 FATALrrIEs 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 0 4 1 0 0 0 2 GALLONS OFFUEL mous) INJURIES 2% 417 1204 831 228 592 595 912 479 315 523 152 150 184 123 161 4830 7268 5397 5052 5101 6015 5055 4190 5204 2847 5144 3411 3208 2270 3225 3385 Sau AutcabVL4 city of Detroit Milwaukee Metro Tr County TS Portland-Tri-County Santa Clara County TD Miami-Dade Coty TA Honolulu DOT Service RTA-New S.60 1.81 1. BASE PERIOD 198 291 241 244 260 311 187 125 239 102 257 252 127 125 143 177 PEAK TO BASE RATIO 2.19 1.24 1. PM PEAK PERIOD 443 457 415 417 417 413 383 373 372 347 329 300 252 257 259 264 MAX.57 1.71 1.

7 26.789 VW= $41.MUNI Orleans Motor Bus From.5 4.9 20.0 1.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 4.8 0.4 23.6 3.0 0.8 9.0 4.7 3.2 1.4 0.2 0.5 23.9 6.1 5.5 22.4 2.2 28.8 4.5 1.2 30.2 1.9 32.0 0.0 1.F.1 31.2 9.5 16.5 5.3 8.0 21.2 20.4 0.1 4.8 9.691 $132.8 1.0 4.6 2.5 24.3 29.0 0.621 $39.0 FRINGE BENEFITS OF OPERATING EXPENSES BY OBJECT CLASS MATERIALSAND SUPPLIES FUEL& LUB TIRES &OTHER uTILlTIEs TRANSl’I SYSTEM CASUALTY a LIABILITY PURCH TRAN OTHER SERVICES 6.4 1.1 0.0 15.5 19.6 5.4 3.1 2.7 7.7 MiIwaukee Portland-Tti-County S3lUti3claraCOUU~TD Miami-Da& Cnty TA Honolulu DOT Service RTA-New S.9 1.3 0.2 42.7 4.9 29.0 0.2 29.9 29.3 19.2 27.9 0.2 0.TABLE C-2 (contim@ PERCENT TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES mow SALARIES AND WAGES OPERATORS OTHER San Arm&VIA cii of Detroit Cmuty TS Metro Tr $36.0 0.2 8.3 2.865 $59.1 32.7 1.8 22.3 21 .977 SEX?.6 26.193 $36.0 0.2 7.8 9.283 $32.0 0.8 4.9 0.2 20.258 $67.4 4.3 1.0 0.809 $53.4 6.7 2.6 5.3 26.8 3.0 3.2 1.199 $77.9 8.6 2.9 (coutiuued) 0.4 1.2 0.7 5.6 5.7 1. BuffaloNiagara Orange county TD Salt Lake City-Utah Cmcimmti-SORTA Columbos-Ccattral East Meadow-MSBA phoenix Transit System .1 6.8 21.8 18.7 33.8 7.5 0.1 4.0 6.1 9.0 3.9 8.o 23.0 3.3 0.672 Ohio TA $33.6 6.914 40.1 29.6 0.7 11.4 0.769 $97.9 0.0 1.0 0.3 22.4 0.5 6.0 2.8 30.2 4.6 18.7 17.6 4.2 23.3 28.4 0.0 35.0 21.9 3.1 0.3 24.3 3.8 2.2 5.0 1.0 2.9 0.788 366.0 0.9 1.103 $40.7 8.8 0.4 2.5 39.2 28.4 24.0 0.3 4.2 25.5 16.8 6.

MAmT. MAINT. ADMIN. VEH.CHARACI’ERISTICS TABLE C-3 OF INDIVIDUAL TROLLEY BUS SYSTEMS OPERATlNGEMPLGYEZE!EQUlVALEIWS TRANSFORTATION TRANSIT SYSTEM REV. ADMIN. INSPECT.RTA Be&m-MBTA 40 14 50 10 4 592 236 134 69 67 64 21 11 1 10 8 6 2 1 8 108 20 91 15 11 43 11 10 5 10 I 7 9 0 1 30 24 36 13 10 8 20 4 5 1 57 35 46 13 16 957 393 394 130 138 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 24 18 220 1% 21 22 5 3 49 42 16 14 5 4 23 10 8 7 33 17 403 301 SOURCE: UMTA Section 15 data for 1989 . SUPPORT NON-VEH. SUPPORT Sau Frrmiaw-MUNI Seattle Metro Philadelphia-SEPTA Dayton Miami VaU. TOTAL SUPPORT ADMIN. & ImINT. MAINT. VEH. SUPPORT MAINTENANCB GENERAL ADMINISTRATION MKTG. & PLANG. OPER. REV. MAINT. VEH. NON-VEH. VEH.

Ol 7.1 2.S) TOTAL MILES PER REV.3 . HOUR wfo San Francisc~MUNl Seattle Metro Philadelphia-SEPIA ~ Daytm Miii Vall.0 ~ Boston-MBTA ’ AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION 2897 2458 2789 2354 205780 179126 364 353 334 340 39838 40436 1. VEH.7 13.05 1.S) ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE HOURS (THOUS) ANNUAL PASSENGER MILES flH0U.7 12.02 1 . MILES PER REV. VEIL MILE REV.05 1.6 8.02 10.RTA 7622 2880 1605 1634 747 7320 2745 1527 1610 742 548979 208219 103824 119678 48201 1026 421 185 130 57 991 320 176 127 57 118500 36610 21132 14494 8454 l.9 (THOUS) ANNUAL REVENUE VEHICLE MILES (THOUS) REVENUE VEHICLE CAPACITY MILES (IIIOUS) ANNUAL VEHICLE HOURS crH0U.4 8.TABLE C-3 (continued) TRANSIT SYSTEM ANNUAL VEHICLE MILE.oQ 1. VEH.03 0.

SERVICE MAX.42 1.00 1015 311 164 379 53 0 0 0 0 0 287 89 139 142 19 0 0 0 0 0 32823 14903 12434 6733 1390 II STANDARD AVERAGE DEVIATION 86 99 86 98 63 65 1. BASE PERIOD PEAK TO BASE RATIO ACCIDENTS FATALlTIEs INJURIES GALLONS OF DIESEL FUEL (THOUS) KILOWAlT HOURS mow Sau Franci~MUNI Seattle Metro PbihddpllkSEPTA Dayton Miami ValLRTA Bostm-MBTA 262 106 62 40 25 262 106 60 40 24 184 71 32 27 12 1. IN AVG.88 1. VEH.49 1.TABLE C-3 (caduud) TlMNSm SYSTEM VEHICLES OPERATED INMAX.65 0.48 2. PM PEAK PERIOD MAX.24 384 335 0 135 88 0 10666 13657 . IN AVG. VEH.

7 AVERAGE STANDARD DEVIATION $14.1 0.0 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.8 2.2 0.0 2.3 0.1 3.0 4.8 29.1 -3.4 29.6 0.8 3.9 37.2 6.9 41.8 5.0 0.5 2.0 0.0 13.437 $5.7 15.6 3.1 6.500 58.9 1.0 0.5 30.3 0.7 0.2 23.TABLE C-3 (continued) PERCENT OF OPERATING EXPENSES BY OBIEff CLASS TRANSlT SYSTEM TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES (THOUS) SALARIES CASUALTY & LIABILITY lJ2ycq= PURCH TMN FRINGE BENEFITS OTHER Sau Francisc~MUNI Seattle Metro Philade.4 47.8 8.7 25.1 0.2 0.9 9.8 15.7 1.4 -0.4 .508 $12.5 12.4 18.0 0.0 -1.6 1.9 6.247 49.1 0.7 0.5 0.0 1.0 0.028 $6.lphia-SEFIA Dayton Miami VaBRTA Boston-MBTA $39.1 3.1 7.2 31.0 0.328 $13.0 0.0 0.2 28.3 15.2 -5.1 3.2 7.678 39.1 0.0 0.2 37.

APPENDIX D BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEMS .

04 5 2 1 1 1 6 50 17 32 30 45 23 10 Airport Center Airport Downtown People Mover Recreation Center University Medical Center Shopping Center Airport Elevated/At-Grade Underground Elevated 28 4 13 9 3 1.74 30 18 .33 2 1 30 18 Matra Vought Corporation AEG-Westinghouse UTDC Walt Disney Company Otis Elevator Company Ford Motor Company Walt Disney Company Matra 1991 1974 1993 1985 1971 1980 Airport Pinched-loop Single-lane Multi-loops Pinched-Loop Single-lane Elevated/At-Grade 5 13.5 hrslday 13 h&day 320 dayslyr 24 hrslday Ondemand Daily Operating Hours Site Description System Configuration Number of Stations Min.CHARACTERISTICS System Company startUP Date OF INDIVIDUAL TABLE D-l AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY Guideway Elevation TRANSIT SYSTEMS Guideway Length (miles) Vehicle Speed (mph) Max 27 Avg. TX APT AEG-Westinghouse 1985 Airport Dual-lane shuttle Elevated 0.50 2 4 25 17 AEG-Westinghouse 1989 Urban Business Center Dual-lane shuttle On-demand mode Elevated 0. Traveling unit @a=) 1 Atlanta Airport Busch Gardens (Williamsburg.50 0. 10 20.27 10 AEG-Westinghouse 1975 Single-lane loop 1. VA) Chicago O’Hare DFW Airport AIRTRANS Denver Airport Detroit DPM Airport AEG-Westinghouse 1980 Airport Theme Park Dual-lane shuttle Underground Elevated/At-Grade 2.40 15 6 Jacksonville DPM 1989 Downtown People Mover Dual-lane shuttle Elevated 3 41 16 Las Vegas McCarran Airport Las Colinas.94 11 12 18 14 Disney World Duke Single lane and dual-lane loop Single-lane and dual-lane shuttle Single-lane shuttle with bypass Single-lane loop Elevated Elevated/At-Grade/ Underground Elevated 14.37 1. 1976 0.85 2.56 28 Fairlane (Dearborn.50 2 5 30 19 MI) Houston WEDway 1981 Underground 1.5 hrslday 12 hrslday (Apr-Ott) 24 hrslday 24 hrslday 24 hrslday 89 hrslwk 18 hrslday 24 hrslday 12 hrslday 20.

feet per standee for urban system and 5. These values are for 4-car train.66 3 3 14 N/A It is measured at 2.S. DC) 1995 Underground 0.87 4.51 3. The Transportation Group Inc.90 12 7 1 1 30 12 9 4 24 h&day 24 h&day NIA Airport Parking Garage Downtown Buildings Single-lane loop with pinched-end Pinched-loop Elevated/At-grade 0. 1971 1991 Airport Elevated 1. HI Airport Airport Shopping Center Airport 3 Dual-lane Single-lane shuttles shuttle 2. feet per standee for airport system.21 0.0 sq. The minimum traveling unit is the smallest number of vehicles that can travel as an individual Not Available unit.40 5 7 30 15 Newark Airport 1994 1981 1978 1973 Airport 6 28 30 8 26 14 9 4 9 Orlando Airport Pearlridge. 2 3 4 These values are for 6-car train.70 1 20 hrslday Tampa Airport Tampa Airport Garage Parking Westinghouse The Transportation Group Inc. NIA . Traveling unit Vehicle Speed (mph) Max 30 27 Avg. 1980 1985 Airport Dual-lane shuttle Elevated Elevated 0. Westinghouse Inc. Senate Subway (Washington.51 U.23 6 2 8 2 4 Seattle-Tacoma 2 Single-lane loops with Shuttle connection 5 Dual-lane shuttles Underground 1.5 h&day 69 hrslwk Downtown People Mover University Dual-lane loop 1 1 Morgantown.5 sq. WV 1975 Dual-lane shuttle off-line stations Pinched-loop Elevated/At-Grade Elevated Elevated Elevated 7.98 2 10 2 24 hrslday 16 hrslday 76 hrslwk 24 hrslday 21. 10 8 Daily Operating Hours (cars) Miami Airport Miami Metromover AEG-Westinghouse AEG-Westinghouse The Boeing Company Von Roll Transport Systems AEG-Westinghouse Rohr Industries.System Company StartUP Date Site Description System Configuration Guideway Elevation Guideway Length (miles) Number of Stations Min.

632 3.845 72.000 6.4 6.701.230 911.0 19.984 2.1 40.446 5.OOO 92.420 596.7 14.9 4.855 66.790 274.200 40.800 61 22 60 146 N/A 122 64 15 N/A 12 8 11 9 19 56 N/A 15 13 13 8 N/A 1 2 Equivalent full-time employees are computed on the basis of 2.100 288.210 489.2 1. Equivalent place miles are computed by multiplying equivalent passenger places per vehicle by the vehicle-miles travelled for each system.345 21.817.SERVICE AND EMPLOYEE System TABLE D-2 DATA FOR LABOR INPUTS-AGT Equivalent Place-Miles (millions) SYSTEMS Equivalent Full-Time Employees Vehicle-Miles Vehicle-Hours Atlanta Airport Busch Gardens Chicago O’Hare Airport Dallas/Fort Worth Airport AIRTRANS Denver Airport Detroit DPM Disney World Duke Fairlane Houston WEDway Jacksonville DPM Las Vegas McCarran Airport Las Colinas APT Miami Airport Morgantown Newark Airport Orlando Airport Pearlridge Seattle-Tacoma Airport Tampa Airport Tampa Airport Parking Garage 818.760.0 42.709 35.7 2.437 4.244 36.000 289.888 11.0 16.3 115.668 964.7 11.304 281.200 328.447 37.9 78.022 151.000 28.9 15. .9 2.575 13.140 24.600 108.749 200.2 34.800 423.287 320.1 27.9 54.7 0.814 1.7 1.200 228.857 3.099 2.000 man-hours per year.829 33.767 87.923 60.62 1 73.156 32.447 6.6 81.4 2.

APPENDIX E METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS .

306 fluid ounces gallons ctit fed cubtt yards 1102 gal ft ’ yd’ NOTE: Volumas greater than 1000 L shal be shown in mS.205 1..315 1.765 ml L m’ m’ mL L m’ m* milfifitres litres metres cdx3d metres c&ed 0..35 0.6 Ml 1 120 I 11 I I ..026 0.621 inches feet yards mifes in ft yd mi kifornetres AREA ir? s ac mP square square square acres square inches feet yards miles 64!K2 0.26 1.454 0.. miffiietres metres Ill&W3 LENGTH 0.102 ounces PaudS short tons (2’000 b) 02 MASS OUllcBS f” pourKfs short tons (2000 b) 26.264 35.47 0.039 3.61 miffiitres m&es m&es kifomdres mm m tn mm m k”.765 0. 9 grams kifograms megagrams MASS zf 0.607 grams kifograms megagrams MS “C TEMPERATURE (exact) Cekius temperature 1.0016 t 0.636 0 405 2.366 square in&es square feet acres square miles if? tP ac m? VOLUME R 02 gal fl’ yd’ VOLUME milMtres litres metres c&ed m&es cdd fluid ounces gallons c&ii fed cubk yards 29.APPROXIMATE Symbol CONVERSIONS Multiply By TO SI UNITS To Find Symbol APPROXIMATE Symbol CONVERSIONS Multiply By FROM SI UNITS To Find Symbol When You Know When You Know LENGTH In klches feet yards miles 25.57 3.305 0.. I I Go 60 20 160 I 1 80 * St is the symbol for the International System of Measurement (Revised April 1969) .:2 200 1 1: “F -40 t’..6C t 32 TEMPERATURE (exact) “F Fahrenheil temperature 5(F-32)19 ChitIS tempwatue “C OF Fahrenheit temperature .914 1.09 0..59 AREA miIlimetrea squared m&es squared m&es squared hectares kifornetres squared mmr m’ d ha km’ rlP ha km’ millimetres squared metres squared hectares kilometres squared 0..093 0.035 2. -4! ‘I’ -20 0 32 40 1 96..4 0.764 2.034 0.

The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.S. This report is being distributed through the Transportation’s Technology Sharing Program.NOTICE This ~document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of DOT-T-93707 . Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. U. Trade names appear in the document only because they are essential to the content of the report. The United States Governments does not endorse manufacturers or products.

Department of Transportation .S.DOT-T-93-O-7 TECHNOLOGY SHARING A Program of the U.

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