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Published by: Vero Cáceres Oyarzo on Nov 17, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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System of Appraisal


• Concerned with the interpersonal in language • It is concerned with how the writers approve and disapprove, praise and condemn and how they position readers to do likewise. • How they align or disalign with potential respondents

• George W. Bush delivered his inaugural speech as the United States President who collected 537,000 fewer votes than his opponent. Without the intervention of a partisan, right-wing Supreme Court to ensure the election of a Republican, Mr Bush would now be a forgotten loser. The Observer considers his election an affront to the democratic principle with incalculable consequences for America and the world. Mr Bush's inaugural attempt to assert his brand of one-nation, compassionate conservatism is bluster and hogwash. He has acted from the moment Al Gore conceded as if he had won a wholehearted mandate. • But the Bush cabinet is neither centrist nor compassionate. In home affairs, it is brutalist and reactionary - for tax cuts overtly biased towards the rich, against the protection of consumers, workers and the environment. In overseas affairs, Mr Bush has appointed Cold War warriors from his father's era who do not appreciate the nuances of a transformed international environment. (The Observer, Jan 21, 2001 - leader page)


• utterances which can be interpreted as indicating that some person, thing, situation, action, event or state of affairs is to be viewed either positively or negatively.

• involves three semantic regions :emotion, ethics and aesthetics. • affect= expressing emotion, people’s feelings • Judgment= judging character • Appreciation= valuing the worth of things

• evaluation by means of the writer/speaker indicating how they are emotionally disposed to the person, thing
• In discourse, people express their feelings in two ways: 1. People may have good or bad feelings, therefore, affect can be positive or negative Ex: So this meant the grieving (-) took place again. We were ecstatic (⁺)

Affect: direct v/s implied
• 2. People may express their feelings directly, or we can infer how people feel indirectly so affect can be expressed directly (inscribed) or implied (invoked) Ex: He became very quiet. Withdrawn. Sometimes he shaked uncontrollably. I realized he was drinking too much.

• Note: Interpersonal meanings have an ‘accumulative’ effect over a stage or phase of discourse and tend to sprawl and color a passage of discourse ‘prosody’ of attitude

Types of Affect: Dis/inclination

Types of Affect:Un/happiness

Types of Affect: In/security

Types of Affect: Dis/satisfaction

• Judgment: deals with attitudes towards behaviour, which we admire or criticise, praise or condemn. • Judgment can be positive or negative

direct or implied

Kinds of Judgment
• 1. Personal Judgments

Positive:judgments of admiration

Negative: judgments of criticism

Personal Judgment: positive and negative
• Personal Judgment
A) Positive: i. Direct: Ex: energetic, intelligent, popular ii. Implied: Ex: he was working in a top company

B) Negative: i. Direct: Ex: wasted, fool, arrogant
ii. Implied: Ex: But you dare not admit


Moral Judgment: positive and negative
Positive: praising Ex: have the guts, sacrifice (direct) I envy and respect the people of the struggle (implied) Negative: condemning Ex: Inhumane, murder (direct) permanent removal from society

• Moral judgment

Moral Judgment

Appreciation: attitudes toward things
i. Positive: Ex. An extremely happy marriage

• Appreciation

ii. Negative: Ex. Abnormal life, hell iii. Direct: Ex. Unsuccesful marriage iv. Implied: Ex. We was bought like a market. We was all lined up in white dresses, and they'd come round and pick you out like you was for sale

Graduation: Amplifying attitudes


Graduation: amplifying attitudes
• Attitudes are gradable: we can say how strongly we feel about something or someone • Ex. Extremely intelligent sharply intelligent really intelligent quite intelligent fairly intelligent somewhat intelligent
High grading

Low grading

Graduation: force:
• Words that amplify the force of attitudes • Ex. A very serious issue Force: -intensifiers (very, extremely) - quantity (all, several, some) - manner degree (frantically, uncontrollably, excitedly - modality (must, would, might) - attitudinal lexis (bewildered, torn to pieces, shrieks - metaphor (ice cold, pearl-white teeth)

Engagement: source of attitudes



• Heteroglossia: different voices
• Projection: In discourse we can quote or report what people say or think.
• Ex. He says: He and three of our friends have been promoted. ‘We are moving to a special unit’

• Projection is the relation between he says and what he says

He says He and three of our friends have been promoted. ‘We are moving to a special unit’

• Projections may: • A) quote: the exact words that someone said with ‘speech mark’ • B) report: the general meaning that was said

Alongside with quoting and reporting ‘sayings’, we can quote and report what we feel and think
I realized he was drinking too much I know where everything began I wish I could wipe his troubles again


• Modality: resource which sets up a semantic space between yes and no, a cline running between positive and negative poles • • • • • Do it You must do it You should do it You could do it Don’t do it


Probability: ‘must certainly be ‘ ‘I don’t think it’s possible’

Obligation: ‘you must do this’ ‘ she should …’

Modality resources
Usuality: sometimes, often, always

Negation: ‘ no’, ‘not’ ‘ don’t’


• Concession: counterexpectancy • Conjunction: ‘but’ ‘even if’ ‘at least’

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