The Ego-Pronouns in the Divine Names

jwr An analysis of the ego-pronouns for various European dialects reveals a strange correlation between the ego-pronouns and the corresponding divine names in this dialect or language. These correlations mainly occur in the areas which had belonged to the Roman Empire, but some strange exceptions (such as the Baltic states) cannot be explained by linguistic rules. Special details have been delivered by a Savoyard dictionary with most specific annotations to the exact location of the dialect variants. Dialect variants seem to be concentrated in Alpine and remote areas, but it is not easy to find the detailed dictionaries for these dialects. The Savoyard dialect is a mystery because it uses so many ego-pronouns beginning with “D” and “Z”. An abundance of consonants in neighboring European areas had not been found before. Only a few cases (in the Sardinian dialects and in Walloon) ego-pronouns had been identified to be using a consonant “D” or “Z” as a first letter: • • • In Campidanese the Ego-pronoun dèu is identical to the divine name Deu1. In the Logudorese dialect the ego-pronoun “deo” was related to “Zessu” and “Deus”. In the Belgian dialect Walloon I had found another ego-pronoun dji, mi2, relating to the divine name Diu3.

To find out general rules for the ego-pronouns' structure I extended the table to build a database for the analysis of a correlation between the ego-pronouns and the divine names. As a general rule: • • • • the Germanic dialects use the formula: Subtract a “Z” and a “u” or an “s” from the divine Name “Ziu” to obtain the ego-pronoun. In Savoyard dialects the divine names are based on Dieu, Deus, or Zeus with undefined rules for the correlating ego-pronouns. In South-European dialects (French, Provencal, Italian, Iberian, Swiss) the divine names (Dieu, Dio, Dios) are generated by concatenating “D” and the corresponding ego-pronoun. English ego-pronouns start with an “I” or a “Y”. Divine names (Tyr, Tir) are generated by concatenating “T” and the ego-pronoun. Other local British dialects use “M”-oriented egopronouns and “Dyaus”-oriented divine names like “Dia” or “Duw”. Other rules may be existent, but need some more investigation.

The general rule for South-European dialects (French, Provencal, Italian, Iberian, Swiss) to generate the divine names (Dieu, Dio, Dios) by concatenating “D” and the corresponding ego-pronoun may have been introduced by the Roman Empire as the general obedience in following this rule has been restricted to the boundaries of the Roman Empire. According to my opinion the rule has been setup as a Creation Legend in which a divine Being who may have created a first man (symbolized by a vowel-sequence such as ieu) according to His Image (such as “Dieu”). The deities for this rule may vary from Dyaus, Dieu, Dio, Dios, Zeus, Ziu, Tyr and Tir.

1 Decoding the Ego-Pronoun („I“) 2 given is for the one doing the action (eg: dji magne = I eat), the second, for the one targetof the action (eg: avou mi = with me). 3 The Hieroglyphs in the Ego-Pronoun

Germanic Dialects
The first set of extensions referred to the German-like dialects at the Alpine borderlines: Issime, Macugnagadeutsch, Greschoneititsch, Greschoneititsch, Seislertütsch and Pustertaler Dialekt, which all seem to have been derived from the “ih”-root belonging to the deity “Ziu”. The concatenation of a letter “Z” and the ego-pronoun will produce an “s”-less prototype for the divine name.
EgoPronoun “Z”+Egopronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

I I ich ich ih, ich iich, ich

zi zi zich zich zih ziich, zich Zyysch Ziisch Zisch Ziu Ziis

Alpine Alpine Alpine Alpine Germany Alpine

Pustertaler Dialect Seislertütsch Macugnagadeutsch Greschoneititsch Southern German dialect (Bavarian, Suevian) Isseme in the Aosta Valley region

Table 1: Germanic ego-pronouns and the corresponding divine names

Issime
In Isseme in the Aosta Valley region about a third of its population speak Walser German, named Eischemtöitschu or Issemedeutsch. The ego-poronoun is: iich, ich. The days of the week are: (from: Monday to Sunday): Wùchedääg: Miäntak, Ziischtak, Mitachu, Froontak, Friitak, Samstak, Sunatak. Therefore the divine name is Ziis, correlating to Zeus. And this Ziis may also explain the double-i in iich.

Macugnagadeutsch
In Macugnagadeutsch (in the Makanaa-region) the deity is Ziisch (Wùchedääg: Mìenta/Mìentag, Ziischta/Ziischtag, Mitwuchù, Fruonta/Frùontag, Friitag, Samstag/Samschtag, Sunnutag) and the ego-pronouns ic “ich”. Sample: Är isch mie gschiichte wan ich (dt. er ist intelligenter als ich)

Greschoneititsch
In Greschoney the dialect is Greschoneititsch in which the days of the week are specified as follows: Wùchedääg: Meentak, Zischtag, Mitwuchu, Froontag, Friitag, Samstag, Suntag. Therefore the divine name is Zisch, correlating to Zeus. The ego-pronoun is “ich”. Saple: Ich tuen der miineru gää (dt. Ich gebe die von meinen.)

Seislertütsch
In Seislertütsch the ego-pronoun is “I” (sample: "I gange de moor ga yychùùfe.") and Tuesday is Zyyschtig4. Therefore the divine name is Zyysch.

Pustertaler Dialect
The Ego-pronoun is “I”5.
4 Senslerdeutsches Dictionary : Mundartwörterbuch des Sensebezirks im Kanton von Christian Schmutz,Walter Haas, 5 Plodn/Pladen/Sappada

Savoyard and Sardinia-oriented Dialects
Most ego-pronouns start with a consonant “D” or “Z” and sometimes seem to be equivalent to the divine name. In the Sardinia-oriented dialects the ego-pronoun and the divine name may even be the identical or quasi-identical.

Sardinia dialects
Ego-Pronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

dèu deo

Deu Deus, Zessu

Sardinia Sardinia

(Sardinian dialect) Campidanese6 Logudorese

Savoyard dialects
Ego-Pronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

D(E)Zhu Djò Djou Dyeu, Dyou Dyo, Dyo D(E)Zhou de de dè de de (deu) dé/dè do dye dzeu dzou zde ze zhe zhou zou zounh Dyu, Dezyeu, Dzyeû Dzhyu , Dzu Djyu Dzou, Dzè, Djeu, Dyeu Dju, Dyu Dye Dejeû, Dezyeû Dyu

Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya

central-east (Samoëns) south-east (St-Martin-Porte) south-east (Peisey, Saint-JeanMaurienne?) central-east (Arvillard) southern (Chambéry) central-east (Albertville) central (Aix, Annecy) south-east (Aillon-Vieux) Arvillard 7 south-east (Aussois) central-east (Thônes, Messery) south-east (Arêches) south-east (Montagny, Bozel) south-east (Côte-Aime) central-east (Bessans, Giettaz) central-east (Cordon) central-east (Chamonix) central-east (Tignes, Val-d'Isère)

6 Hieroglyphs in Indo-European Languages 7 Un tèxte en patouè savoyârd, avouéc explècacions fonétiques.

South-European dialects
The following dialects are mostly vowel-sequences. Divine names are generated by concatenating “D” and the corresponding ego-pronoun. Most samples previously have been documented in The Hieroglyphs in the Ego-Pronoun.

French and Provencal dialects
French and Provencal ego-pronouns start with “J” or “i” respectively “y”.
EgoPronoun “D”+Egopronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

iéu iòu më, m’ iòu je yiou éiu 10

diéu diòu dje dyiou Déiu

Diéu Diòu Dieu Dïou Diu

Provence Provence France Provence Cosica

Occitan south-east (Villar-St-Pancrace)8 French Provencal (dialect of Nîmes)9 Corsu

Swiss (Alpine) dialects
Most Italian dialects start with an “e”, “i” or a “j”: Diou eau eu jau jeu jou ya, ja deau deu djau djeu djou dya, dja Dieu Deus Deis Deus Deus Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Vaudois Oberengadin Vallader Jauer-Romansh (Grischun) Sursilvanian dialect Sutselvic dialect Surmeiran dialect

Iberian dialects
Most Iberian dialects start with a vowel. Divine names are generated by concatenating “D” and the ego-pronoun:
EgoPronoun “D”+Egopronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

eu yo

deu dyo

Deus Dios

Iberia Iberia

Portuguese Spanish

8 from: Patois of Villar-St-Pancrace (this web-site seems to have been closed) : The series of personal pronouns is: (Cas sujet Cas régime atone tonique direct indirect) Sg. 1°p a (l’) iòu më, m’ iòu 2°p tü, t’ të, t’ tü 3°p M u(l), al ei(l) së lu ei F eilo la eilo N o, ul, la - lu - Pl. 1°p nû* nû* 2°p òû* vû* vû* 3°p M î(z) së lû* iè F eilâ (eilaz) lâ* eilâ 9 from the poems of Antoine Hippolyte Bigot - “Yiou” & “Dïou” in the dialect of Nimes 10 dictionaire

Italian dialects
Most Italian dialects start with an “i” or a “j”.
Ego“D”+EgoPronoun pronoun Divine Name Thursday Region Dialect

Iddiou io iu , ju jo o mi a je eje io (J)èu Iu da dje deje dio djeu, deu diu dio diu djo o Dio, Iddio Diu Diu, Idiu, Signȏr Zio / Dio giöe zioba, zoba, zòbia, Zioba giöedé

Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy

Piedmontese Italian Sicilian language Friulan dialect Venetian Lombard 11 Neapolitan Irpinian "Vallatese" Neapolitan Maceratese Calabrian languages Northern Calabrian (Cosentino)

Dio / Giove gioverì, giovedì, Gioverì Italy Dio / Giove gioverì, giovedì, Gioverì Italy Dio Diu Diu Italy Italy Italy

Anglo-Norman and old-French dialects
EgoPronoun “D”+Egopronoun Divine Name

Region France France France

Dialect Old-French Gascony Old-French Anglo-Norman Dictionary

jeo jo ge

Djeo Djo Dge

Jo, je, j', deu jeo, joe; ge, gi, gie, gié

Deu, dé, dee, Normandy deus, deux, dex; di, diex, dieux, dieuxz, dieu, diez, diu; du

11 The Lombardic language is extinct (unless Cimbrian and Mocheno represent surviving dialects)

British and Belgian dialects
Belgian dialects
Some ego-pronouns start with a consonant “M”, other with a “D”:
Ego-Pronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

dji, mi mi, fi

12

Diu Diu

Belgium Belgium

Walloon Picard

Local British dialects (including Breton)
Most ego-pronouns start with a consonant “M”, which is similar to the Belgian system and to some other European regions, such as Venetian.
Ego-Pronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

mé mi mi, fi me

Dia, dhia Dia, God Duw Doue

Great-Britain Great-Britain Great-Britain French

Irish Scottish Gaelic Welsh Breton

English
English ego-pronouns start with an “I” or a “Y”. Divine names are generated by concatenating “D” and the ego-pronoun. In Scottish the ego-pronouns A and I also correlate to the divine name Dia.
Ego-Pronoun Y (Wycliffe Bible) I (modern) A, I 13 mise, mi, mee “T”+Egopronoun Ty Ti Di, Da Divine Name Tyr Tir Dia Dia Region Dialect English English Scottish Scottish Gaelic

Great-Britain Great-Britain Great-Britain Great-Britain

An example for Wycliffe's use of the ego-pronoun “Y” is (see Genesis 3:10): “And Adam seide, Y herde thi vois in paradijs, and Y drede, for Y was nakid, and Y hidde me.”

12 given is for the one doing the action (eg: dji magne = I eat), the second, for the one targetof the action (eg: avou mi = with me). 13 “Ae loe ye”, respectively “Eh loe ye” (“I love you”)

Baltic states
Some ego-pronouns start with a prefix “Es” or “As”.
EgoPronoun “Z”+Egopronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

es aš14 es mina, ma Minä

des das des

Dievs, Deews

Baltic States

Latvian (Lettish) Lithuanian (Samogit) Latgalian Estonian (eesti keel) Finnish

Diews (Diewas, Dievas Baltic States ) Diws Jumal (sky-God) Uku (god of the sky ) Jumala 15 Baltic States Baltic States Finland

14 Source: Swadesh list for English, Lithuanian, Dingwa, Sambahsa, Prussian 15 Later on, the sky itself was called taivas (sky or heaven) and the sky-god Ukko. However, when Christianity came to dominate Finnish religious life in the Middle Ages and the old gods were ousted or consolidated away from the pantheon, Jumala became the Finnish name for the Christian God and the Finnish word for "god".

Special divine names
Some divine names use a “Dominus”-prefix for the divine nae, which may be reduced to e.g. Zeu:
Ego-Pronoun Divine Name Region Dialect

jac eu

Dumnedelu, cp. Balkan Dumnelau 16 Zeu, Duninezeu, Dumnedelu17 Guϸ18 Rumania

Macedonian Rumanian

ik

Oium19, Dacia, Pannonia, Italy, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallia Aquitania, Hispania, Crimea. 20 Turkey Hungary Great-Britain

Gothic21

ben én i pron. mi pron. myfi pron. ja ja jeg

Tanrı Isten Duw

Turkish Magyar Welsh

Bóg Bog (Бог) Gud

Poland Serbia Scandinavia Great-Britain Great-Britain Great-Britain Albania

Polish Serbian Norwegian Irish Manx Scottish Gaelic Albanian

mé (mise) Dia (emphatic: mise ) mee (mish) Jee (emphatic: mish ) mi(se) Dia (emphatic: mise ) Unë Perëndia

16 Dominus Dyaus (?) 17 “Domunus Zeus” (?) 18 Gothic names are: Thiudos (a tribe), Theodoric, Thiudimer (a king) , Thiudebert , Thiudigoto ( Theodoric's daughter begotten in Moesia), Thiudis , Theodorid (king of the Visigoths) Source: "The Origin and Deeds of the Goths", trans. Charles C. Mierow, with introductory note by J. Vanderspoel, Department of Greek, Latin and Ancient History, University of Calgary 19 Wikipedia: Oium or Aujum was a name for an area in Scythia, where the Goths under their king Filimer settled after leaving Gothiscandza, according to the Getica by Jordanes, written around 551. 20 Gothic language 21 Balg. The first Germanic bible. 1891

Full Table of correlating ego-pronouns and the corresponding divine names

Ego-Pronoun

“Z”, ”D” Divine Name or “T”+Egopronoun

Region

Dialect

D(E)Zhu Diou Djò Djou Dyeu, Dyou Dyo, Dyo, D(E)Zhou Iddiou aš22 das

Savoya Switzerland Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Italy Diews (Diewas, Dievas ) Turkey Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Sardinia Sardinia Belgium Savoya Savoya

central-east (Samoëns) Vaudois south-east (St-MartinPorte) south-east (Peisey, SaintJean-Maurienne?) central-east (Arvillard) southern (Chambéry) Piedmontese Baltic States

ben de de dè de de (deu) dé/dè deo dèu dji, mi25 do dye dzeu dzou eau én es es deau

Tanrı Dejeû, Dezyeû Dyu Dye Dju, Dyu Deus, Zessu Deu Diu

Turkish central-east (Albertville) central (Aix, Annecy) south-east (Aillon-Vieux) Arvillard 23 south-east (Aussois) central-east (Thônes, Messery) Logudorese (Sardinian dialect) Campidanese24 Walloon south-east (Arêches) south-east (Montagny, Bozel) south-east (Côte-Aime) Oberengadin Magyar Baltic States Baltic States

Dzou, Dzè, Djeu, Dyeu Dieu Isten des des

Savoya Savoya Switzerland Hungary Diws Dievs,

22 Source: Swadesh list for English, Lithuanian, Dingwa, Sambahsa, Prussian 23 Un tèxte en patouè savoyârd, avouéc explècacions fonétiques. 24 Hieroglyphs in Indo-European Languages 25 given is for the one doing the action (eg: dji magne = I eat), the second, for the one targetof the action (eg: avou mi = with me).

Deews eu eu eu eu ge I I
I (modern)

deu

Deus Zeu, Duninezeu, Dumnedelu26 Zeu, Duninezeu, Dumnedelu27

Switzerland Rumania Rumania Iberia France Alpine

Vallader Rumanian Rumanian Portuguese Old-French Pustertaler Dialect Seislertütsch Great-Britain Welsh Macugnagadeutsch Greschoneititsch Occitan Southern German dialect (Bavarian, Suevian) Isseme in the Aosta Valley region Italian south-east (Villar-StPancrace)28 Sicilian Polish Serbian Macedonian Macedonian Jauer-Romansh (Grischun) French Norwegian Old-French Sursilvanian dialect

deu Dge zi zi

Deus

Zyysch
Ti

Alpine
Tir

i, mi, myfi ich ich iéu ih, ich iich, ich io iòu më, m’ iòu iu ja ja jac jac jau je jeg jeo jeu Djeo djeu djau dje zich zich diéu zih ziich, zich dio diòu diu

Duw Ziisch Zisch Diéu Ziu Ziis Dio, Iddio Diòu Diu Bóg Bog (Бог) Dumnedelu, cp. Dumnelau 29 Dumnedelu, cp. Dumnelau 30 Deis Dieu Gud Deus

Great-Britain Alpine Alpine Provence Germany Alpine Italy Provence Italy Poland Serbia Balkan Balkan Switzerland France Scandinavia France Switzerland

26 “Domunus Zeus” (?) 27 “Domunus Zeus” (?) 28 from: Patois of Villar-St-Pancrace (this web-site seems to have been closed) : The series of personal pronouns is: (Cas sujet Cas régime atone tonique direct indirect) Sg. 1°p a (l’) iòu më, m’ iòu 2°p tü, t’ të, t’ tü 3°p M u(l), al ei(l) së lu ei F eilo la eilo N o, ul, la - lu - Pl. 1°p nû* nû* 2°p òû* vû* vû* 3°p M î(z) së lû* iè F eilâ (eilaz) lâ* eilâ 29 Dominus Dyaus (?) 30 Dominus Dyaus (?)

jo jo o Jo, je, j', jeo, joe; ge, gi, gie, gié jou me mé mé (mise)
(emphatic: mise )

Djo djo o deu Diu, Idiu, Signȏr

France Italy Deu, dé, dee, deus, deux, Normandy dex; di, diex, dieux, dieuxz, dieu, diez, diu; du Deus Doue Dia, dhia Dia Jee Dia, God Dio Diu Duw Dia Jumala 31 Jumal (sky-God) Uku (god of the sky ) Perëndia
Ty

Gascony Friulan dialect Anglo-Norman Dictionary

djou

Switzerland French Great-Britain Great-Britain

Sutselvic dialect Breton Irish Manx

Great-Britain Irish

mee (mish)
(emphatic: mish )

mi mi mi, fi mi, fi mi(se)
(emphatic: mise )

Great-Britain Scottish Gaelic Italy Belgium Great-Britain Finland Venetian Picard Scottish Gaelic Finnish

Great-Britain Welsh

Minä mina, ma Unë
Y (Wycliffe Bible)

Baltic States Estonian (eesti keel) Albania
Tyr

Albanian Great-Britain Surmeiran dialect Provencal (dialect of Nîmes)32 Spanish central-east (Bessans, Giettaz) central-east (Cordon) central-east (Chamonix) central-east (Tignes, Vald'Isère)

ya, ja yiou yo zde ze zhe zhou zou zounh

dya, dja dyiou dyo Dïou Dios Dyu, Dezyeu, Dzyeû Dzhyu , Dzu Djyu

Switzerland Provence Iberia Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya Savoya

Table 2: Correlating ego-pronouns and the corresponding divine names
31 Later on, the sky itself was called taivas (sky or heaven) and the sky-god Ukko. However, when Christianity came to dominate Finnish religious life in the Middle Ages and the old gods were ousted or consolidated away from the pantheon, Jumala became the Finnish name for the Christian God and the Finnish word for "god". 32 from the poems of Antoine Hippolyte Bigot - “Yiou” & “Dïou” in the dialect of Nimes

Contents
Germanic Dialects................................................................................................................................2 Issime...............................................................................................................................................2 Macugnagadeutsch ..........................................................................................................................2 Greschoneititsch...............................................................................................................................2 Seislertütsch ....................................................................................................................................2 Pustertaler Dialect............................................................................................................................2 Savoyard and Sardinia-oriented Dialects.............................................................................................3 Sardinia dialects...............................................................................................................................3 Savoyard dialects.............................................................................................................................3 South-European dialects.......................................................................................................................4 French and Provencal dialects.........................................................................................................4 Swiss (Alpine) dialects....................................................................................................................4 Iberian dialects.................................................................................................................................4 Italian dialects..................................................................................................................................5 Anglo-Norman and old-French dialects..........................................................................................5 British and Belgian dialects..................................................................................................................6 Belgian dialects................................................................................................................................6 Local British dialects (including Breton).........................................................................................6 English.............................................................................................................................................6 Baltic states...........................................................................................................................................7 Special divine names............................................................................................................................8 Full Table of correlating ego-pronouns and the corresponding divine names......................................9

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