MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Front Page Table of Contents Title 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Objective Introduction Theory Equipment Experimental Procedure Result Sample Calculation Analysis Result Discussion i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10. Conclusion 11. References

i

MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration

TITLE: VARIATION IN REFRIGERATION COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE AT VARIOUS PROCESS TEMPERATURES
1. OBJECTIVE

Investigate the variation in Coefficient of Performance (COPR) of a vapour compression refrigeration system. 2. INTRODUCTION

A major application area of thermodynamics is refrigeration, which is the transfer of heat from a lower temperature medium to a higher temperature medium. The devices that produce refrigeration are caller refrigerators, and the cycles on that operate is called refrigeration cycles. It is known that the purpose of refrigration is to lowered the temperature of a region and also maintaining the region. The first use of refrigeration system is in 1756 by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in Scotland, and when i widespread use in commercial from 1870 till present. Refrigeration is used widely in various applications from industrial to domestic situations, mainly for the storage and transport of perishable foodstuffs and chemical substances. It has the prime function to remove heat from low temperature region and it can also be applied as a heat pump for supplying heat to a region of high temperature. Probably the most widely used current applications of refrigeration are for the airconditioning of private homes and public buildings, and the refrigeration of foodstuffs in homes, restaurants and large storage warehouses. The use of refrigerators in kitchens for the storage of fruits and vegetables has permitted the addition of fresh salads to the modern diet year round, and to store fish and meats safely for long periods. In commerce and manufacturing, there are many uses for refrigeration. Refrigeration is used to liquify gases like oxygen, nitrogen, propane and methane for example. In compressed air purification, it is used to condense water vapor from compressed air to reduce its moisture content. In oil refineries, chemical plants, and petrochemical plants, refrigeration is used to maintain certain processes at their required low temperatures (for example, in the alkylation of butenes and butane to produce a high octane gasoline component). Metal workers use refrigeration to temper steel and cutlery. In transporting temperature-sensitive foodstuffs and other materials by trucks, trains, airplanes and sea-going vessels, refrigeration is a necessity.
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which is the rate of heating being removed from low temperature region with specified evaporator and condensation temperatures. The unit “duty” measurement is in the watts (for 1 ton of refrigeration = 3517 W) The Vapor Compression Cycle (known as reversed Carnot cycle) Ideal refrigeration systems follow the theoretical Reversed Carnot Cycle process. Figure 1: The objective of a refrigerator is to remove heat (QL) from the cold medium Refrigeration duty is another term for the Cooling effect of the refrigeration system. THEORY: A refrigeration cycle work to lower and maintain the temperature of a controlled space by heat transfer from a low to high temperature region.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 3. Therefore in practical refrigeration compression usually take place in the superheated field and a throttling process is substituted for the isentropic expansion. In practical problems in the compression and expansion of a gas and vapor mixture present practical problems in the compressor and expander. 3 .

MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Figure 2: Schematic and T-s diagram for the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle or reversed Carnot cycle (1) h1-h4 h2-h3 h2-h1 Figure 3: Schematic and T-s diagram for the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle or reversed Carnot cycle (2) 4 .

3 . Energy Transfer Analysis for reversed Carnot cycle Compressor q12  h1  h2  w 1-2 If compression is adiabatic. from the evaporating to the condensing pressures 2 .3 Condensation of the high pressure vapor during which heat is transferred to the high temperature region.4 Adiabatic throttling of the condensed vapor from condensing to the evaporating pressure.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Figure 4: T-s diagram of the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle The cycle: 1 . Power requirement. and w1-2 = h2 − h1 = wamp.2 Isentropic compression of the vapor. P  mh 2  h1 = w . q1-2 = 0. where m is the flow rate of working fluid per unit time.1 Evaporating of the low pressure liquid during which heat is absorbed from the low temperature source.    5 . 4 .

and the process is assumed adiabatic (q=0) Therefore h4 = h3 Evaporator q4-1 = h1 − h4 +w w = 0. therefore q4-1 = h1 − h4.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Condenser q2-3 = h2 − h3 + w w = 0. and rate of heat absorbed Q41  m(h1  h 4 ) Coefficient of Performance (COP)   COPref = q41   w h1  h4 h2  h1 6 . therefore q2-3 = h2 − h3. and the rate of heat rejection Q23  m(h 2  h3) Expansion valve q3-4 = h4 − h3 + w w = 0 at the expansion valve.

EQUIPMENTS RC 713 Computer Linked Refrigeration Unit (P.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 4.A Hilton) Condenser Pressure Transducer Evaporator Pressure Transducer Evaporator Evaporator Load System Sampling Interface Status Main Switch Dynamometer Refrigerant Flowmeter Compressor Condenser Cooling Water Control Valve Water Flow meter Figure 5: RC 713 Computer Linked Refrigeration Unit (P. Figure 6: Computer and Printer 7 .A Hilton) .

RESULT Load (%) 0 15 30 45 60 h1 (kJ/kg) 316.83 350. SAMPLE OF CALCULATION At Load = 30 % h1 = 335.67 116. The condensing temperature of 20oC may be maintained by small adjustments of the cooling water flow rate. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE a.42 336. “no print out” is selected and the three parameters.00 352. The system is stable when all three parameters show generally horizontal lines (approximately 1 minute).67 116. Evaporator load is increased (by 10%) and the results are printed out.00 kJ/kg h3 = 116.17 335. d. 2. c.67 h4 (kJ/kg) 116. Refrigerant Flow Rate.67 7.67 116.46 340.08104kg/s ̇ cw = 0.25 h3 (kJ/kg) 116.67 116. e.08 356.67 116.67 116. 5.67 116.63 h2 (kJ/kg) 338. Return to the main menu and Program 2 is entered.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 5. The experiment is started at a condenser saturation temperature of 20 oC. Program 1 is entered and the evaporator load is increased approximately 10%. Cooling Water Flow Rate is displayed. Condensing Temperature. and 14.67 345. 6.02938kg/s 8 . b.67 kJ/kg ̇ ref = 0.67 kJ/kg h4 = 116.67 329.42 kJ/kg h2 = 350.67 116. f. Return to the main menu and Program 1 is selected with print-out option (raw and calculated data) when the system is stabilized. Repeat until evaporator load is 60%.

18 kW Condenser Q2 – 3 = ̇ ref (h2 – h3) = 0.42kJ/kg – 116.02938 kg/s (335.67 kJ/kg) = 18. .00 kJ/kg) = 1.08104 kg/s (335.08104 kg/s (350.08104 kg/s (335.91 kW Coefficient of Performance (COP) COPref = (q4 – 1) / (w) = (h1 .h4) / (h2 .73 kW Compressor W1 – 2 = ̇ ref (h1 – h2) = 0.67 kJ/kg) = 6.00 QCW = ̇ cw (h1 – h4) = 0.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Evaporator Q4 – 1 = ̇ ref (h1 – h4) = 0.h1) = .42kJ/kg – 116.00 kJ/kg – 116. .67 kJ/kg) = 17. = 15.43 kW 9 .42kJ/kg – 350.11 . .

09 15 17.12 1.18 1.53 12.22 12.05 0.08128 0.34 6.18 18.02918 Load (%) 0 QCW Q4-1 (kW) W1-2 (kW) Q2-3 (kW) COPref (kW) 5.05562 Cooling Water flow rate (kg/s) 0.13 0.07 6.20 30 17.35 18.08087 0.02938 15 24.12 1.52 0.13 14. ANALYSIS RESULT Load (%) 0 Evaporator Temp(OC) 12.91 15.02938 60 34.27 19.88 11.38 14.08090 0.94 0.86 1.73 1.02918 30 26.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 8.56 13.10 12.90 Refrigerant flow rate (kg/s) 0.46 60 18.00 6.26 19.03 Condenser Exit Temp(OC) 15.54 10 .43 45 17.08104 0.76 6.02938 45 28.95 12.35 9.02 13.

DISCUSSION Syed Mohd.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 9. Experiment data parameters for load = 0 Figure 5 2. Syed Mohd. The term load is the amount of heat which must be transferred per unit time from the cold chamber and is known as the refrigeration capacity. a refrigeration system has one basic function. Regardless of its size or complexity. and transport it to a location where it can be diffused into air or water. size and number of the door openings and the temperature to which they are exposed will greatly aid in determining the heat load of the infiltrating air. in a room and in a factory. That function is to remove heat from a place or substance where it is not wanted. we must carefully estimate the amount of heat to be moved. Hassan 2009643852 EMD5M9A 1. enter an enclosure through door openings whenever the air surrounding the enclosure is warmer than the box temperature. both sensible and latent. What do you understand by the term load? Give examples of actual loads in refrigeration practice in a domestic fridge. 11 . In order to select the proper equipment for a given application. Knowing the location. Heats. Hasif Wafa b.

ceilings. In theory. the condenser temperature decrease and increase. and floors. the COP should increase. and other heat producing devices located in the refrigerated area. As more heat to be removed. the condenser temperatures also increase. the condenser temperature shows an unsteady value. What is the effect on the COPref as the load is increased? Why? The coefficient of performance is the ratio of the heat removed at the colder temperature to the work required to do it. roofs. Before the refrigerant flow into the expansion valve and evaporator. as the load increase. This is because by looking at the relation of COPref = (q4 – 1) / (w).MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration There are many examples of actual loads in refrigeration practice in a domestic fridge.  forklifts.07 for load 45 but then increase again to 14. flows through the condenser and becomes a 12 . as the load increased. conveyers  People  Motors fan motors 3. it must be cool in the condenser. in a room and in a factory.00 for load 30. but then the COP decrease to 14. the COP will be higher but if the heat remove decrease and the work required is bigger.34 as it reached load 60. 4. coming from the compressor. the COP will be lower. What is the effect on the condenser temperature as the load is increased? Why? Base on our experiment. Manufacturing processes and human occupancy also may contribute to the including miscellaneous heat load. the temperature of refrigerant exit from evaporator will increase.  Entering temperature   People Lights FACTORY  The miscellaneous heat load is heat introduced by lights. ROOM  The heat leakage load is heat that infiltrates the refrigerated area through walls. This means that the refrigeration duty will increase. motors. if the heat remove (q4 – 1) increase and the work required (w) is small. From the experiment that we have done the value of COP that we get is increase until it reached the maximum COP of 15. So. And as it been compress in the compressor. the temperature of the refrigerant become hotter. The high-pressure refrigerant gas. More heat is required to be removed from the cold space by the refrigerant. as the load increase. This may be due to the environment. These examples are shown below: DOMESTIC FRIDGE  The product load is heat from warm food or other solids or liquids that are being refrigerated.

This means that as the inlet temperature of hot fluid (in our case R134a) increase. By assuming the condenser have constant hot and cold fluid flow rate. In our case. the refrigerant gives off heat. the refrigerant gives of heat to the cooling water. That is why the condenser temperature increases as the load increase. the amount of heat transfer will be the same as the load increase. As this occurs. 13 . But in our experiment. There are many factors that determine the rate of heat transfer.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration liquid. The process is more likely as the heat exchanger. the rate of heat transfer of the refrigerant to the cooling water is not constant due to the changing of the flow rate of the refrigerant and the flow rate of the cooling water and that’s why we get uncertain value for condenser temperature and some other value. the outlet temperature should also increase.

MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Musaddiq bin Mohsin 2007284454 EMD5M9A 14 .

At percentage load = 0 QC = 12.22 kW C 2 EVAPORATOR 4 1 11.12 kW 15 .35 kW 3 CONDENSER 1.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Muhamad Nazrul bin Sulaiman 2007126715 EMD5M9A 1. Fill the parameter from one set of experimental data in to the refrigeration System diagram.

73 kW 16 .MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration At percentage load = 15 QC = 18.18 kW At percentage load = 30 QC = 18.91 kW 3 CONDENSER 2 1.18 kW C EVAPORATOR 4 1 17.53 kW 3 CONDENSER 2 1.35 kW C EVAPORATOR 4 1 17.

12 kW 17 .86 kW At percentage load = 60 QC = 19.26 kW C EVAPORATOR 4 1 18.27 kW C EVAPORATOR 4 1 17.38 kW 3 CONDENSER 2 1.13 kW 3 CONDENSER 2 1.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration At percentage load = 45 QC = 19.

It is an object of the present invention to propose a domestic refrigerator enabling to establish and maintain in a portion of its internal cavity an atmosphere adapted for the extended preservation of fruits and vegetables. Processes for extending the length of preservations of plant food products. What do you understand by the term load? Give example of actual loads in refrigeration practice in a domestic fridge. and a compartment in the form of a vat. and in a factory. containing a refrigeration coil and closed by means of a pivoting door.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 2. These processes are found either in storage silos of substantial size. and. where the composition of the controlled atmosphere is permanently supervised and adjusted. in a room. the vegetables have a tendency to fade or rot relatively rapidly. typically between 0° and 15° C. namely for their conditioning in wrappings intended for sale and having selective properties of gas diffusion. generally disposed opposite the "freezer" and serving as a removable vegetable tray. Domestic Fridge The present invention concerns domestic refrigerators of the type having a refrigerator body defining a first internal refrigerated cavity. in an autonomous arrangement. According to a more particular characteristic of the invention. in an environment at a low temperature between 2° and 5° C. namely the compartment for making ice. and these processes consist in placing these products under an oxygen starved controlled atmosphere and to keep them at low temperature. Known domestic refrigerators generally have two compartments of the type mentioned above. commonly called "freezer". in particular fruits and vegetables. For this purpose. are known. at low cost. There is a need for the consumers to be able to rely on refrigerators which are provided with means enabling to substantially extend the period of preservation of fruits and vegetables. advantageously by means of a moto-compressor unit controlled by a control module comprising a timer. and 18 . according to a characteristic of the invention. in this first internal cavity. experience showing that in known vegetable trays. the compartment of the refrigerator defines a second internal cavity which is substantially water tight with respect to the first internal cavity and communicates with a gas source containing less oxygen than air. with reliable operation and which does not modify the overall size of the refrigerator. the gas source comprises a separation module periodically supplied with air under pressure. at least one compartment in which at least a part is manually movable.

the operation of the whole abattoir may have to be changed and also the flow of carcasses to and from chiller or freezer. an atmosphere which is adapted for the preservation of fruits and vegetables. A refrigerator is design to maintain the freezer section at -18°C and the refrigerator section at 3°C. The load then increase when the doors are opened and the room is washed out or possibly unloaded. the doors are again opened to remove the carcasses and the infiltration load so caused increase. to keep. Different temperatures for the storage of specific foods can be maintained in the refrigerator section by using special-purpose compartment. the position of doors and so on. Room In a room. which keeps meat at lowest safe temperature without freezing it. enabling. Some have a temperature controlled meat compartment maintained at -0. even when the outside temperatures are very high. at lower cost. At the end of the chilling cycle. in the compartment. the cooling times determined above will not be met. Warm carcasses are then loaded into the room and the load rapidly reaches the peak product load that occurs at the end of the loading period. It is another object of the present invention to propose a process for feeding an oxygen starved gas into a compartment of a refrigerator of the above type. all full size refrigerators have the a large air-tight drawer for leafty vegetable and fresh foods to seal moisture and protect from drying effect. the doors are closed and the load rapidly declines. coupled to a detector which is responsive to the movement of the movable part of the compartment.5C. When loading a chiller the doors are invariably left open for long periods allowing a fully established air flow to take place to and from the room either from gravity through a single door or by a through flow of air if more than one door is open. when used as a store.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration preferably. Another point to notice is that the load on the room. To achieve this. is very small compared to both the peak and average load and is for the most part due to the evaporator fans running continuously. Generally. Lower freezer temperatures increase energy consumption without improving the storage life of frozen food significantly. If it size and position of the room has been rigidly fixed before this stage. the size of the room can be determined. 19 . Factory An example of actual loads is storage of specific food. the specification that needs to know is the chilling or freezing times now worked out. Thereafter.

and the lowest possible cost to the consumer. The heat load consists of the predictable part. The best COP will be given by a circle which is a Carnot cycle operation between the given temperature conditions. fan motor. which is heat flow into the refrigerator. it requires a work input of Wnet.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration For specified external dimensions. The cross section of a refrigerator showing the relative magnitudes of various effects that constitutes the predictable heat load. COP denoted by COPref which is given by COPref  Q1 W where COP is sometimes called the performance ratio. The size of compressor and another components of a refrigeration system are determined on the basis of the anticipated heat load (or refrigeration load). 20 . defrost heaters and the unpredictable part.in. The objective of a refrigerator is to remove heat QL from the refrigerated space. To accomplish this objective. What is the effect on the COPref as the load is increased? Why? The efficiency of a refrigerator or refrigerator performances are defined by means of the coefficient of performance. minimum energy consumption. 3. a refrigerator is desired to have maximum food storage volume.

The power input. the temperature is more cooled do to the increases of the load. When more heat is rejected. W is important because it is the quantity which has to be paid for and constitutes the main item of the running cost 4. 21 . the more heat is rejected from the system. The required energy input of a heat pump is a function not only of the amount of cooling it has to do but also of the temperature elevation against which it is pumping. Q1. which is the rate of heating being removed from low temperature region with specified evaporator and condensation temperatures. When the more load is added. The isothermal processes in this cycle are also isobaric (constant pressure). What is the effect on the condenser temperature as the load is increased? Why? The effect of the condenser temperature is when the load is increase.in Reversed heat engine QL Cold refrigerated at TL For a refrigerator the important quantity is the heat supply to the system from the surrounding. The reduction of this temperature difference is the goal of optimization. The efficiency of a refrigerator is defining as the ratio between the heat removed from the process and the work required to achieve this heat removal.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Warm environment at TH>TL QH Wnet. the temperature also increased. Cooling effect of the refrigeration system. It is thus a heat pump. The unit “duty” measurement is in the watts (for 1 ton of refri eration = 1 W) The function of the refrigeration system is to transport the heat from the lower temperature in the conditioned space to the higher temperature outside.

Hassan 2009643852 EMD5M9A From the experiment that we had done. Apart from this experiment. the COPref increased but due to some factor during the experiment. CONCLUSION Syed Mohd. 22 . it is recommended that. the COPref decrease at some point and increase back. The effect of COPref that we get from this experiment is that the higher the value of load. we carefully done the experiment and follows the entire steps to avoid getting errors and it is highly recommended that the refrigerant flow rate and cooling water flow rate can be fixed so that we can clearly see the effect of COPref of the refrigeration cycle. we can conclude that we have achieved our main objective to investigate the variation in Coefficient of Performance (COPref) of a vapour compression refrigeration system. Also for this experiment. the better the refrigeration cycle is.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 9. Syed Mohd. This is achieved by looking at the effect of the COPref as the load increased. Hasif Wafa b. we are able to find out that the higher the value of COPref.

MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Musaddiq bin Mohsin 2007284454 EMD5M9A 23 .

76 The value of COPR when the load is 30% is 15.34 It is recommended that future versions of this experiment take steps to make sure while taken the value of evaporator load to be in steady reading.07 The value of COPR when the load is 60% is 14.09 The value of COPR when the load is 15% is 12.00 The value of COPR when the load is 45% is 14. For the experiment the value of COPR as stated below: 1. 3. 2. This will ensure that the experiment will get less error. 5. Before print the result after percentage load is inserted wait for 5 minutes in order to make the process become steady. The value of COPR when the load is 0% is 9. 24 .MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration Muhamad Nazrul bin Sulaiman 2007126715 EMD5M9A This experiment achieved its objective to find the COPR value of a vapour compression refrigeration system. 4.

25 . Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach 5th Edition. 2. Yunus A. Prentice Hall. Eastop & McConkey. 1993. Michael A. 2006. Boles.MEM554 – Thermalfluids Lab Computer Linked Refrigeration 10. Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists 5th Edition. Cengel. Mc Graw Hill. REFERENCES 1.