Handy’s four types of organisational cultures Another model of culture, popularised by Charles Handy (1999) – and following work

by Harrison (1972) – also presents organisational cultures as classified into four major types: the power culture, the role culture, the task culture, and the person or support culture. Handy’s approach may help you understand why you have been more comfortable in some organisations than others. Interestingly, although Handy chooses to talk about culture, he shows the structures associated with his culture types. This may be because of the difficulty of drawing something as diffuse as culture, but it also reinforces the fact that culture and structure are interrelated. Power culture

Figure 18 Power culture Long description Handy illustrates the power culture as a spider’s web (see Figure 18), with the all-important spider sitting in the centre ‘… because the key to the whole organisation sits in the centre, surrounded by ever-widening circles of intimates and influence. The closer you are to the spider, the more influence you have’ (1999, p. 86). Organisations with this type of culture can respond quickly to events, but they are heavily dependent for their continued success on the abilities of the people at the centre; succession is a critical issue. They will tend to attract people who are power orientated and politically minded, who take risks and do not rate security highly. Control of resources is the main power base in this culture, with some elements of personal power at the centre. Size is a problem for power cultures. They find it difficult to link too many activities and retain control; they tend to succeed when they create new organisations with a lot of independence, although they usually retain central financial control. This type of culture relies heavily on individuals rather than on committees. In organisations with this culture, performance is judged on results, and such organisations tend to be tolerant of means. They can appear tough and abrasive and their successes can be accompanied by low morale and high turnover as individuals fail or opt out of the competitive atmosphere. Working in such organisations requires that employees correctly anticipate what is expected of them from the power holders and perform accordingly. If managers get this culture right, it can result in a happy, satisfied organisation that in turn can breed quite intense commitment to corporate goals. Anticipating wrongly can lead to intense dissatisfaction and sometimes lead to a high labour turnover as well as a general lack of effort and enthusiasm.
[Type text] Page 1

In extreme cases, a power culture is a dictatorship, but it does not have to be. Stop and reflect What kind of manager do you think would be happy in a power culture?

Stop and reflect
Save Reset

Role culture

Figure 19 Role culture Long description The role culture can be illustrated as a building supported by columns and beams: each column and beam has a specific role to playing keeping up the building; individuals are role occupants but the role continues even if the individual leaves. This culture shares a number of factors in common with Weber’s description of the ‘ideal-type’ bureaucracy. This type of organisation is characterised by strong functional or specialised areas coordinated by a narrow band of senior management at the top and a high degree of formalisation and standardisation; the work of the functional areas and the interactions between them are controlled by rules and procedures defining the job, the authority that goes with it, the mode of communication and the settlement of disputes. Position is the main power source in the role culture. People are selected to perform roles satisfactorily; personal power is frowned upon and expert power is tolerated only in its proper place. Rules and procedures are the chief methods of influence. The efficiency of this culture depends on the rationality of the allocation of work and responsibility rather than on individual personalities. This type of organisation is likely to be successful in a stable environment, where the market is steady, predictable or controllable, or where the product’s life cycle is long, as used to be the case with many UK public sector bodies. Conversely, the role culture finds it difficult to adapt to change; it is usually slow to perceive the need for it and to respond appropriately.
[Type text] Page 2

Such an organisation will be found where economies of scale are more important than flexibility or where technical expertise and depth of specialisation are more important than product innovation or service cost – for example, in many public service organisations. For employees, the role culture offers security and the opportunity to acquire specialist expertise; performance up to a required standard is rewarded on the appropriate pay scale, and possibly by promotion within the functional area. However, this culture is frustrating for ambitious people who are power orientated, want control over their work or are more interested in results than method. Such people will be content in this culture only as senior managers. The importance of Handy’s role culture is that it suggests that bureaucracy itself is not culture-free. Stop and reflect What kind of manager do you think would be happy in a role culture?

Stop and reflect
Save Reset

Task culture

Figure 20 Task culture Long description Task culture is job-or project-oriented, and its accompanying structure can be best represented as a net (see Figure 20). Some of the strands of the net are thicker or stronger than others, and much of the power and influence is located at the interstices of the net, at the knots. Task cultures are often associated with organisations that adopt matrix or project-based structural designs. The emphasis is on getting the job done, and the culture seeks to bring together the appropriate resources and the right people at the right level in order to assemble the relevant resources for the completion of a particular project. A task culture depends on the unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to help the individual identify with the objectives of the organisation. So it is a team culture, where the outcome of the team’s work takes precedence over individual
[Type text] Page 3

individual freedom and low status differentials – but it may not be an appropriate culture for all circumstances. senior managers begin to feel the need to control methods as well as results. the US space agency. This necessitates the introduction of rules and procedures. Control in these organisations can be difficult. and team leaders may begin to compete for resources. Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power. Against this must be set the difficulty of managing a large organisation as a flexible group. Morale in the work groups tends to decline and the job becomes less satisfying in itself. which in the 1960s had the specific task of putting a man on the moon before the end of the decade and bringing him back safely. easy working relationships within groups and mutual respect based on ability rather than on age or status. people and resources. where the market is competitive. the use of position or the control of resources by managers to get the work done. when resources are not freely available. judgment by results. who concentrate on the allocation of projects. Groups. The organisation can respond rapidly since each group ideally contains all the decision-making powers required. It is most in tune with the current trends of change and adaptation. The task culture is therefore appropriate when flexibility and sensitivity to the market or environment are important. and of producing economies of scale or great depth of expertise. Stop and reflect What kind of manager do you think would be happy in a task culture? Stop and reflect Save Reset Person culture [Type text] Page 4 . This works well in favourable circumstances and when resources are available for those who can justify using them. with its emphasis on groups. without violating the norms of the culture. certainly at the middle and junior levels. Task culture depends on teamwork to produce results. expert power. using political influence. so that employees begin to reveal their own objectives. abandoned or continued. where the life of a product is short and/or where the speed of reaction is critical. So the task culture has a tendency to change to a role or power culture when resources are limited or when the whole organisation is unsuccessful. rewards for results and a merging of individual and group objectives. Individuals find that this culture offers a high degree of autonomy. However. and influence is more widely dispersed than in other cultures. prefer to work in the task culture. Most managers.objectives and most status and style differences. Essential control is retained by senior managers. One example of a task culture is NASA. project teams or task forces are formed for a specific purpose and can be re-formed. but they exert little day-today control over methods of working or procedures.

or produce it. or often a power or role culture. that is. Clearly. it exists only to serve and assist the individuals within it. is usually expert. are impossible in these cultures except by mutual consent. So do some universities. Consultants – both within organisations and freelance workers – and architects’ partnerships often have this person-orientation. Furthermore. since organisations tend to have some form of corporate objective over and above the personal objectives of those who comprise them. but the organisation seldom has the power to evict an individual. In this culture the individual is the focal point.Figure 21 Person culture Long description Person culture is an unusual culture. if needed. which might be expected to moderate their personal preferences. consultants in a hospital. Although it would be rare to find an organisation in which the person culture predominated. It is not found in many organisations. This type of culture is illustrated by a loose cluster or a constellation of stars (see Figure 1. a task culture. and they may not acknowledge anyone as being in a position to exercise expert power greater than their own. Position power not backed up by resource power means nothing to such people. if there is a structure or an organisation. but who find themselves operating in more orthodox organisations. Such people are not easy to manage. A cooperative may strive for the person culture in organisational form. people do what they are good at and are listened to for their expertise. at best. and even management hierarchies. such as computer people in a business organisation.10). An individual can leave the organisation. but as it develops it often becomes. architects in local government and university teachers benefit from the power of their professions. control mechanisms. and coercive power is not usually available. They may not be influenced by group norms or relationships with colleagues. alternative employment is often easy to obtain. to further their own interests without any overriding objective. This leaves only personal power – and such people are often not easily impressed by personality. not many organisations can exist with this sort of culture. Specialists in organisations. Being specialists. yet many people espouse some of its values. Influence is shared and the power base. you will often encounter people whose personal preferences are for this type of culture. Stop and reflect  What kind of manager do you think would be suited to a person culture? Page 5 [Type text] .

[1] It is also the pattern of such collective behaviors and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving. and in Handy’s view each is suited to different types of circumstances. visions. Most real-life organisations tend to involve a mixture of cultures. Culture includes the organization values. systems. including different types of personalities. and with stakeholders. in larger organizations. there is a diverse and sometimes conflicting cultures that co-exist due to different [Type text] Page 6 . There is a tendency to take Handy’s four cultures as fixed or ‘given’ styles – something an organisation has. the real world is always richer and more subtle. with clients. Wikipedia’s: Organizational culture is the collective behavior of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions.[2] Organizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other. negotiated and shared by everyone involved in the organisation and which may evolve over time. Theories of types of culture offer caricatures and simplifications of complex phenomena. rather than something that is created. you may find it helpful to reflect upon the two models you have considered so far. None of the four types can claim to be better or superior. working language. symbols. norms. and even thinking and feeling. [3] At the same time although a company may have "own unique culture". To what extent does this colleague display the attributes Handy suggests are best suited to the culture of your organisation? To what extent do you display those attributes? How useful do you find Handy’s model? Stop and reflect Save Reset There are limitations to Handy’s approach. beliefs and habits.    Which of Handy’s categories is closest to your own organisation or department? Identify a successful colleague and consider how they got ahead. Before you consider this approach. One way of gaining an insight into these complexities has been to explore the link between national culture and organisational culture. they are each suited to different types of circumstances. Ravasi and Schultz (2006) state that organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations.

This perspective believes in a strong culture where everyone buys into it[clarification needed]. terms such as corporate culture and company culture are sometimes used to refer to a similar concept. and symbols Interpretivism: Views culture through a network of shared meanings (organization members sharing subjective meanings) [Type text] Page 7 .[7][8] in fact corporate culture was already used by managers and addressed in sociology. government agencies or business entities.  [edit]Usage Organizational culture refers to culture in any type of organization be it school. Culture is basic.[5][6] Although the idea that the term became known in businesses in the late 80s and early 90s is widespread. Culture can be manipulated and altered depending on leadership and members. but with personal experiences people can view it a little differently.characteristics of the management team.[4] The organizational culture may also have negative and positive aspects. Culture is just one entity that adds to the organization as a whole. Deal & Kennedy (2000). This view of an organization is created through communication and symbols.[13] [edit]The same as the organization Culture as Root Metaphor takes the perspective that culture is something the organization is. Kotter (1992) and many others state that organizations often have very differing cultures as well as subcultures.[11][12] [edit]Part of or equivalent to [edit]As a part of organization Culture as a variable takes on the perspective that culture is something that an organization has. or competing metaphors. in fact. cultural studies and organizational theory in the beginning of the 80s. In business. was first and similarly approached with the notion of organizational climate in the 60s and 70s. university. notfor-profit groups.[4] Schein (2009).[9][10] The idea about the culture and overall environment and characteristics of organization. and the terms now are somewhat overlapping. rituals.[13] The organizational communication perspective on culture views culture in three different ways:   Traditionalism: Views culture through objective things such as stories.

1977) . A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights. Although invisible.Different societies find different solutions on social inequality. "According to Mulder's Power Distance Reduction theory subordinates will try to reduce the power distance between themselves and their bosses and bosses will try to maintain or enlarge it". profession. Hofstede relates culture to ethnic and regional groups. family. Hofstede suggests of the need of changing "mental programs" with changing behaviour first which will lead to value change and he suggests that however certain groups like Jews. to society and subcultural groups. A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others. Some are described below: [edit]Hofstede Main: Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory Hofstede (1980) looked for global differences between over 100. in an attempt to find aspects of culture that might influence business behavior. Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations and identified four dimensions of culture (later five[14]) in his study of national cultures:  Power distance (Mauk Mulder.000 of IBM's employees in 50 different countries and three regions of the world. etc. and the importance of international awareness and multiculturalism for the own cultural introspection. Gypsies and Basques have maintained their identity through centuries without changing. Critical-Interpretivism: Views culture through a network of shared meanings as well as the power struggles created by a similar network of competing meanings [edit]Types of organizational cultures Several methods have been used to classify organizational culture. a term Hofstede uses for predictable behaviour. Cultural differences reflect differences in thinking and social action. and even in "mental programs". but there is also a degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. He suggested about cultural differences existing in regions and nations. inside organizations power inequality of the "bosssubordinates relationships" is functional and according to Hofstede reflects the way inequality is addressed in the society. While there is no single "type" of organizational culture and organizational cultures vary widely from one organization to the next. national political systems and legislation. commonalities do exist and some researchers have developed models to describe different indicators of organizational cultures. [Type text] Page 8 . but also organizations.

Other cultures and societies than the US will therefore seek to resolve social and organizational problems in ways different than the American one. In societies with a long-term orientation. collectivism . Long. and perseverance in achieving results. law and rituals or in two ways . Hofstede listed as rituals the memos and reports. people believe that truth depends very much on situation. Society copes with it with technology. They are normative in their thinking. femininity . a relatively small propensity to save for the future. and Denison. law and religion (however different societies have different ways to addressing it). where rituals being the nonrational. Uncertainty avoidance is the coping with uncertainty about the future. O’Reilly. in fact in US collectivism is seen as "bad". Collectivist societies will have more emotional dependence of members on their organizations. Extreme individualism is seen in the US. They show an ability to adapt traditions to  changed conditions. for example. large part of the planning and control systems. 1951).Versus Short-Term Orientation [15] which he describes as "The long-term orientation dimension can be interpreted as dealing with society’s search for virtue. Research indicates that some people and cultures might have both high individualism and high collectivism. some parts of the accounting system. and according to Hofstede organizations deal with it with technology.disharmony of interests on personal and collective goals (Parsons and Shils. and Caldwell Two common models and their associated measurement tools have been developed by O’Reilly et al. and someone who highly values duty to his or her group does not necessarily give a low priority to personal freedom and self-sufficiency. and the nomination of experts. and a focus on achieving quick results. Individualism vs. Chatman & Caldwell (1991) developed a model based on the belief that cultures can be distinguished by values that are reinforced within organizations. when in equilibrium .[citation needed]   Masculinity vs. Hofstede brings that society's expectations of Individualism/Collectivism will be reflected by the employee inside the organization. a strong propensity to save and invest." [16] [edit]O'Reilly.rational and non-rational.organization is expected to show responsibility on members. They exhibit great respect for traditions.reflect whether certain society is predominantly male or female in terms of cultural values. Chatman. gender roles and power relations. thriftiness. Their Organizational Profile [Type text] Page 9 . context and time. Hofstede says that capitalist market economy fosters individualism and competition and depends on it but individualism is also related to the development of middle class. Societies with a short-term orientation generally have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth.

the way members are rewarded. Team Orientation. Focus on the present rather than the longer-term future. Team Orientation and Capability Development Consistency . High-speed action leading to high-speed recreation. [edit]Deal and Kennedy Deal and Kennedy (1982) defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here.Strategic Direction and Intent.[17] This is done through instrument like Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) to measure employee commitment. Each of these general dimensions is further described by the following three sub-dimensions:     Mission . software companies. Involvement and Consistency. Customer Focus and Organizational Learning Involvement . Respect for People.  Tough-guy macho culture[18] This has rapid feedback/reward and high risk. sports. and predict turnover.[17] Daniel Denison’s model (1990) asserts that organizational culture can be described by four general dimensions – Mission. and Aggressiveness.Empowerment. Attention to Detail. resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and potential loss/gain of reward. Goals and Objectives and Vision Adaptability .Core Values. Examples: police.Model (OCP) is a self reporting tool which makes distinctions according seven categories Innovation. Stability.[18] Deal and Kennedy's Four Cultures:  Work-hard. Deal and Kennedy created a model of culture that is based on 4 different types of organizations. rather it measures associations between the personalities of individuals in the organization and the organization's culture. Adaptability. The model is not intended to measure how organizational culture effects organizational performance. Outcome Orientation.Creating Change. [Type text] Page 10 . and the level of risks taken. Agreement. play-hard culture[18] This has rapid feedback/reward and low risk Resulting in: Stress coming from quantity of work rather than uncertainty. Employee values are measured against organizational values to predict employee intentions to stay. surgeons. The model has been typically used to diagnose cultural problems in organizations. Examples: Restaurants. They each focus on how quickly the organization receives feedback. Coordination/Integration Denison’s model also allows cultures to be described broadly as externally or internally focused as well as flexible versus stable.

culture is the most difficult organizational attribute to change. felt and heard by the uninitiated observer . Examples: banks. mission statements and other operational creeds. His organizational model illuminates culture from the standpoint of the observer. but then much work is put into making sure things happen as planned. plodding work. Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning. Focus on security of the past and of the future. Included are the facilities. furnishings. Process culture[19][18] This has slow feedback/reward and low risk. Examples: aircraft manufacturers. constitute the fabric of an organization's culture The contents of myths.the values. comfort and security. Daniel Denison (1990) describes artifacts as the tangible aspects of culture shared by members of an organization. services. visible awards and recognition. and myths are examples of verbal artifacts and are represented in rituals and ceremonies. how each person visibly interacts with each other and with organizational outsiders. resulting in the following: Low stress. Verbal. The next level deals with the professed culture of an organization's members . offices. [edit]Edgar Schein According to Schein (1992). resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and delay before knowing if actions have paid off. At the first and most cursory level of Schein's model is organizational attributes that can be seen. Development of bureaucracies and other ways of maintaining the status quo. Language. stories. oil companies. stories. Stress that comes from internal politics and stupidity of the system. Rituals.g. [Type text] Page 11 . and even company slogans. insurance companies. behavioral and physical artifacts are the surface manifestations of organizational culture. described by three cognitive levels of organizational culture. The long view is taken. Shared values are individuals’ preferences regarding certain aspects of the organization’s culture (e.collectively known as artifacts. the way that its members dress. and sagas reveal the history of an organization and influence how people understand what their organization values and believes. Technology and art exhibited by members or an organization are examples of physical artifacts. founders and leadership and all other physical attributes of the organization.  Bet-the-company culture This has slow feedback/reward and high risk. the collective interpersonal behavior and values as demonstrated by that behavior. outlasting organizational products.

customer service). [Type text] Page 12 . Basic beliefs and assumptions include individuals' impressions about the trustworthiness and supportiveness of an organization. what it does. identifying a number of elements that can be used to describe or influence organizational culture:  The Paradigm: What the organization is about. Merely understanding culture at the deepest level may be insufficient to institute cultural change because the dynamics of interpersonal relationships (often under threatening conditions) are added to the dynamics of organizational culture while attempts are made to institute desired change. This insight offers an understanding of the difficulty that organizational newcomers have in assimilating organizational culture and why it takes time to become acclimatized. Organizational behavior at this level usually can be studied by interviewing the organization's membership and using questionnaires to gather attitudes about organizational membership. and are often deeply ingrained within the organization’s culture. Notably. local and personal values are widely expressed within the organization. Superficially. its values. the organization's tacit assumptions are found. Surveys and casual interviews with organizational members cannot draw out these attributes—rather much more in-depth means is required to first identify then understand organizational culture at this level. It also explains why organizational change agents usually fail to achieve their goals: underlying tacit cultural norms are generally not understood before would-be change agents begin their actions. its mission. At this level. At the third and deepest level. Many of these 'unspoken rules' exist without the conscious knowledge of the membership. organizational rewards can imply one organizational norm but at the deepest level imply something completely different. understanding paradoxical organizational behaviors becomes more apparent. culture at this level is the underlying and driving element often missed by organizational behaviorists. these are the elements of culture which are often taboo to discuss inside the organization. [edit]Factors and elements Gerry Johnson (1988) described a cultural web. These are the elements of culture that are unseen and not cognitively identified in everyday interactions between organizational members. For instance. thus reinforcing the invisibility of their existence. an organization can profess highly aesthetic and moral standards at the second level of Schein's model while simultaneously displaying curiously opposing behavior at the third and deepest level of culture. Using Schein's model. Additionally. Those with sufficient experience to understand this deepest level of organizational culture usually become acclimatized to its attributes over time.loyalty.

Power Structures: Who makes the decisions. including the following:      External environment Industry Size and nature of the organization’s workforce Technologies the organization uses The organization’s history and ownership [edit]Communicative Indicators There are many different types of communication that contribute in creating an organizational culture:[20] [Type text] Page 13 . internal integration is an important function since social structures are required for organizations to exist. Role cultures would have vast rulebooks. Stories and Myths: build up about people and events. and the way that work flows through the business. According to Schein (1992). Control Systems: The processes in place to monitor what is going on. how widely spread is power. and convey a message about what is valued within the organization.      These elements may overlap. but also extend to symbols of power such as parking spaces and executive washrooms. There would be more reliance on individualism in a power culture. hierarchies. Rituals and Routines: Management meetings. If the culture is valuable. Power structures may depend on control systems. which may exploit the very rituals that generate stories which may not be true. then it holds the potential for generating sustained competitive advantages. Additionally. External adaptation reflects an evolutionary approach to organizational culture and suggests that cultures develop and persist because they help an organization to survive and flourish. the two main reasons why cultures develop in organizations is due to external adaptation and internal integration. and on what is power based? Symbols: These include organizational logos and designs. Organizational culture is shaped by multiple factors. Organizational Structures: Reporting lines. board reports and so on may become more habitual than necessary. Organizational practices are learned through socialization at the workplace. Work environments reinforce culture on a daily basis by encouraging employees to exercise cultural values.

Stanley G. and thus inherently involve communication. Metaphors such as comparing an organization to a machine or a family reveal employees’ shared meanings of experiences at the organization.  Fantasy Themes are common creative interpretations of events that reflect beliefs. justifications. Rites and ceremonies combine stories. including her/his personality. or views of the organization and its environment held by organization members. allowing the person to respond to similar events more efficiently in the future by guiding the processing of information. Page 14  [Type text] . metaphors. and behavior. Harris (1994) argues that five categories of in-organization schemata are necessary for organizational culture:  Self-in-organization schemata: a person's concept of oneself within the context of the organization. [edit]Schema Schemata (plural of schema) are knowledge structures a person forms from past experiences. impressions. values. Stories can provide examples for employees of how to or not to act in certain situations. Person-in-organization schemata: a person's memories. and symbols into one. and goals of the organization. and expectations of other individuals within the organization. roles. and criticisms of our own actions. They lead to rhetorical visions. This includes:    Plans: comments about anticipated actions Commentaries: comments about action in the present Accounts: comments about an action or event that has already occurred Such comments reveal interpretive meanings held by the speaker as well as the social rules they follow. A person's schemata are created through interaction with others. Several different kinds of rites that affect organizational culture:         Rites of passage: employees move into new roles Rites of degradation: employees have power taken away from them Rites of enhancement: public recognition for an employee’s accomplishments Rites of renewal: improve existing social structures Rites of conflict reduction: resolve arguments between certain members or groups Rites of integration: reawaken feelings of membership in the organization  Reflexive comments are explanations.

and goals High employee motivation and loyalty Increased team cohesiveness among the company's various departments and divisions Promoting consistency and encouraging coordination and control within the company Shaping employee behavior at work. Event-in-organization schemata: a person's knowledge of social events within an organization. Object/concept-in-organization schemata: knowledge an individual has of organization aspects other than of other persons. [edit]Strong/weak cultures Strong culture is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organizational values. as individuals directly or indirectly share knowledge and meanings. there is weak culture where there is little alignment with organizational values. strong cultures help firms operate like well-oiled machines. enabling the organization to be more efficient   [Type text] Page 15 . Organizational culture is created when the schematas (schematic structures) of differing individuals across and within an organization come to resemble each other (when any one person's schemata come to resemble another person's schemata because of mutual organizational involvement). Conversely. engaging in outstanding execution with only minor adjustments to existing procedures as needed. In such environments. Research shows that organizations that foster strong cultures have clear values that give employees a reason to embrace the culture. Research indicates that organizations may derive the following benefits from developing strong and productive cultures:    Better aligning the company towards achieving its vision. A "strong" culture may be especially beneficial to firms operating in the service sector since members of these organizations are responsible for delivering the service and for evaluations important constituents make about firms. Organization schemata: a subset of person schemata. a person's generalized perspective on others as a whole in the organization.   All of these categories together represent a person's knowledge of an organization. primarily done through organizational communication. and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and bureaucracy. mission.

"Groupthink" was described by Irving Janis. and therefore there is a reduced capacity for innovative thoughts. growth. do not challenge organizational thinking. and need procedures to implement new ideas effectively. training.Where culture is strong. Such cultures possess high employee involvement. for example. or also in groups where a friendly climate is at the base of their identity (avoidance of conflict)." (Irving Janis. efficiency and reduce counterproductive behavior and turnover of employees. people do things because they believe it is the right thing to do. groupthink or bureaucracy. as well as price Lower than average turnover rates (perpetuated by a healthy culture) Investment in learning. 1972. Additionally. p. groupthink is very common and happens all the time. [edit]Healthy organizational cultures Organizations should strive for what is considered a "healthy" organizational culture in order to increase productivity. In fact. groupthink. Innovative organizations need individuals who are prepared to challenge the status quo. in almost every group. This could occur. organizational cultures that explicitly emphasize factors [Type text] Page 16 . Members that are defiant are often turned down or seen as a negative influence by the rest of the group because they bring conflict. He defined it as "a quick and easy way to refer to a mode of thinking that people engage when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group. 9) This is a state in which even if they have different ideas. or where there is an evangelical belief in the organization' values. strong internal communications and an acceptance and encouragement of a healthy level of risk-taking in order to achieve innovation. where there is heavy reliance on a central charismatic figure in the organization. and there is a risk of another phenomenon. and employee knowledge        Additionally. including:   Acceptance and appreciation for diversity Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution to the company Employee pride and enthusiasm for the organization and the work performed Equal opportunity for each employee to realize their full potential within the company Strong communication with all employees regarding policies and company issues Strong company leaders with a strong sense of direction and purpose Ability to compete in industry innovation and customer service. A variety of characteristics describe a healthy culture. when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternatives of action. performance oriented cultures have been shown to possess statistically better financial growth.

[Type text] Page 17 . The described four types of culture are:[21]  "Power Culture" concentrates power among a small group or a central figure and its control is radiating from its center like a web. initiating change when needed. It can become difficult for such organizations to continue to operate. especially customers. since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue organizational goals. A "Person Culture" is formed where all individuals believe themselves superior to  the organization. An adaptive culture translates into organizational success. Additionally. because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm.  In the "Role Culture" authorities are delegated as such within a highly defined structure. Power Cultures need only a few rules and little bureaucracybut swift in decisions can ensue. These organizations have consistent systems and are very predictable. and taking risks. According to Kotter and Heskett (1992). where power derives from the personal position and rarely from an expert power. Power is derived from the team with the expertise to execute against a task. Charles Handy Charles Handy (1976). where people are highly skilled and specialized in their own area of expertise.related to the demands placed on them by industry technology and growth will be better performers in their industries. This culture uses a small team approach. organizations with adaptive cultures perform much better than organizations with unadaptive cultures. However some professional partnerships operate well as person cultures. it is characterized by managers paying close attention to all of their constituencies. These organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies. [edit]Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn See also: Archetype. these cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines seen in a matrix structure.  In a "Task Culture" teams are formed to solve particular problems. disabling the firm from pursuing all its competitive/operational options. Control is made by procedures (which are highly valued). strict roles descriptions and authority definitions. popularized Roger Harrison (1972) with linking organizational structure to organizational culture. An unadaptive culture can significantly reduce a firm's effectiveness.

PhD. The primary belief in market cultures is that clear goals and contingent rewards motivate employees to aggressively perform and meet stakeholders' expectations. By assessing the current organizational culture as well as the preferred situation. Adhocracy culture (external focus and flexible) .A structured and formalized workplace where leaders act like coordinators.Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn (1999) made a research on organizational effectiveness and success.A dynamic workplace with leaders that stimulate innovation. Clan cultures are most strongly associated with positive employee attitudes and product and service quality. external focus these two polarities were found to be most important in defining organizational success. The Organizational Culture Inventory measures twelve behavioral norms that are grouped into three general types of cultures: [Type text] Page 18 . Cooke.A competitive workplace with leaders like hard drivers Hierarchy culture (internal focus and controlled) . a core belief in clan cultures is that the organization’s trust in and commitment to employees facilitates open communication and employee involvement. whereas market cultures are most strongly related with innovation and financial effectiveness criteria.    Cameron & Quinn designated six key aspects that will form organizational culture which can be assessed in the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) thus producing a mix of the four archetypes of culture. stability and internal vs. [edit]Robert A. defines culture as the behaviors that members believe are required to fit in and meet expectations within their organization.A friendly workplace where leaders act like father figures. Competing values produce polarities like flexibility vs. Each organization or team will have its unique mix of culture types. These differing results suggest that it is important for executive leaders to consider the match between strategic initiatives and organizational culture when determining how to embed a culture that produces competitive advantage. the gap and direction to change can be made visible as a first step to changing organizational culture. they developed the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument that distinguishes four culture types. Based on the Competing Values Framework. The polarities construct a quadrant with four types of culture:  Clan culture (internal focus and flexible) . Market culture (external focus and controlled) . Cooke Robert A.

Reflects an interest in the growth and development of people. in which members are encouraged to interact with people and approach tasks in ways that help them meet their higher-order satisfaction needs. Humanistic-Encouraging: help others to grow and develop (resolve conflicts constructively) . and work as teams.[22] 1. Achievement: completing a task successfully. Self-Actualizing: realization or fulfillment of one's talents and potentialities considered as a drive or need present in everyone (think in unique and independent ways) (do even simple tasks well) . 2. rather than something simple like a mechanic one. typically by effort. People high in this style think ahead and plan. In positions where people do a complex job. this sort of culture is an efficient one. Constructive cultures. People with this style demonstrate a strong desire to learn and experience things. in which members are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security. self-fulfillment and the realisation of one's potential. Affiliative: treat people as more valuable than things (cooperate with others) .Reflects an interest in developing and sustaining pleasant relationships. are thoughtful and considerate and provide people with support and encouragement. in which members believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security. or skill (pursue a standard of excellence) (explore alternatives before acting) Based on the need to attain high-quality results on challenging projects. Aggressive/defensive cultures. the belief that outcomes are linked to one's effort rather than chance and the tendency to personally set challenging yet realistic goals. rather than only as individuals. courage.  [Type text] Page 19 .Based on needs for personal growth. People high in this style devote energy to coaching and counselling others. 3. 4. [edit]Constructive cultures Constructive cultures are where people are encouraged to be in communication with their coworkers. explore alternatives before acting and learn from their mistakes. creative yet realistic thinking and a balanced concern for people and tasks. a high positive regard for them and sensitivity to their needs.  Passive/defensive cultures.

cooperation is believed to lead to better results than competition. People who use this style are more likely to question others work. Organizations with constructive cultures encourage members to work to their full potential. however asking those [Type text] Page 20 .[23][24][25] [edit]Passive/defensive cultures Norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security are in the Passive/Defensive Cluster. service quality. Because of the very nature of this style. and judgment. continuous improvement. and organizational members report lower levels of motivation and satisfaction. resulting in high levels of motivation. [edit]Aggressive/defensive cultures This style is characterized with more emphasis on task than people.People high in this style share their thoughts and feelings. transformational leadership. people tend to focus on their own individual needs at the expense of the success of the group. and effectiveness is judged at the system level rather than the component level. Rules. and sales growth. total quality management. creativity is valued over conformity. members feel pressured to think and behave in ways that are inconsistent with the way they believe they should in order to be effective. The four Passive/Defensive cultural norms are:     Approval Conventional Dependent Avoidance In organizations with Passive/Defensive cultures. re-engineering.[26] 1. and learning organizations. teamwork. Constructive norms are evident in environments where quality is valued over quantity. are friendly and cooperative and make others feel a part of things. Oppositional. Passive/Defensive cultures experience a lot of unresolved conflict and turnover. and orders are more important than personal beliefs. ideas.This cultural norm is based on the idea that a need for security that takes the form of being very critical and cynical at times. The aggressive/defensive style is very stressful. procedures. and people using this style tend to make decisions based on status as opposed to expertise. People are expected to please others (particularly superiors) and avoid interpersonal conflict. satisfaction. These types of cultural norms are consistent with (and supportive of) the objectives behind empowerment.

However. 3.This cultural norm is based on the idea of a need to protect one’s status. Those who use this style are seekers of appraisal and recognition from others. Those who often use this style are always focused on details and place excessive demands on themselves and others. Those who use this style often equate their own selfworth with controlling others. Perfectionistic . and expecting organizational members to behave accordingly. Those who use this style protect their own status by comparing themselves to other individuals and outperforming them. Those who use this style have a tendency to dictate others opposing to guiding others’ actions. 4. These organizations emphasize finding errors. Those who often use this style equate their self-worth with the attainment of extremely high standards. controlled. weeding out "mistakes" and encouraging members to compete against each other rather than competitors. and superior. beliefs and norms of members of an organization. believing that innovating and seizing market opportunities are appropriate behaviors to deal with problems of survival and prosperity. Competitive . those who use this style tend to be over critical and point out others small flaws and use it as a mechanism to put others down. The short-term gains associated with these strategies are often at the expense of long-term growth. and competitors' threats. or concede their position are viewed as incompetent or weak. An Entrepreneurial Organizational Culture (EOC) is a system of shared values.This cultural norm is based on the idea that there is a need for prestige and influence. 2. including valuing creativity and tolerance of creative people. environmental uncertainty.[26] [edit]Entrepreneurial organizational culture Stephen McGuire (2003) defined and validated a model of organizational culture that predicts revenue from new sources. admit shortcomings. Members who seek assistance. Organizations with aggressive/defensive cultures encourage or require members to appear competent. Power . [edit]Elements    People and empowerment focused Value creation through innovation and change Attention to the basics Page 21 [Type text] .This cultural norm is based on the need to attain flawless results.tough question often leads to a better product.

coordinate. The major finding of this study is that human cognition contains three components. The data were then analyzed in grounded fashion to formulate theme-based substantive theories and a formal theory.[28] Some researchers even suggested and have made case studies research on personality changing. 1991) [edit]Multiplicity See also: Biculturalism Xibao Zhang (2009) carried out an empirical study of culture emergence in the Sino-Western international cross-cultural management (SW-ICCM) context in China.     Hands-on management Doing the right thing Freedom to grow and to fail Commitment and personal responsibility Emphasis on the future[27] [edit]Personal and organizational culture Main: Personality psychology. on the other hand. they can be compared to a [Type text] Page 22 . (Geert Hofstede.[31] Differences between national cultures are deep rooted values of the respective cultures. each of which has a mutually conditioning relationship with behavior. or three broad types of "cultural rules of behavior". Expectations. and frequently are not. The three cognitive components are different in terms of the scope and duration of their mutual shaping with behavior. and these cultural values can shape how people expect companies to be run. while Ad Hoc Rules are improvised rules of behavior that the human mind devises contingent upon a particular occasion.[4] Indeed employees and people applying for a job are advised to match their "personality to a company’s culture" and fit to it. namely. among themselves. Furthermore. Expectations.[29] [edit]National and organizational culture Corporate culture is used to control. and how relationships between leaders and followers should be resulting to differences between the employer and the employee on expectations. are context-specific behavioral rules. Metaphorically. supplemented by non-participant observation and documentary data. Values are universal and enduring rules of behavior. they need not be consistent. Values. and Ad Hoc Rules. and integrate of company subsidiaries. Field data were collected by interviewing Western expatriates and Chinese professionals working in this context. Identity (social science) Organizational culture is taught to the person as culture is taught by his/her parents thus changing and modeling his/her personal culture.[30] However differences in national cultures exist contributing to differences in the views on the management.

which follows logically from the first one. This internal inconsistency view is in stark contrast to the traditional internal consistency assumption explicitly or tacitly held by many culture scholars. [Type text] Page 23 . which allows for the relative lateral movements by individual carriages so as to accommodate bumps and turns in the tracks. there is little doubt among experts that this relationship exists. The sustained superior performance of firms like IBM. each of which is distinct in terms of the pattern of the three cognitive components and behavior. and Ad Hoc Rules. Hewlett-Packard. This notion of one (multiplicity) culture to an organization leads to the classification of culture along its path of emergence into nascent. Procter & Gamble. a reflection of their organizational cultures. One major theoretical contribution of this "multi-carriage train" perspective is its allowance for the existence of inconsistencies among the three cognitive components in their mutual conditioning with behavior. is to view culture as an overarching entity which is made of a multiplicity of Values. which enables individuals in SW-ICCM contexts to cope with conflicts in cultural practices and values. including the following:      Competitive edge derived from innovation and customer service Consistent.multi-carriage train. A healthy and robust organizational culture may provide various benefits. and McDonald's may be. they provide a "shock-absorber mechanism". [edit]Impacts Research suggests that numerous outcomes have been associated either directly or indirectly with organizational culture. The other major theoretical contribution. It also provides a powerful framework which explains how interactions by individuals in SWICCM contexts give rise to emerging hybrid cultural practices characterized by both stability and change.although this is difficult to prove considering the necessary longitudinal analyses are hardly feasible. In fact. adolescent. and to accommodate and adapt themselves to cultural contexts where people from different national cultural backgrounds work together over extended time. efficient employee performance Team cohesiveness High employee morale Strong company alignment towards goal achievement Although little empirical research exists to support the link between organizational culture and organizational performance. Expectations. and mature types. at least partly. Organizational culture can be a factor in the survival or failure of an organization . so to speak.

the strength of employee motivation. Deteriorating company performance and an unhealthy work environment are signs of an overdue cultural assessment. The study examined the management practices at 160 organizations over ten years and found that culture can enhance performance or prove detrimental to performance. and Goelzer (2004) found that culture contributes to the success of the organization. Furthermore.A 2003 Harvard Business School study reported that culture has a significant impact on an organization’s long-term economic performance. Culture affects the way individuals make decisions. Adkins and Caldwell (2004) found that job satisfaction was positively associated with the degree to which employees fit into both the overall culture and subculture in which they worked. higher job strain. Haaland. Organizations with strong performance-oriented cultures witnessed far better financial growth. and flexibility are some of the most important drivers of performance. feel. a 2002 Corporate Leadership Council study found that cultural traits such as risk taking. and administer the necessary resources to achieve objectives. high turnover may be a mediating factor in the relationship between culture and organizational performance. but not all dimensions contribute the same. It was found that the impacts of these dimensions differ by global regions. which suggests that organizational culture is impacted by national culture. Denison. It has been proposed that organizational culture may impact the level of employee creativity. and the reporting of unethical behavior. set objectives. productivity through people. general stress. Additionally. innovativeness. Organizational culture also has an impact on recruitment and retention. [edit]Firing on the base of culture [Type text] Page 24 . Organizational culture is reflected in the way people perform tasks. Clarke (2006) found that a safety climate is related to an organization’s safety record. A perceived mismatch of the organization’s culture and what employees felt the culture should be is related to a number of negative consequences including lower job satisfaction. and turnover intent. but more research is needed to support these conclusions. and act in response to the opportunities and threats affecting the organization. and may impact individual performance. Additionally. and the other cultural factors cited by Peters and Waterman (1982) also have positive economic consequences. internal communications. Additionally. Individuals tend to be attracted to and remain engaged in organizations that they perceive to be compatible.

on the other hand. technology changes.[7][8] firing on the base of culture means the employer does not accept and desire to be inclusive for the culture of the employee and thus the employee "does not fit in corporate culture" (Zappos.[34] As the corporate culture may mean almost everything. the size and nature of the workforce. and many other companies hire and fire based solely on cultural fit[34]). which granted its fired employees with huge afterwards compensations. The company must then assess and clearly identify the new. and/or achieve specific company goals and results. to further identify areas that require change. including the external environment and industry competitors. change in industry standards. influence employee behavior. For companies with a very strong and specific culture it will be even harder to change." Ideas and strategies. When one wants to change an aspect of the culture of an organization one has to keep in consideration that this is a long term project.Usually pointed as a source of creating "family like" environment. focus groups. athough this may fall in the ground of discrimination. Burman and Evans (2008) argue that it is 'leadership' that affects culture rather than 'management'. desired culture. Culture change may be necessary to reduce employee turnover. with this practice started from shoe company Zappos. [edit]Change When an organization does not possess a healthy culture or requires some kind of organizational culture change. observation. provide better customer service. This can be done through employee surveys. from 2008. make improvements to the company. and describe the difference. Firing on corporate culture is a recent practice. refocus the company objectives and/or rescale the organization. Prior to a cultural change initiative. seem to vary according to particular influences that affect culture. and then design a change process. a needs assessment is needed to identify and understand the current organizational culture. [Type text] Page 25 . and the organization’s history and management. and other internal research. the change process can be daunting. These are also a variety of psychological approaches that have been developed into a system for specific outcomes such as the Fifth Discipline’s "learning organization" or Directive Communication’s "corporate culture evolution. Netflix. interviews. Corporate culture is something that is very hard to change and employees need time to get used to the new way of organizing. Culture change is impacted by a number of elements. there is still not law or case law resolving or addressing the question making this practice possible and available for businesses for now. There are a number of methodologies specifically dedicated to organizational culture change such as Peter Senge’s Fifth Discipline.[32][33] the notion of corporate culture is also used for firing. customer surveys where appropriate.

and 3). it must be made clear that the current organizational does not need radical changes. Formulate a clear strategic vision (stage 1. In order to show that the management team is in favor of the change. Display top-management commitment (stage 4). and patience. 490). Modify the organization to support organizational change. p. Weick. 1982. 4. procedures and rules need to be changed in order to align with the new values and desired culture. 2. DiTomaso. De Caluwé & Vermaak (2004. shared values and behaviors is needed. the change has to be notable at first at this level. these individual should be catalysts. They should possess courage. This process may also include creating committee. employee task forces. This includes identifying what current systems. Schall. The behavior of the management needs to symbolize the kinds of values and behaviors that should be realized in the rest of the company. excellent interpersonal skills. 1983. The fourth step is to modify the organization to support organizational change. In order to make a cultural change effective a clear vision of the firm’s new strategy. 2): 1. or similar. policies. 1983. 2004. but just a few adjustments. (See for more: Deal & Kennedy. page 490). as willingness to change of the senior management is an important indicator (Cummings & Worley. As McCune (May 1999) puts it. This may include a change to accountability [Type text] Page 26 . 491 – 492) give the following six guidelines for cultural change. flexibility. p. value managers.Cummings & Worley (2004. 2. not dictators. It is important that the management shows the strengths of the current culture as well. 3. It is very important to keep in mind that culture change must be managed from the top of the organization. these changes are in line with the eight distinct stages mentioned by Kotter (1995. Model culture change at the highest level (stage 5). 1985. p 9) provide a framework with five different ways of thinking about change. knowledge of the company. The top of the organization should be very much in favor of the change in order to actually implement the change in the rest of the organization. 1987). 2004. Change agents are key in the process and key communicators of the new values. p. This vision provides the intention and direction for the culture change (Cummings & Worley. Sathe.

People often resist changes hence it is the duty of the management to convince people that likely gain will outweigh [Type text] Page 27 . conducted periodically to monitor the change progress and identify areas that need further development. Develop ethical and legal sensitivity.systems. Select and socialize newcomers and terminate deviants (stage 7 & 8 of Kotter. The company and change managers should be able to articulate the connections between the desired behavior and how it will impact and improve the company’s success. compensation. 2004. 6. Culture innovations is bound to be because it entails introducing something new and substantially different from what prevails in existing cultures. This step will also identify obstacles of change and resistant employees and to acknowledge and reward employee improvement. Training should be provided to all employees to understand the new processes. expectations and systems. 491). It may also be helpful and necessary to incorporate new change managers to refresh the process. p. 491). Encouraging employee motivation and loyalty to the company is key and will also result in a healthy culture. and recruitment and retention programs to better align with the new values and to send a clear message to employees that the old system and culture are in the past. 1995. 2). Change of culture in the organizations is very important and inevitable. which can result in ethical and legal problems for practitioners. which will also encourage continued change and evolvement. Changes in culture can lead to tensions between organizational and individual interests. Outside consultants may also be useful in facilitating the change process and providing employee training. This is particularly relevant for changes in employee integrity. benefits and reward structures. Cultural innovation [35] is bound to be more difficult than cultural maintenance. p. people can be selected and terminate in terms of their fit with the new culture (Cummings & Worley. to include an evaluation process. 2004. 5. equitable treatment and job security (Cummings & Worley. p. A way to implement a culture is to connect it to organizational membership. control. as part of the change process. to further encourage buy-in in the change process. It is also beneficial.

ego clashes. [edit]Mergers. The organization turns into a sort of clan. The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation. In addition. and meanings that make a company unique. customs. The organization itself may come to be regarded as precious in itself. and cultural leadership One of the biggest obstacles in the way of the merging of two organizations is organizational culture. When mergers fail employees point to issues such as identity.[36] Senior management may try to determine a corporate culture. and in some sense unique. They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization. Each organization has its own unique culture and most often. Corporate culture is often called "the character of an organization". [Type text] Page 28 . there will also be an extant internal culture within the workforce. human resources problems. This is done through cultural innovation followed by cultural maintenance. Besides institutionalization. when brought together. organizational culture.  Cultural innovation includes:  Creating a new culture: recognizing past cultural differences and setting realistic expectations for change Changing the culture: weakening and replacing the old cultures Integrating the new culture: reconciling the differences between the old cultures and the new one Embodying the new culture: Establishing. deification is another process that tends to occur in strongly developed organizational cultures.the losses. communication problems. One way to combat such difficulties is through cultural leadership. and inter-group conflicts. and keeping the new culture   Cultural maintenance includes:   [edit]Corporate subcultures Corporate culture is the total sum of the values. traditions. Organizational members begin to feel a strong bond with it that transcends material returns given by the organization. which all fall under the category of "cultural differences". these cultures clash. affirming. Organizational leaders must also be cultural leaders and help facilitate the change from the two old cultures into the one new culture. and they begin to identify with it. as well as managerial behavior. since it embodies the vision of the company's founders. as a source of pride.

and adapted by Charles Handy. affect the whole system. They stress the ways in which these cultural assumptions can stifle dissent management and reproduce propaganda and ideology. [edit]Legal aspects Corporate culture can be found as a cause of injuries and be a reason for fining companies in US like in the case of U.825. Among the strongest and widely recognized writers on corporate culture with a long list of articles on leadership. or the various economic contradictions that exist in capitalist organizations.. we are unaware of how it shapes behavior and interaction (also recognized through [Type text] Page 29 . to an extent. They suggest that organizations do not have a single culture and cultural engineering may not reflect the interests of all stakeholders within an organization. operated by Performance Coal Co. a subsidiary of Massey Energy Co. but their presence can influence the culture of the organization as a whole.[9][38] She uses the metaphor of a plant root to represent culture. Organizations are the product of organizational culture. the largest fine in agency history.S. it is reasonable to suggest that complex organizations might have many cultures. For example. as a part of the of critical management studies. Roger Harrison's four-culture typology. language and behaviors gained independently of the organization. Parker (2000) has suggested that many of the assumptions of those putting forward theories of organizational culture are not new. in April 2010. she criticises theories that attempt to categorize or 'pigeonhole' organizational culture. following its investigation of explosion at the Upper Big Branch-South Mine.[10] Most of the criticism comes from the writers in critical management studies who for example express skepticism about the functionalist and unitarist views about culture that are put forward by mainstream management writers. corporate culture can be 'imported'.[37] [edit]Critical views Criticism of the usage of the term by managers began already in its emergence in the early 80s. gender and their intersection is Linda Smircich. suggests that unlike organizational culture. computer technicians will have expertise. culture. They reflect a long-standing tension between cultural and structural (or informal and formal) versions of what organizations are. and that such sub-cultures might overlap and contradict each other.368 Performance Coal Co. The neat typologies of cultural forms found in textbooks rarely acknowledge such complexities. describing that it drives organizations rather than vice versa. Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration that fined of $10.Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which. Further.

^ "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and withstakeholders outside the organization.".Scheins (2002) underlying assumptions[clarification needed]) and so how can we categorize it and define what it is? [edit]See also Cultural capital       Lifestyle (sociology) Multiculturalism Organizational behavior Organizational studies Cultural identity Diversity Inclusive business   Inclusiveness [edit]References 1. Hill. discovered. January-February 2008 5. 2011 8. L. March 30. knowmgmt. think and feel in relation to those problems". The view from the top. Arizona State University. Their minions disagree. 4. Culture Clash: When Corporate Culture Fights Strategy. ^ a b c Cindy Gordon. The Economist. (2001) Strategic Management. Bosses think their firms are caring. It Can Cost You. WiseGeek 2. or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration" that have worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore. ^ Corporate culture. and bottom." said Lou Gerstner. ^ "A pattern of shared basic assumptions invented. the CEO who pulled IBM from near ruin in the 1990s. Edgar Schein. CA magazine. 1995 7. ^ a b ""Culture is everything. and Gareth R. 2011 6.Houghton Mifflin. Cashing in on corporate culture. 1992 3. ^ What is Corporate Culture?. ^ a b the application of the term culture to the collective attitudes and behavior of corporations arose in business jargon during the late [Type text] Page 30 ." in Charles W. ^ Stoykov. Jones. September 24. to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive.

^ a b One of the first to point to the importance of culture for organizational analysis and the intersection of culture theoryand organization theory is Linda Smircich in her article Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis in 1983. Updated in 2009. Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Few Usage Panelists object to it. Allan C.1980s and early 1990s. manager. A. untrained in sociology jargon. Career Talk: Corporate Culture. (Chapters 1-6) [Type text] Page 31 . Boston: Pearson Education. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. Cengage Learning.). Unlike many locutions that emerge in business jargon.S. 9. Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. B. Chicago: Midwest Administration Center of the University of Chicago.2307/2392246. 67 13. ^ Halpin. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1982 11. which describes overall behaviour patterns in groups. (1963). W.. 12. DeWine. 2011. J. ^ Fred C. 1983. The organizational climate of schools. D. year 1. doi:10.P. D. issue 1." in Phillip Farish. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.. & Butler. pp. Hispanic Engineer. Over 80 percent of Panelists accept the sentence The new management style is a reversal of GE's traditional corporate culture. challenges. ^ a b Modaff. Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis. it spread to popular use in newspapers and magazines. Publisher: JSTOR. But corporate managers. 339-358 10. & Croft. found it difficult to use the term unselfconsciously. See Linda Smircich. Organizational communication: Foundations. Lunenburg.. pp.". Issue: 3. Volume: 28. Sociologists and anthropologists popularized the word "culture" in its technical sence. ^ a b "The term "Corporate Culture" is fast losing the academic ring it once had among U. (2011). and misunderstandings (2nd Ed. S. Ornstein. in which virtually everything the company does is measured in some form and filed away somewhere.

21. Corporate Culture and Performance.org 19. Investigation of employee tenure as related to relationships of personality and personal values of entrepreneurs and their perceptions of their employees. and Organizations Across Nations..14. 24. Institutions. Sage Publications. Career Rocketeer.com/dimensions. Behaviors. PositivePsyche. Sacramento 27. Takeda. July 11. ProQuest. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values. ^ Cooke. Elements of an Entrepreneurial Culture (. ^ "Using the Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) to Measure Kotter and Heskett's Adaptive and Unadaptive Cultures".ppt). Retrieved 6 October 2011. ^ Islam. ^ a b Becky H. (1987). P. 16. ^ Hofstede. Discriminate Or Diversify. MI: Human Synergistics. 2001. ^ Enrique Ruiz. Human Synergistics. 1140139. Alain Vas. Retrieved 6 October 2011. R. Human-Synergistics. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values. A. 2007.html 17. Michael. Comparing the processes of identity change: A multiple-case study approach. Behaviors. Inc. 25. Geert H. ^ a b c d Deal and Kennedy's cultural model. ^ "Constructive Styles". ^ a b "Aggressive/Defensive Styles". ChangingMinds. Geert H. 15. 2009 22. 26. New York: The Free Press. ^ Deal and Kennedy. [Type text] Page 32 . The Organizational Culture Inventory.California State University. (1992). 23. 2009 28. ^ Hofstede. and Organizations Across Nations. ^ http://geert-hofstede. Retrieved 6 October 2011. Sage Publications. 2 18. College Of Business Administration. 1982 20. Lindle Hatton. Plymouth. Group Organization Management. ^ Kotter. 2001. p. ^ Christophe Lejeune. (34). (2009). ^ Dr. ^ Personality and Corporate Culture: Where’s a Person to Fit?. Rituals in organizatinios: A review and expansion of current theory.Biz Corp. Gazi and Zyphur. Institutions. J.

Hauppauge:NY 36. ^ a b Hiring and firing based on cultural fit 34. the strategies and attitudes deemed constant. culture. Volume 27. as a term has a dynamic entity. Issue Supplement s1. however. 24 (June 2007). Keith Glaister. ^ Li Dong. Special Issue: Sociological Review Monograph Series: Contemporary Organization Theory. Human Resource Management. pp. Document & Analyze Business Processes.3930270207 30. 80–94. 191-205 31. October 2005 Types of Organizational Culture By organization culture. Now. B. MSHA News Release. ^ US Labor Department’s MSHA cites corporate culture as root cause of Upper Big Branch Mine disaster. US Department of Labor. "Othering Organization Theory: Marta Calás and Linda Smircich" (abstract). Ads by Google Process Improvement Solns Capture. Free Trial www. P. and culture is what makes a workplace an organization. Different organizations follow different work cultures in their workplace. ^ Susan C. Record. doi:10. ^ Corporate Culture 33. (2008) Management (4th ed. and ethics prevail where a particular culture is followed in an organization. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. Volume 53. ^ Joanna Brewis. National vs. Summer 1988. Here are the various organizational cultures that define even the minutiae of an aspect in the organization.epiplex500. National and corporate culture differences in international strategic alliances: Perceptions of Chinese partners (RePEc). The Sociological Review. February 2007 35.1002/hrm. Like varied personalities. and prevalent throughout the workforce hierarchy. May 12. editors Campbell Jones and Rolland Munro. Oracle Magazine. and Charnov. we mean. ^ Corporate Culture Affect Employees 32. however. Barrons Educational Series. little do we know about a specific culture principled by the organization. Creating culture of innovation..29. 2011 37. ^ Montana.). it is not a recondite concept.com A number of us are aware as to how an organization functions. pp. corporate culture: Implications for human resource management. there are various types of organizational [Type text] Page 33 . pp. Issue 2. Schneider. 231– 246. Equanimity. ^ Molly Rose Teuke.

universities. There is. and less of governance. the client is virtually deified. Club Culture [Type text] Page 34 . an organization that adopts a collaborate culture offers a congenial and amiable environment to work in. and are highly prized. The prime concern of every employee is to cater to the needs of the client. inadvertently. the employees are 'free agents'. attain. This kind of culture is perceived to portray a high standard of business ethics. In this type of organizational structure. Pragmatic Culture In contrast to normative cultures.cultures that function by adhering to a stipulated method of working. Baseball Team Culture In this kind of culture. Academy Culture In this kind of culture. and the organization provides an environment for the development. and performances handsomely rewarded. Dynamism is defined best when the workforce has the free will to conceive an out-of-theordinary idea. Employees tend to stay with the organization. to name a few. stress is laid on satisfying the wish of their clients. These employees find employment easily in any organization. best-suited to their core business. The feeling one derives while working in this type of organization is that of comfort and coercive motivation. and monetary incentives. to higher levels of morale. and according to the norms and rules defined. Collaborate Work Culture Often referred to as clan culture. where you have the employees' interest in the foreground with his skills valued. Adhocracy Work Culture It is a type of organization that is altered to provide an environment to accrue one's creative acumen. and retain the business they may invite through the clients. This organization consists of superiors who provide more of guidance. and out-of-the-box thinking is an appendage-cum-motto. employees are highly skilled. Examples of this kind of culture are hospitals. The organization is based on worker-welfare. Ideas are encouraged. ✍ Cultures That Govern the Organization The diverse organizational cultures that mold the structure of a business acumen are as follows: Normative Culture In a normative organization. the organization stresses on implementing the organizational procedures in the correct manner. the development of which. and investment banking. and honing of employee skills. Examples of this kind of culture are advertising. and are highly in demand. and grow with(in) it. and large corporations. however. as it is very fast-paced. a considerable amount of risk attached to this culture. may lead to success. Insinuating and developing teamwork is the most vital element of the organization.

like. already. and fruitful. which finally affects the overall output of the organization. support functions. This kind of culture is predominantly opted by the large-scaled organizations that have gained their customers' trust and support. In this kind of culture. This culture bestows consistency upon the organization. and not many organizations prefer it as the process is a long. or branding of an athlete. by the organization. One of the most difficult tasks to undertake in an organization. This kind of culture is mostly associated with quick financial activities. A change in the organizational culture requires an organization to make amendments to its policies. and researches as their core business proposition. Examples of this kind of organization are law firms. instead they are known to reach the apotheosis of efficiency. the organization is extremely cautious about the adherence to laws. a police team. etc. It needs to start right from its base functions. a company designing experimental military weapons may implement the said type of culture. the results are almost always positive. etc. which requires patience. and currency trading. a sports team. the employees stay with the organization for a long time. including. Very often. The organization. when an organization succeeds in making a change on such a massive level. It requires a complete overhaul of the entire system. This kind of culture is does not eschew high levels of stress. It takes time to see the consequence of these decisions. with this kind of culture. Companies that postulate experimental projects. or level.Usually. as the organizations. It can also be related to activities. Few examples of this type of culture are loans and savings. operations. consist of a firm base coupled with a strong client relationship. and endurance. subsequently rolling out a steadfast customer help service. Macho Culture The most important aspect of this kind of culture is big rewards. brokerage. workplace ethics. and is qualified with multiple-team meetings. is to change its work culture. Fortress Culture Employees are not sure if the will be laid off or not by the organization. Bet Your Company Culture In this kind of culture. Work Hard/Play Hard Culture This type of organization does not involve much risk. These employees are hand-picked. and tedious one. is equipped with specialized jargon. and important decisions over high stake endeavors. and management system. However. and it is imperative that they possess the specific skills required and desired. The different types of organizational [Type text] Page 35 . adopt this kind of culture. and prefers to abide by them. this organization undergoes massive changes. large car companies. and the production floor. like. the military. and get promoted to a senior post. the company makes big. and quick feedback. for instance. Process Culture This type of culture does not include the process of feedback. The employees are expected to possess a strong mentality for survival in the organization. predominantly meant for public services.

The management makes sincere efforts to upgrade the knowledge of the employees to improve their professional competence. is the essence. educational qualification and work experience of the employees. Individuals suffer the most when the organization is at a loss. event management companies. financial institutions follow such a culture. The employees are terminated if the organization is not performing well. The roles and responsibilities are delegated according to the back ground. more emphasis is placed on the clients and the external parties. 7. persistence. hospitals practice such a culture. 5. Club Culture: Organizations following a club culture are very particular about the employees they recruit. the norms and procedures of the organization are predefined and the rules and regulations are set as per the existing guidelines. In such a culture. Advertising agencies. Organizations following academy culture are very particular about training the existing employees. universities. Tough Guy Culture: In a tough guy culture. 4. however. Team managers are appointed to discuss queries with the team members and guide them whenever required. Fortress Culture: There are certain organizations where the employees are not very sure about their career and longevity. feedbacks are essential. and patience. 2. Baseball team Culture: A baseball team culture considers the employees as the most treasured possession of the organization. Normative Culture: In such a culture. The employees behave in an ideal way and strictly adhere to the policies of the organization. [Type text] Page 36 . The individuals are hired as per their specialization. The high potential employees are promoted suitably and appraisals are a regular feature of such a culture. The employees are the true assets of the organization who have a major role in its successful functioning. Customer satisfaction is the main motive of the employees in a pragmatic culture. Stock broking industries follow such a culture. 3. must have helped you to understand them.html Let us understand the various types of organization culture: 1. Read more at Buzzle: http://www. Every employee strives hard to satisfy his clients to expect maximum business from their side.cultures aforementioned. ultimately. They ensure that various training programmes are being conducted at the workplace to hone the skills of the employees. Each one does what he is best at.com/articles/types-of-organizational-culture. Pragmatic Culture: In a pragmatic culture. The employees in an academy culture stick to the organization for a longer duration and also grow within it. 6. educational qualification and interests. The employees are under constant watch in such a culture. Such organizations follow fortress culture. No employee dares to break the rules and sticks to the already laid policies. the individuals always have an upper edge and they do not bother much about their organization. Educational institutions. Such organizations treat their clients as Gods and do not follow any set rules. The performance of the employees is reviewed from time to time and their work is thoroughly monitored. You can also adopt one of them for your own organization. surely. Academy Culture: Organizations following academy culture hire skilled individuals.buzzle.

All government organizations follow such a culture. [Type text] Page 37 . Bet your company Culture: Organizations which follow bet your company culture take decisions which involve a huge amount of risk and the consequences are also unforeseen. The principles and policies of such an organization are formulated to address sensitive issues and it takes time to get the results. 9. Process Culture: As the name suggests the employees in such a culture adhere to the processes and procedures of the organization.8. Feedbacks and performance reviews do not matter much in such organizations. The employees abide by the rules and regulations and work according to the ideologies of the workplace.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful