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by Harrison (1972) – also presents organisational cultures as classified into four major types: the power culture, the role culture, the task culture, and the person or support culture. Handy’s approach may help you understand why you have been more comfortable in some organisations than others. Interestingly, although Handy chooses to talk about culture, he shows the structures associated with his culture types. This may be because of the difficulty of drawing something as diffuse as culture, but it also reinforces the fact that culture and structure are interrelated. Power culture
Figure 18 Power culture Long description Handy illustrates the power culture as a spider’s web (see Figure 18), with the all-important spider sitting in the centre ‘… because the key to the whole organisation sits in the centre, surrounded by ever-widening circles of intimates and influence. The closer you are to the spider, the more influence you have’ (1999, p. 86). Organisations with this type of culture can respond quickly to events, but they are heavily dependent for their continued success on the abilities of the people at the centre; succession is a critical issue. They will tend to attract people who are power orientated and politically minded, who take risks and do not rate security highly. Control of resources is the main power base in this culture, with some elements of personal power at the centre. Size is a problem for power cultures. They find it difficult to link too many activities and retain control; they tend to succeed when they create new organisations with a lot of independence, although they usually retain central financial control. This type of culture relies heavily on individuals rather than on committees. In organisations with this culture, performance is judged on results, and such organisations tend to be tolerant of means. They can appear tough and abrasive and their successes can be accompanied by low morale and high turnover as individuals fail or opt out of the competitive atmosphere. Working in such organisations requires that employees correctly anticipate what is expected of them from the power holders and perform accordingly. If managers get this culture right, it can result in a happy, satisfied organisation that in turn can breed quite intense commitment to corporate goals. Anticipating wrongly can lead to intense dissatisfaction and sometimes lead to a high labour turnover as well as a general lack of effort and enthusiasm.
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In extreme cases, a power culture is a dictatorship, but it does not have to be. Stop and reflect What kind of manager do you think would be happy in a power culture?
Stop and reflect
Figure 19 Role culture Long description The role culture can be illustrated as a building supported by columns and beams: each column and beam has a specific role to playing keeping up the building; individuals are role occupants but the role continues even if the individual leaves. This culture shares a number of factors in common with Weber’s description of the ‘ideal-type’ bureaucracy. This type of organisation is characterised by strong functional or specialised areas coordinated by a narrow band of senior management at the top and a high degree of formalisation and standardisation; the work of the functional areas and the interactions between them are controlled by rules and procedures defining the job, the authority that goes with it, the mode of communication and the settlement of disputes. Position is the main power source in the role culture. People are selected to perform roles satisfactorily; personal power is frowned upon and expert power is tolerated only in its proper place. Rules and procedures are the chief methods of influence. The efficiency of this culture depends on the rationality of the allocation of work and responsibility rather than on individual personalities. This type of organisation is likely to be successful in a stable environment, where the market is steady, predictable or controllable, or where the product’s life cycle is long, as used to be the case with many UK public sector bodies. Conversely, the role culture finds it difficult to adapt to change; it is usually slow to perceive the need for it and to respond appropriately.
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Such an organisation will be found where economies of scale are more important than flexibility or where technical expertise and depth of specialisation are more important than product innovation or service cost – for example, in many public service organisations. For employees, the role culture offers security and the opportunity to acquire specialist expertise; performance up to a required standard is rewarded on the appropriate pay scale, and possibly by promotion within the functional area. However, this culture is frustrating for ambitious people who are power orientated, want control over their work or are more interested in results than method. Such people will be content in this culture only as senior managers. The importance of Handy’s role culture is that it suggests that bureaucracy itself is not culture-free. Stop and reflect What kind of manager do you think would be happy in a role culture?
Stop and reflect
Figure 20 Task culture Long description Task culture is job-or project-oriented, and its accompanying structure can be best represented as a net (see Figure 20). Some of the strands of the net are thicker or stronger than others, and much of the power and influence is located at the interstices of the net, at the knots. Task cultures are often associated with organisations that adopt matrix or project-based structural designs. The emphasis is on getting the job done, and the culture seeks to bring together the appropriate resources and the right people at the right level in order to assemble the relevant resources for the completion of a particular project. A task culture depends on the unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to help the individual identify with the objectives of the organisation. So it is a team culture, where the outcome of the team’s work takes precedence over individual
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rewards for results and a merging of individual and group objectives. when resources are not freely available. where the market is competitive. Stop and reflect What kind of manager do you think would be happy in a task culture? Stop and reflect Save Reset Person culture [Type text] Page 4 . project teams or task forces are formed for a specific purpose and can be re-formed. Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power. Against this must be set the difficulty of managing a large organisation as a flexible group. One example of a task culture is NASA. where the life of a product is short and/or where the speed of reaction is critical. and of producing economies of scale or great depth of expertise. So the task culture has a tendency to change to a role or power culture when resources are limited or when the whole organisation is unsuccessful. It is most in tune with the current trends of change and adaptation. Essential control is retained by senior managers. with its emphasis on groups. senior managers begin to feel the need to control methods as well as results. This works well in favourable circumstances and when resources are available for those who can justify using them. Control in these organisations can be difficult. The task culture is therefore appropriate when flexibility and sensitivity to the market or environment are important. prefer to work in the task culture. Task culture depends on teamwork to produce results. However. which in the 1960s had the specific task of putting a man on the moon before the end of the decade and bringing him back safely. the US space agency. individual freedom and low status differentials – but it may not be an appropriate culture for all circumstances. abandoned or continued. so that employees begin to reveal their own objectives. The organisation can respond rapidly since each group ideally contains all the decision-making powers required. judgment by results. Most managers.objectives and most status and style differences. without violating the norms of the culture. and team leaders may begin to compete for resources. the use of position or the control of resources by managers to get the work done. people and resources. expert power. Individuals find that this culture offers a high degree of autonomy. Morale in the work groups tends to decline and the job becomes less satisfying in itself. certainly at the middle and junior levels. using political influence. This necessitates the introduction of rules and procedures. and influence is more widely dispersed than in other cultures. easy working relationships within groups and mutual respect based on ability rather than on age or status. but they exert little day-today control over methods of working or procedures. Groups. who concentrate on the allocation of projects.
and they may not acknowledge anyone as being in a position to exercise expert power greater than their own. but the organisation seldom has the power to evict an individual. you will often encounter people whose personal preferences are for this type of culture. since organisations tend to have some form of corporate objective over and above the personal objectives of those who comprise them. Being specialists. yet many people espouse some of its values. but as it develops it often becomes. which might be expected to moderate their personal preferences. but who find themselves operating in more orthodox organisations. at best. Although it would be rare to find an organisation in which the person culture predominated. to further their own interests without any overriding objective. or produce it. architects in local government and university teachers benefit from the power of their professions. that is. Clearly. They may not be influenced by group norms or relationships with colleagues. Position power not backed up by resource power means nothing to such people. not many organisations can exist with this sort of culture. and even management hierarchies. if there is a structure or an organisation. This type of culture is illustrated by a loose cluster or a constellation of stars (see Figure 1. alternative employment is often easy to obtain. and coercive power is not usually available. it exists only to serve and assist the individuals within it. people do what they are good at and are listened to for their expertise. An individual can leave the organisation. It is not found in many organisations.10). In this culture the individual is the focal point. Stop and reflect What kind of manager do you think would be suited to a person culture? Page 5 [Type text] .Figure 21 Person culture Long description Person culture is an unusual culture. A cooperative may strive for the person culture in organisational form. or often a power or role culture. are impossible in these cultures except by mutual consent. such as computer people in a business organisation. So do some universities. Influence is shared and the power base. is usually expert. Such people are not easy to manage. Specialists in organisations. control mechanisms. Consultants – both within organisations and freelance workers – and architects’ partnerships often have this person-orientation. This leaves only personal power – and such people are often not easily impressed by personality. Furthermore. consultants in a hospital. a task culture. if needed.
 It is also the pattern of such collective behaviors and assumptions that are taught to new organizational members as a way of perceiving. To what extent does this colleague display the attributes Handy suggests are best suited to the culture of your organisation? To what extent do you display those attributes? How useful do you find Handy’s model? Stop and reflect Save Reset There are limitations to Handy’s approach. and in Handy’s view each is suited to different types of circumstances. in larger organizations. Theories of types of culture offer caricatures and simplifications of complex phenomena. and with stakeholders. Organizational culture affects the way people and groups interact with each other. visions. Most real-life organisations tend to involve a mixture of cultures. negotiated and shared by everyone involved in the organisation and which may evolve over time. Wikipedia’s: Organizational culture is the collective behavior of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions. rather than something that is created. Which of Handy’s categories is closest to your own organisation or department? Identify a successful colleague and consider how they got ahead. systems. the real world is always richer and more subtle. Ravasi and Schultz (2006) state that organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations.  At the same time although a company may have "own unique culture". they are each suited to different types of circumstances. including different types of personalities. and even thinking and feeling. you may find it helpful to reflect upon the two models you have considered so far. None of the four types can claim to be better or superior. symbols. Before you consider this approach. Culture includes the organization values. norms. beliefs and habits. there is a diverse and sometimes conflicting cultures that co-exist due to different [Type text] Page 6 . working language. with clients. There is a tendency to take Handy’s four cultures as fixed or ‘given’ styles – something an organisation has. One way of gaining an insight into these complexities has been to explore the link between national culture and organisational culture.
Kotter (1992) and many others state that organizations often have very differing cultures as well as subcultures. The same as the organization Culture as Root Metaphor takes the perspective that culture is something the organization is. in fact corporate culture was already used by managers and addressed in sociology. was first and similarly approached with the notion of organizational climate in the 60s and 70s.characteristics of the management team. This perspective believes in a strong culture where everyone buys into it[clarification needed]. Culture is just one entity that adds to the organization as a whole. In business. notfor-profit groups. This view of an organization is created through communication and symbols. rituals. but with personal experiences people can view it a little differently. and symbols Interpretivism: Views culture through a network of shared meanings (organization members sharing subjective meanings) [Type text] Page 7 . or competing metaphors. Deal & Kennedy (2000). The idea about the culture and overall environment and characteristics of organization. Usage Organizational culture refers to culture in any type of organization be it school. university. terms such as corporate culture and company culture are sometimes used to refer to a similar concept. Culture is basic. and the terms now are somewhat overlapping. Schein (2009). Part of or equivalent to As a part of organization Culture as a variable takes on the perspective that culture is something that an organization has. Although the idea that the term became known in businesses in the late 80s and early 90s is widespread. government agencies or business entities. The organizational culture may also have negative and positive aspects. in fact. The organizational communication perspective on culture views culture in three different ways: Traditionalism: Views culture through objective things such as stories. cultural studies and organizational theory in the beginning of the 80s. Culture can be manipulated and altered depending on leadership and members.
000 of IBM's employees in 50 different countries and three regions of the world. and even in "mental programs". commonalities do exist and some researchers have developed models to describe different indicators of organizational cultures. A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others. family. 1977) . Although invisible. He suggested about cultural differences existing in regions and nations. Hofstede suggests of the need of changing "mental programs" with changing behaviour first which will lead to value change and he suggests that however certain groups like Jews.Different societies find different solutions on social inequality. Critical-Interpretivism: Views culture through a network of shared meanings as well as the power struggles created by a similar network of competing meanings Types of organizational cultures Several methods have been used to classify organizational culture. but there is also a degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. inside organizations power inequality of the "bosssubordinates relationships" is functional and according to Hofstede reflects the way inequality is addressed in the society. Some are described below: Hofstede Main: Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory Hofstede (1980) looked for global differences between over 100. in an attempt to find aspects of culture that might influence business behavior. While there is no single "type" of organizational culture and organizational cultures vary widely from one organization to the next. "According to Mulder's Power Distance Reduction theory subordinates will try to reduce the power distance between themselves and their bosses and bosses will try to maintain or enlarge it". profession. A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights. Gypsies and Basques have maintained their identity through centuries without changing. and the importance of international awareness and multiculturalism for the own cultural introspection. Cultural differences reflect differences in thinking and social action. but also organizations. [Type text] Page 8 . to society and subcultural groups. Hofstede relates culture to ethnic and regional groups. etc. Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations and identified four dimensions of culture (later five) in his study of national cultures: Power distance (Mauk Mulder. a term Hofstede uses for predictable behaviour. national political systems and legislation.
law and religion (however different societies have different ways to addressing it). and someone who highly values duty to his or her group does not necessarily give a low priority to personal freedom and self-sufficiency. O’Reilly.organization is expected to show responsibility on members. for example. Societies with a short-term orientation generally have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth. Chatman. in fact in US collectivism is seen as "bad". Individualism vs. law and rituals or in two ways . Research indicates that some people and cultures might have both high individualism and high collectivism. Long.Versus Short-Term Orientation  which he describes as "The long-term orientation dimension can be interpreted as dealing with society’s search for virtue. femininity . when in equilibrium . gender roles and power relations.reflect whether certain society is predominantly male or female in terms of cultural values."  O'Reilly. Collectivist societies will have more emotional dependence of members on their organizations. and Denison. a strong propensity to save and invest. Their Organizational Profile [Type text] Page 9 .disharmony of interests on personal and collective goals (Parsons and Shils. In societies with a long-term orientation. large part of the planning and control systems. They are normative in their thinking. Society copes with it with technology. and according to Hofstede organizations deal with it with technology. Masculinity vs. people believe that truth depends very much on situation. some parts of the accounting system. context and time. where rituals being the nonrational. and perseverance in achieving results. Chatman & Caldwell (1991) developed a model based on the belief that cultures can be distinguished by values that are reinforced within organizations. and Caldwell Two common models and their associated measurement tools have been developed by O’Reilly et al. Hofstede says that capitalist market economy fosters individualism and competition and depends on it but individualism is also related to the development of middle class.rational and non-rational. Hofstede listed as rituals the memos and reports. 1951). Uncertainty avoidance is the coping with uncertainty about the future. and a focus on achieving quick results. They show an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions. collectivism . Hofstede brings that society's expectations of Individualism/Collectivism will be reflected by the employee inside the organization. and the nomination of experts. thriftiness. Other cultures and societies than the US will therefore seek to resolve social and organizational problems in ways different than the American one. Extreme individualism is seen in the US. a relatively small propensity to save for the future. They exhibit great respect for traditions.
Goals and Objectives and Vision Adaptability . Respect for People. Daniel Denison’s model (1990) asserts that organizational culture can be described by four general dimensions – Mission.Core Values. Customer Focus and Organizational Learning Involvement .Strategic Direction and Intent. resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and potential loss/gain of reward. play-hard culture This has rapid feedback/reward and low risk Resulting in: Stress coming from quantity of work rather than uncertainty. Team Orientation. The model is not intended to measure how organizational culture effects organizational performance. Examples: police. Tough-guy macho culture This has rapid feedback/reward and high risk. Deal and Kennedy created a model of culture that is based on 4 different types of organizations. and the level of risks taken. [Type text] Page 10 . High-speed action leading to high-speed recreation. Stability. They each focus on how quickly the organization receives feedback. and Aggressiveness. This is done through instrument like Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) to measure employee commitment. Focus on the present rather than the longer-term future. software companies.Empowerment. Involvement and Consistency. Outcome Orientation. Agreement. Adaptability. surgeons. the way members are rewarded. Attention to Detail. The model has been typically used to diagnose cultural problems in organizations. Coordination/Integration Denison’s model also allows cultures to be described broadly as externally or internally focused as well as flexible versus stable. Deal and Kennedy's Four Cultures: Work-hard. Deal and Kennedy Deal and Kennedy (1982) defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here. sports. and predict turnover.Model (OCP) is a self reporting tool which makes distinctions according seven categories Innovation.Creating Change. Employee values are measured against organizational values to predict employee intentions to stay. Each of these general dimensions is further described by the following three sub-dimensions: Mission . rather it measures associations between the personalities of individuals in the organization and the organization's culture. Team Orientation and Capability Development Consistency . Examples: Restaurants.
[Type text] Page 11 . furnishings. The long view is taken. behavioral and physical artifacts are the surface manifestations of organizational culture. Daniel Denison (1990) describes artifacts as the tangible aspects of culture shared by members of an organization. His organizational model illuminates culture from the standpoint of the observer. resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and delay before knowing if actions have paid off. but then much work is put into making sure things happen as planned. Process culture This has slow feedback/reward and low risk.g. offices.collectively known as artifacts. and even company slogans. Included are the facilities. Development of bureaucracies and other ways of maintaining the status quo. Language. the collective interpersonal behavior and values as demonstrated by that behavior. mission statements and other operational creeds. constitute the fabric of an organization's culture The contents of myths. Examples: banks. outlasting organizational products. the way that its members dress. Rituals. felt and heard by the uninitiated observer . Technology and art exhibited by members or an organization are examples of physical artifacts. culture is the most difficult organizational attribute to change. how each person visibly interacts with each other and with organizational outsiders. comfort and security. The next level deals with the professed culture of an organization's members . Stress that comes from internal politics and stupidity of the system. Examples: aircraft manufacturers. plodding work. services. Shared values are individuals’ preferences regarding certain aspects of the organization’s culture (e.the values. Verbal. At the first and most cursory level of Schein's model is organizational attributes that can be seen. Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning. oil companies. and sagas reveal the history of an organization and influence how people understand what their organization values and believes. resulting in the following: Low stress. stories. and myths are examples of verbal artifacts and are represented in rituals and ceremonies. founders and leadership and all other physical attributes of the organization. insurance companies. Edgar Schein According to Schein (1992). visible awards and recognition. Bet-the-company culture This has slow feedback/reward and high risk. Focus on security of the past and of the future. described by three cognitive levels of organizational culture. stories.
Many of these 'unspoken rules' exist without the conscious knowledge of the membership. Basic beliefs and assumptions include individuals' impressions about the trustworthiness and supportiveness of an organization. At the third and deepest level. [Type text] Page 12 . its values. For instance. its mission. Using Schein's model. customer service). these are the elements of culture which are often taboo to discuss inside the organization. Merely understanding culture at the deepest level may be insufficient to institute cultural change because the dynamics of interpersonal relationships (often under threatening conditions) are added to the dynamics of organizational culture while attempts are made to institute desired change. an organization can profess highly aesthetic and moral standards at the second level of Schein's model while simultaneously displaying curiously opposing behavior at the third and deepest level of culture. Superficially. understanding paradoxical organizational behaviors becomes more apparent. thus reinforcing the invisibility of their existence. the organization's tacit assumptions are found. These are the elements of culture that are unseen and not cognitively identified in everyday interactions between organizational members. and are often deeply ingrained within the organization’s culture. culture at this level is the underlying and driving element often missed by organizational behaviorists. identifying a number of elements that can be used to describe or influence organizational culture: The Paradigm: What the organization is about. local and personal values are widely expressed within the organization. Organizational behavior at this level usually can be studied by interviewing the organization's membership and using questionnaires to gather attitudes about organizational membership. Notably. Those with sufficient experience to understand this deepest level of organizational culture usually become acclimatized to its attributes over time. what it does. Surveys and casual interviews with organizational members cannot draw out these attributes—rather much more in-depth means is required to first identify then understand organizational culture at this level. Additionally. It also explains why organizational change agents usually fail to achieve their goals: underlying tacit cultural norms are generally not understood before would-be change agents begin their actions. Factors and elements Gerry Johnson (1988) described a cultural web. This insight offers an understanding of the difficulty that organizational newcomers have in assimilating organizational culture and why it takes time to become acclimatized. At this level.loyalty. organizational rewards can imply one organizational norm but at the deepest level imply something completely different.
board reports and so on may become more habitual than necessary. Role cultures would have vast rulebooks. Stories and Myths: build up about people and events. but also extend to symbols of power such as parking spaces and executive washrooms. External adaptation reflects an evolutionary approach to organizational culture and suggests that cultures develop and persist because they help an organization to survive and flourish. which may exploit the very rituals that generate stories which may not be true. and convey a message about what is valued within the organization. the two main reasons why cultures develop in organizations is due to external adaptation and internal integration. internal integration is an important function since social structures are required for organizations to exist. hierarchies. then it holds the potential for generating sustained competitive advantages. and the way that work flows through the business. If the culture is valuable. According to Schein (1992). including the following: External environment Industry Size and nature of the organization’s workforce Technologies the organization uses The organization’s history and ownership Communicative Indicators There are many different types of communication that contribute in creating an organizational culture: [Type text] Page 13 . Control Systems: The processes in place to monitor what is going on. and on what is power based? Symbols: These include organizational logos and designs. These elements may overlap. Organizational practices are learned through socialization at the workplace. how widely spread is power. Additionally. Power structures may depend on control systems. Work environments reinforce culture on a daily basis by encouraging employees to exercise cultural values. Organizational culture is shaped by multiple factors. Rituals and Routines: Management meetings. Organizational Structures: Reporting lines. Power Structures: Who makes the decisions. There would be more reliance on individualism in a power culture.
Rites and ceremonies combine stories. and symbols into one. and criticisms of our own actions. Stanley G. allowing the person to respond to similar events more efficiently in the future by guiding the processing of information. and goals of the organization. metaphors. and thus inherently involve communication. and expectations of other individuals within the organization. Schema Schemata (plural of schema) are knowledge structures a person forms from past experiences. Person-in-organization schemata: a person's memories. Harris (1994) argues that five categories of in-organization schemata are necessary for organizational culture: Self-in-organization schemata: a person's concept of oneself within the context of the organization. This includes: Plans: comments about anticipated actions Commentaries: comments about action in the present Accounts: comments about an action or event that has already occurred Such comments reveal interpretive meanings held by the speaker as well as the social rules they follow. impressions. They lead to rhetorical visions. or views of the organization and its environment held by organization members. and behavior. A person's schemata are created through interaction with others. justifications. Stories can provide examples for employees of how to or not to act in certain situations. Metaphors such as comparing an organization to a machine or a family reveal employees’ shared meanings of experiences at the organization. Page 14 [Type text] . Fantasy Themes are common creative interpretations of events that reflect beliefs. Several different kinds of rites that affect organizational culture: Rites of passage: employees move into new roles Rites of degradation: employees have power taken away from them Rites of enhancement: public recognition for an employee’s accomplishments Rites of renewal: improve existing social structures Rites of conflict reduction: resolve arguments between certain members or groups Rites of integration: reawaken feelings of membership in the organization Reflexive comments are explanations. roles. values. including her/his personality.
All of these categories together represent a person's knowledge of an organization. and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and bureaucracy. as individuals directly or indirectly share knowledge and meanings. engaging in outstanding execution with only minor adjustments to existing procedures as needed. Organizational culture is created when the schematas (schematic structures) of differing individuals across and within an organization come to resemble each other (when any one person's schemata come to resemble another person's schemata because of mutual organizational involvement). Conversely. Strong/weak cultures Strong culture is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organizational values. mission. there is weak culture where there is little alignment with organizational values. strong cultures help firms operate like well-oiled machines. enabling the organization to be more efficient [Type text] Page 15 . In such environments. Organization schemata: a subset of person schemata. Research indicates that organizations may derive the following benefits from developing strong and productive cultures: Better aligning the company towards achieving its vision. a person's generalized perspective on others as a whole in the organization. Object/concept-in-organization schemata: knowledge an individual has of organization aspects other than of other persons. Research shows that organizations that foster strong cultures have clear values that give employees a reason to embrace the culture. primarily done through organizational communication. and goals High employee motivation and loyalty Increased team cohesiveness among the company's various departments and divisions Promoting consistency and encouraging coordination and control within the company Shaping employee behavior at work. A "strong" culture may be especially beneficial to firms operating in the service sector since members of these organizations are responsible for delivering the service and for evaluations important constituents make about firms. Event-in-organization schemata: a person's knowledge of social events within an organization.
Innovative organizations need individuals who are prepared to challenge the status quo. including: Acceptance and appreciation for diversity Regard for and fair treatment of each employee as well as respect for each employee’s contribution to the company Employee pride and enthusiasm for the organization and the work performed Equal opportunity for each employee to realize their full potential within the company Strong communication with all employees regarding policies and company issues Strong company leaders with a strong sense of direction and purpose Ability to compete in industry innovation and customer service. when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternatives of action. p. and need procedures to implement new ideas effectively. and employee knowledge Additionally. people do things because they believe it is the right thing to do. or also in groups where a friendly climate is at the base of their identity (avoidance of conflict). 9) This is a state in which even if they have different ideas. do not challenge organizational thinking. growth. as well as price Lower than average turnover rates (perpetuated by a healthy culture) Investment in learning. A variety of characteristics describe a healthy culture. strong internal communications and an acceptance and encouragement of a healthy level of risk-taking in order to achieve innovation. where there is heavy reliance on a central charismatic figure in the organization. and therefore there is a reduced capacity for innovative thoughts. groupthink. training. groupthink is very common and happens all the time. Such cultures possess high employee involvement. This could occur. performance oriented cultures have been shown to possess statistically better financial growth. He defined it as "a quick and easy way to refer to a mode of thinking that people engage when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group. in almost every group. for example. or where there is an evangelical belief in the organization' values.Where culture is strong. Additionally. Members that are defiant are often turned down or seen as a negative influence by the rest of the group because they bring conflict. organizational cultures that explicitly emphasize factors [Type text] Page 16 . In fact. groupthink or bureaucracy. "Groupthink" was described by Irving Janis." (Irving Janis. efficiency and reduce counterproductive behavior and turnover of employees. 1972. Healthy organizational cultures Organizations should strive for what is considered a "healthy" organizational culture in order to increase productivity. and there is a risk of another phenomenon.
strict roles descriptions and authority definitions. An adaptive culture translates into organizational success. In a "Task Culture" teams are formed to solve particular problems. where people are highly skilled and specialized in their own area of expertise. organizations with adaptive cultures perform much better than organizations with unadaptive cultures. these cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines seen in a matrix structure. This culture uses a small team approach. popularized Roger Harrison (1972) with linking organizational structure to organizational culture. especially customers. and taking risks. it is characterized by managers paying close attention to all of their constituencies.related to the demands placed on them by industry technology and growth will be better performers in their industries. where power derives from the personal position and rarely from an expert power. These organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies. Additionally. A "Person Culture" is formed where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. Power Cultures need only a few rules and little bureaucracybut swift in decisions can ensue. In the "Role Culture" authorities are delegated as such within a highly defined structure. Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn See also: Archetype. The described four types of culture are: "Power Culture" concentrates power among a small group or a central figure and its control is radiating from its center like a web. However some professional partnerships operate well as person cultures. Charles Handy Charles Handy (1976). since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue organizational goals. An unadaptive culture can significantly reduce a firm's effectiveness. disabling the firm from pursuing all its competitive/operational options. because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm. It can become difficult for such organizations to continue to operate. These organizations have consistent systems and are very predictable. [Type text] Page 17 . Control is made by procedures (which are highly valued). initiating change when needed. According to Kotter and Heskett (1992). Power is derived from the team with the expertise to execute against a task.
a core belief in clan cultures is that the organization’s trust in and commitment to employees facilitates open communication and employee involvement. whereas market cultures are most strongly related with innovation and financial effectiveness criteria. The polarities construct a quadrant with four types of culture: Clan culture (internal focus and flexible) . Each organization or team will have its unique mix of culture types. Cooke Robert A. Cooke. they developed the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument that distinguishes four culture types.A structured and formalized workplace where leaders act like coordinators. PhD. the gap and direction to change can be made visible as a first step to changing organizational culture. The primary belief in market cultures is that clear goals and contingent rewards motivate employees to aggressively perform and meet stakeholders' expectations. Cameron & Quinn designated six key aspects that will form organizational culture which can be assessed in the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) thus producing a mix of the four archetypes of culture.A dynamic workplace with leaders that stimulate innovation.A friendly workplace where leaders act like father figures. Adhocracy culture (external focus and flexible) . external focus these two polarities were found to be most important in defining organizational success.Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn (1999) made a research on organizational effectiveness and success. These differing results suggest that it is important for executive leaders to consider the match between strategic initiatives and organizational culture when determining how to embed a culture that produces competitive advantage. defines culture as the behaviors that members believe are required to fit in and meet expectations within their organization. Clan cultures are most strongly associated with positive employee attitudes and product and service quality. The Organizational Culture Inventory measures twelve behavioral norms that are grouped into three general types of cultures: [Type text] Page 18 . Based on the Competing Values Framework. By assessing the current organizational culture as well as the preferred situation. stability and internal vs. Market culture (external focus and controlled) . Competing values produce polarities like flexibility vs. Robert A.A competitive workplace with leaders like hard drivers Hierarchy culture (internal focus and controlled) .
Constructive cultures.Based on needs for personal growth. a high positive regard for them and sensitivity to their needs. rather than only as individuals. Affiliative: treat people as more valuable than things (cooperate with others) . 4. are thoughtful and considerate and provide people with support and encouragement. in which members are encouraged to interact with people and approach tasks in ways that help them meet their higher-order satisfaction needs. this sort of culture is an efficient one. typically by effort. creative yet realistic thinking and a balanced concern for people and tasks. and work as teams. Humanistic-Encouraging: help others to grow and develop (resolve conflicts constructively) . People with this style demonstrate a strong desire to learn and experience things. People high in this style devote energy to coaching and counselling others. self-fulfillment and the realisation of one's potential. or skill (pursue a standard of excellence) (explore alternatives before acting) Based on the need to attain high-quality results on challenging projects. Passive/defensive cultures.Reflects an interest in the growth and development of people. Achievement: completing a task successfully.Reflects an interest in developing and sustaining pleasant relationships. 1. Aggressive/defensive cultures. [Type text] Page 19 . explore alternatives before acting and learn from their mistakes. in which members are expected to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security. Self-Actualizing: realization or fulfillment of one's talents and potentialities considered as a drive or need present in everyone (think in unique and independent ways) (do even simple tasks well) . 2. courage. in which members believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security. Constructive cultures Constructive cultures are where people are encouraged to be in communication with their coworkers. rather than something simple like a mechanic one. In positions where people do a complex job. the belief that outcomes are linked to one's effort rather than chance and the tendency to personally set challenging yet realistic goals. People high in this style think ahead and plan. 3.
satisfaction. continuous improvement. Passive/Defensive cultures experience a lot of unresolved conflict and turnover. and learning organizations. procedures. People who use this style are more likely to question others work. Constructive norms are evident in environments where quality is valued over quantity. These types of cultural norms are consistent with (and supportive of) the objectives behind empowerment. and effectiveness is judged at the system level rather than the component level. however asking those [Type text] Page 20 . teamwork. Rules. transformational leadership. The aggressive/defensive style is very stressful. and orders are more important than personal beliefs. Because of the very nature of this style. Aggressive/defensive cultures This style is characterized with more emphasis on task than people. total quality management. service quality. members feel pressured to think and behave in ways that are inconsistent with the way they believe they should in order to be effective. people tend to focus on their own individual needs at the expense of the success of the group. People are expected to please others (particularly superiors) and avoid interpersonal conflict. and judgment. resulting in high levels of motivation. and sales growth. Oppositional. re-engineering.This cultural norm is based on the idea that a need for security that takes the form of being very critical and cynical at times. The four Passive/Defensive cultural norms are: Approval Conventional Dependent Avoidance In organizations with Passive/Defensive cultures. ideas. Passive/defensive cultures Norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security are in the Passive/Defensive Cluster. and people using this style tend to make decisions based on status as opposed to expertise.People high in this style share their thoughts and feelings. 1. creativity is valued over conformity. and organizational members report lower levels of motivation and satisfaction. Organizations with constructive cultures encourage members to work to their full potential. are friendly and cooperative and make others feel a part of things. cooperation is believed to lead to better results than competition.
and expecting organizational members to behave accordingly. An Entrepreneurial Organizational Culture (EOC) is a system of shared values. Power . Organizations with aggressive/defensive cultures encourage or require members to appear competent. Elements People and empowerment focused Value creation through innovation and change Attention to the basics Page 21 [Type text] . and superior. beliefs and norms of members of an organization. Perfectionistic . Entrepreneurial organizational culture Stephen McGuire (2003) defined and validated a model of organizational culture that predicts revenue from new sources. controlled. 3. Those who use this style often equate their own selfworth with controlling others. environmental uncertainty. and competitors' threats. 4. Competitive . believing that innovating and seizing market opportunities are appropriate behaviors to deal with problems of survival and prosperity. These organizations emphasize finding errors.This cultural norm is based on the idea that there is a need for prestige and influence. or concede their position are viewed as incompetent or weak. Those who often use this style are always focused on details and place excessive demands on themselves and others. Members who seek assistance. The short-term gains associated with these strategies are often at the expense of long-term growth. weeding out "mistakes" and encouraging members to compete against each other rather than competitors.tough question often leads to a better product. including valuing creativity and tolerance of creative people. However. Those who use this style have a tendency to dictate others opposing to guiding others’ actions.This cultural norm is based on the need to attain flawless results. Those who use this style are seekers of appraisal and recognition from others.This cultural norm is based on the idea of a need to protect one’s status. 2. Those who use this style protect their own status by comparing themselves to other individuals and outperforming them. admit shortcomings. those who use this style tend to be over critical and point out others small flaws and use it as a mechanism to put others down. Those who often use this style equate their self-worth with the attainment of extremely high standards.
Field data were collected by interviewing Western expatriates and Chinese professionals working in this context. namely. or three broad types of "cultural rules of behavior". they need not be consistent. and Ad Hoc Rules. Differences between national cultures are deep rooted values of the respective cultures. Metaphorically. Expectations. while Ad Hoc Rules are improvised rules of behavior that the human mind devises contingent upon a particular occasion. Values. The major finding of this study is that human cognition contains three components. Indeed employees and people applying for a job are advised to match their "personality to a company’s culture" and fit to it. coordinate. (Geert Hofstede. However differences in national cultures exist contributing to differences in the views on the management. 1991) Multiplicity See also: Biculturalism Xibao Zhang (2009) carried out an empirical study of culture emergence in the Sino-Western international cross-cultural management (SW-ICCM) context in China. The three cognitive components are different in terms of the scope and duration of their mutual shaping with behavior. each of which has a mutually conditioning relationship with behavior. among themselves. on the other hand. are context-specific behavioral rules. National and organizational culture Corporate culture is used to control. and integrate of company subsidiaries. they can be compared to a [Type text] Page 22 . supplemented by non-participant observation and documentary data. and how relationships between leaders and followers should be resulting to differences between the employer and the employee on expectations. The data were then analyzed in grounded fashion to formulate theme-based substantive theories and a formal theory. Values are universal and enduring rules of behavior. Identity (social science) Organizational culture is taught to the person as culture is taught by his/her parents thus changing and modeling his/her personal culture. and frequently are not. Hands-on management Doing the right thing Freedom to grow and to fail Commitment and personal responsibility Emphasis on the future Personal and organizational culture Main: Personality psychology. Furthermore. and these cultural values can shape how people expect companies to be run. Expectations. Some researchers even suggested and have made case studies research on personality changing.
so to speak. Procter & Gamble. adolescent. is to view culture as an overarching entity which is made of a multiplicity of Values. Expectations. and to accommodate and adapt themselves to cultural contexts where people from different national cultural backgrounds work together over extended time. This internal inconsistency view is in stark contrast to the traditional internal consistency assumption explicitly or tacitly held by many culture scholars. The other major theoretical contribution. a reflection of their organizational cultures. Impacts Research suggests that numerous outcomes have been associated either directly or indirectly with organizational culture. they provide a "shock-absorber mechanism". including the following: Competitive edge derived from innovation and customer service Consistent. and McDonald's may be. and Ad Hoc Rules. Organizational culture can be a factor in the survival or failure of an organization . [Type text] Page 23 . which enables individuals in SW-ICCM contexts to cope with conflicts in cultural practices and values. which follows logically from the first one. there is little doubt among experts that this relationship exists. This notion of one (multiplicity) culture to an organization leads to the classification of culture along its path of emergence into nascent. The sustained superior performance of firms like IBM. It also provides a powerful framework which explains how interactions by individuals in SWICCM contexts give rise to emerging hybrid cultural practices characterized by both stability and change. each of which is distinct in terms of the pattern of the three cognitive components and behavior. One major theoretical contribution of this "multi-carriage train" perspective is its allowance for the existence of inconsistencies among the three cognitive components in their mutual conditioning with behavior.multi-carriage train. Hewlett-Packard.although this is difficult to prove considering the necessary longitudinal analyses are hardly feasible. efficient employee performance Team cohesiveness High employee morale Strong company alignment towards goal achievement Although little empirical research exists to support the link between organizational culture and organizational performance. which allows for the relative lateral movements by individual carriages so as to accommodate bumps and turns in the tracks. and mature types. A healthy and robust organizational culture may provide various benefits. In fact. at least partly.
A 2003 Harvard Business School study reported that culture has a significant impact on an organization’s long-term economic performance. Additionally. Individuals tend to be attracted to and remain engaged in organizations that they perceive to be compatible. Culture affects the way individuals make decisions. and may impact individual performance. and act in response to the opportunities and threats affecting the organization. a 2002 Corporate Leadership Council study found that cultural traits such as risk taking. Denison. high turnover may be a mediating factor in the relationship between culture and organizational performance. set objectives. productivity through people. and flexibility are some of the most important drivers of performance. and the other cultural factors cited by Peters and Waterman (1982) also have positive economic consequences. higher job strain. and administer the necessary resources to achieve objectives. Additionally. and Goelzer (2004) found that culture contributes to the success of the organization. but not all dimensions contribute the same. Organizational culture also has an impact on recruitment and retention. A perceived mismatch of the organization’s culture and what employees felt the culture should be is related to a number of negative consequences including lower job satisfaction. which suggests that organizational culture is impacted by national culture. Additionally. innovativeness. Deteriorating company performance and an unhealthy work environment are signs of an overdue cultural assessment. general stress. It was found that the impacts of these dimensions differ by global regions. Clarke (2006) found that a safety climate is related to an organization’s safety record. The study examined the management practices at 160 organizations over ten years and found that culture can enhance performance or prove detrimental to performance. Adkins and Caldwell (2004) found that job satisfaction was positively associated with the degree to which employees fit into both the overall culture and subculture in which they worked. feel. and the reporting of unethical behavior. internal communications. Organizations with strong performance-oriented cultures witnessed far better financial growth. but more research is needed to support these conclusions. Firing on the base of culture [Type text] Page 24 . It has been proposed that organizational culture may impact the level of employee creativity. Furthermore. the strength of employee motivation. and turnover intent. Organizational culture is reflected in the way people perform tasks. Haaland.
and describe the difference. which granted its fired employees with huge afterwards compensations. the size and nature of the workforce. and/or achieve specific company goals and results. interviews. Corporate culture is something that is very hard to change and employees need time to get used to the new way of organizing. When one wants to change an aspect of the culture of an organization one has to keep in consideration that this is a long term project. from 2008. This can be done through employee surveys. Firing on corporate culture is a recent practice. including the external environment and industry competitors. For companies with a very strong and specific culture it will be even harder to change. technology changes. Prior to a cultural change initiative. there is still not law or case law resolving or addressing the question making this practice possible and available for businesses for now. focus groups." Ideas and strategies. As the corporate culture may mean almost everything. seem to vary according to particular influences that affect culture. The company must then assess and clearly identify the new. and then design a change process.Usually pointed as a source of creating "family like" environment. [Type text] Page 25 . customer surveys where appropriate. athough this may fall in the ground of discrimination. a needs assessment is needed to identify and understand the current organizational culture. Culture change is impacted by a number of elements. to further identify areas that require change. Burman and Evans (2008) argue that it is 'leadership' that affects culture rather than 'management'. desired culture. on the other hand. Culture change may be necessary to reduce employee turnover. These are also a variety of psychological approaches that have been developed into a system for specific outcomes such as the Fifth Discipline’s "learning organization" or Directive Communication’s "corporate culture evolution. and other internal research. make improvements to the company. change in industry standards. refocus the company objectives and/or rescale the organization. Change When an organization does not possess a healthy culture or requires some kind of organizational culture change. observation. There are a number of methodologies specifically dedicated to organizational culture change such as Peter Senge’s Fifth Discipline. with this practice started from shoe company Zappos. and the organization’s history and management. provide better customer service. influence employee behavior. Netflix. and many other companies hire and fire based solely on cultural fit). the change process can be daunting. firing on the base of culture means the employer does not accept and desire to be inclusive for the culture of the employee and thus the employee "does not fit in corporate culture" (Zappos. the notion of corporate culture is also used for firing.
Change agents are key in the process and key communicators of the new values. 491 – 492) give the following six guidelines for cultural change. Formulate a clear strategic vision (stage 1. The top of the organization should be very much in favor of the change in order to actually implement the change in the rest of the organization. excellent interpersonal skills. 2. De Caluwé & Vermaak (2004. Schall.Cummings & Worley (2004. but just a few adjustments. p. these individual should be catalysts. This may include a change to accountability [Type text] Page 26 . This includes identifying what current systems. They should possess courage. 4. or similar. Weick. 2): 1. The behavior of the management needs to symbolize the kinds of values and behaviors that should be realized in the rest of the company. flexibility. This process may also include creating committee. This vision provides the intention and direction for the culture change (Cummings & Worley. Modify the organization to support organizational change. 2. knowledge of the company. Sathe. policies. and 3). page 490). 1982. procedures and rules need to be changed in order to align with the new values and desired culture. the change has to be notable at first at this level. not dictators. (See for more: Deal & Kennedy. 1985. shared values and behaviors is needed. It is important that the management shows the strengths of the current culture as well. these changes are in line with the eight distinct stages mentioned by Kotter (1995. Model culture change at the highest level (stage 5). p 9) provide a framework with five different ways of thinking about change. 1983. It is very important to keep in mind that culture change must be managed from the top of the organization. it must be made clear that the current organizational does not need radical changes. p. 2004. and patience. p. In order to make a cultural change effective a clear vision of the firm’s new strategy. 1987). 490). 3. as willingness to change of the senior management is an important indicator (Cummings & Worley. 1983. Display top-management commitment (stage 4). employee task forces. 2004. value managers. DiTomaso. As McCune (May 1999) puts it. In order to show that the management team is in favor of the change. The fourth step is to modify the organization to support organizational change.
1995. expectations and systems. to include an evaluation process. to further encourage buy-in in the change process. p. control. Develop ethical and legal sensitivity. conducted periodically to monitor the change progress and identify areas that need further development. It may also be helpful and necessary to incorporate new change managers to refresh the process. compensation. equitable treatment and job security (Cummings & Worley. A way to implement a culture is to connect it to organizational membership. Select and socialize newcomers and terminate deviants (stage 7 & 8 of Kotter. which will also encourage continued change and evolvement. 6. people can be selected and terminate in terms of their fit with the new culture (Cummings & Worley. Training should be provided to all employees to understand the new processes. 2004. This step will also identify obstacles of change and resistant employees and to acknowledge and reward employee improvement. The company and change managers should be able to articulate the connections between the desired behavior and how it will impact and improve the company’s success. Outside consultants may also be useful in facilitating the change process and providing employee training. Culture innovations is bound to be because it entails introducing something new and substantially different from what prevails in existing cultures. 491). benefits and reward structures. 5. It is also beneficial. and recruitment and retention programs to better align with the new values and to send a clear message to employees that the old system and culture are in the past. Cultural innovation  is bound to be more difficult than cultural maintenance. Changes in culture can lead to tensions between organizational and individual interests.systems. 491). p. People often resist changes hence it is the duty of the management to convince people that likely gain will outweigh [Type text] Page 27 . Change of culture in the organizations is very important and inevitable. Encouraging employee motivation and loyalty to the company is key and will also result in a healthy culture. 2004. This is particularly relevant for changes in employee integrity. as part of the change process. p. which can result in ethical and legal problems for practitioners. 2).
The values of a corporate culture influence the ethical standards within a corporation. and in some sense unique. as a source of pride. Besides institutionalization. Corporate culture is often called "the character of an organization". customs. since it embodies the vision of the company's founders. as well as managerial behavior.the losses. In addition. organizational culture. They may wish to impose corporate values and standards of behavior that specifically reflect the objectives of the organization. ego clashes. and they begin to identify with it. This is done through cultural innovation followed by cultural maintenance. Cultural innovation includes: Creating a new culture: recognizing past cultural differences and setting realistic expectations for change Changing the culture: weakening and replacing the old cultures Integrating the new culture: reconciling the differences between the old cultures and the new one Embodying the new culture: Establishing. and inter-group conflicts. Organizational members begin to feel a strong bond with it that transcends material returns given by the organization. deification is another process that tends to occur in strongly developed organizational cultures. The organization turns into a sort of clan. The organization itself may come to be regarded as precious in itself. affirming. traditions. Each organization has its own unique culture and most often. Organizational leaders must also be cultural leaders and help facilitate the change from the two old cultures into the one new culture. and meanings that make a company unique. When mergers fail employees point to issues such as identity. human resources problems. and keeping the new culture Cultural maintenance includes: Corporate subcultures Corporate culture is the total sum of the values. which all fall under the category of "cultural differences". [Type text] Page 28 . Mergers. and cultural leadership One of the biggest obstacles in the way of the merging of two organizations is organizational culture. Senior management may try to determine a corporate culture. when brought together. these cultures clash. One way to combat such difficulties is through cultural leadership. there will also be an extant internal culture within the workforce. communication problems.
the largest fine in agency history. The neat typologies of cultural forms found in textbooks rarely acknowledge such complexities. describing that it drives organizations rather than vice versa. Parker (2000) has suggested that many of the assumptions of those putting forward theories of organizational culture are not new. she criticises theories that attempt to categorize or 'pigeonhole' organizational culture.825. Roger Harrison's four-culture typology. we are unaware of how it shapes behavior and interaction (also recognized through [Type text] Page 29 . Critical views Criticism of the usage of the term by managers began already in its emergence in the early 80s. a subsidiary of Massey Energy Co. or the various economic contradictions that exist in capitalist organizations. Most of the criticism comes from the writers in critical management studies who for example express skepticism about the functionalist and unitarist views about culture that are put forward by mainstream management writers. and adapted by Charles Handy. it is reasonable to suggest that complex organizations might have many cultures. They reflect a long-standing tension between cultural and structural (or informal and formal) versions of what organizations are. For example. operated by Performance Coal Co. Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration that fined of $10. language and behaviors gained independently of the organization. Among the strongest and widely recognized writers on corporate culture with a long list of articles on leadership. following its investigation of explosion at the Upper Big Branch-South Mine.368 Performance Coal Co. Legal aspects Corporate culture can be found as a cause of injuries and be a reason for fining companies in US like in the case of U. They suggest that organizations do not have a single culture and cultural engineering may not reflect the interests of all stakeholders within an organization. in April 2010. corporate culture can be 'imported'. She uses the metaphor of a plant root to represent culture. culture. gender and their intersection is Linda Smircich. and that such sub-cultures might overlap and contradict each other. Organizations are the product of organizational culture. but their presence can influence the culture of the organization as a whole.S. They stress the ways in which these cultural assumptions can stifle dissent management and reproduce propaganda and ideology.. affect the whole system. computer technicians will have expertise. Further. to an extent. suggests that unlike organizational culture. as a part of the of critical management studies.Work-groups within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which.
^ a b the application of the term culture to the collective attitudes and behavior of corporations arose in business jargon during the late [Type text] Page 30 . 2011 8. L. and bottom. ^ "A pattern of shared basic assumptions invented. Cashing in on corporate culture. Jones.Houghton Mifflin. It Can Cost You. Arizona State University. ^ Stoykov. ^ What is Corporate Culture?." in Charles W. (2001) Strategic Management. 4." said Lou Gerstner. 1992 3. January-February 2008 5. Edgar Schein. the CEO who pulled IBM from near ruin in the 1990s. March 30. The view from the top. September 24. knowmgmt. Bosses think their firms are caring. Hill. ^ Corporate culture. discovered. ^ a b c Cindy Gordon. or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration" that have worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore.". think and feel in relation to those problems". ^ "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and withstakeholders outside the organization. ^ a b ""Culture is everything. to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive. The Economist. 2011 6.Scheins (2002) underlying assumptions[clarification needed]) and so how can we categorize it and define what it is? See also Cultural capital Lifestyle (sociology) Multiculturalism Organizational behavior Organizational studies Cultural identity Diversity Inclusive business Inclusiveness References 1. WiseGeek 2. and Gareth R. Their minions disagree. Culture Clash: When Corporate Culture Fights Strategy. 1995 7. CA magazine.
A. 1982 11.. year 1. ^ Halpin. 67 13. & Croft. The organizational climate of schools. Allan C. DeWine. J. ^ Fred C. B. But corporate managers. Organizational communication: Foundations. Over 80 percent of Panelists accept the sentence The new management style is a reversal of GE's traditional corporate culture. manager. Chicago: Midwest Administration Center of the University of Chicago. Unlike many locutions that emerge in business jargon. Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis. it spread to popular use in newspapers and magazines. ^ a b One of the first to point to the importance of culture for organizational analysis and the intersection of culture theoryand organization theory is Linda Smircich in her article Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis in 1983. 9. which describes overall behaviour patterns in groups. 12. (Chapters 1-6) [Type text] Page 31 . doi:10.. Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. (2011). challenges.. in which virtually everything the company does is measured in some form and filed away somewhere. Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. found it difficult to use the term unselfconsciously. pp. Career Talk: Corporate Culture. See Linda Smircich. 1983. Issue: 3. Sociologists and anthropologists popularized the word "culture" in its technical sence. pp.P. Cengage Learning. Few Usage Panelists object to it. (1963). Lunenburg. issue 1. ^ a b Modaff. Publisher: JSTOR. Volume: 28. ^ a b "The term "Corporate Culture" is fast losing the academic ring it once had among U. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.". W. S. Boston: Pearson Education. 339-358 10. & Butler. untrained in sociology jargon. Administrative Science Quarterly.S. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. D. 2011.2307/2392246. Updated in 2009." in Phillip Farish.1980s and early 1990s.). Hispanic Engineer. Ornstein. and misunderstandings (2nd Ed. D.
Investigation of employee tenure as related to relationships of personality and personal values of entrepreneurs and their perceptions of their employees. A. Retrieved 6 October 2011. College Of Business Administration. ^ Islam. 26. Geert H. July 11.14. (34).org 19.California State University. P. ^ Hofstede. ^ "Constructive Styles". Behaviors.ppt). ^ Cooke.com/dimensions. ^ Deal and Kennedy.Biz Corp. Corporate Culture and Performance. 2009 28. ^ a b Becky H. Human Synergistics. Takeda. 2009 22. The Organizational Culture Inventory. and Organizations Across Nations. Elements of an Entrepreneurial Culture (. (1992). ^ http://geert-hofstede. New York: The Free Press. Sage Publications. ^ Personality and Corporate Culture: Where’s a Person to Fit?. Retrieved 6 October 2011. ChangingMinds. MI: Human Synergistics. 2001. ProQuest. ^ Kotter. ^ Hofstede.. ^ "Using the Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI) to Measure Kotter and Heskett's Adaptive and Unadaptive Cultures". 24. ^ Christophe Lejeune. Sage Publications.html 17. Lindle Hatton. ^ a b c d Deal and Kennedy's cultural model. p. Comparing the processes of identity change: A multiple-case study approach. ^ a b "Aggressive/Defensive Styles". Sacramento 27. ^ Enrique Ruiz. ^ Dr. Institutions. 21. 1982 20. Institutions. 16. (2009). Career Rocketeer. and Organizations Across Nations. 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values. 2 18. Group Organization Management. Discriminate Or Diversify. Michael. Retrieved 6 October 2011. Geert H. Human-Synergistics. [Type text] Page 32 . Inc. Gazi and Zyphur. J. 25. Plymouth. (1987). 15. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values. PositivePsyche. 23. Rituals in organizatinios: A review and expansion of current theory. Behaviors. 1140139. Alain Vas. 2007. R.
1002/hrm.29. Keith Glaister. Record. pp. pp. Schneider. little do we know about a specific culture principled by the organization. ^ Molly Rose Teuke. Volume 53.epiplex500. Issue Supplement s1.. ^ Corporate Culture Affect Employees 32. ^ US Labor Department’s MSHA cites corporate culture as root cause of Upper Big Branch Mine disaster. National and corporate culture differences in international strategic alliances: Perceptions of Chinese partners (RePEc). however. and Charnov. editors Campbell Jones and Rolland Munro. (2008) Management (4th ed. and culture is what makes a workplace an organization. Issue 2. P. Barrons Educational Series. doi:10. 24 (June 2007). culture. MSHA News Release. Like varied personalities. B. 191-205 31. 231– 246. Creating culture of innovation. ^ Li Dong. Now. ^ Joanna Brewis. "Othering Organization Theory: Marta Calás and Linda Smircich" (abstract). Special Issue: Sociological Review Monograph Series: Contemporary Organization Theory. October 2005 Types of Organizational Culture By organization culture. Equanimity. ^ Montana. pp. National vs. Different organizations follow different work cultures in their workplace. 2011 37. and prevalent throughout the workforce hierarchy. The Sociological Review. Ads by Google Process Improvement Solns Capture. ^ a b Hiring and firing based on cultural fit 34. the strategies and attitudes deemed constant.3930270207 30. May 12. US Department of Labor. ^ Corporate Culture 33. corporate culture: Implications for human resource management. Summer 1988. February 2007 35. Here are the various organizational cultures that define even the minutiae of an aspect in the organization. Human Resource Management.). it is not a recondite concept. Hauppauge:NY 36. however.com A number of us are aware as to how an organization functions. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. there are various types of organizational [Type text] Page 33 . Oracle Magazine. 80–94. Volume 27. Free Trial www. Document & Analyze Business Processes. ^ Susan C. we mean. and ethics prevail where a particular culture is followed in an organization. as a term has a dynamic entity.
and less of governance. Employees tend to stay with the organization. inadvertently. Dynamism is defined best when the workforce has the free will to conceive an out-of-theordinary idea. and grow with(in) it. The feeling one derives while working in this type of organization is that of comfort and coercive motivation. and are highly prized. Baseball Team Culture In this kind of culture. may lead to success. the client is virtually deified.cultures that function by adhering to a stipulated method of working. and are highly in demand. This organization consists of superiors who provide more of guidance. to higher levels of morale. as it is very fast-paced. Pragmatic Culture In contrast to normative cultures. In this type of organizational structure. Academy Culture In this kind of culture. There is. universities. Adhocracy Work Culture It is a type of organization that is altered to provide an environment to accrue one's creative acumen. and the organization provides an environment for the development. the employees are 'free agents'. stress is laid on satisfying the wish of their clients. Collaborate Work Culture Often referred to as clan culture. however. and retain the business they may invite through the clients. This kind of culture is perceived to portray a high standard of business ethics. best-suited to their core business. and investment banking. the development of which. Club Culture [Type text] Page 34 . and out-of-the-box thinking is an appendage-cum-motto. The prime concern of every employee is to cater to the needs of the client. employees are highly skilled. attain. Ideas are encouraged. These employees find employment easily in any organization. Examples of this kind of culture are hospitals. ✍ Cultures That Govern the Organization The diverse organizational cultures that mold the structure of a business acumen are as follows: Normative Culture In a normative organization. to name a few. The organization is based on worker-welfare. Examples of this kind of culture are advertising. the organization stresses on implementing the organizational procedures in the correct manner. a considerable amount of risk attached to this culture. an organization that adopts a collaborate culture offers a congenial and amiable environment to work in. where you have the employees' interest in the foreground with his skills valued. and monetary incentives. and according to the norms and rules defined. and honing of employee skills. and large corporations. Insinuating and developing teamwork is the most vital element of the organization. and performances handsomely rewarded.
and researches as their core business proposition. this organization undergoes massive changes. A change in the organizational culture requires an organization to make amendments to its policies. is to change its work culture. It can also be related to activities. as the organizations. and currency trading. Bet Your Company Culture In this kind of culture. and management system. Examples of this kind of organization are law firms. and the production floor. and prefers to abide by them. This kind of culture is predominantly opted by the large-scaled organizations that have gained their customers' trust and support. Process Culture This type of culture does not include the process of feedback. Companies that postulate experimental projects. This culture bestows consistency upon the organization. It takes time to see the consequence of these decisions. The different types of organizational [Type text] Page 35 . Fortress Culture Employees are not sure if the will be laid off or not by the organization. This kind of culture is does not eschew high levels of stress. and tedious one. subsequently rolling out a steadfast customer help service. the employees stay with the organization for a long time. One of the most difficult tasks to undertake in an organization. or branding of an athlete. It needs to start right from its base functions. a police team. predominantly meant for public services. support functions. etc. instead they are known to reach the apotheosis of efficiency. which finally affects the overall output of the organization. Few examples of this type of culture are loans and savings. The organization. etc. or level. by the organization. It requires a complete overhaul of the entire system. large car companies. Very often. This kind of culture is mostly associated with quick financial activities. and endurance. The employees are expected to possess a strong mentality for survival in the organization. and is qualified with multiple-team meetings. the company makes big. when an organization succeeds in making a change on such a massive level. a sports team. already. is equipped with specialized jargon. consist of a firm base coupled with a strong client relationship. a company designing experimental military weapons may implement the said type of culture. which requires patience. and it is imperative that they possess the specific skills required and desired. and quick feedback. adopt this kind of culture. and get promoted to a senior post.Usually. Work Hard/Play Hard Culture This type of organization does not involve much risk. with this kind of culture. In this kind of culture. the organization is extremely cautious about the adherence to laws. However. like. Macho Culture The most important aspect of this kind of culture is big rewards. including. workplace ethics. like. and not many organizations prefer it as the process is a long. operations. the military. the results are almost always positive. brokerage. and important decisions over high stake endeavors. and fruitful. These employees are hand-picked. for instance.
surely. ultimately. feedbacks are essential. The roles and responsibilities are delegated according to the back ground. Advertising agencies. Baseball team Culture: A baseball team culture considers the employees as the most treasured possession of the organization. [Type text] Page 36 . Fortress Culture: There are certain organizations where the employees are not very sure about their career and longevity. 6. 3. 2. In such a culture. Club Culture: Organizations following a club culture are very particular about the employees they recruit. The individuals are hired as per their specialization. The management makes sincere efforts to upgrade the knowledge of the employees to improve their professional competence. is the essence.html Let us understand the various types of organization culture: 1. event management companies. more emphasis is placed on the clients and the external parties. Educational institutions. 7.com/articles/types-of-organizational-culture. They ensure that various training programmes are being conducted at the workplace to hone the skills of the employees. Customer satisfaction is the main motive of the employees in a pragmatic culture. Tough Guy Culture: In a tough guy culture. the norms and procedures of the organization are predefined and the rules and regulations are set as per the existing guidelines. The performance of the employees is reviewed from time to time and their work is thoroughly monitored. 4. however. The employees are terminated if the organization is not performing well.cultures aforementioned. Academy Culture: Organizations following academy culture hire skilled individuals. Individuals suffer the most when the organization is at a loss. Normative Culture: In such a culture. You can also adopt one of them for your own organization. The employees are the true assets of the organization who have a major role in its successful functioning. must have helped you to understand them. persistence. educational qualification and interests. The employees behave in an ideal way and strictly adhere to the policies of the organization. universities. Organizations following academy culture are very particular about training the existing employees. Team managers are appointed to discuss queries with the team members and guide them whenever required. Such organizations follow fortress culture. Every employee strives hard to satisfy his clients to expect maximum business from their side. and patience. Pragmatic Culture: In a pragmatic culture. hospitals practice such a culture. Stock broking industries follow such a culture. Such organizations treat their clients as Gods and do not follow any set rules. Each one does what he is best at.buzzle. 5. The high potential employees are promoted suitably and appraisals are a regular feature of such a culture. financial institutions follow such a culture. educational qualification and work experience of the employees. Read more at Buzzle: http://www. The employees are under constant watch in such a culture. the individuals always have an upper edge and they do not bother much about their organization. The employees in an academy culture stick to the organization for a longer duration and also grow within it. No employee dares to break the rules and sticks to the already laid policies.
Bet your company Culture: Organizations which follow bet your company culture take decisions which involve a huge amount of risk and the consequences are also unforeseen.8. [Type text] Page 37 . The employees abide by the rules and regulations and work according to the ideologies of the workplace. All government organizations follow such a culture. Feedbacks and performance reviews do not matter much in such organizations. The principles and policies of such an organization are formulated to address sensitive issues and it takes time to get the results. Process Culture: As the name suggests the employees in such a culture adhere to the processes and procedures of the organization. 9.
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