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**for image processing, analysis, and algorithm development
**

The Image Processing Toolbox extends the MATLAB® computing environment to provide functions and interactive tools for enhancing and analyzing digital images and developing image processing algorithms. In addition, it facilitates the learning and teaching of image processing techniques in both academic and research settings. Together, MATLAB and the Image Processing Toolbox provide scientists, researchers, and engineers with a diverse, flexible set of tools for solving complex imaging problems in disciplines such as aerospace/defense, astronomy, remote sensing, medical and scientific imaging, and materials science. Most functions are implemented in the open MATLAB language, letting you explore and customize existing toolbox algorithms or develop your own. You can use the toolbox for the restoration of noisy or degraded images, image enhancement for improved intelligibility, blob analysis, and extraction and analysis of image data with 2-D statistics and transforms, as well as to develop complete solutions to challenging image processing problems that involve multidimensional data sets.

KEY FEATURES

s Linear filtering and filter design s Image analysis, including pixel, region, and feature statistics and measurement s Image enhancement s Binary and grayscale morphology s Image segmentation s Spatial transformation s Image registration s Image deblurring s FFT, DCT, and radon transform s Region-of-interest processing s Multidimensional image processing s DICOM import in addition to supported file formats in MATLAB

The toolbox’s deblurring algorithms were used to restore these images that were blurred by distortion operators. From left to right: a circuit board, stained tissue, and an image of the sun.

Stained tissue image–courtesy of J.C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook Sun image–courtesy of the SOHO EIT Consortium. SOHO is a mission of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

Image Analysis and Enhancement MATLAB and the Image Processing Toolbox support a broad range of advanced image processing functions. contrast enhancement with the morphological transforms top-hat and bottom-hat. and Roberts methods. and deblur images. An interactive point-selection tool lets you align two images by picking points in a pair of images that identify the same feature or landmark in each. peak detection. TIFF. The two images can then be aligned by performing a spatial transformation such as linear conformal. or display colorbars to view the mapping of colors to values. and images texture-mapped onto surfaces. such as edge detection. You can also interactively crop and resize your images. The toolbox also lets you define your own transformations and supports multidimensional transformations. The discrete cosine transform. remote sensing. contour plots. compute feature measurements. Specialized morphology functions include hole filling. to identify object boundaries in an image. Sobel. allowing you to develop custom routines for working with any data format. projective. You can also create AVI movies from sets of images. or Visualization MATLAB visualization tools let you depict the information contained in your image data through histograms. noise removal. polynomial. and obtain pixel values and statistics. montages. HDF. You can use the inverse Radon transform (commonly used in tomography applications) to reconstruct images from projection data. Image Manipulation The Image Processing Toolbox lets you use advanced techniques to alter different aspects of your images. SURFACE IMAGE ENHANCED IMAGE This series of images illustrates how to identify and extract features from multiple. transparent overlays. MATLAB and the Image Processing Toolbox support many standard data and image formats from areas such as medical imaging. and astronomy. local weighted mean. such as the location and value of pixels in an image. Additional functions perform ASCII and low-level binary I/O. The toolbox supports several fundamental algorithms such as Lucy-Richardson. . The supported formats include JPEG. the WATERSHED SEGMENTED IMAGE watershed-labeled regions. and others. You can extract and analyze image features. An extensive collection of morphology functions for grayscale and binary images allows you to perform operations that are sensitive to specific shapes in the input image. and regularized filter deconvolution for the deblurring or deconvolution of images. piecewise linear. measure distances in images. The included functions let you easily align. MATLAB supports other industry standard file formats. Using the morphological functions of the toolbox you can quickly perform image processing tasks. which is at the heart of the JPEG standard. and granulometry. touching objects in an image. including the Canny. and apply filter algorithms. DICOM. Clockwise from top left: original atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of a surface coating. pixel profiles. lets you prototype compression algorithms. All deblurring functions support multidimensional images. You can view and measure image attributes. You can use filters for different types of image noise or build customized filters with the filter design tools that are included. affine. Wiener. skeletonization. transform. All morphology functions support multidimensional images. The toolbox includes several edge detection algorithms.Data Import and Export Getting your image data in and out of MATLAB is easy. and watershed segmentation. such as Microsoft® Excel. Interactive tools allow you to select arbitrary regions of interest.

you can use MATLAB’s built-in programming tools — such as a visual debugger for algorithm development and refinement — and an algorithm performance profiler. Algorithm Development and Application Deployment MATLAB lets you easily encapsulate your image processing solution in a customized software application. From left to right: simulated image of two touching spherical objects. Helpful features include an interactive GUI builder to rapidly develop custom graphical front ends for your image processing applications. and specialized techniques that can be drawn from any of the toolboxes within the MATLAB product family. You can also use multiple light sources for colored surfaces and a camerabased viewing and perspective control to enhance graphical representations. The MATLAB language facilitates the creative use of computation. You can also integrate your algorithms with existing C programs or deploy the developed algo- This series of concatenated MRI slices of the human skull illustrates the ability to use spatial transformations to interpolate an array and transform it in a single operation. Wavelet. helping you to highlight certain characteristics or values. to accelerate development.Simulated 3-D spherical objects Euclidean distance transform Segmented objects This series of images illustrates the use of the multidimensional watershed transform to segment or separate touching three-dimensional objects. You can share image processing algorithms created in the MATLAB language across all MATLAB supported platforms. different colors highlight the segmentation of the touching objects. and Statistics. including an isosurface display of multidimensional image data sets. visualization. In addition. Neural Network. With the MATLAB Compiler. You can solve challenging multidisciplinary problems using the Image Processing Toolbox in combination with other MATLAB Toolboxes such as Signal Processing. you can automatically convert your image processing algorithms into C and C++ code. several isosurfaces of the multidimensional Euclidean distance transform. Pointand-click tools let you easily edit and annotate graphics. Using the powerful volume visualization in MATLAB you can create graphical representations. . Mapping. rithms and GUIs as stand-alone applications.

JPEG. (Supported file formats include: AVI. Compute 2-D correlation coefficient imcontour Create contour plot of image data imhist Display histogram of image data improfile Compute pixel-value crosssections along line segments regionprops Measure properties of image regions corr2 Create predefined filters Filter 2-D and multidimensional images Linear 2-D Filter Design For designing 2-D FIR filters to meet given frequency-domain specifications. or multiply image by constant imsubtract Subtract two images. Lucy-Richardson method Deblur image using a regularized filter Deblur image using Wiener method continued . fspecial imfilter Read metadata from a DICOM message Read a DICOM image Return information about image file Read image file Write image file Pixel Values and Statistics For extracting grayscale statistics and other information about pixel values in images. freqspace freqz2 fsamp2 ftrans2 fwind1 Image Arithmetic For performing integer and floating-point arithmetic operations on images. Enhance contrast using histogram equalization imadjust Adjust image intensity values or colormap imnoise Add noise to an image medfilt2 Perform 2-D median filtering ordfilt2 Perform 2-D order-statistic filtering stretchlim Find limits to contrast stretch an image wiener2 Perform 2-D adaptive noiseremoval filtering histeq movie subimage warp Display colorbar Make movie from multiframe image Display image Display multiple image frames as rectangular montage Play recorded movie frames Display multiple images in single figure Display image as texturemapped surface Image Registration For selecting control points and aligning two images. Infer geometric transformation from control point pairs cpcorr Tune control point locations using cross-correlation cpselect Control point selection tool normxcorr2 Normalized two-dimensional cross-correlation cp2tform Image File I/O For loading. XWD) dicominfo dicomread imfinfo imread imwrite Linear Filtering For applying arbitrary as well as predefined filters to images and multidimensional datasets. imabsdiff imadd Compute absolute difference of two images Add two images. edge qtdecomp qtgetblk qtsetblk fwind2 Complement image Divide two images. PNG. DICOM. PCX. CDF. deconvlucy Deblur image using deconvreg deconvwnr Note: The Signal Processing Toolbox is recommended for 2-D FIR filter design to generate the inputs (1-D windows and 1-D filter prototypes) to the 2-D FIR design functions. or add constant to image imcomplement Image Analysis For analyzing images to extract information about their structure.Sample Functions Image Display For controlling the display of individual or multiple images and animations colorbar immovie imshow montage Some of these functions are native to the MATLAB language Spatial Transformations For performing various geometric manipulations on images. or subtract constant from image imdivide Determine 2-D frequency response spacing Compute 2-D frequency response Design 2-D FIR filter using frequency sampling Design 2-D FIR filter using frequency transformation Design 2-D FIR filter using 1-D window method Design 2-D FIR filter using 2-D window method Find edges in intensity image Perform quadtree decomposition Get block values in quadtree decomposition Set block values in quadtree decomposition Image Deblurring For deblurring images using different algorithms. saving. BMP. or divide image by constant imlincomb Compute linear combination of images immultiply Multiply two images. HDF. FITS. and retrieving information about images. Crop image Resize image Rotate image Apply spatial transformation to image tformarray Apply spatial transformation to multidimensional array imcrop imresize imrotate imtransform Image Enhancement For enhancing images to make certain features easier to see or to reduce noise. HDF-EOS. TIFF.

Sample Functions continued edgetaper otf2psf psf2otf idct2 ifft2 ifftn iradon radon Taper edges using pointspread function Convert optical transfer function to point-spread function Convert point-spread function to optical transfer function 2-D inverse discrete cosine transform 2-D inverse fast Fourier transform Multidimensional inverse fast Fourier transform Compute inverse Radon transform Compute Radon transform imdilate Dilate image imerode Erode image imextendedmax Extended-maxima transform imextendedmin Extended-minima transform imfill Fill image regions and holes imhmax H-maxima transform imhmin H-minima transform imimposemin Impose minima imopen Open image imreconstruct Image Transforms For alternative mathematical representations of images for advanced analysis. Note that it took only nine functions to perform the analysis.Original image of rice grains with nonuniform background intensity Extraction of nonuniform background intensity using morphological opening Result of subtraction of nonuniformity from original Histogram plot of resultant image with automatic thresholding Binary thresholded image Measuring region properties such as the eccentricity of the rice grains MATLAB desktop A typical interactive session using MATLAB and the Image Processing Toolbox to perform connected components analysis — also known as blob analysis — on an image with nonuniform background intensity. conndef Default connectivity imbothat Perform bottom-hat filtering imclearborder Morphological reconstruction imregionalmax 2-D discrete cosine transform Discrete cosine transform matrix 2-D fast Fourier transform multidimensional fast Fourier transform Regional maxima imregionalmin imtophat watershed imclose Suppress light structures connected to image border Close image Regional minima Perform tophat filtering Watershed transform continued . dct2 dctmtx fft2 fftn Morphological Operations For extracting information about shapes from grayscale and binary images.

and Target Language Compiler is a trademark of The MathWorks.Sample Functions continued Morphological Operations (binary images) For extracting information about shapes from binary images. It includes many examples that take you step-by-step through the solution of an image processing problem in MATLAB.7000 info@mathworks. In addition. .647.com www. based on color Smoothly interpolate within arbitrary region Filter a region of interest Select polygonal region of interest Visit www.mathworks. hsv2rgb ntsc2rgb rgb2hsv rgb2ntsc rgb2ycbcr ycbcr2rgb Convert HSV values to RGB color space Convert NTSC values to RGB color space Convert RGB values to HSV color space Convert RGB values to NTSC color space Convert RGB values to YCBCR color space Convert YCBCR values to RGB color space For demos. s Color Space Conversions For converting images from one color space to another. Inc. user stories. Stateflow. Convert image using dithering gray2ind Convert intensity image to indexed image grayslice Create indexed image from intensity image by thresholding graythresh Compute global image threshold using Otsu’s method im2bw Convert image to binary image by thresholding ind2gray Convert indexed image to intensity image dither Region-based Processing For performing image processing and analysis operations on arbitrary regions of images. Perform neighborhood operations using lookup tables bwarea Compute area of objects in binary image bwareaopen Binary area open (remove small objects) bwdist Compute distance transform of binary image bweuler Compute Euler number of binary image bwhitmiss Binary hit-miss operation bwlabel Label connected components in 2-D binary image bwlabeln Label connected components in multidimensional binary image bwmorph Perform morphological operations on binary image bwpack Pack binary image bwperim Determine perimeter of objects in binary image bwselect Select objects in binary image bwulterode Ultimate erosion bwunpack Unpack binary image makelut Construct lookup table for use with applylut applylut Colormap Manipulation For manipulating colormaps and approximating indexed images with fewer colors or with alternate colormaps. Tel: 508. MATLAB.mathworks. Inc.com • Contact The MathWorks directly US & Canada 508-647-7000 Benelux France Germany Spain Switzerland UK +31 (0)182 53 76 44 +33 (0)1 41 14 67 14 +49 (0)89 995901 0 +34 93 362 13 00 +41 (0)31 954 20 20 +44 (0)1223 423 200 Image Types and Type Conversions For converting images from one type to another. GUI-driven demonstrations introduce major features of the product in an easy-to-use format. and the rest of Europe. tutorials.com 9414v02 4/01 © 2001 by The MathWorks. Latin America. application examples. and Real-Time Workshop are registered trademarks.com to obtain contact information for authorized MathWorks representatives in countries throughout Asia Pacific. Simulink. brighten cmpermute cmunique colormap imapprox im2mis ind2rgb rgb2gray rgb2ind Brighten or darken colormap Rearrange colors in colormap Find unique colormap colors and corresponding image Set or get color lookup table Approximate indexed image by one with fewer colors Convert image to Java MemoryImageSource Convert indexed image to RGB image Convert RGB image or colormap to grayscale Convert RGB image to indexed image Documentation and Examples The Image Processing Toolbox User’s Guide describes toolbox functionality in a tutorial and reference format.mathworks. and pricing: • Visit www. Africa. Other product or brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. the Middle East. roicolor roifill roifilt2 roipoly Select region of interest. Handle Graphics.

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