S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur

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CONTENTS
Page No.

Sl.No.

NAME OF EXPERIMENT CYCLE 1

1 2 3 4 5

Brake Test on Squirrel Cage Induction Motor No-load & Blocked-rotor Tests on 3-phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Slip Test on 3-phase Salient Pole Synchronous Machine Voltage Regulation on Alternator No-load & Blocked-rotor Tests on Slip Ring Induction Motor CYCLE 2

4 13 25 34 48

6 7 8 9 10

Induction Machine as Generator & Motor No-load & Blocked-rotor Tests on Pole Changing Induction Motor No-load & Blocked-rotor Tests on Single Phase Induction Motor V-Curves of Synchronous Machines Speed Control of Induction Motor by Variable Frequency Method MODEL QUESTIONS

59 66 81 88 96 100

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur INSTRUCTIONS 1. WEAR SHOES COMPULSORILY

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2. SHIRTS SHOULD BE TUCKED IN 3. GIRLS SHOULD PROTECT THEIR HAIR 4. DO NOT ALLOW CHAINS TO HANG 5. DO NOT LEAN OVER ROTATING MACHINERY 6. ENERGIZE THE CIRCUIT ONLY AFTER GETTING APPROVAL FROM THE FACULTYIN-CHARGE 7. MAKE SURE THAT THE CORRECT SWITCH HAS BEEN SWITCHED ON/OFF BEFORE/AFTER THE EXPERIMENT. MAKING CONNECTIONS • Make sure that the supply is OFF. • • • • • • • • • Meters should be positioned properly. Do not connect more than one wire to each terminal of ammeters & voltmeters. Make series connections before parallel connections. All the connections should be tight. Get the connections checked before switching ON. Check the position of rheostats, autotransformers, switches before switching ON. Never exceed the permissible values of current or voltage. While conducting brake test, pour water on the brake drum to avoid overheating. Show the readings to the faculty-in-charge before switching off.

ROUGH RECORD 1. Write Name of the experiment with number & date, aim, apparatus required, neat circuit diagram, tabulations, sample calculations (for one set of readings showing the substitution of the values) and results. No need to write principle or procedure. 2. Take at least six sets of readings, if possible. Each student in a group should do sample calculations for different sets. 3. Get signature of the faculty-in-charge after completing the rough record. FAIR RECORD 1. Write the name of the experiment on the top of the right side in capital letters 2. Experiment Number & date should be written at the top. 3. Each record should contain the following on the right side • • • • • Aim of the experiment Apparatus required Principle Procedure Sample Calculation (on the left side if possible; if calculations are too long, write on right side so that no pages on the right side are left blank)

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur • • • • • • Result (at the end) Neat circuit diagram with PEN Name plate details/specifications Tabulations

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4. On left side

Sample Calculation (on the left side if possible; if calculations are too long, write on the right side so that no pages on the right side are left blank) Graph (draw with PEN if possible; use different colors for different graphs on the same graph sheet).

Do experiment TODAY; submit Rough Record in the NEXT CLASS & Fair Record in the THIRD CLASS.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur

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==================================================================

Experiment No. 1 BRAKE TEST ON SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
================================================================== AIM: Conduct the brake test on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor and plot the following performance characteristics. a) Electrical characteristics – Speed, line current, torque, power factor, efficiency & % slip Vs output power b) Mechanical characteristics – Speed Vs Torque Also find the additional kVAR required to improve the power factor to 0.95 at various loads. APPARATUS: S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Tachometer TPDT switch Type MI MI Dynamometer type Range (0-500V) (0-10A) 500V, 10A, UPF Quantity 1 1 2 1 1

PRINCIPLE: The two types of 3-phase induction motors are i) squirrel cage induction motor and ii) slip-ring induction motor. Three-phase squirrel cage induction motor is generally preferred because it is rugged in construction, requires less maintenance and is economical as compared to 3-phase slip ring induction motor. When the stator winding is connected to three phase ac supply, a rotating magnetic field is established in the air gap which rotates at synchronous speed. Initially, rotor is stationary. Due to relative speed between the rotating magnetic field and stationary rotor conductors, an emf is induced in the rotor. As the rotor circuit is closed, currents will circulate through them. According to Lenz’s law, these induced currents will flow in such a direction so as to oppose the cause producing it. Here the cause is relative speed. In order to reduce the relative speed, the currents in the rotor produce a torque tending to rotate the rotor in the same direction of rotating field. At synchronous speed of the rotor, the relative speed is zero, no emf and no torque is developed, rotor tends to stop, hence rotor can not attain synchronous speed. Motor runs at a speed slightly less than synchronous speed.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur

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PROCEDURE: Make the connections as shown diagram.

Precautions: i) Keep TPST switch open ii) Keep TPDT in position 1 (Star connection)

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur

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iii) Keep belt on brake drum in loose position (motor on no load) Switch on the 3 phase supply while the motor is on no load. When the motor gains

speed, change the TPDT switch to delta position (position 2). By tightening the brakedrum, increase the load on the motor upto rated value (=7.5A). Note down the speed, spring balance readings, voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter readings. Now decrease the load in steps upto no load and note down the readings each time. If any of the wattmeter readings shows negative on no load or light loads, switch of the supply & interchange the terminals of pressure coils/current coils (not both) of that wattmeter. Now, again starting the motor (follow above procedure for starting), take readings. Switch off the supply. Measure the radius of the brake drum. TABULATION:

SAMPLE CALCULATION (Set No. ____) V = ______V, N =_______ rpm, I =_______ A, W1 = _______W, W2 = ________ W,

S1 = ________Kg,

S2 =________Kg

Radius of brake drum R = 0.135 m Synchronous speed Ns = 1500rpm Input Power W= W1 + W2 = _________ watts Power factor, cosΦ1= cos(tan −1

3 × (W1 − W2 ) ) =__________ (W1 + W2 )

η = output ×100 = _________% input Additional kVAR required to improve the power factor to 0. GEC Thrissur 7 Percentage slip. s = = Ns − N × 100 =_________% Ns Torque T = R × ( S1 − S2 ) × g = _________ N-m Output power = 2π NT = _________W 60 Efficiency.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.95 (cosΦ2) = = W (tan Φ1 − tan Φ 2 ) ×10−3 =__________ Value of capacitance required to improve the power factor = = MODEL GRAPHS kVAR × 1000 = ωV 2 kVAR × 1000 =________μF 2 × π × f ×V 2 .

Why are starters needed for induction motors ? Equivalent circuit of the induction motor at starting (S=1) is shown below (magnetizing V current neglected). Starting current. large starting current (5 to 8 times full load current) will flow.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. In such case. This causes appreciable voltage drop in the line and may affect other equipments connected to the same line. I SC = . ================================================================== Do you know? 1. if a large current flows for a long time it may overheat the motor and damage the insulation. GEC Thrissur 8 Speed Speed Vs Torque Characteristic 0 Torque RESULT: i) Brake test conducted on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor Performance characteristics plotted ii) Additional kVAR required and the value of capacitance to improve the power iii) factor for each load to 0. What are the different types of starters used for 3 phase induction motors? Direct On Line (DOL) starter i) Stator impedance (resistance/reactance) starter ii) .95 determined. reduced voltage starting must be used. Ro1 + jX o1 Ro1 V ISC Xo1 If rated voltage is applied. Also. 2.

Note: The rotor core loss is not constant for all load conditions. As the motor approaches full speed. . no rotor emf. 4. What you mean by synchronous speed? What is the synchronous speed of an induction motor whose rated speed is 1440rpm ? Synchronous speed Ns is the speed of the rotating magnetic field in a poly-phase 120 f induction motor. Because of the presence of air-gap in the induction motor. resulting in less current at starting. Why? During running condition. The rotor core loss of an induction motor under running condition is usually neglected. How can the direction of rotation of a 3 phase induction motor be reversed ? By interchanging any two supply leads connected to the motor. 750 rpm (8 poles) etc. synchronous speed is 1500rpm. stator? Both are rotating at synchronous speed Ns with respect to stator. What is the normal value of full-load slip during running condition? 2 to 8% 9. 7. Give reason. A star-delta method of starting is employed to provide reduced voltage at start. Also. hence rotor frequency and rotor core loss increases. the normal connection of the stator windings is delta while running. Hence. If these windings are connected in star at start. 1000rpm (6poles).S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. For 50Hz supply. GEC Thrissur 9 iii) iv) v) Autotransformer starter Star-Delta Starter Rotor resistance starter (Only for slip ring induction motors) 3. slip increases. the phase voltage is reduced ( = V 3 ). In this method. If rated speed is 1440 rpm. Hence rotor core loss will be very small which can be neglected. for same flux. induction motor has to supply mechanical losses (friction and windage losses) on no load which is not present in transformer. Why is an induction motor not capable of running at synchronous speed ? When the motor speed reaches synchronous speed. possible synchronous speeds are 3000rpm (2 poles). 6. no rotor current and hence no torque is produced. What is the speed of the stator and rotor magnetic fields with respect to 10. 1500rpm (4 poles). the windings will be connected in delta. 8. N s = . Synchronous speed will be slightly greater than the P rated speed. As the load increases. Explain star-delta starter. rotor frequency is equal to slip frequency (=sf) which is very small. 5. in addition. The no load current for an induction motor is larger than that in a transformer of same VA rating. the induction motor never attains synchronous speed. the magnetizing current (flux = mmf / reluctance) is far larger.

Its rotor can adjust to any number of stator poles. What is meant by cogging and crawling? In the case of squirrel cage induction motors. air gap irregularity etc. increases the cost 6. More maintenance 12. peculiar behavior may be observed when the machine is started. e. 14. It has fewer components and hence less labor since it has no rotor winding. air gap flux contains harmonics and these harmonics are called space harmonics. Rotor resistance starting can be used 4. With the number of stator slots S1 = number of rotor slots S2. Its rotor consists of 3 phase windings which is then connected to external resistance through slip rings and brushes 2. Rotor and stator are wound for same number of poles 5. Effects of space harmonics are crawling and cogging. slotting. Hence. This phenomenon is known as cogging.g. Its rotor consists of copper/aluminium bars permanently short circuited at both ends 2. The time harmonic currents and their rotating fields produce parasitic torques in the machine. the motor may exhibit tendency to run stably at low speed. Lower efficiency 7. So it is cheaper 6. These harmonic currents (time harmonics) produce rotating fields in the air gap. Time harmonics produce no significant effects on the operation of the induction motor. With other ratios. Better efficiency 7. Less maintenance SRIM 1. one of the two wattmeters connected in the input side of the motor is negative. Better cooling (larger space to provide fan blades on rotor) 8. Why ? The no load power factor of an induction motor is always less than 0. with certain relationships between the number of poles and stator and rotor slots.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Better starting torque can be achieved by inserting external resistance in the rotor circuit. air gap flux may be non-sinusoidal due to winding arrangement. Even if the supply currents are sinusoidal. it contains harmonics. S2/S1. Starting torque is poor 3. SCIM 1. Cooling not efficient 8. one seventh of the normal speed. the induction motor may refuse to start at all.5 because the no load current is mainly used for magnetizing the core. This is known as crawling. GEC Thrissur 10 11. Is the rotational losses (stator core loss + rotor core loss + friction & windage loss) constant in an induction motor? . 3. At no load. The space harmonics also produce parasitic torques in the machine. Compare between squirrel cage and slip ring induction motors. starting resistance etc. Slip rings. brushes. 5. Separate starting methods are needed in order to reduce the staring current 4. 15. So different speeds can be obtained by different arrangements of stator winding. What is time harmonics and space harmonics ? If the supply currents are non-sinusoidal. 13.

The total core losses thus increase as the speed falls. If single phasing occurs while operating at or near rated load. f2 increases and so does the rotor core loss. the increase in phase current will cause rapid heating of the windings. it will continue to run as long as the shaft load is less than 80% rated load and the remaining single phase voltage is normal. must be provided to trip the . If the motor is running when single phasing occurs. the rotor frequency f2 is very small and hence rotor core loss is very small. rotation of the rotor produces a quadrature field that maintains rotation. 19. What type of protection is provided in the starter meant for 3 phase induction motors? Overload and under-voltage protection. and therefore protective devices. GEC Thrissur 11 If the induction motor is connected to a supply of fixed voltage and frequency. 16. 21. Hence power factor is low) factor at starting. I2' I1 R1 X1 Im Xm V1 X2' R2'/s 17. R2<<X2. Why the power factor of an induction motor is low at starting? The rotor frequency and rotor reactance are high under starting conditions and therefore.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. What is the standard direction of an induction motor? Counter clockwise when looking from non-drive end of the motor. What is single phasing? Single phasing is a fault condition in which a 3 phase motor is operating with one line open. if a machine operates from a constant-voltage and constant-frequency source. friction and windage losses are maximum and as speed falls these losses decrease. ( p. = 2 2 X2 R2 + X 2 18. At a lower speed. The magnetizing reactance Xm can not be moved to the machine terminals. Therefore. when the applied voltage is constant. the stator core loss is fixed. the machine will operate close to synchronous speed. 20. Why? The starting torque of a squirrel cage induction motor can not be increased as there is no provision for inserting resistance in the rotor circuit. f . This results in low power R2 R ≈ 2 . the sum of core losses and friction and windage losses remains essentially constant at all operating conditions. Draw the IEEE-recommended equivalent circuit? The resistance Rc is omitted and the core loss is lumped with the windage and friction losses. Therefore. at no load. On the other hand. At no load. rotor currents lag the rotor emf by a large angle. The 3 phase motor will not start with one line open. The starting torque of a squirrel cage induction motor can not be altered.

Thus. Even then the coil C remains energized through ab. L1 L2 L3 Fuse C S2 Stop Start D S1 a A b M M M OLC S3 Motor Remote Stop . what will be the starting torque of a squirrel cage induction motor in terms of its starting torque with full voltage? One fourth of starting torque with full rated voltage. Undervoltage protection : When the voltage falls below a certain value. GEC Thrissur 12 machines from the supply lines. The normally closed contact D is opened and the contactor coil C is deenergised to disconnect the supply to the motor. or severe damage to stator and rotor winding may occur. Overload protection: In case of an overload. When the applied rated voltage per phase is reduced to one-half. the main contacts M remain closed and the motor continues to get supply. The motor is then disconnected from the supply. The three main contacts M and the auxiliary contact A close and the terminals a and b are short-circuited.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Since the coil C is de-energised. When the STOP push button S2 is pressed. one or all the overload coils (OLC) are energized. or in the event of failure of supply during motor operation. The supply to motor is disconnected and the motor stops. the main contacts M and auxiliary contact A are opened. The motor is thus connected to the supply. Draw the diagram of a direct-on-line starter? On pressing the START push button S1. the coil C is de-energised. 22. 23. the supply through the contactor coil is disconnected. When the pressure on S1 is released. the contactor coil C is energized from two line conductors L1 and L2. it moves back under spring action.

This is applicable both for the squirrel cage and slip ring induction motors.LPF 9Ω. Wattmeter Type Range Quantity MI MI MC MI MI MC Dynamometer Dynamometer Wire wound 8. 2 NO-LOAD AND BLOCKED-ROTOR TESTS ON A 3 PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR ================================================================ AIM: i) To conduct no load and blocked rotor tests on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor ii)To determine the equivalent circuit parameters and hence predetermine the performance at full load from the equivalent circuit and iii)To draw the circle diagram and hence predetermine the performance characteristics from circle diagram. .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. 6. 4. however. By changing the load RL (where RL = R2 ' X1 + X 2 ' s the value of the current I2’ changes. APPARATUS: S.5A 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 PRINCIPLE: The performance characteristics of induction motors can be determined approximately by graphical method such as circle diagram. Ammeter 5.8. Rheostat 0-500V 0-150V 0-30V 0-5A 0-10A 0-10A 500/250/125V. The locus of the current. 3. lies on a circle (Figure 1).UPF 150V. GEC Thrissur 13 ================================================================ Experiment No. the above equation represents the polar equation of a circle with diameter V (1 − s ) ) and Φ. 5/10A. Voltmeter 2. 9. and the applied voltage V is constant.No. 7. . Name of the apparatus 1. From the approximate equivalent circuit.10A. I2 ' = V R ' ( R1 + 2 ) 2 + ( X 1 + X 2 ') 2 s = V sin Φ X1 + X 2 ' where sin Φ = X1 + X 2 ' R ' ( R1 + 2 ) 2 + ( R1 + R2 ') 2 s If the leakage reactances X1 and X2’ are assumed to remain constant regardless of load.

In blocked rotor test. If no load current taken by the motor is also to be accounted for to obtain the stator current. the diagram can then be shown as in figure 2. Switch off the supply. for predetermining the efficiency at any load and to draw the circle diagram. GEC Thrissur 14 Figure 1 Figure 2 Thus in the case of induction motors.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Adjust the autotransformer and apply rated voltage to the stator. The stator current I1 is then the phasor sum of I2’ and Io. Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Keep belt on brake drum in loose position (motor on no load) Switch on the 3 phase supply. Note down the ammeter. core and mechanical losses are neglected. Input power is equal to constant iron.5. the locus of the current due to load lies on a circle and the diagram is known as a circle diagram. Since the no-load current is only 20-40% of the full load current. Due to low voltage and no rotation. No-load test is conducted at rated voltage keeping the motor on no-load. Input power is equal to copper loss only. PROCEDURE: A) NO LOAD TEST Make the connections as shown in figure. one wattmeter will show negative reading. the I2R losses can be neglected. No load and blocked rotor tests are conducted for determining the equivalent circuit parameters. Since the power factor of the induction motor under no load condition is generally less than 0. friction and windage losses of the motor. . voltmeter and wattmeter readings at rated supply voltage. Then switch off the supply and interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter. rotor is blocked and a reduced voltage is applied to the stator through a 3-phase autotransformer.

Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Rotor is blocked by tightening the belt on the brake drum. GEC Thrissur 15 B) BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Make the connections as shown in figure.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. .

Adjust the autotransformer so that rated current (to get full load copper loss) flows in the ammeter. GEC Thrissur 16 Switch on the 3 phase supply. (If any of the wattmeter reads negative. ammeter and wattmeter readings.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Note down voltmeter. switch off the supply and .

Draw the lines by taking the current (I) in X-axis. Rotor Copper loss I 2 '2 R2 ' R ' = 2 where R1= stator = 2 Stator Copper loss I 2 ' R1 R1 resistance per phase and R2= rotor resistance per phase. Switch off the supply. let both the lines intersects at point D.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Let EB be the line of total loss [EB = ED + DB where ED = constant loss and DB = variable loss] 9.5A + A 0-10A MC - S1 28V DC 0-30V MC 10A + V - R S3 S2 Precautions : Keep the rheostat in maximum resistance position Switch on 28V d. supply.c. C) STATOR RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT Make the connections as shown in figure. Draw the parallel line for the X-axis from point A and for the Y-axis from point B upto the X-axis (point E). 6. By keeping the point C as center draw a semi circle with radius CA. Note down voltmeter and ammeter readings for different positions of rheostat. In the line DB locate the point G to separate the stator and rotor copper losses by using the formula. 3Voc I oc 3. From the No-load test find out the current Io and draw the OA vector with the magnitude of Io from the origin by suitable current scale. voltage (V) in Y-axis. 7. (V & I are line values) 2. From the current Isc find out the ISN (short circuit current corresponding to the V normal voltage) through the formula I SN = I sc ( rated ) . Join the points B and A to get the output line. draw the OB vector with the Vsc magnitude of ISN from the origin by the same current scale. which lags the voltage Woc (Y-axis) V by an angle Φo where Φ o = cos −1 ( ). Then draw the bisector for the output line and extend it to the line AD let the point of intersection be C. (Note: Resistance/phase = 3 x Delta resistance) 2 Procedure to draw the circle diagram: (Do not write in fair record) 1. 3Vsc I sc 4. 8. 8. . GEC Thrissur 17 interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter and continue the above procedure). + 10A 9Ω. 5. which lags the voltage Wsc (Y-axis) V by an angle ΦSC where Φ SC = cos −1 ( ).

Now. To find the full load quantities. Wsc = _____ W I oc = ____ A 3 I sc = ____ A 3 Vo = Voc = _____ V Vs = Vsc = _____ V Io = Is = Rdc = _____ Ω 3 R1 = ×1. Draw line PT parallel to Y-axis meeting output line at Q. constant loss line at S and X-axis at T. draw line BK (=Full load output/power scale). 4. 1. Ioc = ___ A . Note: Choose the current scale such that the circle diagram will be as large as possible.2 × Rdc = ______ Ω 2 W Ro1 = sc2 = _______ Ω 3I s R2 ' = Ro1 − R1 = _______ Ω .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. 12. BD Ro1 Stator Copper loss + Rotor Copper loss 10. To get the torque line. The larger the circle diagram more will be the accuracy. TABULATION NO LOAD TEST Voc Ioc W1 W2 Wsc Vsc BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Isc W1 W2 Wsc Stator Resistance Measurement S. torque line at R.No. join the points A and G. Per phase values are Woc = _____ W Isc = 7.8A. 11. 3. Rdc V (volts) I (amps) Rdc=V/I Ω CIRCLE DIAGRAM Voc = 400V . Select power scale = 3 × Vrated × current scale . Vsc = _____ V. 2. draw line PK parallel to output line meeting the circle at point P. Or. GEC Thrissur 18 BG R2 ' Rotor Copper loss = = .

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 19 BG R2 ' = ______ = BD Ro1 BG = ____× BD Selection of current and power scale Current scale = 1cm = ______ A Ioc = _______A (= ______cm) Vrated ) I sc = _______A(= _______cm) Vsc Woc Φ o = cos −1 ( ) = _______ ˚ 3Voc I oc Wsc Φ SC = cos −1 ( ) = _______˚ 3Vsc I sc I SN = ( Power Scale = 3 × Vrated × current scale = _______ W = 1cm PERFORMANCE AT FULL LOAD FROM CIRCLE DIAGRAM Full load output = 3000W = PQ = _____cm Full load current = OP x current scale = ____ x _____ = ______A Full load power factor = PT = ______ lag OP Rotor copper loss at full load = QR x power scale = ____ x _______ = _______W Stator copper loss at full load = RS x power scale = _____ x ______ = _______W Constant loss = ST x power scale = ___ x ______ = ________W Rotor input at full load = PR x power scale = _____ x ______ = _______W Torque at full load = PR x power scale (sync. watts) = PR x power scale × = _____ x ______ x 60 N-m 2π N s 60 = _______N-m 2π × 750 Motor input at full load = PT x power scale = _____ x _______ = ______W PQ Efficiency at full load = × 100% = ________% PT QR Slip at full load s = ×100% = _________% PR Speed at full load = (1 − s ) × N s = ________ rpm 60 Starting torque = BG x power scale x N-m 2π N s 60 =______N-m = _____ x ______ x 2π × 750 .

GEC Thrissur 20 Maximum torque = I I’ = ______ x _____ x 60 =______N-m 2π × 750 Maximum output = HH’ = ______ x ______ = ________W Maximum input = JJ’ = ______ x ______ = ________W .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 21 TABULATION FROM CIRCLE DIAGRAM MODEL GRAPH – PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS FROM CIRCLE DIAGRAM .

Wsc = ______W Vo = Voc = _____ V Vs = Vsc = _____ V Io = Is = I oc = ____ A 3 I sc = ____ A 3 Woc = _______ 3Vo I o sin Φ 0 = _______ Vo =_________Ω Rc = I o × cos Φ o Vo Xm = = ________Ω I o × sin Φ o V Z o1 = s = _________Ω Is W Ro1 = sc2 = _______Ω 3I s cos Φ 0 = X o1 = Z o12 − Ro12 = ________Ω 3 R1 = *1.5 x 1. Isc = 7.2* Rdc =1. Woc = _____W Vsc = ______V.2 x ____ = ______Ω 2 ' R2 = Ro1 − R1 =_______Ω X X 2 = X 2 ' = o1 = ______Ω 2 EXACT EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT R1 I1 X1 Io Ic 400V Rc Im Xm I2' R2' X2' 1− s ) RL ' = R2 '( s APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Ro1=R1+R2' Xo1=X1+X2' I I' 1 2 Io Ic 400V Rc Im Xm RL ' = R2 '( 1− s ) s . Ioc = ____A .8A.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 22 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS Voc = ______ V .

Why is no load current in a 3 phase induction motor more than that in a transformer? Because of the air gap.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. ================================================================ Do you know? 1. GEC Thrissur 23 PERFORMANCE AT RATED SPEED FROM EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Synchronous speed.33% Ns 750 1− s ) =_______Ω RL ' = R2 '× ( s I o = I o ∠ − Φ o ° =________per phase − From approximate equivalent circuit. I 2' = V ∠0° =________A per phase ( Ro1 + RL ') + jX o1 I1 = I o + I 2 ' = I1∠ − Φ1 ° =_______A Line current IL = 3 × I1 =_______A Power factor = cos(−Φ1 °) =______ Output = 3 × I 2 '2 × RL ' =________W Torque = Input = Output =_______N-m (2π N ) 60 3VI L cos Φ1 =________W Efficiency = Output × 100% = ______ % Input RESULT i) No-load and blocked rotor tests were conducted on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor ii) Equivalent circuit parameters were determined iii) Circle diagram was drawn iv) Performance at full load from equivalent circuit and circle diagram were determined v) Performance characteristics were plotted from circle diagram. Ns = 750 rpm Rated speed = N = 710 rpm Slip = s = Ns − N 750 − 710 × 100% = ×100 = 5. induction motor has friction and . Also. the magnetizing current is far larger in an induction motor than in a transformer for the same VA rating.

Two proportionality constants. What is the difference between electrical degree & mechanical degree? Electrical angle is a measure of one cycle of emf or current wave. 8. no load current is about 30 to 40% of full load current.Hence. I sc = Ro1 + jX o1 power factor is less. in no load test.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. the rotor core loss is less and neglected. the motor will continue to run. what happens? If the motor is on no load or light load. Since slip is very small (2 to 8% during running condition). Core loss is equal to K1 V1. During running condition. What you mean by plugging? It is a type of electric braking used in induction motors where the braking torque is produced by interchanging any two supply terminals. θ elec = × θ mech 2 10. In induction motor. 2. 5. 4. 1 cycle=360˚ P electrical. 3. 6.6 + K2 V2 .5? The no load current is mainly used for magnetizing the core which is inductive in nature. hysteresis loss (proportional to V1. 7.5. make it not possible to convert core loss at one voltage to another voltage. On blocked rotor test. the power factor may be less than 0. and Xo1 » Ro1 . No load test should always be conducted at rated voltage but the blocked rotor test may be conducted at any current (rated current not necessary). wattmeter reads core loss which has two components. 9. rotor frequency is small. One revolution is equal to 360˚ mechanical. Why is the power factor on no load less than 0. The electromagnetic torque developed provides the braking action and brings the rotor to a quick stop. rotor frequency = slip x supply frequency. wattmeter reading gives copper loss which is proportional to square of the current. Why ? During running condition. Here. What are the methods of reducing the space harmonics? i) Distributing the winding in slots Using the short-pitched winding ii) Skewing the slots iii) Using fractional-slot winding iv) . the Current during blocked rotor test. But. Give reason. the direction of rotation of the rotating magnetic field is reversed with respect to the rotation of the motor. Hence the power factor is less. GEC Thrissur 24 windage loss in addition to core loss. By knowing copper loss at any load.6) and eddy current loss (proportional to V2). if one of the fuses blows. What happens if one of the supply phases is dead at the instant of starting? Motor will not start because the resulting supply system is single phase. Vsc . Hence. Why? In blocked rotor test. we can calculate the copper loss at rated current. The rotor core loss of an induction motor under running condition is usually neglected.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. the reluctance offered by the magnetic circuit is minimum. 1. After one quarter of slip cycle. will be minimum. 7. When the peak of the armature mmf is in line with the field poles. The field winding is kept open circuited and a low voltage 3 phase supply (about 25% of the rated voltage) is applied to the armature terminals. The stator mmf moves slowly past the field poles at slip speed. The relative velocity between armature mmf and field poles is equal to slip speed i.e. 6. the armature current. The machine is driven by a dc motor at a speed slightly less or slightly more than synchronous speed. required for the establishment of constant air-gap flux. a small ac voltage would be indicated by the voltmeter across the field winding. Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Type MI MI MC MI MC Wire Wound Range (0-500V) (0-300V) (0-30V) (0-10A) (0-10A) 9Ω 8.No. 5. Constant applied voltage minus the minimum impedance voltage drop (armature current being minimum) in the leads and 3-phase variac gives maximum armature-terminal voltage. APPARATUS: S. the peak of armature mmf is in line with q-axis and the reluctance offered by the magnetic circuit is maximum. The armature current. GEC Thrissur 25 ================================================================ Experiment No. 3 4. The direction of rotation should be same as the direction of rotating field. required for the establishment of constant air-gap flux. This would cause the armature current to vary cyclically at twice the slip frequency. 2. will be maximum and the .5A Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer PRINCIPLE: The direct and quadrature axis reactances can be measured by slip test. 3 SLIP TEST ON 3-PHASE SALIENT POLE SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE ================================================================ AIM: i) To conduct the slip test on 3-phase salient pole synchronous machine ii) To determine the direct axis and quadrature axis synchronous reactances iii) To predetermine the voltage regulation at different loads and power factors and iv) To draw the power Vs torque angle characteristics for a specified induced emf. If this condition is fulfilled. difference between synchronous speed and rotor speed. The ratio of maximum armature terminal voltage per phase to minimum armature current per phase gives Zsd.

By adjusting the autotransformer. so that induced voltage across the field winding is zero. Run the motor at synchronous speed by varying the motor field rheostat. Close the TPST switch. If the voltmeter reading across the alternator field winding is very small. lag IXd I ψ φ δ p. Make sure that the direction of rotation of the prime mover and the direction of rotation of the magnetic field produced in the armature are the same by closing the SPST switch. On the other hand. If . both the directions are correct. GEC Thrissur 26 armature terminal voltage will be minimum.c. the flux linkage with field winding is minimum and rate of change of this flux linkage is maximum. The ratio of minimum armature terminal voltage per phase to maximum armature current per phase gives Zsq. f. so that induced voltage across the field winding is maximum. Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer at minimum voltage position ii) Keep DPST. f. start the motor. Using the three point starter. the armature flux linkage with field winding is maximum and rate of change of this flux linkage is zero. f. apply 20% to 30% of the rated voltage to the armature of the synchronous machine.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. PROCEDURE: SLIP TEST Make the connections as shown in figure. TPST and SPST switches open iii) Keep dc motor field rheostat at minimum resistance position Switch on the d. supply by closing the DPST switch. V IXq IXd Eo IXq IRa When the armature mmf is in line with field poles. lead IXq Eo V IRa PHASOR DIAGRAMS V IRa ψ =δ unity p. IXd Eo δ ψ φ I p. when armature mmf is in line with q-axis.

GEC Thrissur 27 the voltmeter reading is high. SPST switch is kept open. interchange the two lines of 3 phase supply after switching off the 3 phase supply. .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

No. TABULATION – SLIP TEST Sl. V (volts) I (amps) Rdc=V/I Ω 1. Ra = 1. whereas the voltmeter has only small swing because of the low impedance voltage drop in the leads and 3-phase autotransformer). 2. (During slip test. Imin = _____A . 3. note down the ammeter and voltmeter readings. The above said procedure can be repeated with two more different autotransformer settings.5A + A A - 0-10A MC + U 28V DC V V 0-30V MC N 10A - Precaution: Keep the rheostat at maximum resistance position. Vmin = _____V. 3.2 × Rdc =1. Vmax Vmin Imax Imin Z sd Z sq Xd Xq TABULATION – Stator resistance measurement Stator Resistance Measurement S. it would be observed that swing of the ammeter pointer is very wide. 1. so that slip is increased and the voltmeter and ammeter readings are oscillating.No. 4. The maximum and minimum readings of voltmeter and ammeter are noted. Switch on 28V dc supply. Adjusting the rheostat for different values of current. 2. Rdc SAMPLE CALCULATION (SET No. + 10A 9Ω. ___ ) Armature resistance. GEC Thrissur 28 The speed is slightly reduced/increased from synchronous speed. STATOR RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT Make the connections as shown in the diagram. Imax = ____A.8.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.2 x _____ = ____Ω Vmax = _____V.

lag V=231V. sinФ=0.5 × X q ⎞ ⎛ V sin Φ + IX q ⎞ −1 ⎛ Ψ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = _____ ° ⎟ = tan ⎜ ⎝ 231× 0.6 0.2 0 lead lead lead lead lead lag lag lag lag lag Ф 90 78.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.87˚. I=11.46 66.f.2 0.13 -66. cosФ=0. Ф = +36.8 + 11.4 0.42 53. I=11. Ф = -36.f.5 × Ra ⎠ ⎝ V cos Φ + IRa ⎠ δ = Ψ − Φ =_____-36.6 231× 0.8.5A.87=_____˚ E f = V cos δ + IRa cos Ψ + IX d sin Ψ =_______V % regulation = E f −V V × 100 = ______% a) % regulation at full load V = 231V. sinФ= -0.87˚.8 p.8.8 p.87 -53.6 + 11.6 0.5A. lead V=231V.87 0 -36.4 0. GEC Thrissur 29 Z sd = Z sq = Vmax =______Ω I min Vmin =______Ω I max X d = Z sd 2 − Ra 2 =_______Ω X q = Z sq 2 − Ra 2 =________Ω a) To find Percentage regulation at full load and 0.5A power factor 0 0. cosФ=0.46 -90 Ψ δ Ef Regulation b) To find Percentage regulation at full load and 0.42 -78.8 0.6 . I = 11.8 1 0.13 36.

5 × X q ⎞ ⎛ V sin Φ + IX q ⎞ −1 ⎛ Ψ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = ____ ° ⎟ = tan ⎜ ⎝ 231× 0.6 + 11.75A power factor 0 0.13 36.46 66. I = 5.87 0 -36.4 0.42 53.8 0.5 × Ra ⎠ ⎝ V cos Φ + IRa ⎠ δ = Ψ − Φ = _____+36.8 + 11.6 0.13 -66.2 0 MODEL GRAPH lead lead lead lead lead lag lag lag lag lag Ф 90 78.42 -78.46 -90 Ψ δ Ef Regulation .87 -53.2 0.4 0.6 0.87= _____˚ E f = V cos δ + IRa cos Ψ + IX d sin Ψ =________V % regulation = E f −V V × 100 = ________% b) % regulation at Half full load V = 231V.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.8 1 0. GEC Thrissur 30 −231× 0.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.2volts .866 = _______ W = Xd Xd 3V 2 ( X d − X q ) Sin 2δ 2Xd Xq =___________W Resultant Power P = P1 + P2 = _________W TABULATION – Power Angle Characteristics V = 231V.2V 100 δ = 60o P1 = Power due to field excitation (Excitation power) P2 = Reluctance power (power due to saliency) P= 1 P2 = 3EoVSinδ 3 × 277. GEC Thrissur 31 b) To draw power angle characteristics Assume an induced emf of 120% of terminal voltage Ef = 231× 120 = 277.2 × 231× 0.2 * V = 277. Xq = _______Ω Load Angle δ -180 -150 -135 -120 -90 -60 -45 -30 0 30 45 60 90 120 135 150 180 P1 watts P2 watts P watts . Ef = 1. Xd = ______Ω.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. the synchronous machine will run as a reluctance motor). During slip test. Also regulation curves and power-angle characteristics were plotted. what does happen if rated voltage is applied to the armature? Since the excitation emf is zero. the reluctance torque due to saliency may bring the rotor in synchronism with the rotating flux (ie. Also. heavy currents would be drawn by the armature if connected to the rated voltage supply. direct axis and quadrature axis synchronous reactances were determined and % regulation at various power factors was found out. 3V 2 ( X d − X q ) Sin 2δ 2Xd Xq is called . P2 = reluctance power. GEC Thrissur 32 MODEL GRAPH RESULT Slip Test was conducted. What you mean by the reluctance power? A salient pole synchronous machine can stay synchronized to mains with its field 3V 2 ( X d − X q ) unexcited so long as the load does not exceed (Note: this value is 2Xd Xq around 30% of the rated power). ================================================================ Do you know? 1. 2. if the voltage is large. The power.

and the other acting along the q-axis. Xaq = q-axis armature reactance to account for the flux фaq produced by the d-axis current Iq. d-axis synchronous reactance and Xq = Xaq + Xal. made of cast iron or cast steel Poles carry concentrated field windings Smooth cylindrical It is built from solid steel forging (usually chromium – nickel steel) Air gap is not uniform It has large diameter and short axial length It is used for low and medium speed machines (water wheel drive or diesel engine drive) Poles consists of radial slots in which field windings are placed Air gap is nearly uniform It is of small diameter and of very long axial length. Fd. 4. q-axis synchronous reactance. Salient Pole It consists of projected poles. фaq) along the respective axes. What is the normal value of the ratio Xd/Xq ? Xd = 1. Fq. Compare between salient-pole type and smooth cylindrical type synchronous machines. If the leakage inductance Xal is included to account for the leakage flux produced by the armature current. It is used for high speeds (Steam driven) Noiseless operation Less windage loss Better in dynamic balancing .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. laminated. What is meant by a reluctance motor? A synchronous motor with salient poles but with no field winding is known as reluctance motor. Can you find the values of Xd and Xq by conducting OC and SC tests on salient-pole synchronous machine? Value of Xs obtained from OC and SC tests of salient pole machine corresponds to Xd. GEC Thrissur 33 3.6 to 2 Xq 5. What is two reaction theory? The armature mmf Fa (and hence the armature current) can be resolved into two components – one acting along the d-axis. These fluxes can be represented by the following reactances: Xad = d-axis armature reactance to account for the flux фad produced by the d-axis current Id . Fq) or current (Id. 6. Iq) produce fluxes (фad. 7. The component mmf’s (Fd. then Xd = Xad + Xal.

b) mmf or ampere-turn method c) zero power factor or potier method. Thus. APPARATUS: S. The regulation of a synchronous generator can be predetermined by the following methods: a) synchronous impedance or emf method. may cause V to be higher than Ef. due to the leading current. thus causing a drop in voltage.5A 1 9. Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity 1. 2. expressed as per cent of rated voltage. leakage reactance and armature reaction. the regulation is negative. Voltage regulation is defined as the rise in voltage.5A 2 11. 4 VOLTAGE REGULATION OF ALTERNATOR ================================================================ AIM: To predetermine the voltage regulation of the given 3 phase alternator by i) emf method ii) mmf method and iii) Zero power factor (Potier) method. Ammeter MI (0-15A) 1 5. MC (0-30V) 1 4. Voltage regulation = E f −V V × 100 The term rise in voltage used in the above definition pre-supposes a resistive or inductive load.7A 1 10.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.No. MC (0-5A) 1 7. when the load current is reduced to zero. Open circuit characteristic (OCC) : The open circuit characteristic of an alternator is a curve of the armature terminal voltage on open circuit as a function of field excitation when the machine is running at synchronous speed. when the load current is reduced to zero. 272Ω 1. MC (0-10A) 1 6. 145Ω. GEC Thrissur 34 ================================================================ Experiment No. MI (0-300V) 1 3. MC (0-2A) 1 8. Voltmeter MI (0-500V) 2 2. . the field excitation and frequency being maintained constant. If the load is capacitive. the magnetizing effect of armature reaction. Rheostat Wire Wound 9Ω 8. Tachometer 1 PRINCIPLE: The terminal voltage of an alternator under load conditions is different from the open circuit voltage due to the effects of armature resistance. In that case.

7HP.5kVA. 400V. Now. 2.5A B XX TPST 0-15A MI A V 220V DC 272Ω. note down the open circuit voltage across the . 50Hz. Precautions/Initial settings: i) ii) iii) iv) + TPST in open position DPST1 and DPST2 in open position Motor field rheostat in minimum position Potential divider in minimum voltage position 30A OC & SC TEST L Z A A 0-300V MI A N C X 0-2A MC 145Ω. dc supply is given to the alternator field winding and for different values of field current. 220V. 2.1500rpm Alternator 7. PROCEDURE: i) OPEN CIRCUIT & SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS (OCC & SCC) Make the connections as shown in diagram.5A Machine details : DC motor 11. 10. GEC Thrissur Xar Xl Ra Ia Er Ef L O A V D 35 Short circuit characteristic (SCC) : It is the plot of short circuit armature current as a function of field current when the machine is running at synchronous speed.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Increase the resistance of dc motor field rheostat and drive the alternator at rated speed.7A 30A Z M 5A DPST1 + 5A ZZ + AA A 220V DC 5A DPST2 145Ω. when the alternator is delivering its full load current to a zero power factor (lagging) load. Start the DC shunt motor using 3-point starter. 1500rpm Switch on the DC supply to the DC motor by closing the switch DPST1.9A.1. Zero power factor curve (ZPFC) : Zero power factor characteristic of an alternator gives the variation of terminal voltage with field current. 48A.

ii) ZERO POWER FACTOR CHARACTERISTICS (ZPFC) Make the connections as shown in diagram. Now. Synchronization is over. Take care to keep the speed constant (rated value) through out the experiment. the lamps will flicker uniformly (All the lamps become dim or bright at a time). Start the DC shunt motor using 3-point starter. Precautions/Initial settings: i) TPST in open position ii) iii) iv) DPST1 and DPST2 in open position Motor field rheostat in minimum position Potential divider in minimum voltage position Switch on the DC supply to the DC motor by closing the switch DPST1. For SCC. Note down the readings. GEC Thrissur 36 armature terminals.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Note both the ammeter readings. Increase the resistance of dc motor field rheostat and drive the alternator at rated speed. If the flickering is so fast. Open circuit voltage/phase Ef Vs field current If gives OCC. increase the synchronous generator field current by varying the potential divider so that the armature current reaches rated value (10. increase the current through the short circuited armature up to rated value. Now. After synchronization. reduce the armature voltage to zero by bringing the potential divider to minimum voltage position. Adjust the potential divider and make the generator terminal voltage equal to the 3 phase supply voltage. Now. close the TPST switch. The above procedure is repeated till the open circuit voltage reaches 120% of rated value. Close the switch TPST1 and note down the 3 phase supply voltage. Isc Vs If gives SCC. then interchange the two terminals of the 3 phase supply voltage after opening the switch TPST1. If the lamps are not flickering uniformly (phase sequence is wrong). the motor field rheostat is adjusted very slightly so that the frequency of flickering is convenient and the synchronization switch is closed at the middle of the dark period. .9A). switch on the dc supply to the alternator field by closing the switch DPST2 and vary the potential divider so that the generated voltage is nearly equal to rated value. adjust the motor field rheostat and make the wattmeter reading equal to zero. Now. By varying the potential divider.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 37 .

OCC Field Current If O. take readings for rated armature current). Volt Ef SCC ZPFC Isc (A) If (A) Ia (A) If (A) S.No. supply.5A + 28V DC 10A + 0-10A MC A - + V 0-30V MC A - N - 10A Precaution: Keep the rheostat at maximum position.c. 1. Stator Resistance Measurement V (volts) I (amps) Rdc=V/I Ω Rdc CALCULATION EMF METHOD Rated voltage/phase V = 230V Short circuit current corresponding to rated voltage from SCC.C. Z s = V =_______Ω I sc . 4. 9Ω. Isc = ______A Synchronous impedance. Switch on 28V d.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. 2. 8. Note down the voltmeter and ammeter readings for different positions of rheostat (If possible. 3. GEC Thrissur 38 STATOR RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT Make the connections as shown in figure.

2 × Rdc = _______Ω Synchronous reactance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 − p.6 0.f.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.4 0.4 0. V = 230V.8 0. cosΦ = ____ lag Sl. Xs = _____ Ω.9A Ef Regulation lag lag lag lag lag lead lead lead lead lead V = V ∠0° = 230∠0° I = I ∠ − Φ° = 10. X s = Z s 2 − Ra 2 = ________Ω Ef 230V SCC OCC Isc 0 If SAMPLE CALCULATION Regulation at full load and ____ pf. 0 0.8 1 0.2 0.9A. Ra = ______Ω.9∠ − Φ° for lag ( I = I ∠ + Φ° = 10. No.6 0. Lag Full load current = 10. Ra = 1.2 0 − EMF METHOD Full load Ia = 10. GEC Thrissur 39 Armature resistance.9∠ + Φ° for lead) − .

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.EMF METHOD Ef IXs IXs Ef I δ I V IRa Φ Unity power factor δ IRa V Leading power factor Ef IXs δ Φ I V IRa Lagging power factor SAMPLE CALCULATION MMF METHOD SAMPLE CALCULATION Regulation at full load and ____ pf. − − . Lag − V = V ∠0° = 230∠0° V cosΦ = ____ lag I = I ∠ − Φ° = 10. GEC Thrissur − 40 E f = V ∠0 + I ∠ − Φ × ( Ra + jX s ) = E f ∠δ ° =________V (OR E f = (V cos Φ + I a Ra ) 2 + (VsinΦ + I a X s ) 2 =________V) % regulation = E f −V V × 100 =___________% PHASOR DIAGRAMS .9∠ + Φ° for lead) E ' = V ∠0° + I ∠ − Φ°× Ra = E ' ∠ − σ ° =________V Refer OCC and find Ifr corresponding to E’.9∠ − Φ° for lag ( I = I ∠ + Φ° = 10.

E f = E f ∠δ ° =________V % regulation = E f −V V × 100 =__________% PHASOR DIAGRAMS – MMF METHOD Ef If IXs Ifr Ifa Φ I δ σ V IR a E' Lagging power factor Ef IXs If Ifr δ Ifa I V IRa E' Unity power factor Ef Ifr I δ Φ Ifa σ IXs If E' V IRa Leading power factor . If = ______A. δ = ______˚ Refer OCC and find Ef corresponding to If. GEC Thrissur 41 I fr = I fr ∠(−σ + 90°) =_________A Ifa is the field current required to circulate rated current on short circuit (from SC test) I fr = I fa ∠( − Φ + 180°) for lag ( I fr = I fa ∠( + Φ + 180°) for lead) I f = I fr + I fa =_________A= I f ∠(90 + δ °) Hence.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

8 lead 0. GEC Thrissur 42 TABULATION – MMF method 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Power factor 0 lag 0.2 lead 0 lead I E' I fr I fa If Ef % regulation POTIER METHOD The zero power factor curve can be used to determine leakage reactance Xl and armature reaction mmf Ifa . Drop a vertical CB from C meeting the line AD at B.6 lag 0. Only two points F and A are sufficient. .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.4 lead 0.4 lag 0.6 lead 0. voltage air gap line C 230V D B A OCC ZPFC O F (If from SC test) E Field Current (If from ZPF test) Draw AD = OF (parallel to X-axis) Draw line DC from D parallel to air gap line meeting OCC at C. It is not necessary to plot full curve. Point F on ZPF characteristics corresponds to field current to circulate full-load short circuit current during SC test. The point A corresponds to rated terminal voltage and rated armature current condition when the load is zero power factor lagging.2 lag 0.8 lag 1 0.

BC = IaXal = voltage drop due to armature leakage reactance AB = Ifar = Field current necessary to overcome the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction at full load. Ef IaXar If Ifr Ifar δ Φ Ia σ IaRa Lagging power factor Ef IaXar Er IaXal Er IaXal Ifr If Ifar Φ Ia σ δ IaRa V Leading power factor Ef IaXar Er If Ifr δ σ Ifar Ia V IaRa Unity power factor IaXal . GEC Thrissur 43 Now. BD = Field current necessary to induce an emf required for balancing leakage reactance drop AB. Drop more potier triangles to complete ZPFC.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. ΔABC is the potier triangle.

4 lag 0.2 lead 0 lead I − Er − Ifr − Ifa − If − Ef − % regulation . E f = E f ∠δ ° =__________V − % regulation = E f −V V × 100 =_________% TABULATION – Potier Method Power factor 0 lag 0. I f r = I fr ∠(σ + 90)° =_________A − − − − − − − I f a = I fa ∠( − Φ + 180)° =________A for lag I f = I fr + I fa =__________A= I f ∠(90 + δ )° − − − ( I f a = I fa ∠( + Φ + 180)° for lead) Hence.6 lead 0.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.8 lag 1 0.9∠ − Φ° for lag ( I = I ∠ + Φ° = 10.4 lead 0. GEC Thrissur 44 SAMPLE CALCULATION Regulation at full load and ____ pf.6 lag 0.2 lag 0.8 lead 0.9∠ + Φ° for lead) E r = V ∠0 + I ∠ − Φ × ( Ra + jX al ) =_________V= Er ∠σ ° Refer OCC and find Ifr corresponding to Er. Lag DE = I × X al =_____ V(from Potier triangle) Xal = ______Ω V = V ∠0° = 230∠0° I = I ∠ − Φ° = 10. If = ____A and δ = _____º Refer OCC and find Ef corresponding to If.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. hence to generate more emf and so to increase the terminal voltage when the alternator is loaded. Why does synchronous impedance method give a poorer voltage regulation? In synchronous impedance method of determination of voltage regulation synchronous reactance is assumed to be constant while actually it varies with the . Thus the terminal voltage of an alternator decreases when the load of leading p.f. it terminal voltage is also found to vary. wholly demagnetizing at zero power factor lagging and wholly magnetizing at zero power factor leading. Armature reaction has distorting effect on unity power factor. What is armature reaction of a synchronous machine? The effect of armature flux on the main field flux is known as armature reaction. 3. When the load on an alternator is varied. ================================================================ Do you know? 1. the effect of armature flux is to assist the main flux. Why? The terminal voltage under load conditions is different from that under no-load conditions due to following three factors: i) effect of armature resistance ii) effect of armature leakage reactance and iii) effect of armature reaction. GEC Thrissur 45 MODEL GRAPHS RESULT Voltage regulation of the given 3 phase alternator at various power factors was predetermined i) by emf method ii) by mmf method and iii) by potier method. (ie capacitive load) is thrown off and voltage regulation is negative. 4. 2. Why voltage regulation on alternator is negative for leading power factor? When the power factor is leading.

saturation is very low and therefore. the value of synchronous impedance measured is higher than that in actual operating conditions and the regulation determined is higher than actual one. Therefore there is no saturation of the magnetic circuit and hence SCC is a straight line. V= 0 6. the short circuit ratio has an important role to play in determining the current through the armature under fault conditions. the voltage per phase is only 1/√3 or 58% pf the voltage between the lines. 5. power factor of the machine is about zero lagging.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. This reduces the amount of insulation required in the slots which. lesser is the size.5. Now under short-circuit conditions. weight and cost of the machine. What is the power factor of an alternator under short-circuit condition? Since Ra<<Xs. The SCR has an important effect of the performance of the machine and the cost. Why is the short circuit characteristic of an alternator linear? Air gap flux under short circuit condition is only about 15% of that under rated voltage condition since the field current is very small. in turn. Modern alternators are built with short circuit ratio between 0. Lesser the SCR. Why the star-connection is preferred for the stator winding of a generator? In case of star-connection. Evidently. Xs Ra Ia Ef S. GEC Thrissur 46 saturation (at low saturation its value is higher because the effect of armature reaction is larger than that at high saturation). Also. 8. Define short circuit ratio (SCR).5 and 1. enables to increase the cross section of the conductors. 7. A lower value of SCR means a greater change in field current to maintain constant terminal voltage and a lower value of steady state stability limit.C. What is its improtance? Field current required to produce rated voltage on open circuit SCR= Field current required to produce rated current on short circuit SCR is the reciprocal of the per unit value of saturated synchronous reactance. the power factor under short circuit condition is about zero lagging and hence the armature reaction is demagnetizing in nature. A larger .

When a synchronous generator is under load.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. which increases the I2R losses. The incoming alternator thus gets connected in parallel with the bus-bar. Explain synchronization by dark-lamp method? In this method. The distortion is mainly due to an undesired third harmonic voltage. By running the alternator at synchronous speed and by adjusting the field excitation. the phase sequences of both the incoming generator and bus-bar are the same. If they become bright and dim in sequence. What are the conditions for paralleling an alternator with the infinite bus? Before the alternator can be connected to the infinite bus. . the distorting line-to-neutral harmonics do not appear between the lines because they affectively cancel each other. the armature voltage is increased near to rated value. With a star-connection. What is infinite busbar? A supply system with large number of synchronous generators in parallel and operating at constant voltage and frequency is called infinite busbar. What is the effect of increase in excitation of a synchronous generator connected to an infinite busbar? An under-excited generator operates at leading power factor. The speed of the prime-mover of the incoming machine is further adjusted slowly until the lamps flicker at a very low rate. 10. (It has zero synchronous impedance Zs and infinite rotational inertia). GEC Thrissur 47 conductor permits to increase the current and hence. the harmonic voltages do not cancel. but add up. they produce a thirdharmonic circulating current. three lamps are connected as shown in figure. If all the three lamps become bright and dim simultaneously. Because the delta is closed on itself. 13. Unfortunately. The paralleling switch is closed at the instant all the three lamps are dark. What is meant by synchronizing? The process of connecting an alternator in parallel with another alternator or with infinite bus bar is called synchronizing. R1 Y1 B1 V1 V2 R2 Y2 B2 L VR1 VB2 L VR2 VY1 VB1 VY2 L Now. 12. Consequently. a normal excited generator at unity power factor and overexcited generator at lagging power factor. when a delta connection is used. the voltage induced in each phase becomes distorted. and the waveform is no longer sinusoidal. the line voltages remain sinusoidal under all load conditions. the incoming alternator and the infinite bus must have the same i) voltage ii) frequency iii) phase sequence and iv) phase. 9. the phase sequence of the incoming alternator should be reversed (by interchanging any two leads of incoming alternator). the field excitation is adjusted such that voltages of the incoming alternator and the bus-bar are equal. 11. the power output of the machine.

3 4. Extra resistance can be connected to the slip rings. 5 NO-LOAD AND BLOCKED-ROTOR TESTS ON A 3-PHASE SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR ================================================================ AIM: i) To conduct no load and blocked rotor tests on 3 phase slip ring induction motor ii)To determine the equivalent circuit parameters and hence predetermine the performance at full load from the equivalent circuit and iii)To draw the circle diagram and hence predetermine the performance at full load from circle diagram. 6. GEC Thrissur 48 ================================================================ Experiment No. The rotor windings are shorted through brushes. Voltmeter 2. However it’s starting torque is low. The cage rotor motor is cheap and robust. A squirrel cage rotor has a number of conducting bars (made of copper or aluminum) laid in the slots of the rotor core. which is similar to the stator winding.5A 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 PRINCIPLE: Depending upon the construction of rotor.No.UPF 150V. Both the stator and rotor windings are designed for the same number of poles. The 3-phase rotor winding is usually star connected. which ride on the slip rings. These bars are short-circuited at both ends by conducting end rings. The simplest and cheapest method of starting wound-rotor induction motors is by means of added rotor resistance. 9. Thus the rotor currents are accessible at these brushes. Wattmeter Type Range Quantity MI MI MC MI MI MC Dynamometer Wire wound 8. These slots carry 3-phase rotor winding. 5/10A. The ends of three phases are tied to slip rings mounted on the motor shaft. APPARATUS: Name of the S. there are two types of 3-phase induction motors . This extra resistance is usually necessary to give a high starting torque. The cage winding is adaptable to any number of poles. At the . apparatus 1. Ammeter 5. with full-line voltage across the stator terminals.LPF 9Ω. 7.10A.8.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Rheostat 0-500V 0-150V 0-30V 0-5A 0-10A 0-10A 500/250/125V.a) squirrel cage and b) wound rotor or slip ring type. A wound rotor has a laminated core with slots on its outer surface.

less than 0. A wound-rotor induction motor is used for loads requiring large starting torque or for loads requiring speed control.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. one of the wattmeter will read negative. rotate the handle of the starter slowly in clockwise direction so that rotor resistance is gradually cut off. Now. compressors etc. Note down the ammeter. (the no load current is mainly used for magnetizing the core which is largely inductive in nature). . Adjust the autotransformer and apply rated voltage to the stator. cranes. elevators. voltmeter and wattmeter readings. Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Keep belt on brake drum in loose position (motor on no load) iii) Starter handle should be in maximum anticlockwise position (External rotor resistance is maximum) Switch on the 3 phase supply. PROCEDURE: A) NO LOAD TEST Make the connections as shown in the diagram. GEC Thrissur 49 time of start. A wound-rotor induction motor is more expensive than a squirrel-cage motor and also it requires more maintenance because of the brushes and slip rings. the addition of external resistance in the rotor circuit of a wound-rotor induction motor i) decreases its starting current ii) increases its starting torque and iii) improves its starting power factor.5. Since the power factor on no-load is quite low. Then switch off the supply and interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter and again start the motor by the above procedure. The sum of the wattmeter readings shows the rotational losses (rotational losses = core loss + mechanical losses). the motor runs on no-load. By pressing the push button provided on the starter. A wound-rotor motor may be used for hoists.

GEC Thrissur 50 .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. . GEC Thrissur 51 B) BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Make the connections as shown in the diagram.

switch off the supply and interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter and again take readings. which lags the voltage Woc (Y-axis) V by an angle Φo where Φ o = cos −1 ( ).5A + 0-10A MC A + V B A 28V DC 10A 0-30V MC R - C Precautions : Keep the rheostat in maximum resistance position. Note down voltmeter and ammeter readings for different positions of rheostat. Switch on the 3 phase supply. Draw the parallel line for the X-axis from point A and for the Y-axis from point B upto the X-axis (point E). GEC Thrissur 52 Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Rotor is blocked by tightening the belt on the brake drum. From the current Isc find out the ISN (short circuit current corresponding to the V normal voltage) through the formula I SN = I sc ( rated ) . Then draw the bisector for the output line and extend it to the line AD let the point of intersection be C. which lags the voltage Wsc (Y-axis) V by an angle ΦSC where Φ SC = cos −1 ( ). (V & I are line values) 14. ammeter and wattmeter readings. Join the points B and A to get the output line. let both the lines intersects at point D.) C) STATOR RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT Make the connections as shown in the diagram. 8. (If any of the wattmeter reads negative. Switch on 28V d. From the No-load test find out the current Io and draw the OA vector with the magnitude of Io from the origin by suitable current scale. supply. Draw the lines by taking the current (I) in X-axis.c. 3Vsc I sc 16. voltage (V) in Y-axis. . 18. 3Vo I o 15.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Note down voltmeter. (Note: Resistance/phase = 3 x Delta resistance) 2 Procedure to draw the circle diagram: (Do not write in the fair record) 13. + 10A 9Ω. draw the OB vector with the Vsc magnitude of ISN from the origin by the same current scale. 17. Adjust the autotransformer so that rated current (to get full load copper loss) flows in the ammeter.

To get the torque line. Note: Choose the current scale such that the circle diagram will be as large as possible. 2. Or. 20. 24. Rdc CIRCLE DIAGRAM Voc = 400V . TABULATION NO LOAD TEST Voc Ioc W1 W2 Woc Vsc BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Isc W1 W2 Wsc Stator Resistance Measurement S. constant loss line at S and X-axis at T. In the line DB locate the point G to separate the stator and rotor copper losses by I '2 R ' R ' using the formula (rotor copper loss/stator copper loss) = 2 2 2 = 2 where I 2 ' R1 R1 BG R2 ' R1= stator resistance per phase and R2= rotor resistance per phase. Select power scale = 3 × Vrated × current scale .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. BD Ro1 22. By keeping the point C as center draw a semi circle with radius CA. 4. Isc = 7. Draw line PT parallel to Y-axis meeting output line at Q. 3. GEC Thrissur 53 19. Woc = _____ W Vsc = _____ V. Wsc = _____ W I oc = ____ A 3 I sc = ____ A 3 Per phase values are Vo = Voc = _____ V Vs = Vsc = _____ V Io = Is = Rdc = _____ Ω . draw line PK parallel to output line meeting the circle at point P. torque line at R. Ioc = ___ A . Let EB be the line of total loss [EB = ED + DB where ED = constant loss and DB = variable loss] 21. join the points A and G. V (volts) I (amps) Rdc=V/I Ω 1. = .No. To find the full load quantities. 23.8A. The larger the circle diagram more will be the accuracy. draw line BK (=Full load output/power scale). Now.

5A) Io = ______A =_____cm Vrated ) I sc = ____A = ____ cm Vsc Woc Φ o = cos −1 ( ) = _______˚ 3Vo I o Wsc Φ SC = cos −1 ( ) = _______˚ 3Vsc I sc I SN = ( Power Scale = 3 × Vrated × current scale = _______W = 1cm . 1cm = 1 or 1.2 × Rdc = ______ Ω 2 W Ro1 = sc2 = _______ Ω 3I s R2 ' = Ro1 − R1 = _______ Ω BG R2 ' = = ______ BD Ro1 BG = ____× BD Selection of current and power scale Current scale = 1cm = _____A (Take the current as large as possible.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 54 3 R1 = × 1.

Isc = ____A. GEC Thrissur 55 PERFORMANCE AT FULL LOAD FROM CIRCLE DIAGRAM Full load output = 3700W = PQ = _______cm Full load current = OP x current scale = ______A Full load power factor = PT = ______lag OP Rotor copper loss at full load = QR x power scale = _______W Stator copper loss at full load = RS x power scale = _______W Constant loss = ST x power scale = _______W Rotor input at full load = PR x power scale = ________ W Torque developed at full load = PR x power scale (sync.watts) = PR x power scale x = ________N-m Stator input at full load = PT x power scale = ________W PQ Efficiency at full load = × 100% = _________% PT QR Slip at full load.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Wsc = ______W Vo = Voc = _____ V Vs = Vsc = _____ V Io = Is = I oc = ____ A 3 I sc = ____ A 3 Woc = _______ 3Vo I o sin Φ 0 = _______ cos Φ 0 = . Ioc = ____A . s = = ________ PR Speed at full load = (1 − s) * N s = _______rpm 60 Starting torque developed = BG x power scale x N-m = _______N-m 2π N s 60 Maximum torque developed = I I’ x power scale x N-m = _______N-m 2π N s Maximum output = HH’ x power scale = ________W Maximum input = JJ’ x power scale = _________W EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS 60 N-m 2π N s Voc = ____V . Woc = _____W Vsc = ______V.

2* Rdc =1.2 x ____ = ______Ω 2 R2 ' = Ro1 − R1 =_______Ω X X 2 = X 2 ' = o1 = ______Ω 2 EXACT EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT R1 I1 X1 Io Ic 400V Rc Im Xm I2' R2' X2' 1− s ) RL ' = R2 '( s APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Ro1=R1+R2' Xo1=X1+X2' I I' 1 2 Io Ic 400V Rc Im Xm RL ' = R2 '( 1− s ) s PERFORMANCE AT RATED SPEED FROM EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Synchronous speed.67% Slip = s = s Ns 1500 1− s RL ' = R2 '( ) =_______Ω s I o (per phase) = I o ∠ − Φ o ° =_______A From approximate equivalent circuit. Ns = 1500 rpm Rated speed = N = 1400 rpm N −N 1500 − 1400 × 100% = × 100 = 6. . GEC Thrissur 56 Vo =_________Ω I o × cos Φ o Vo = ________Ω Xm = I o × sin Φ o V Z o1 = s = _________Ω Is W Ro1 = sc2 = _______Ω 3I s Rc = X o1 = Z o12 − Ro12 = ________Ω 3 R1 = *1.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.5 x 1.

. 3. the rotor will rotate opposite to the direction of the rotating field so that the induced voltage in the stator winding is decreased. What happens to a slip ring induction motor if 3 phase supply is given to rotor windings keeping the stator terminals shorted? The three phase rotor current will produce a rotating field in the air gap. then relative speed between rotor conductors and rotating magnetic field would be (Ns+Nr) rpm. These motors are well suited for high inertia loads which take a long time to accelerate (lifts. 2. How can frequencies greater than the supply frequency can be obtained with the use of a 3 phase slip ring induction motor? By running the rotor against the direction of rotating magnetic field by means of a prime-mover. According to Lenz’s law. cranes etc). which will rotate at the synchronous speed with respect to the rotor. This gives rotor frequency f2 of the voltage at slip rings as P( N s + N r ) PN s f2 = Hz which is higher than the supply frequency f 2 = . 120 120 What is the advantage of slip ring induction motor? The slip ring induction motor gives high starting torque with low starting current. If rotor speed is Nr rpm and rotating magnetic field speed Ns.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Voltage and current will be induced in the stator windings. GEC Thrissur 57 V ∠0° =________A per phase ( Ro1 + RL ') + jX o1 I1 = I o + I 2 ' = I1∠ − Φ1 ° = _________A I 2' = Line current IL = 3 × I1 = ______A Power factor = cos(Φ1 °) = _______lag Output = 3 × I 2 '2 × RL ' =________W Output Torque = =_________N-m (N=1400rpm) 2π N ) ( 60 Input = 3VI L cos Φ1 = __________W Output Efficiency = × 100% = ________% Input RESULT vi) No-load and blocked rotor tests were conducted on 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor Equivalent circuit parameters were determined vii) viii) Circle diagram was drawn Performance at full load from equivalent circuit and circle diagram were ix) determined ================================================================ Do you know? 1.

What are the differences between a transformer and induction motor? i. 5. c) slip power recovery What are the advantages of addition of external rotor resistance at starting? a) It decreases the starting current. b) increases the starting torque and c) improves the starting power factor. The losses are higher and the efficiency is lower in an induction motor than in transformer. A transformer is a static device where as an induction motor is a rotating device. Due to the presence of air gap. Because of the presence of air gap.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. b) Rotor resistance variation. GEC Thrissur 58 4. the windings are distributed in slots. In induction motor. the magnetizing current is pretty high in an induction motor. Therefore an air gap exists in an induction motor. . 6. iii. ii. What are the speed control methods used in slip ring induction motors? a) stator voltage variation. iv. the leakage reactances in an induction motor are higher than in a transformer. The transformer winding consists of concentrated coils.

Tachometer Type Range Quantity MI MC MC MI Dynamometer Wire Wound (0-500V) (0-500V) (0-250V) (0-10A) (10-0-10A) 250V. If the induction machine is driven at a speed greater than synchronous speed by a prime mover. Line excited induction generator : Induction machine connected to supply mains and driven at super-synchronous speed by its prime mover is called a line excited induction generator. GEC Thrissur 59 ================================================================ Experiment No. Wattmeter 7.No. the necessary lagging reactive power for its excitation is obtained by a capacitor bank connected across the generator terminals. Self excited induction generator : In this generators. the presence of residual flux (present in rotor core) causes a small emf to get induced in the stator . Name of the apparatus 1. the direction of induced torque reverses and it acts as an induction generator.upf 272Ω 1. 4. Based on the way with which the generator gets the required lagging reactivepower. Stopwatch 9. Ammeter 5. APPARATUS: S. Voltmeter 2. The generator draws the required lagging reactive power from the mains. 6 INDUCTION MACHINE AS GENERATOR AND MOTOR ================================================================ AIM: i) To operate the given 3 phase induction machine as a) induction motor and b) induction generator ii) To conduct load test in both generating and motor modes iii) To plot the performance characteristics and iv) To plot W Vs slip and hence determine the hysteresis power.7A 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 PRINCIPLE: An induction generator is asynchronous in nature because of which it is commonly used as windmill generator since a windmill runs at non-fixed speed.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. they are classified into i) Line excited induction generator and ii) Self-excited induction generator. 3. Rheostat 8. If the rotor of the machine is driven by its prime-mover. The rotating magnetic field is set up by the magnetizing current drawn from the mains.10A. These are used in remote areas to supplement power received from weak transmission links. 6.

Now switch off the ac supply also. If the excitation is again decreased. Decrease the resistance of the field rheostat gradually and make the voltmeter reading across the SPST switch zero. Decrease the resistance of the dc motor field rheostat (i. As the motor gathers speed. Again switch on the dc supply keeping the motor field rheostat at maximum position. switch on the DC supply by closing the DPST switch. switch off the dc supply and interchange the armature terminals A & AA. excitation is increased) and note the voltmeter reading across the SPST switch. Before switching off the dc supply. the SPST switch is closed. PROCEDURE: Make the connections as shown in figure. interchange the connections of the pressure coil of the wattmeter using the reversing switch. . The steady state voltage induced on no load is given by the intersection of magnetization characteristic of the machine and capacitance V-I characteristic. GEC Thrissur 60 windings at a frequency proportional to the rotor speed. Now. Please note that during this time. SPST and TPST switches open iii) Keep rotor rheostat at maximum resistance position Switch on the three phase supply by closing the TPST switch. This procedure is continued till the dc ammeter reading reaches rated value (10A). Again increase the excitation till the dc ammeter shows rated current (10A). increase the excitation till the dc ammeter reads zero. decrease the excitation in steps for different values of dc ammeter and note all the readings each time. If it is increasing.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. induction machine will be in generator mode. gradually cut off the rotor resistance. This procedure is continued till the wattmeter reads zero. Hence the net flux will increase causing the voltage to build up further. Now. the connection of the reversing switch across the wattmeter should be such that the wattmeter reading is positive. Note the speed using tachometer. The flux set up by this current assists the initial residual flux. Induction machine will start as induction motor. Note down all the meter readings and time for 10 (or 5) oscillations.e. Now. Now. Precaution: i) Keep the dc machine (separately excited) field rheostat at maximum resistance position (Reason: Initially dc machine will act as dc generator) ii) Keep DPST. This voltage impresses over the 3-phase capacitor gives rise to leading current drawn by the capacitor which is equivalent to lagging current supplied to the generator.. Decrease the excitation and take readings for different values of dc ammeter.

GEC Thrissur 61 .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

__) Vdc = _____V. ii) Since the supply frequency is usually slightly less than 50Hz. induction machine acts as generator even if the speed is less than 1000rpm. GEC Thrissur 62 TABULATION Note :i) Wattmeter reading negative indicates induction generator mode. iii) Here.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. N = (1 − s ) × N s = _______ rpm . the dc generator is separately excited type. SAMPLE CALCULATION INDUCTION MACHINE WORKING AS MOTOR (Set No. not self-excited. Vac = ______V. Iac = ______A Wph = _____W Time for 10 oscillations = ____ sec Ns = 1000rpm Rotor frequency. Idc = _____A. f2 = 10/T = ____Hz Input = 3 Wph = 3 x ____ = ______W Output = Vdc x Idc = ______W % Slip = f2 × 100 =_______% f Speed.

b) hysteresis power = _______W. N = (1 − s) × N s = ________rpm (Note: Speed will be above synchronous speed. Hysteresis power = AB =______W 2 MODEL GRAPHS 3Wph Generator Motor A % Slip B Efficiency % Output in W RESULT a) Performance characteristics were plotted while the induction machine is operating as generator and motor. Vac = ______V.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. ___) Vdc = ______V. Iac = _____A. Wph = _____W Time for 10 oscillations = _____ sec Ns = 1000rpm Rotor frequency. GEC Thrissur 63 Efficiency = output ×100 =________% input INDUCTION MACHINE WORKING AS GENERATOR (Set No. f2 = 10/T = ______Hz Input = Vdc x Idc = ______W Output = 3 Wph = _______W % Slip = − f2 × 100 = ______% (Note: Slip is negative) f Speed. Idc = ____A. ================================================================ . 1000rpm) Efficiency = output ×100 =________% input From 3Wph Vs % slip characteristics.

The flux set up by this current assists the initial residual flux. 2. What you mean by single phasing? Single phasing is a fault condition in which a 3 phase motor is operating with one line open (due to blowing of a fuse in one phase). Explain the working principle of self excited induction generator. Thus. 4. . This voltage impresses over the 3-phase capacitor gives rise to leading current drawn by the capacitor which is equivalent to lagging current supplied to the generator.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. it must take reactive power from an existing supply network. Hence the net flux will increase causing the voltage to build up further. If the rotor of the machine is driven by its prime-mover. it will continue to run as long as the shaft load is less than 80% rated load and the remaining single phase voltage is normal. but its magnitude is limited by saturation in the iron. the presence of residual flux causes a small emf to get induced in the stator windings at a frequency proportional to the rotor speed. The frequency generated is slightly less than that corresponding to the speed of rotation. The terminal voltage of the generator increases with the capacitance. What is an induction generator? What are its limitations? When a 3 phase induction motor is made to run at a speed higher than its synchronous speed by means of a prime-mover coupled with it. In case of a line-excited induction generator. ii) its output voltage and frequency can not be controlled and iii) it always operates at a leading power factor. the 3 phase induction motor becomes a 3 phase induction generator. Its limitations are : i) it can not run in isolation. GEC Thrissur 64 Do you know? 1. Although the 3 phase motor will not start with one line open. The capacitor bank must be able to supply at least as much reactive power as the machine normally absorbs when operating as a motor. The steady state voltage induced on no load is given by the intersection of magnetization characteristic of the machine and capacitance V-A characteristic. If the capacitance is insufficient. a higher prime-mover speed produces a greater electrical output. the generator voltage will not build up. 3. how the slip is affecting the active power delivered? The active power delivered to the line is directly proportional to the slip above synchronous speed. rotation of the rotor produces a quadrature field that maintains the rotation. if the motor is running when single phasing occurs.

Draw the torque-slip characteristics of an induction machine. GEC Thrissur 65 5.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. .

PRINCIPLE: Ammeter Wattmeter Wattmeter Rheostat MI MI MC MI MI MC Dynamometer Dynamometer Dynamometer Wire wound 0-500V 0-150V 0-30V 0-5A 0-10/20A 0-10A 500/250/125V. 8. In pole changing induction motors. This type of induction motor has always the squirrel cage rotor. Another method is to use one winding but with suitable connections for a changeover to double the number of poles. APPARATUS: S. 7 NO LOAD & BLOCKED ROTOR TESTS ON POLE CHANGING INDUCTION MOTOR ================================================================ AIM: i) To study the different modes of operation of a 3 phase pole changing induction motor ii) To perform no load and blocked rotor tests on pole-changing induction motor.No. 2.10A. These coil groups are connected in series and parallel with the current direction being reversed only in one group. the stator winding of each phase is divided into two equal groups of coils. GEC Thrissur 66 ================================================================ Experiment No.LPF 9Ω. 10/20A. 9. Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Type Range Quantity 1. This technique. 7. determine the equivalent circuit parameters and plot the torque-speed characteristics for both low speed and high speed connections. 3 4. to create two different numbers of poles (even) in the ratio 2:1 respectively. the current in one group of coils is also reversed at the same time. one way is to have different windings for the motor so that it will have different synchronous speeds and the running speeds. 5/10A.UPF 150V.5A 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 If an induction motor is to run at different speeds. termed the consequent pole method. .8. When the connection is changed from series to parallel or vice versa. is applied to all three windings (phases).UPF 150V. 5. 6.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. which can adapt to any number of stator poles. 10.

the voltage is applied to terminals S1-S2-S3 while S4-S5S6 are left open and for high speed operation of the motor. the motor can be considered to have a constant torque. the arrangement is as shown in figure 2. producing four poles in the stator. The flux densities for the two speeds are approximately equal. the voltage is applied to terminals S4-S5-S6 and the terminals S1-S2-S3 are shorted. two speed motors depends on the operating characteristics required at the two speeds. It may be noted that the direction of current in coils 1 and 3 remains the same. Only one type of connection is shown. along with the direction of current in them. For low speed. . and 2 and 4) connected in series for each path. the change of stator winding is made from series-star to parallel-star. GEC Thrissur 67 Figure 1 (a) shows schematically only four coils of one phase of the windings connected in series. a) Constant torque type If it is desired to have constant torque at both the speeds. eight poles are formed in the stator (Figure 1 (b)). while for constant power operation the change is made from series-delta to parallel-delta. Constant torque and constant power operations The choice of winding arrangements of 3 phase. The output of the motor is approximately proportional to the speed. If the current in coils 2 and 4 is reversed and the connection is changed to parallel with two coils (1 and 3.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. For constant torque operation.

b) Constant power type . PY = 3VI cos ΦY 2. For series-star connection. the speed is also doubled. Simultaneously. the power drawn from the supply is given by. the motor torque remains constant. I = Maximum current that the winding can carry. PY = 2 3VI cos ΦYY It is assumed that the power factor remains unchanged and the motor losses are negligible.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. For parallel-star connection. With the changeover of stator winding from series-star to parallel-star. Then. 1. GEC Thrissur 68 Let V = Line voltage. So. the power drawn from the supply is doubled.

switch off the supply and interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter).S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. i. (If any of the wattmeter reads negative. the voltage is applied to terminals S4-S5-S6 and S1-S2-S3 are shorted.46VI cos ΦYY After changeover from series-delta to parallel-star. PΔ = 3VI cos Φ Δ 2. 1. the connection of the winding may be done as shown in figure 3. For parallel-star connection. PROCEDURE: A) NO LOAD TEST ON LOW SPEED MOTOR Make the connections as shown in figure. For series-delta connection. voltmeter and wattmeter readings. while for high speed operation. The constant power connection is the most expensive. GEC Thrissur 69 If constant power output is to be obtained from the motor at both the speeds. Note down the ammeter. the torque is inversely proportional to the speed.e. PY = 2 3VI cos ΦYY = 3. the power increases slightly (about 15%). TABULATION LOW SPEED NO LOAD TEST Voc Ioc W1 W2 Woc Vsc BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Isc W1 W2 Wsc . the voltage is applied to terminals S1S2-S3 and terminals S4-S5-S6 are left open. For low speed operation. if power factor is assumed to remain constant. because in this case the motor size becomes the largest. Adjust the autotransformer and apply rated voltage to the stator. Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Keep belt on brake drum in loose position (motor on no load) Switch on the 3 phase supply by closing TPST switch.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 70 .

GEC Thrissur 71 B) BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON LOW SPEED MOTOR Make the connections as shown in figure. .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

ammeter and wattmeter readings. TABULATION HIGH SPEED Voc NO LOAD TEST Ioc W1 W2 Woc Vsc BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Isc W1 W2 Wsc . GEC Thrissur 72 Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Rotor is blocked by tightening the belt on the brake drum. A) NO LOAD TEST ON HIGH SPEED MOTOR Make the connections as shown in figure. (If any of the wattmeter reads negative. switch off the supply and interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter). voltmeter and wattmeter readings. Adjust the autotransformer so that rated current (to get full load copper loss) flows in the ammeter.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Keep belt on brake drum in loose position (motor on no load) Switch on the 3 phase supply by closing TPST switch. Switch on the 3 phase supply. Adjust the autotransformer and apply rated voltage to the stator. Note down the ammeter. Note down voltmeter. (If any of the wattmeter reads negative. switch off the supply and interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter).

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 73 .

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. . GEC Thrissur 74 B) BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON HIGH SPEED MOTOR Make the connections as shown in figure.

3. Note down voltmeter. Resistance/phase = 3 high speed connection. Woc = _____W Vsc = ______V. switch off the supply and interchange the connections of the pressure coil (or current coil) of that wattmeter). 8. 2. (If any of the wattmeter reads negative. 4. supply. Ioc = ____A . C) STATOR RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT Make the connections as shown in figure.No. GEC Thrissur 75 Precautions : i) Keep the autotransformer in minimum voltage position ii) Rotor is blocked by tightening the belt on the brake drum. + 10A 9Ω. 1.5A + 0-10A MC A + V S3 S5 R S1 28V DC 10A 0-30V MC S6 S4 S2 Precautions : Keep the rheostat in maximum resistance position Switch on 28V d. ammeter and wattmeter readings. Wsc = ______W Vo = Voc = _____ V Io = I oc = ____ A 3 . For 2 Average Rdc EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS (LOW SPEED) Voc = _____V .c. (Note: For low speed connection. Resistance/phase= x Delta resistance) 8 S. Isc = _____A. Switch off the supply. Stator Resistance Measurement V (volts) I (amps) Rdc=V/I Ω 3 x Delta resistance. Note down voltmeter and ammeter readings for different positions of rheostat.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Switch on the 3 phase supply. Adjust the autotransformer so that rated current (to get full load copper loss) flows in the ammeter.

Ns = 750 rpm Assume speed = N = 710 rpm (Take N = 0 to 750rpm in steps of 30rpm) N −N 750 − 710 × 100% = ×100 = 5. I 2 ' = R2 ' 2 ' 2 ( R1 + ) + ( X1 + X 2 ) s R' Rotor Input P2= 3 × I 2 '2 × 2 = _______W s . GEC Thrissur 76 Vs = Vsc = _____ V Is = I sc = ____ A 3 Woc = _______ 3Vo I o sin Φ 0 = _______ Vo Rc = =_________Ω I o × cos Φ o Vo Xm = = ________Ω I o × sin Φ o V Z o1 = s = _________Ω Is Wsc Ro1 = 2 = _______Ω 3I s cos Φ 0 = X o1 = Z o12 − Ro12 = ________Ω 3 R1 = *1.5 x 1.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.2 x ____ = ______Ω 2 ' R2 = Ro1 − R1 =_______Ω X X 2 = X 2 ' = o1 = ______Ω 2 APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT (HGH SPEED) I1 Io Ic 400V Rc Im Xm RL ' = R2 '( 1− s ) s I2' Ro1=R1+R2' Xo1=X1+X2' TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS FROM EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT – LOW SPEED Synchronous speed.2* Rdc =1.33% Slip = s = s 750 Ns V = 400V V = ____________A per phase Rotor current.

Isc = _____A. Ns = 1500 rpm Assume speed = N = 1440 rpm (Take N = 0 to 1500rpm in steps of 60rpm) . Woc = _____W Vsc = ______V.2 × Rdc = ________Ω 8 R2 ' = Ro1 − R1 = ________Ω X X 1 = X 2 ' = o1 = _______ Ω 2 APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT (HIGH SPEED) I1 Io Ic 254V Rc Im Xm RL ' = R2 '( 1− s ) s I2' Ro1=R1+R2' Xo1=X1+X2' TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS FROM EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT – HIGH SPEED Synchronous speed. Ioc = ____A . Wsc = ______W Vo = Vs = Voc = _____ V 3 vsc = _____ V 3 I o = I oc = ____ A I s = I sc = ____ A Woc = _______ 3Vo I o sin Φ 0 = _______ Vo Rc = =_________Ω I o × cos Φ o Vo Xm = = ________Ω I o × sin Φ o V Z o1 = s = _________Ω Is W Ro1 = sc2 = _______Ω 3I s cos Φ 0 = X o1 = Z o12 − Ro12 = ________Ω 3 R1 = × 1. GEC Thrissur 77 Torque developed = ( P2 2π N s = ) 60 60 × P2 = _________N-m 2 × π × 750 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS (HIGH SPEED) Voc = _____ V .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

TABULATION Sl. GEC Thrissur 78 Slip = s = V= Ns − N 1500 − 1440 × 100% = ×100 = 4 % Ns 1500 440 = 254V 3 V R ' ( R1 + 2 ) 2 + ( X 1 + X 2' ) 2 s = _________ A per phase Rotor current.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. EXCEL or any software.No. C. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 LOW SPEED Speed Slip 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540 570 600 630 660 690 710 750 Torque Speed 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 660 720 780 840 900 960 1020 1080 1140 1200 1260 1320 1380 1440 1500 HIGH SPEED Slip Torque . I 2 ' = R2' = ________W s P2 60 × P2 Torque developed = = = ________N-m 2π N s 2 × π × 1500 ( ) 60 Rotor Input P2 = 3 × I 2 '2 × Note: Find the torque for different values of speed and hence plot torque Vs speed characteristics using MATLAB.

. magnetizing current is more due to increase in leakages. ii) No-load and blocked rotor tests conducted with low and high speed connections iii) Equivalent circuit parameters determined for both low and high speed. If the number of poles on a motor is increased to lower the speed. GEC Thrissur 79 RESULT i) Different modes of operation of a 3-phase pole-changing induction motor studied. So the power factor of low speed induction motors is poor in comparison to that for high speed induction motors. which increases with the increase in number of poles. 3 phase induction motors as compared to that of high speed motors.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Explain the reasons for lower power factor of low speed. how will the power factor be affected? Power factor will be reduced. Because of larger number of poles in low speed 3 phase induction motors as compared to high speed motors. ================================================================ Do you know? 1. iv) Torque-speed characteristics plotted for both low and high speed. 2.

What you mean by plugging? While an induction motor is rotating in one direction. GEC Thrissur 80 3. rotor is wound for same number of poles as the stator. The motor will come to zero speed rapidly. When the stator winding is changed for different poles. This type of braking of an induction motor is called plugging. if the phase sequence is changed suddenly. Why? The rotor of a squirrel cage induction motor can adjust to any number of stator poles. For wound rotor induction motor. unless the supply is disconnected. .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. 4. the stator rotating magnetic field will rotate opposite to the rotation of the rotor. rotor also should be changed for the same number of poles which is not practical. Speed control by pole changing method is applicable only to squirrel cage induction motors. the motor will accelerate in the opposite direction. At zero speed.

In a capacitor start motor. The rotor is of squirrel cage construction. 3. 2.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. iii) Capacitor start and run motor. UPF 9Ω. Depending upon the starting methods.No. 8 NO-LOAD AND BLOCKED-ROTOR TESTS ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR ================================================================ AIM: i) To conduct the no load and blocked rotor tests on single phase induction motor ii) To find the equivalent circuit parameters iii) To predetermine its performance at rated speed. 8. iv) shaded pole motor and v) repulsion start induction run motor. 7. Here. Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Type Range Quantity 1. single phase induction motors are classified into i) split phase motor. the current Ia in the auxiliary winding can be made to lead the current Im in the main winding by 90˚ at standstill. Ammeter Wattmeter Rheostat MI MI MC MI MC Dynamometer type Wire-wound (0-250V) (0-100V) (0-30V) (0-10A) (0-10A) 250. By using a capacitor of proper value. called main and auxiliary windings. APPARATUS: S. The time displacement between the currents in the main and auxiliary winding is achieved by connecting a capacitor in series with auxiliary winding. LPF 125V. The stator is provided with two windings. 4. whose axes are space displaced by 90 electrical degrees. it will act as a two-phase motor at the time of starting.10A. the main (or running) and auxiliary (or starting) windings are space displaced by 90˚.8.10A. Thus the motor develops a . no load and blocked rotor tests on capacitor start induction motor are done. 6. both current derived from the same supply mains. it needs special methods of starting.5A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PRINCIPLE: Since a single phase induction motor does not have a starting torque. GEC Thrissur 81 ================================================================ Experiment No. The auxiliary winding is excited by a current which is out of phase with the current in the main winding. ii) capacitor start motor. In all these methods. 5. The auxiliary winding is disconnected by a centrifugal switch after the motor has achieved about 75% speed.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur

82

starting torque. Both the capacitor and auxiliary winding are designed for short time duty and are disconnected by centrifugal switch when the motor has reached 75% speed.
PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST

Make the connections as shown in the diagram.
P 10A 0-10A MI
A

M C

250V,10A LPF 1 L V 1' R

2

A 230V 1-phase 50Hz E C V 0-250V MI 2'

CS C

N NL Machine Details : 230V, 7.4A, 1HP, 1425rpm

Precaution: Keep the autotransformer at minimum voltage position. Switch on the supply. Adjust the autotransformer and apply rated voltage. Note down the ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings. Switch off the supply.
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST

Make the connections as shown in the diagram.
10A P A 230V 1-phase 50Hz E C 0-100V MI V 2' C 0-10A MI
A

M C

100V,10A UPF 1 L V 1' R

2

CS

N NL Machine Details : 230V, 7.4A, 1HP, 1425rpm

Note: For blocked rotor test, the auxiliary winding is disconnected and only the main winding is connected to ac supply. Precaution: Keep the autotransformer at minimum voltage position.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur

83

Switch on the supply. Adjust the autotransformer and make the current equal to rated value. Note down the ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings. Switch off the supply.
STATOR RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

Make the connections as shown in the diagram.
+ 10A 9Ω,8.5A 0-10A MC +
A A

1

2

+

28V DC 10A -

0-30V MC

V V
-

Precaution: Keep the rheostat at maximum resistance position. Switch on 28V d.c. supply. Note down voltmeter and ammeter readings for different positions of rheostat. Switch off the supply.
TABULATION

NO LOAD TEST Vo Io Wo

BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Vsc Isc Wsc

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Stator Resistance Measurement V (volts) I (amps) Rdc=V/I Ω

Rdc

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS, GEC Thrissur

84

I1

R1

X1 I1 R2'/2s Rf Xm/2 Ef X2'/2 Xf V1 Imb I2b' R2'/2(2-s) Xm/2 X2'/2 Eb Xb Rb R1 X1

Imf

I2f'

V1

Equivalent circuit during normal running condition

R1 R1 Isc X1 R2'

Io

X1 Xm/2 Io

Vsc

Vo

R2'/4

Vo

Xm/2

X2' X2'/2 Equivalent circuit during blocked rotor test R1+R'2/4+j(X1+X'2/2) << jXm/2 Equivalent circuit during no load test

CALCULATION EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS BLOCKED ROTOR TEST

Vsc = _____V, Isc = _____A, Wsc = ______W

slip = s = N s − N 1500 − 1425 = = 0. Z = ( R1 + jX 1 ) + Z f + Z b =_______ Ω Current.watts . Io = _____A . I1∠ − Φ = V1∠0° = _______ Ω Z Power factor = cos Φ = ______lag Input power = V1 I1 cos Φ =________W Forward torque.2 x R1dc = _______Ω R2 = Rsc − R1 = _______Ω V Z SC = sc = _______ Ω I sc cos Φ sc = X sc = X 1 + X 2 ' = Z sc 2 − Rsc 2 = __________ Ω X sc = _________ Ω 2 NO LOAD TEST Vo = _______V . Z b = Rb + jX b = ⎜ m ⎟ // ⎜ + 2 ⎟ = _______ Ω 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2(2 − s ) Total impedance. Z f = R f + jX f = ⎜ m ⎟ // ⎜ 2 + 2 ⎟ = _______ Ω 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2s jX ' ⎞ ⎛ jX ⎞ ⎛ R2 ' Backward impedance. Wo = _______W X1 = X 2 ' = Rotational loss Wrot = Wo − I o 2 ( R1 + R2 ' ) =______W 4 X m Vo = = ________ Ω 2 Io Xm = ________Ω Predetermination of the steady state performance at rated speed (N = 1425 rpm) At rated speed.watts = _________sync. ⎛ jX ⎞ ⎛ R ' jX ' ⎞ Forward impedance. GEC Thrissur 85 Wsc = ______ Vsc I sc W Rsc = R1 + R2 ' = sc = _______Ω I sc 2 R1dc = ______ Ω R1 = 1. T f = I12 R f sync.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.05 Ns 1500 Equivalent circuit at rated speed is given by.

As the angle between these fluxes is zero. a pulsating flux (not rotating) is produced. which in turn produces a pulsating rotor flux along the same axis as the stator flux. no starting torque is developed. As the angle between these fluxes is zero. What is double field revolving theory ? A alternating sinusoidal flux Φ = Φ m sin ωt can be represented by 2 revolving fluxes Φ each equal to one-half of the maximum value of alternating flux (= m ) and each 2 120 f ) in opposite directions. Tb = I12 Rb sync. these two fluxes tend to oppose each other. a pulsating flux (not rotating) is produced.watts = ________sync. these two fluxes tend to oppose each other. rotating at synchronous speed ( N s = P If the rotor is stationary and the stator winding is connected to a single phase supply. How will you reverse the direction of rotation of a single phase induction motor ? Interchange the connections of either main winding or auxiliary winding (not both).S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. 3. T = T f − Tb = ________ sync.watts Resultant torque.watts Mechanical power developed Pmech= (1 − s)T = _______watts Output power = Pmech – Wrot = _______W Resultant torque in N-m = 2π T Ns = _______N-m 60 Efficiency = Output ×100 = _______% Input RESULT : i) No load and blocked rotor tests on single phase induction motor were conducted ii) Equivalent circuit parameters determined and its performance at rated speed determined from equivalent circuit iii) ================================================================ Do you know? 1. This pulsating flux induces current by transformer action in the rotor circuit. GEC Thrissur 86 Reverse torque. By Lenz’s law. which in turn produces a pulsating rotor flux along the same axis as the stator flux. 2. This pulsating flux induces current by transformer action in the rotor circuit. no starting torque is developed. Why are the single phase induction motors with one stator winding not self starting? If the rotor is stationary and the stator winding is connected to a single phase supply. By Lenz’s law. .

mixers and vacuum cleaners and usually are light in weight and operate at high speeds (1500 to 10. At standstill. except that the windings are laid in a straight line. Speed of secondary = U = Us(1-2) and slip. What is the typical capacitor value for a capacitor run induction motor? 300 μF for 0. The secondary is a conducting sheet or rail of copper or aluminum. Any number of poles may be used. odd or even.5 hp motor 6. What you mean by synchronous speed in a linear induction motor? Synchronous speed is speed of the primary flux. hence there are called universal motors. A pulsating field is equivalent to two rotating fields of half the magnitude but rotating at the same synchronous speed in opposite directions.000rpm). forward and backward. Primary of linear induction motor is wound similar to the stator of a squirrel cage motor. although in opposite directions. In one cycle of applied voltage. How will you start a single phase induction motor? Single phase motor can be started either by spinning the rotor or by using auxiliary winding. It is a function of the frequency of the applied voltage and the span of the primary coils (pole pitch). the induced eddy currents in the rail develop a force in a direction to oppose the relative motion. If Us = synchronous speed (m/s). 5. . τ = pole pitch (m) and f = supply frequency (Hz) Us = 2τf Synchronous speed is not dependent on the number of poles. the magnetic field travels a linear distance equal to two pole pitches.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 87 4. these two torques. U −U . Although the conducting rail has no squirrel cage bars. They are used in domestic appliances such as portable tools. At any other speed. Both these rotating fluxes produce torque. the two torques are unequal and the resultant torque keeps the motor rotating in the direction rotation. are equal in magnitude and therefore the resultant starting torque is zero. What is a universal motor? Single phase series motor can be used with either a dc source or a single phase ac source. s = s Us Reversal of direction of speed linear induction motor is accomplished by reversing the phase sequence of the primary voltage. drills. 7.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. and the phasor diagram are shown in figures.No. the inphase component of the stator current on the axis of the phase V is constant. The equivalent circuit. 8. For a 3 phase machine. Voltmeter 2. Because V is constant. the power transfer is P = 3VIacosф. that is. for constant power operation I a cos Φ is constant. Locus of Ia for constant power Ia3 Ia2 -Ia1Xs -Ia2Xs V -Ia3Xs Efsinδ Ef1 Ia1 Locus of Ia for constant power Synchronous machine operating as motor Ef2 Ef3 . Ammeter 5. The locus of the stator current is therefore the vertical line passing through the current phasor for unity power factor. 3 4. APPARATUS: S. GEC Thrissur 88 ================================================================ Experiment No. neglecting the stator resistance. 6. Rheostat 7. Tachometer Type MI MC MC MI MC Wire Wound Range (0-500V) (0-300V) (0-30V) (0-15A) (0-3A) 145Ω 2.5A 272Ω 1. 9 V CURVES OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE ================================================================ AIM: i) To synchronize a 3 phase alternator to the supply mains using Dark lamp method ii) Plot the V curves and inverted V curves when synchronous machine is acting as generator and motor at no load and constant power. Name of the apparatus 1.7A Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 PRINCIPLE: Assume constant power operation of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus.

This is known as the V- . signifying a change in the power factor angle ф of the stator current. When the machine is working as synchronous motor. If2 E f = V − jI a X s for synchronous motor and E f = V + jI a X s for synchronous generator. respectively) are drawn to satisfy the phasor relationship For these stator currents the excitation voltages Ef1. The stator current is minimum (Ia = Ia2) and at unity power factor for the field current If2 (Ef = Ef2) which is called normal excitation. The variation of the stator current with the field current for constant-power operation is shown in figure. Again for constant power operation. The excitation voltage Ef changes linearly with the field current If. E f sin δ is constant. leading V and If3. the stator current (Ia = Ia1) is large and lagging. phasor diagrams are drawn for three stator currents: Ia = Ia1 . Ef will change along the locus of Ef and Ia will change along the locus of Ia. Thus the locus of Ef (or If) is also a straight line parallel to the phasor V such that the vertical difference between the locus of Ef and the phasor V is constant and equals E f sin δ . Ef2 and Ef3 (representing the field currents If1. underexcitation (Ef = Ef1).S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. The power can also be expressed as P = 3 VE f Xs sin δ . Therefore. overexcitation (Ef = Ef3) the stator current (Ia = Ia3) is large and leading. as If is changed. lagging V = Ia2 . GEC Thrissur 89 In figure. for low field current If1. For larger field current If2. in phase with V =Ia3 .

When the machine is working as motor. The stator current is minimum (Ia = Ia2) and at unity power factor for the field current If2 (Ef = Ef2) which is called normal excitation. DPST. PROCEDURE: Make the connections as per the diagram. it draws a leading power factor current when overexcited and draws a lagging power factor current when under excited. Precautions : i) Keep dc motor field rheostat in minimum position ii) Keep alternator field potential divider in the minimum voltage position iii) Keep DPDT. overexcitation (Ef = Ef3) the stator current (Ia = Ia3) is large and lagging. GEC Thrissur 90 curve because of the characteristic shape. The variation of the power factor with the field current is the inverted V-curve. For larger field current If2. Looking for the machine terminals. underexcitation (Ef = Ef1). When the machines is working as generator. When the machine is working as synchronous generator. TPST1. it supplies a lagging power factor current when over-excited and leading power factor current when under-excited. If the synchronous machine is not transferring any power but is simply floating on the infinite bus. the power factor is zero. the stator current either leads or lags the stator voltage by 90˚. the machine behaves as a variable inductor or capacitor as the field current is changed. TPST2 switches open iv) Keep the load on DC side in off position. An unloaded synchronous machine is called a synchronous condenser and may be used to regulate the receiving end voltage of a long power transmission line. The magnitude of the stator current changes as the field current is changed. that is.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. but the stator current is always reactive. the stator current (Ia = Ia1) is large and leading. . for low field current If1.

S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 91 .

We can see that Ia decreases from rated current. Now. Increase the motor field current. Synchronous machine working as motor For getting V curves of synchronous motor on no load. Now. increase the synchronous machine field current If by adjusting the potential divider so that ammeter reading Ia shows rated current. the wattmeter shows zero reading. Now. Note If and Ia. Now decrease If gradually and note down Ia each time. vary motor field rheostat). switch off the supply to the dc machine and connect the dc machine to the lamp load by using DPDT switch when the wattmeter reading is zero and ammeter reading minimum.e. reaches minimum. again increases and reaches rated value. Increase the field current If of synchronous machine till the armature current Ia becomes rated value and note down the readings. Synchronization is over. GEC Thrissur 92 Switch on the supply to the dc motor (DPDT switch in position 1-1’). switch on the supply to the alternator field and vary the potential divider so that the generated voltage is nearly equal to rated value. all the lamps become dim or bright simultaneously (phase sequence is wrong). Adjust the potential divider and make the generator terminal voltage equal to the 3 phase supply voltage. make synchronous machine in generator mode) so that wattmeter reads a specified output (say. then interchange the two terminals of the 3 phase supply voltage after switching off the TPST and DPST switches. the lamps will flicker in sequence. Synchronous machine working as generator Now. Now. so that wattmeter reads zero.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Close the TPST switch and note down the 3 phase supply voltage. the motor field rheostat is adjusted very slightly so that the frequency of flickering is convenient and the synchronization switch is closed when two lamps show maximum brightness and the third dark. Decrease If in steps and note down Ia each time. Keeping the wattmeter reading at 600W/phase. Now increase If so that armature current is minimum. for getting V curves of . Wattmeter reading should be same while taking each reading (Otherwise. Now the synchronous machine will act as motor and dc machine as generator. Ia Vs If curve (V curve) is plotted for the generator for a constant power output of 1800W. If the flickering is so fast. 600W per phase) (Please take care of the multiplication factor of wattmeter). Start the motor using the 3 point starter and increase the speed to the synchronous speed by varying the motor field rheostat. If the lamps are flickering uniformly ie. Note down the wattmeter reading which shows the no-load losses of both dc machine and synchronous motor. decrease the field current of the dc motor (i. Plot the Vcurves (Ia Vs If) for synchronous motor on no-load.

f.GENERATOR p. and b) over-excited synchronous motor operates at leading p. SYNC. GENERATING MODE Sl. No.f.f. vary the lamp/water load and make the wattmeter reading equal to 800W/phase. 800W/phase). MODEL GRAPH V-CURVES & INVERTED V-CURVES SYNC.f.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. a Ia. .f. and under-excited synchronous motor at lagging p. Vs If p. ____) Generator delivering an output of ______W. p. Vs If output=____W Ia Vs If Ia Vs If Input=____W No-load lead lag If in amps lag lead If in amps SAMPLE CALCULATION (Set No. Increase the field current of the synchronous machine to rated current and the above procedure is repeated.MOTOR I . p. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OUTPUT = ________W Ia If cosф (lag/lead) MOTOR MODE ON NO LOAD (INPUT = _______W) Ia If cosф (lag/lead) MOTOR MODE INPUT = _________W Ia If cosф (lag/lead) Note: a) Over-excited synchronous generator operates at lagging p. and under-excited synchronous generator at leading p. Plot the V curves of the synchronous motor drawing constant power input.f.f. GEC Thrissur 93 synchronous motor drawing constant power input (say.f.

This is highly undesirable. Iamin = _____A I cos Φ = a min = _______ lag (/lead) (Note : under-excited → lead & over-excited → lag) Ia Motor drawing an input of _______W. first power factor improves until it becomes unity and with the further increase in excitation the power factor becomes leading one and decreases.f. What is the effect of increase in excitation of a synchronous motor? When the excitation of a synchronous motor is increased. 2. the incoming alternator and the infinite bus must have the same i) voltage ii) frequency iii) phase sequence and iv) phase. 4. What are the conditions for paralleling an alternator with the infinite bus? Before the alternator can be connected to the infinite bus. 3. 6. Iamin = _____A I cos Φ = a min = _______ lead (/lag) (Note : under-excited → lag & over-excited → lead) Ia RESULT 3 phase synchronous machine was synchronized to the supply mains using bright lamp method and V-curves and inverted V-curves were plotted while the synchronous machine is working as generator and motor. and mechanical shocks resulting due to heavy torque. leading or lagging? Lagging. This may result into sudden flow of power. Ia = ____A. If = _____A. A slight decrease of field current worsens the power factor. Was the p. If = ____A.f. GEC Thrissur 94 V = 400V. ================================================================ Do you know? 1. What is the possible effect of wrong synchronization? Wrong synchronization means connecting two sources at an instant when the phase difference between two voltages is not zero. Is it cylindrical or salient pole machine? Salient pole 7. 0. (It has zero synchronous impedance Zs and infinite rotational inertia). A synchronous motor works at a p.8.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. V = 400V. even if the field is unexcited. excessive current circulation. What is infinite busbar? A supply system with large number of synchronous generators in parallel and operating at constant voltage and frequency is called infinite busbar. Ia = _____A. A synchronous motor develops some mechanical power. What is meant by synchronous condenser? . 5.

50pole. 10. the armature voltage is increased near to rated value.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. It is used for power factor improvement since it draws leading current. GEC Thrissur 95 Synchronous condenser is overexcited synchronous motor on no load. 12. NOTE: 44MW. . the field excitation is adjusted such that voltages of the incoming alternator and the bus-bar are equal. three lamps are connected as shown in figure. 60Hz. 144rpm synchronous motor is used to drive the Queen Elizabeth II passenger ship (Second largest luxury ship after Queen Mary II). R1 Y1 B1 V1 L1 R2 V2 VR1 VB2 L1 VR1 VR2 VR2 VY1 L1 L2 Y2 B2 L3 VB1 L3 L2 VB1 VB2 L3 L2 VY1 VY2 VY2 Now. 13. ii) fault in supply system and iii) sudden change in field current. The paralleling switch is closed at the instant when one lamp is dark and other two are maximum bright. the phase sequence of the incoming alternator should be reversed (by interchanging any two leads of incoming alternator). Why a 3 phase synchronous motor will always run at synchronous speed? The synchronous motor always runs at synchronous speed because there is an interlocking action between stator and rotor fields of this motor. A solid state V/f drive circuit provides speed control though frequency adjustment. If all the three lamps become bright and dim in sequence. the phase sequences of both the incoming generator and bus-bar are the same. The speed of the prime-mover of the incoming machine is further adjusted slowly until the lamps flicker at a very low rate. By running the alternator at synchronous speed and by adjusting the field excitation. 10kV. 11. The incoming alternator thus gets connected in parallel with the bus-bar. What is meant by synchronizing? The process of connecting an alternator in parallel with another alternator or with infinite bus bar is called synchronizing. this ship will become a seven star hotel in Dubai. Explain synchronization by bright-lamp method? In this method. The causes of hunting are i) sudden change in load. What is meant by hunting of synchronous motor? The oscillation of synchronous motor rotor about its equilibrium position is called the hunting. 8. If they become bright and dim simultaneously. It can be reduced by using damper bars. using flywheel or designing the synchronous machine with suitable synchronizing-power coefficient. in 2009. After 40 years of service. 9. How is the speed of a synchronous motor varied? By varying the frequency of supply voltage.

The induced emf E is nearly equal to the applied voltage V (neglecting drop in stator impedance). Ammeter 4. APPARATUS: S. 2.44 K w f ΦT volts. otherwise the core will get saturated resulting in excessive core loss and magnetizing current. we can write V = 4. 10 SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR BY VARIABLE FREQUENCY METHOD ================================================================ AIM: To control the speed of the 3 phase induction motor by changing the supply frequency and to plot the speed Vs frequency curve. the voltage is not varied proportionately in the low frequency range to account for the voltage drop in the winding resistance. when the input frequency goes above base frequency. Type MI Digital MC MI Range (0-500V) (0-60Hz) (0-3A) (0-10A) Wire Wound 145Ω. The maximum torque also remains constant under this condition. This type of control (constant V/f) is used for speed control below base frequency (line frequency of 50Hz). Rheostat 7. N s = 120 f . GEC Thrissur 96 ================================================================ Experiment No. only constant (rated) voltage with variable frequency (frequency control) . 5. f When the frequency is reduced.7A Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 PRINCIPLE: The synchronous speed Ns of an induction motor is related to supply frequency f and number of poles P by the equation. Thus. The emf per phase of an induction motor is given by E = 4. However. Frequency meter 3. As the voltage increases above rated value. Rotor speed is given by P N = (1 − s ) N s where s is the slip.44 K wΦT .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.No. The basic methods of speed control of an induction motor are a) by changing the number of poles and b) by varying the line frequency. Voltmeter 2. Name of the apparatus 1. Tachometer 6.5A 272Ω 1. the applied voltage also must be reduced proportionally so as to maintain constant flux.

Repeat the above procedure for another load (say IL = 4A). Increase the autotransformer. GEC Thrissur 97 is used for speed control. Now. Switch off the supply after bringing the motor to no-load. Precautions: TPST in open position v) vi) DPST1 and DPST2 in open position Motor field rheostat in minimum position vii) viii) Potential divider in minimum voltage position ix) Autotransformer at minimum voltage position Keep the belt on the brake drum of induction motor in loose position x) (induction motor on no load). Apply rated voltage by adjusting autotransformer. Increase the resistance of dc motor field rheostat and drive the alternator at rated speed (1500rpm). decrease the frequency till it becomes 50Hz. PROCEDURE: Make the connections as shown in diagram. dc supply is given to the alternator field winding and adjust the potential divider so that the generated voltage is rated value (400V). Now. Under this condition. Switch on the DC supply to the DC motor by closing the switch DPST1. note down frequency. voltage and speed each time. Decrease the voltage and frequency in proportion ( V 400 = = 8 ) and note down the frequency. voltage and speed 50 f of the induction motor each time. increase the frequency keeping the voltage constant (=400V). Again. both flux and maximum torque decrease as the frequency is increased. This procedure is continued till frequency decreases to 44Hz. Note down the frequency.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Start the DC shunt motor using 3-point starter. . Close the TPST switch. Now. voltage and speed of the induction motor. Induction motor starts running on no load. Repeat the procedure till frequency reaches 54Hz.

GEC Thrissur 98 .S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS.

. it causes overheating and decreased efficiency. What does happen to the induction motor if supply frequency is reduced keeping the supply voltage constant ? If supply frequency f is decreased keeping supply voltage constant. ================================================================ Do you know? 1. speed will decrease but flux will increase (Φ α V/f) hysteresis loss increases but eddy current loss remains constant. Since core loss increases.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. GEC Thrissur 99 TABULATION Induction motor on no load Line voltage 352 368 384 400 in volts Frequency 44 46 48 50 in Hz Speed of IM in rpm 400 52 400 54 Induction motor on load IL = 4A Line voltage 352 368 384 400 400 in volts Frequency 44 46 48 50 52 in Hz Speed of IM in rpm 400 54 RESULT Speed of the 3 phase induction motor was controlled by variable frequency method and speed Vs frequency characteristics were plotted. Magnetizing current drawn from supply will be large.

_______rpm). _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3phase squirrel cage induction motor (______KW. Phase 3:. _______V. Qn.B5:.Make the connections and GET VERIFIED by the examiner before switching on. draw the circle diagram and hence obtain the line current.By conducting suitable test on the given slip ring induction motor (______KW. Qn. ∆ connected. _______V. _______V. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _______Ω.A6:. Qn. Draw a neat CONNECTION DIAGRAM and TABULAR COLUMN with PEN.A2:. GEC Thrissur 100 MODEL QUESTIONS INSTRUCTIONS Phase 1:. _______V. & iii) slip at ½ full load.By conducting suitable test on the given 3phase squirrel cage induction motor (______KW. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω.Complete the calculations.B4:. _____A. Qn. _______rpm). determine the torque & efficiency at a slip of 3%. _______rpm) draw the circle diagram & hence obtain the following i) maximum torque ii) maximum power output iii) maximum power input & iv) starting torque. _______V. determine i) the slip at no load . Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω. write down the RESULTs and submit the answer sheet. ∆ connected.By conducting suitable test on the given 3phase squirrel cage induction motor (______KW. ∆ connected.By conducting suitable test on the given slip ring induction motor (______KW.A4:. ∆ connected. _____A.5 p. ∆ connected. _______V. _______rpm). and draw the expected shape of graph (if any) and get approval from the examiner (No need to write procedure/principle). Qn. Qn. Phase 2:. _____A. ∆ connected. Qn. _____A. Qn. _____A. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω. ii) slip at 0.Copy the question to the answer sheet. determine the torque. _______rpm) obtain the equivalent circuit i) during no load test ii) during blocked rotor test & iii) at a speed of ________rpm.By conducting suitable test on the given 3phase squirrel cage induction motor (______KW.5 p.By conducting suitable test on the given slip ring induction motor (______KW. _____A.B2:. _____A.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. _______rpm) draw the circle diagram and hence obtain the efficiency & torque developed at an output of _____kW. ∆ connected. ∆ connected. write the RELEVANT EQUATIONS. _______rpm) draw the circle diagram & hence obtain the slip Vs output characteristics.B1:. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _______Ω.By conducting suitable test on the given slip ring induction motor (______KW.By conducting suitable test on the given slip ring induction motor (______KW. _______V. _______rpm). _______V. power factor. _______V.f. _______rpm). ∆ connected. Qn. ∆ connected.A3:. _____A. _____A. determine the torque & efficiency at 3/4th full load.f. Qn. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω. determine the value of capacitance required to improve the power factor to unity while the induction motor is running at a slip of 3%. draw the graphs (if any). Conduct the experiment. _______V. Show one set of readings to the examiner before switching off. slip & efficiency at 0. Qn. _______V.A1:.A5:. _____A. _______rpm). torque and efficiency at an output of _____kW. slip. . _______rpm) obtain the equivalent circuit & hence predetermine efficiency & torque developed at a speed of ________rpm.B3:.By conducting suitable test on the given 3phase squirrel cage induction motor (______KW.By conducting suitable test on the given slip ring induction motor (______KW. ∆ connected.

By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase salient pole type synchronous machine ((______KVA. Neglect Ra. Qn. Draw the relevant phasor diagrams.E1:. Use pessimistic method. Neglect Ra. _____ connected.E4:.C2:. obtain the equivalent circuit & hence find the efficiency at a slip of 5%.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase alternator (______KW. predetermine the excitation power & reluctance power at a load (torque) angle of 60°. (lag & lead).E3:. Neglect Ra. _______rpm). _______V. Qn. _____A. _____A. _____A. predetermine the full load regulation at zero p.C3:. ____ connected. _____A. Draw the relevant phasor diagrams. _______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase alternator (______KW. Compare the results. _______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase alternator (______KW.f. _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase salient pole type synchronous machine (______KW. Neglect Ra. Qn. ∆ connected. lag by a) pessimistic method and b) optimistic method. _______rpm). obtain the equivalent circuit & hence find the efficiency at a slip of 5%.E5:. Qn. Neglect Ra. _______rpm). _______V. _______rpm). _______rpm). Qn. _______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase salient pole type synchronous machine (______KW. _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase pole changing induction motor (______KW. Qn. _____ connected. Qn. & b) zero p. Draw the relevant phasor diagrams. predetermine the full load regulation at zero p. _______rpm).f. GEC Thrissur 101 Qn.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase pole changing induction motor (______KW.D4:. draw the circle diagram & hence find the torque. _______rpm) while running at low speed. _______V.f.f. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω. draw the circle diagram & hence find the efficiency when the output is maximum. Neglect Ra. (lag & lead). predetermine the full load regulation at unity p.C4:. _______V. ∆ connected.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. Assume excitation emf = 80% of rated voltage. _____A. _______rpm) while running at low speed. _____A. _______V. Assume excitation emf = 120% of rated voltage. slip & efficiency when the power factor is maximum. Qn.E2:. Qn. ∆ connected. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω. _______V. Qn. _______V.f. ∆ connected. _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase alternator (______KW. Qn. _____A. draw the circle diagram & hence find the efficiency when the input is maximum.5 p. ∆ connected. ∆ connected.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase pole changing induction motor (______KVA. _______V. _____A. ____ connected. Neglect Ra. Neglect Ra. Draw the relevant phasor diagrams. Y connected. lag & lead. Use synchronous impedance method.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase pole changing induction motor (______KW. _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase salient pole type synchronous machine (______KW. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = 8Ω.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase pole changing induction motor (______KW. predetermine the full load regulation at 0. _____ connected.f. . predetermine the power factor at which the full load regulation is zero. by a) pessimistic method and b) optimistic method. predetermine the percentage regulation when the given 3 phase alternator is delivering full load at a) unity p. _____A. _______rpm). ∆ connected. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω. _______rpm) while running at high speed. _______V.D2:.C1:. predetermine the excitation power & reluctance power at a load (torque) angle of 45°. _______rpm) while running at low speed. _______rpm). _______V. _______rpm) while running at low speed.D1:. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = _____Ω.D3:. Draw the relevant phasor diagrams. Qn.

_______V.H1:. _____A. Qn. _______V. _______V. _______rpm). Y connected. by POTIER method. Neglect Ra. Qn.H2:. ____V. ______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase alternator (______KVA. _______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 1 phase induction motor (______KW/HP. lag by POTIER method. predetermine the regulation at full load & zero p. _______V. _____A. _____A. Qn. _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase synchronous machine (______KVA. _____A. _____A). _______rpm) coupled with a DC machine (______kW. Y connected.G2:.By conducting suitable test on the given 1 phase induction motor (______KW/HP. ____V.S6 EM Lab II Manual as on 1-1-2010 prepared by TGS. _____A.f. _______V.E6:. _______rpm) while running at low speed. ∆ connected.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase induction machine (______KW.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase induction machine (______KW. Y connected. _____A. _______rpm) obtain the equivalent circuit during running condition & hence find the efficiency at a slip of 4%. _____A). _______rpm) obtain the equivalent circuit during running condition & hence find the efficiency at a slip of 6%. _____A.F4:. _______rpm) obtain the efficiency at a slip of 4%.G2:. _______rpm) coupled with a DC machine (______kW.G1:. Qn. _______V. Qn. _______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase pole changing induction motor (______KW. Assume stator resistance (ac) = ____Ω. _______rpm) coupled with a DC machine (______kW. Qn.F2:. predetermine the regulation at full load & unity p. _______V. _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase synchronous machine (______KVA. Qn. draw the circle diagram & hence find the slip when the torque is maximum. _____A. _______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase alternator (______KVA.J1:. obtain the V curves & inverted V curves (for Ia ≤ 6A) while working as a generator delivering a power output of ________W. Assume stator resistance/phase (ac) R1 = ______Ω. GEC Thrissur 102 Qn. Qn. _____A.By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase induction machine (______KW. _______rpm) coupled with a DC machine (_____kW. ∆ connected.By conducting suitable test on the given 1 phase induction motor (______KW/HP. Qn. Neglect Ra. _______V. _______rpm) obtain a) the equivalent circuit during running condition at slip of 5% b) equivalent circuit during no-load test c) the equivalent circuit during blocked rotor test. determine the efficiency when the dc machine is working as generator delivering an output current of _____A. ______V). Qn. Qn. determine the efficiency when the induction machine is working as generator delivering an output of _______W. Assume stator resistance (ac) = ____Ω. _______rpm).By conducting suitable test on the given 3 phase induction machine (______KW. Assume stator resistance (ac) = _____Ω.J2:. _____A. . _____A.F1:. obtain the V curves & inverted V curves (for Ia ≤ 6A) while working as a motor drawing a power input of _______W. determine the efficiency when the dc machine is working as motor drawing an input current of _____A.F3:. ∆ connected. Assume stator resistance (ac) = ____Ω. _______rpm).G1:. Qn.f. _______V.By conducting suitable test on the given 1 phase induction motor (______KW/HP. _______V. _______rpm). ∆ connected. determine the efficiency when the induction machine is working as motor drawing an input of _____W. ____ connected. Y connected. _____A. ______A).

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