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TIU LUN V THIT K MNG LAN TRONG TRNG TRUNG CP U LC - HU

Giao vin: Vu c Tun Nhom trinh bay : Nhom 2 Thnh vin : Trn Xuan Hin L Quang V Nguyn Cng Chnh

MUC LUC CHNH


Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng Trung cp u Lac Hu Chng II :Tng quan C s ly thuyt mn Mang May Tnh

Chng III:Thit k h thng mang Lan Trng trung cp u Lac Hu

>>>>

TNG QUAN V MUC LUC


Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng u Lc 1. Gii thiu v Trng 2. C s vt cht 3. Ban iu hanh 4. Nganh ngh ao to 5. Khao sat hin trng mng Trng

Chng II :C s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh 1. Gii thiu v Mang may tinh 2. M hinh OSI 3. ng truyn vt li 4. Cac giao thc mang (PROTOCOLS)

5. Cac hinh trang cua mang LAN


Chng III:Thit k h thng mng Lan Trng trung cp u Lc Hu 1. Yu cu thit k

2. Phn tich thit k h thng


3. V s h thng mng: 4. Lp t chi tit 5. Bao cao.D toan chi phi

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh

MUC 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNH.


1.1 Lch s mang may tnh

1.2 Mt s khi nim v Mang may tnh


1.3 Mang co may ch (Server based) 1.4 Cc dch v mang

MUC 2 - M HNH OSI


2.1 Kin trc phan tng va m hinh OSI 2.2 ng dng ca m hnh OSI 2.3 ngha va chc nng ca cac tng trong m hnh OSI.

MUC 3 - NG TRUYN VT L
3.1 Vic truyn d liu

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh

MUC 3 - NG TRUYN VT L
3.2 Cac c tnh ca ng truyn mang

3.3 Cac loai cp mang

MUC 4 - CC GIAO THC MNG


4.1 Giao thc (protocol) mang l g? 4.2 B giao thc TCP/IP

MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG (TOPOLOGIES) CA MNG CUC B (LAN)

5.1 Cac c trng c bn ca mang LAN


5.2 Cac hinh trang LAN n gin

5.3 Cac hinh trang LAN hn hp

Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng Trung cp u Lac Hu


1.Gii thiu v Trng:
Trng Trung cp u Lc Hu to lc ca ng phia nam ca thnh ph ti 2 c s:
- C s 1: Ti a ch 146 - 150 An Dng Vng, phng An Cu, thanh ph Hu; trng nm sat trn trc ng Quc l 1A; mt trc i din vi bn xe phia Nam thanh ph, mt sau lin k vi lang i hc Hu, hai bn giap vi khu dn c.
- C s 2: Ti ng T c, Khu vc I, Phng Thy Dng, Th x Hng Thy, tnh Tha Thin Hu (ang u t).

* Nhim v ca Trng: ao to h trung cp ngh va trung cp chuyn nghip trn a ban tnh Tha Thin Hu va cac tnh Min trung Ty nguyn

* Chc nng ca Trng:


La mt c s giao dc trc thuc s quan l S Giao dc va ao to tnh Tha Thin Hu, Trng Trung cp u Lc Hu c chc nng ao to, bi dng cac nganh, ngh thuc lnh vc Y t, S phm, Cng ngh, Thng mi, Du lch, Dch v, K thut kt hp a dng hoa cac nganh ngh ao to khac c c quan quan l nha nc c thm quyn cho php trnh trung cp.

Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng Trung cp u Lac Hu


2.C s vt cht
Ging ng -Hin ti, Trng ang s dng khi giang ng ti c s 1 gm 63 phng hc (trong c 6 phng hc ln vi sc cha t 150 ch ngi n 600 ch ngi). Giai on t nm 2012 nm 2015 v tm nhn n nm 2020 nh trng trin khai thc hin d n u t xy dng m rng ti 3 a im ti c s 1 (146-148-150 An Dng Vng, thnh ph Hu)

Phng thc hnh,thc tp th nghim: -Hin ti, nh trng c 03 phng thc hnh cng ngh thng tin phc v cho hc sinh thc hnh mn Tin hc vi 106 b my vi tnh c ni mng Internet tc cao; 01 phng chuyn dng giang dy cho mn Ngoi ng; 02 phng thc hnh iu dng - Tin lm sng; 02 phng thc hnh Giai phu; 02 phng Dc l; 01 phng th nghim Vi sinh; 01 phng th nghim K sinh trng; 01 phng thc hnh Chm sc b m & tr em; 01 phng Y hc c truyn; 02 phng pha ch ng dc, thuc nam; 01 phng Ha Dc, 01 phng Ha phn tch; 01 phng Bo ch; 01 nh thc hnh bn thuc; 01 vn th nghim cy thuc nam; 05 phng thc hnh cho ngnh S phm mm non; 02 phng thc hnh in dn dng in lnh; 01 phng thc hnh Bp v 01 nh thc tp chuyn ngnh Du lch, Bp.

Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng Trung cp u Lac Hu


2.C s vt cht
Th vin - Trng c 1 phng th vin vi din tich 150m2 v 01 phng c cho 200 hc sinh; S u sach phc v cho hc sinh cho tt ca cac nganh la 10.000 u sach va 100 gio trnh. - Trng k kt hp ng vi th vin tnh Tha Thin Hu v vic BCNV & Giao vin hc sinh sinh vin n c va mn sach ti th vin. K tc x -Hin ti, nha trng xy dng, cai to khu K tc xa ti a ch 150 An Dng Vng, thanh ph Hu vi 53 phng vi din tich xy dng 1341m2 ap ng h tr cho gn 210 em hc sinh c hoan canh kh khn ang theo hc ti trng. C s h tng k thut khac: - Hin ti nha trng a vao s dng nha thi u a nng, sn bng a mini, sn bng chuyn ngoai tri phc v cho can b, nhn vin, giao vin, hc sinh tham gia luyn thp th thao sau nhng bui dy va hc cng thng.

Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng Trung cp u Lac Hu


3.Ban iu hnh:
1. HI NG QUN TR:

Thy Nguyn Thanh Phc - Ch tch C Nguyn Th Thu Hng Ph ch tch C Nguyn Th Thanh Trc - U vin
2. HI NG C VN:

Thy L Vn Thng - C vn nganh Y - Dc C Nguyn Th Thu Thanh - C vn Tai chinh - K toan


3. BAN GIM HIU:

Thy Dng Phc - Hiu trng Thy Hunh Vinh Ph Hiu trng Thy Phan Ba Thanh Tm - Ph Hiu trng
4. ON TH:

Thy Tn Tht Quang - Ch tch Cng oan Thy Trn Xun Hnh Bi th oan trng

Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng Trung cp u Lac Hu


4.Ngnh ngh o tao: H trung cp chuyn nghip
K toan doanh nghip S phm mm non iu dng Dc s trung cp Y s a khoa Trung cp th y Kinh doanh thng mi & dch v K thut xt nghim

H trung cp ngh
K toan doanh nghip in dn dng Vn hanh,sa cha thit b lnh Nghip v L Tn K thut ch bin mn n Quan tr mng may tinh K thut sa cha may tinh Hanh chinh van th

Chng I :Gii thiu v Trng Trung cp u Lac Hu


5.Kho sat hin trang mang ca Trng -

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNH.
1.1 Lch s mng may tnh:

Gia nm 1968, B Quc phng M xy dng ARPANET Gia nhng nm 1970, h giao thc TCP/IP phat trin Vao nm 1984 T chc ISO cho ra i M hnh tham chiu cho vic kt ni cc h thng m (gi tt la m hnh OSI). xut hin nhng khai nim v cac loi mng LAN, MAN. Ti thng 11/1986 xut hin thut ng Internet. n nm 1990, qua trnh chuyn i sang Internet - da trn NSFnet kt thc. Nh vy c th ni lch s phat trin ca Internet cng chinh la lch s phat trin ca mng may tinh.
1.2 Mt s khai nim v Mng may tinh: Mng may tinh la mt tp hp cac may tinh c ni kt vi nhau bi cac ng truyn vt l theo mt kin trc nao . Cac may tinh nay c th giao tip vi nhau, chia s tai nguyn (cac a cng, cac may in va cac a CD-ROM v.v), mi may c th truy xut cac may xa hoc cac mng khac trao i cac file, d liu va thng tin hoc cho php cac giao tip in t.
Phn loi mng da trn khong cch a l, c ba loi mng:

Mng cc b (Local Area Network LAN): Mng th (Metropolitan Area Network MAN) Mng din rng (Wide Area network WAN):. Mng toan cu (Global Area Network GAN):

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNH
1.2 Mt s khai nim v Mng may tinh:
Ba yu t xac nh bn cht ca mt mng LAN:

Hnh trng mng. ng truyn. K thut truy xut ng truyn. 1.3 Mng c may ch: Mng server based lin quan n vic xac nh vai tr ca cac thc th truyn thng trong mng

. Mng nay xac nh thc th nao c th to ra cac yu cu dch v va thc th nao c th phc v cac yu cu (cn gi la cac thc th p ng yu cu dch v).
Cac may tinh c gi la cac file server thc hin vic x l d liu va giao tip gia cac may tinh khac trong mng. Cac may tinh khac c gi la cac workstation (may tinh trm).

Cac mng server based thng c s dng cho cac mng c 10 ngi s dng v thc hin cac cng vic chuyn bit sau:
File v Print Servers - quan l truy xut ca user ti cac file va cac may in.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNH
1.3 Mng c may ch: Application Servers may ch c nhim v cung cp cac ng dng, cac phn mm cho cac may trm trong mi trng client/server. Database Server - may ch c cai t cac h thng C s d liu (DBMS) nh SQL SERVER, Oracle, DB2 phc v cho cac nhu cu ng dng truy xut d liu trn mng.

Communication Server - may ch phc v cho cng tac truyn thng, giao tip trn mng nh Web (Web Server), mail (mail Server), truyn nhn file (FTP server)
Mail Servers - hot ng nh mt server ng dng, trong c cac ng dng server va ng dng client, vi d liu c tai xung t server ti client.

c im ca mng server based:


Kh khn trong vic cai t, cu hnh va quan tr hn so vi mng peer-to-peer Cung cp s bao mt tt hn cho cac tai nguyn mng. D dang hn trong vic quan tr sao chp d phng d liu (backup). Thm chi c th lp lch cho cng vic nay thc hin t ng.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNH
1.4 Cac dch v mng: Cac mng kt ni hai hoc nhiu hn cac may tinh vi nhau cung cp mt s phng phap cho vic chia s va truyn d liu. Nhiu c im ma mt mng cung cp c xem nh cac dch v (services). Cac dch v thng thng nht trn mt mng la: th in t (email), in n, chia s file, truy xut Internet, quay s t xa (remote dial-in), giao tip(communication) v dch v qun tr (management service).

Cac dch v file v in n


Cac may in c th dng chung trn mng nh cac dch v in mng. Ngi quan tr mng c th cai t, quan tr, chn oan va sa cac li xay ra trn cac may in mng d dang hn do s lng cac may in trong mng giam i va cng vic quan tr may in mng c th c thc hin trn chinh may tinh ma ngi quan tr ang ng nhp ma khng cn trc tip n tng may in. Cac dch v th in t (e-mail) Vic chuyn e-mail gia cac user trn mt mng LAN hoc gia cac user trn mt mng LAN va Internet c quan l bi cac dch v th tn (mail service) mng. iu kin mi ngi c th giao tip trn mng bng e-mail la mi ngi phai c mt a ch e-mail.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 1 - GII THIU V MNG MY TNH
1.4 Cac dch v mng: Cac dch v Internet Cc dch v Internet bao gm cac may ch World Wide Web (WWW) va cac trnh duyt (browser), kha nng truyn file, s nh a ch Internet, cac b lc bao v. Cac dch v nay la cn thit i vi cac mng hin nay cho php giao tip va chuyn i d liu toan cu. Cac dch v qun tr (Management services) Cac cng vic quan tr nay bao gm: theo di va iu khin lu thng, cn bng ti, chn on va cnh bo cc li, qun tr tai nguyn, iu khin va theo di s cho php, kim tra tnh bo mt, phn b phn mm, qun tr a ch, backup va phc hi d liu.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.1 Kin trc phn tng v m hnh OSI

T chc tiu chun hoa quc t (ISO) phat trin mt khung chun v kin trc mng gi la m hnh tham chiu OSI (Open System Interconnection Reference Model).
M hnh OSI la mt tp cac m ta chun cho php cac may tinh khac nhau giao tip vi nhau theo cch m. T m y ni ln kha nng 2 h thng khac nhau c th kt ni trao i thng tin vi nhau nu chng tun th m hnh tham chiu va cac chun lin quan. M hnh OSI phn chia kin trc mng may tinh thanh 7 tng tng Vt l (Physical), tng Lin kt D liu (Data Link), tng Mng (Network), tng Giao vn (Transport), tng Phin (Session), tng Trnh din (Presentation) va tng ng dng (Application). Mi tng khac nhau c tp cac chc nng ring va ch giao tip vi cac tng k cn trn va di va giao tip vi tng i din (ng mc) trn cac may tinh khac.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.1 Kin trc phn tng v m hnh OSI

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.2 ng dng ca m hnh OSI:

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.3 ngha v chc nng ca cac tng trong m hnh OSI:

2.3.1 Tng vt ly (Physical Layer): La tng thp nht trong m hnh OSI. Tng nay lin quan n cac qui tc truyn dng bit khng c cu trc qua ng truyn vt l.
Tng ny nh ngha:

Cu trc mng vt l. Nhng m ta v mt c va in cho vic s dng ng truyn. Cac qui tc m hoa vic truyn cac bit va cac qui tc nh thi. Tng vt l khng bao gm vic m ta ng truyn va khng cung cp bt k c ch kim soat li nao.
Phn cng kt ni mng c coi l thuc v tng vt ly bao gm:

Cac b giao tip mng (Network Interface Card NIC, Adapter, v.v) Cac b tp trung (Concentrator, Hub), cac b chuyn tip (Repeater) dng tai sinh cac tin hiu in. Cac u ni (connector) cung cp giao tip c kt ni cac thit b vi ng truyn (cac cap, cac u ni BNC BayoNette Connector) Cac b iu ch va giai iu ch thc hin vic chuyn i gia tin hiu s ho (digital) v tn hiu tun t (analog).

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.3.2 Tng lin kt d liu (Data Link Layer):
Tng lin kt d liu chu trach nhim iu khin tt ca cac giao tip gia tng mng bn trn n va tng vt l bn di n. D liu nhn c t tng mng c phn chia thanh cac khi ring bit (khun dng - frame), sau chng c a ti tng vt l va cui cng truyn ra mng.
Mc ich chinh ca vic thc thi giao thc tng lin kt d liu l:

T chc cac bit thuc tng vt l thanh cac nhm thng tin c gi la cac khun dng (frame ging nh mt byte, mt frame la mt dy lin tc cac bit c nhm li vi nhau nh mt n v d liu) Phat hin va sa sai li. Kim soat lung d liu. nh danh cac may tinh trn mng . Nh vy tng lin kt d liu cung cp cac phng tin am bao s tin cy cho vic truyn thng tin.
Cac thit b kt ni mng c xem nh thuc v tng lin kt d liu bao gm:

Bridges (Cac cu ni) Intelligent hubs (cc hub thng minh)

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.3.3 Tng mng (Network Layer) Tng mng la tng th ba ca m hnh OSI. Mc tiu chinh ca n la di chuyn d liu ti cc v tr mng xc nh. lam iu nay, n dch cac a ch lgic thanh a ch vt l tng ng va sau quyt nh con ng tt nht cho vic truyn d liu t may gi ti may nhn. Tng mng m ta cac phng phap di chuyn thng tin gia nhiu mng c lp (va thng la khng ging nhau) c gi la lin mng (internetwork) 2.3.4 Tng giao vn (Transport Layer) Tng giao vn nng cp cac dch v ca tng mng. Cng vic chinh ca tng nay la am bao d liu c gi t may ngun phai tin cy, ng trnh t v khng c li khi ti may ich. am bao truyn d liu tin cy, tng giao vn da trn c ch kim sot li c cung cp bi cac tng bn di. Tng nay la c hi cui cng sa li.vi c ch kim soat li ACK D liu cng vi thng tin iu khin ma tng giao vn quan l gi la cac phn on (segment)

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.3.5 Tng phin (hay Tng giao dch - Session Layer)
Tng phin quan l cac lin kt ca user trn mng cung cp cac dch v cho user . Vi d mt ngi s dng ng nhp vao mt may tinh mng ly file th mt phin (hay mt giao dch / mt lin kt) c thit lp cho mc ich truyn file.

Tng phin s dng thng tin a ch lgic c cung cp bi cac tng bn di nh danh tn va a ch ca cac may ch ma cac tng trn i hi.
2.3.6 Tng trnh din (Presentation Layer) Tng trnh din quan l cach thc d liu c biu din. N la trnh dch gia ng dng va mng. C nhiu cach biu din d liu, chng hn nh cac bang m ASCII va EDBCDIC cho cac file vn ban. Tng trnh din bin i d liu sang mt nh dng ma mng c th hiu c. N cng chu trach nhim m ho (encrypt) v gii m (decrypt) d liu - chng hn nh d liu c m hoa d liu n c gi ti ngn hang, nu ta giao dch trc tuyn vi ngn hang qua Internet.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 2 : - M HNH OSI
2.3.7 Tng ng dng (hay Applications Layer)
Cac chc nng chung bao gm: Cac giao thc cung cp cac dch v file t xa, nh cac dch v m file, ng file, c file, ghi file va chia s truy xut ti file. Cac dch v truyn file va truy xut c s d liu t xa. Cac dch v quan l thng bao cho cac ng dng th in t. Cac dch v th mc toan cc nh v tai nguyn trn mng. Mt cach quan l ng nht cac chng trnh giam sat h thng va cac thit b. v.v.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 3 : - NG TRUYN VT L
3.1 Vic truyn d liu: Tin hiu truyn i trn mng hoc la tun t (analog), hoc l s (digital)
3.1.1 Tin hiu tun t

Tin hiu tun t la tin hiu bao gm hang lot cac sng lin tc do s bin i ca in ap.
3.1.2 Tin hiu s

Tin hiu s c to thanh t gia tr ca cac xung in ap. Nhng khi chng i qua cac thit b nh HUB hay Repeater th chng ch truyn hay lp li cac tin hiu nguyn mu 1 hay 0 , qua trnh nay g la tai to li. Tin hiu s it b anh hng ca nhiu do c tin cy cao hn so vi tin hiu tun t 3.2 Cac c tinh ca ng truyn mng

Mt s vn cn quan tm khi quyt nh mi trng truyn thng trn mng, bao gm: dung lng (throughput), bng thng (bandwidth), chi phi, kich thc, linh ng, cac thit b lin kt, va nhiu.

Dung lng (throughput hay capacity) la lng d liu i qua ng truyn trong mt n v thi gian n v la MegaBits/giy (Mbps). Bng thng (bandwidth) :Bng thng la lng d liu tht s i qua ng truyn. n v o la Hz.

Chi ph la mt trong cac yu t quan trng n ph thuc vao mt s cac yu t nh: chi phi cai t, ch phi c s h tng, chi phi bao tr va h tr v.v...

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 3 : - NG TRUYN VT L
3.2 Cac c tinh ca ng truyn mng Kch thc va quy m ca mi trng truyn thng mng may tinh ph thuc vao s nt trn mi phn on, s phn on va chiu dai ca mi phn on. Vic chn la cap nao s anh hng n cac yu t trn. Thit b lin kt (Connectors) la cac thit b dng lin kt dy mng vi cac nt trn mng. Cac nt nay c th la cac trm lam vic, cac may ch, cac may in, HUB, Switchs, Routers. C mt s thit b nh: BNC, T-Connector, RJ45. (Hnh 3.3)

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 3 : - NG TRUYN VT L
3.3 Cac loi cap mng: Cac phng tin ni mng: c quy nh gii hn. Phng tin c quy nh gii hn thng la cap.H thng cap chia ra lam ba loi : cp ng trc (Coaxial), cp xon i (twisted-pair) v cp si quang (optical fiber)

3.3.1 Cap ng trc (Coaxial cable)

La loi cap xut hin u tin, gm hai dy dn: mt li bn trong va mt lp bc ngoai.

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 3 : - NG TRUYN VT L
3.3.1 Cap ng trc (Coaxial cable)

Cap ng trc chia ra lam hai loi Cap ng trc day (Thick cable) - 10BASE-5 Cap ng trc manh (Thin Cable) - 10BASE-2 Cap ng trc day (RG-62) thng c dng trong mt mng may tinh n to thanh cac ng xng sng (backbone) trong h thng mng (Hnh 3.5)
3.3.2 Cap xon i (Twisted Pair cable)

C hai loi cap xon i: C bc ngoai (Shielded Twisted Pair cable - STP) Khng bc ngoai (Unshielded Twisted Pair cable - STP). Ring loi cap dng cho mng Ethernet la loi cap xon i khng bc ngoai hay cn gi la cap UTP (Hnh 3.7).

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 3 : - NG TRUYN VT L
3.3.3 Cp quang (Fibre-Optic cable)

Mt s c im c bn ca cap si quang:

C nhiu kich c khac nhau va chng chuyn tai anh sang ch khng phai in. Thng c dng kt hp vi nhng loi cap khac nh la mt ng ni kiu xng sng gia cac server va cac LAN C u th ln v chiu dai cap va tc truyn nhanh hn hn cac loi cap khac Khng phat ra tin hiu Khng b anh hng ca nhiu bn ngoai

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 4 - CC GIAO THC MNG (PROTOCOLS)
4.1 Giao thc (protocol) mng: La tp hp tt c cc quy tc, quy c m bo cho cc my tnh trn mng c th giao tip vi nhau . Nh vy cac may trn mng mun giao tip vi nhau th phai c chung mt giao thc. Vai tr ca giao thc la quan trng, khng th thiu. Vi d mt s giao thc nh: TCP/IP, SPX/IPX, v.v... Cac dng lin kt: Giao thc c kha nng nh tuyn va giao thc khng c kha nng nh tuyn

La cac giao thc cho php i qua cac thit b lin mng nh Router xy dng cac mng ln c qui m ln hn Vi d, cac giao thc c kha nng nh tuyn la: TCP/IP, SPX/IPX
Giao thc khng c kh nng nh tuyn

Giao thc c kh nng nh tuyn

Ngc vi giao thc c kha nng nh tuyn, cac giao thc nay khng cho php i qua cac thit b lin mng nh Router xy dng cac mng ln. Vi d v giao thc TCP/IP 4.2 B giao thc TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) TCP/IP c thit k hoan toan c lp vi cac phng phap truy cp mng, cu trc gi d liu (data frame), mi trng truyn, do ma TCP/IP c th dng lin kt cac dng mng khac nhau nh mng LAN Ethernet, LAN Token Ring hay cac dng WAN nh: Frame Relay, X.25

Chng II :Tng quan c s ly thuyt mn Mng may tinh


MUC 4 - CC GIAO THC MNG (PROTOCOLS)
4.2 B giao thc TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) TCP/IP la mt lp cac giao thc ( protocol stack) bao gm cac giao thc sau:
4.2.1 FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

FTP cung cp phng phap truyn nhn file gia cac may vi nhau, n cho php ngi s dng c th gi mt hay nhiu file t may mnh ln h thng bt k (upload) va nhn mt hay nhiu file t mt h thng bt k v may mnh (download)
4.2.2 Telnet

Vi Telnet, ngi s dng c th kt ni vao cac h thng xa thng qua mng Internet.
4.2.3 SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer protocol)

La giao thc cho php thc hin dch v truyn nhn mail trn mng Internet.
4.2.4 TCP v UDP

Hai giao thc nay ng vai tr ca tng transport, c trach nhim to lin kt va dch v kt ni d liu (datagram communication service)
4.2.5 Cac giao thc IP, ARP, ICMP, RIP.

ng vai tr ca tng Internet c chc nng tm ng (routing), nhn dng a ch (addressing), ng gi (package)

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.1 Cac c trng c bn ca mng cc b (LAN)
5.1.1 c trng a ly

Mng LAN la mng c cai t trong mt phm vi tng i nh (trong mt phng, mt toa nha, hoc phm vi ca mt trng hc v.v) vi khoang cach ln nht gia hai may tinh trm ch trong khoang vai chc ki-l-met tr li.
5.1.2 c trng tc truyn

Mng cc b c tc truyn thng cao hn so vi mng din rng (WAN). $ 100 Mb/s.
5.1.3 c trng tin cy

T sut li (error rate) trn mng LAN thp hn nhiu so vi WAN: c th t t 10-8 n 10-11.
5.1.4 c trng qun ly

Mng cc b thng la s hu ring ca mt ca nhn hoc t chc nao (trng hc, doanh nghip, v.v) do vic quan l khai thac mng hoan toan tp trung, thng nht. Hnh 5.1 cho ta mt s tm tt cac vn cn xem xt khi tm hiu v mng cc b.

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.1 Cac c trng c bn ca mng cc b (LAN)

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.2 Cac hnh trng LAN n gin: Mng cc b c ba hnh trng n gian la bus (ng trc), star (hnh sao), v ring (vng).
5.2.1 Hnh trng BUS

Mt hnh trng bus vt l (cn gi la hnh trng bus tuyn tnh) cn ban s dng mt ng cap chung dai gi la ng xng sng (backborne hay bus). ng cap nay cn c gi la ng truyn chnh (trunk line) hoc phn on mng (network segment). D liu c truyn trn mt ng thng

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.2.1 Hnh trng BUS
u im ca hnh trng BUS:

S dng cac chun c thit lp, cai t tng i d dang. i hi ng truyn cap it hn cac hnh trng khac. Cach b tri dy rt n gian, d m rng va tin cy.
Nhc im ca hnh trng BUS:

Mng s khng hot ng (down) khi c li hoc t cap. 5.2.2 Hnh trng STAR Mng dng hnh sao c mt b x l trung tm (HUB) hay b tp trung (concentrator) ma tt ca cac nt (may ch file, cac may trm, va cac thit b ngoi vi) gn vi n qua ng cap (Hnh 5.3). Cac mng hnh sao c th c lng trong cac mng hnh sao khac to thanh mng hnh cy hoc mng phn cp
u im ca hnh trng STAR:

D cai t va cu hnh li. D giai quyt cac s c. Li ng truyn t ng c lp phn on mng b li. Khng cn phai ngt mng khi cn kt ni thm hoc thao b bt cac thit b mng.

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.2.2 Hnh trng STAR
Nhc im ca hnh trng STAR:

i hi nhiu cap hn cac hnh trng khac. Vic tn ti mt HUB tp trung (hoc concentrator) ng ngha vi vic tn ti kha nng ngng hot ng ca toan phn on mng khi HUB c s c.

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.2.3 Hnh trng RING Mt hnh trng RING vt l la mt hnh trng vng (vng kin lin kt im-im). Mi thit b kt ni trc tip ti vng hoc gian tip qua mt thit b giao tip va cap. Mi thit b hot ng nh mt b chuyn tip (repeater), khuch i tin hiu gia cac may trm. Loi mng vng nay s dng vic truyn th bai (token passing) cho php tng may tinh gi d liu trn mng. Qua trnh nay am bao la bt k thi im nao ch c th c mt nt truyn d liu trn mng .
u im ca hnh trng RING:

Cac li v cap xac nh d dang Vng i (Dual loop ring) c th chng li tt.
Nhc im ca hnh trng RING:

Vic cai t, thay i va cu hnh li kh khn hn hnh trng bus. Li v ng truyn trn cac vng n lam ngng hoan toan hot ng ca mng. Cac u ni kha t, c bit la cac u ni IBM (IBM connectors).

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.2.3 Hnh trng RING

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.3 Cac hnh trng LAN hn hp 5.3.1 Star-Wired Ring Mt mng hnh trng star-wired ring s dng cach sp xp vt l ca mng hnh sao, nhng tich hp phng phap truyn th bai (token passing). D liu c gi quanh star theo mt vng khp kin. iu nay cho php c ch chng li tt hn mng star va b sung thm tinh tin cy ca vic truyn th bai. Nhng mng vng hin nay thng s dng hnh trng hn hp nay.

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)
5.3.2 Star-Wired Bus: Mt hnh trng star-wired bus la mt dng khac ca hnh trng hn hp. Cac nhm may tinh trm c kt ni ti hub theo dng hnh sao, sau cac hub c kt ni vi nhau qua ng trc n (single bus). iu nay cho php lin kt d dang cac phn an mng khac nhau va thng c s dng trong cac mng Ethernet va Fast Ethernet.

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MUC 5 - CC HNH TRNG CA MNG CUC B (LAN)