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HEPATITIS B

Predisposing Factors: Sex; Race; Age; Genetics Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Precipitating Factors: Environment; Lifestyle; History of blood transfusion

Viral Replication T-cell detect foreign pathogens

Cell-mediated immune response Phase I: INCUBATION PERIOD Direct lysis of infected cells
S/Sx: Arthralgia; Malaise; Fatigue; Low grade fever; Urticaria; Pruritus S/Sx: Asymptomatic Labs: (+) serologic and enzyme markers

Liver injury affecting gastrointestinal functioning

S/Sx: Anorexia; Nausea & Vomiting; Taste alteration; Dehaydration

Leakage of HBV into the bloodstream towards the system Triggers inflammatory chemical mediators (Cytokines; interleukins; histamines)

Phase

II:

Pre-Icteric
S/Sx: Hepatomegaly; tender liver Labs WBC

Accumulation of WBC and macrophages Liver inflammation/necrosis Impaired bile synthesis & metabolism Decreased Fat absorption Phase III: Icteric phase
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Hyperbilirubinemia
S/Sx: Jaundice; Icteric sclera; dark colored urine

Deficiency of fat soluble vitamins e.g. Vit. K

Fatty Stool
S/Sx: Steatorrhea

Bleeding

Anemia
RBC

Attacthment of fibrinogen and other proteins

Tissue/ Cell Regeneration

Treatment: 1. Anti Viral 2. Interferon

Phase IV: Convalescence Complications: - Liver Cirrhosis - Hepatocellular cancer - Fulminant hepatic failure - Coagulopathy - Hepatic encepalophathy - Cerebral edema

GOOD PROGNOSIS

DEATH

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