From Subnetting to VLSM

Classful vs. Classless Routing VLSM Explained Why VLSM Suggestions for Teaching VLSM

Credits
• Virginia Phillips, CCNA, CCAI
– Instructor CCNP classes, Youngstown State University

• Edmund Ickert, CCNA, CCAI
– Instructor CCNA classes, Youngstown State University, completed all CCNP courses

• Sandeep Kolwalkar, CCNA
– Graduate Student, taking CCNP classes, Youngstown State University

Classful vs Classless Routing • Classful routing assigns address space based on the value in the first octet of the 32-bit IP address – RFC Number 791 (760) – Class based on value in first octet value – Receiving router ands subnet mask to determine subnet • Class A • Class B • Class C 0-126 128-191 192-223 • Classless routing ignores classes and uses a CIDR value (number of 1s in network mask) to identify the network – CIDR transmitted as part of IP address – RFC 1517-1520 – Network portion not restricted to entire octet .

more memory required .Classless Routing Address Space Issues • Class A and Class B = 75% address space – < 17000 organizations can be assigned address • Class C = 12.5% available address space – Each network limited to 254 maximum hosts – Potential routing problems • Too many network addresses in routing table • Extra work for CPU.

168.255.255 • Class C 192.168.255.0 to 172.0 to 192.255.255 • Class B 172.255.16.31.0.0.255 – Used to extend life of IPv4 addressing – Note: Do not mix private and public IP address in same network – it will create discontiguous subnets which causes problems .0.0.Private Addressing RFC 1918 • Class A 10.0 to 10.

CIDR transmitted with IP address • Enables the use of supernets and/or route aggregation and summarization – Smaller routing tables – Reduced router memory requirements – Reduced number of CPU cycles for routing processes .Classless Routing • Another method used to extend the life of IPv4 • Temporary solution to deal with lack of network numbers • Uses bit mask (NOT 1st octet value) to determine network portion of address • Uses CIDR to summarize routing information.

Routing Protocols • Classful – can’t send subnet information in updates – RipV1. EIGRP. BGP3 – also can’t support discontiguous subnets • Classless – Sends CIDR in updates sent via multicasting – Can authenticate • RipV2 (RFC 1058). IS-IS. BGP4 – RIPV2 and EIGRP automatically summarize at classful boundary unless you configure differently » RouterA (config-router) no auto-summary . OSPF. IGRP. EGP.

VLSM Variable Length Subnet Masking • Subnets a subnet • Can support multiple contiguous routes • Can use more than one subnet mask for address space allocated to a firm • Makes more efficient use of available address space – Creates two-host subnets for serial links .

IP unnumbered. private addresses • Not supported by legacy systems • Requires new software (and hardware) • Requires retraining .Why Not IPv6? 128-bit address space • Slow to arrive • IPv4 revitalized with new features – VLSM. NAT/PAT.

x IOS routers • RouterA(config) IP subnet-zero – DO Use it to increase address space available • Ones subnet – Defined in RFC 1878 – Can use it. however can cause problems – Avoid using unless you absolutely need it .X and higher supports by default – Configure pre-12.Zero Subnet (Ones too?) • Zero subnet – IOS 12.

18.Route Aggregation Example 1 • Assume you are using three Class B private addresses – 172.0001 – 8 bits in first octet + 6 bits in second octet = 14 – CIDR is 14 • Insulates upstream routers from route flapping problems (serial link problem) .0 10101100.000100 00.16.0.000100 01.0.0 10101100.0.000100 10.0 10101100.0 • Common bits are 10111000.0.0 – 172.0 – 172.17.0.0.

0.0.0 • Common bits are 00001010.0.20.0 00001010.0 – 10.000101 00.0.0 00001010.21.000101 10.000101 01.0.0 – 10.0 00001010.22.000101 – 8 bits in first octet + 6 bits in second octet = 14 – CIDR is 14 .0.Route Aggregation Example 2 • Assume you are using three Class A private addresses – 10.

0 11001000.00001010.00001100.10.0 200.0 11001000.0 11001000.00001010.10.10.12.00001010.00001010.0 200.10.13.11.10.00001010.00001101.10.00001011.0 • Summarize on common bits = 21 • Appears in routing table as 200.0 11001000.10.0 200.0/21 .Supernet Example 1 • Company assigned 4 contiguous Class C networks – – – – 200.

0 200.101.00001010.0 200.10.00001010.103.0 11001000.0 • Summarize on common bits = 21 • Appears in routing table as 200.10.104.Supernet Example 2 • Company assigned 4 contiguous Class C networks – – – – 200.10.0/21 .102.0 11001000.0 11001000.11001001.11001100.11001011.0 11001000.00001010.0 200.101.00001010.11001010.10.10.

4.2.1.3. 254 – Each subnet can support 254 hosts – Each serial connection will use a subnet and waste 252 address spaces . ….Network Subnet Example • 128..0.0/16 is assigned IP address – 130 subnets needed – Requires use of third octet for subnet values • 1.

0.1.1..255.0 – Scenario .0 to 128.Network Subnet Example • Assigned IP address is 128.254. subnet mask 255.1.130 subnets needed and 20 serial connections used now – Requires use of third octet for subnets • 128.0.255.0.0 or CIDR 24 • Each subnet can support 254 hosts • To use an entire subnet for a serial connection would waste 252 address spaces and we have 20 now – SO…. .

Network Subnet Example Subnet the Subnet • Use subnets 128.130.0 using CIDR 30 – – – – – 128.8/30 ……………….0.130.4/30 128.130..1.130.1.1.130.252/30 .1.1. 128.1.0 for needed subnets with a CIDR of 24 • Subnet subnet 128.0 to 128.0/30 128.129.1.

10.10.10.10.20.20.20.10.0/26 .180.0.20.0 is assigned – Subnet with a CIDR of 26 • 200. 200.10. 200.20.20. 200.10.128.20.20.64 (62 hosts) – Subnet subnet 128 with a CIDR of 28 • 200.10.20.160 (14 hosts) – Subnet subnet 200.10.176.Network 2 Subnet Example • A Network address of 200.144.20.20.184 (2 hosts) • Can summarize (aggregate) on – 200.176 with a CIDR of 30 • 200. 200.10. 200.10.

Using VLSM • Variable Length Subnet Masking – allows division of address space based on the size of networks – Start with network requiring the most addresses – Create a subnet mask (use CIDR – Classless InterDomain Routing – number) – Subnet the subnet as needed to provide address space required for other subnets • Be logical – start at beginning or end or address space • Addresses must be contiguous to enable route summarization .

Teaching Tips 1 • Make certain students understand subnetting – Provide students with a mix of subnetting problems using Class A. and C addresses and different numbers of bits borrowed to ensure they do understand • Show relationship of CIDR number of subnet mask . B.

Teaching Tips 2 • Explain reasons for using VLSM • Explain route aggregation (summarization) • Explain supernetting • Show how to summarize using common bits • Show how to supernet using common bits .

200. 201.12.4. 201.16. – Then subnet one of the subnets for subnets to use for serial lines and a CIDR of 30 • Subnet 201.Teaching Tips 3 • Show a simple VLSM example using the third octet – First subnet for 255 subnets with 254 hosts. CIDR = 24 – Then subnet one of the subnets for subnets with CIDR of 28 • Subnet 200.48. etc.16.8. .32. 201. etc. 200.

216. 192. 244. 252 . 144. 224. 232. 248. 236. 196. 160. 224 – Subnet subnet 96. 96. 176 – Subnet subnets 192 and 224 with a CIDR of 30 • Subnets 192. 228. 128. and 160 with a CIDR of 28 • Subnets 96. 64. 128. 204. 220. 160. 112. 200. 240. 212. 32. 208.Teaching Tips 4 • Show a second example using the fourth octet – Subnet for 8 subnets with a CIDR of 27 • Subnets 0. 128.

Teaching Tips 5 • Show examples of divided address spaces – Do not use slides – use hard copy and give students a copy • Give several problems moving from a very simple problem to a very complex problem – Provide answers for each problem for students to check as problem is completed .

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