Chapter 7 Traditional Training Methods

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Presentation Methods
Methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information, which may include:
facts or information processes problem-solving methods

It includes lectures and audio-visual techniques.
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Presentation Methods (cont.)
Lecture
Trainers communicate through spoken words what they want the trainees to learn. Least expensive and least time-consuming ways to present a large amount of information. It is easily employed with large groups of trainees. Supports training methods such as behavior modeling and technology-based techniques.
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Table 7.1 - Variations of the Lecture Method

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Presentation Methods (cont.)
Advantages Team teaching Brings more expertise and alternative perspectives to the training session. Motivate learning by bringing to the trainees relevant examples and applications. Good for showing trainees different viewpoints in a debate. Disadvantages Require more time on the part of trainers. Presentation does not relate to the course content. Trainees who are relatively naive about a topic may have difficulty understanding the important points. Can inhibit learning if the trainees do not have presentation skills.
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Guest speakers

Panels

Student presentations

Increase the material’s meaningfulness and trainees’ attentiveness.

Presentation Methods (cont.)
Lecture
Lacks participant involvement, feedback, and meaningful connection to the work environment. Appeals to few of the trainees’ senses because trainees focus primarily on hearing information. It is difficult to judge quickly and efficiently the learners’ level of understanding. Is often supplemented with question-andanswer periods, discussion, video, games, or case studies.
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Presentation Methods (cont.)
Audiovisual instruction - includes overheads, slides, and video. Video is a popular instructional method used for improving communications skills, interviewing skills, and customer-service skills and for illustrating how procedures should be followed.

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Hands-on Methods
Advantages Disadvantages

Video

Flexibility in customizing the session depending on trainees’ expertise. Trainees can be exposed to equipment, problems, and events that cannot be easily demonstrated. Trainees are provided with consistent instruction. Provides immediate objective feedback. It requires minimal knowledge of technology and equipment.

 Too much content for the trainee to learn.  Poor dialogue between the actors.  Overuse of humor or music, and drama that makes it confusing for the trainee to understand the important learning points emphasized in the video.
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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning.
On-the-job training (OJT) - new or inexperienced employees learning in the work setting and during work by observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior.
Can be useful for training newly hired employees, upgrading experienced employees’ skills, crosstraining employees, and orienting transferred or promoted employees to their new jobs.
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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Advantages On-the-job training (OJT)  Customized to the experiences and abilities of trainees.  Training is immediately applicable to the job.  Save costs.  Can be offered at any time, and trainers will be available because they are peers. Disadvantages  Managers and peers may not use the same process to complete a task.  Overlooks that demonstration, practice, and feedback are important conditions for effective on-the-job training.  Unstructured OJT can result in poorly trained employees.
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Table 7.2 - Principles of On-theJob Training

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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Advantages Disadvantages Self directed  Allows trainees to learn at  Trainees must be learning – their own pace and motivated to learn on receive feedback about their own. employees take the learning performance.  Higher development responsibility for all aspects of learning  Requires fewer trainers, costs. including when it is reduces costs associated  Development time is conducted and who with travel and meeting longer. will be involved. rooms, and makes multiple-site training more realistic.  Provides consistent training content.  Makes it easier for shift employees to gain access to training materials.

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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Advantages Apprenticeship  Learners can earn pay while they learn. work-study training method  Involves effective learning with both onabout “why and how.” the-job and  Results in full-time classroom employment for trainees training. when the program is completed.  Meets specific business training needs and help attract talented employees. Disadvantages  High development costs.  Increased time commitment required of management and journey workers.  Limited access for minorities and women.  No guarantee of fulltime employment.  Training results in narrow focus expertise.
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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Simulation - training method that represents a real-life situation, with trainees’ decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen if they were on the job.
Is used to teach production, process skills, management, and interpersonal skills.

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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Case studies - description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation.
Trainees are required to analyze and critique the actions taken, indicating the appropriate actions and suggesting what might have been done differently. Assumes that employees are most likely to recall and use knowledge and skills if they learn through a process of discovery.
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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Appropriate for developing higher order intellectual skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Help trainees develop the willingness to take risks given uncertain outcomes, based on their analysis of the situation. The case may not actually relate to the work situation or problem that the trainee will encounter.
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Table 7.5 - Process for Case Development

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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Business games - require trainees to gather information, analyze it, and make decisions.
Is primarily used for management skill development. Stimulates learning because participants are actively involved and games mimic the competitive nature of business.

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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Involves a contest among trainees or against an established criterion such as time or quantity. Designed to demonstrate an understanding of or application of a knowledge, skill, or behavior. Provides several alternative courses of action and helps estimate the consequences of each alternative with some uncertainty.
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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Rules limit participant behavior. Should be simple enough and should be debriefed by a trainer to ensure learning and transfer of training.

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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Role plays - have trainees act out characters assigned to them.
For role plays to be effective, trainers need to engage in several activities before, during, and after the role play. Role plays differ from simulations on the basis of response choices available to the trainees, the level of detail of the situation given to trainees, and the outcomes of the trainees’ response.
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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Behavior modeling
Demonstrates key behaviors to replicate and provides trainees with the opportunity to practice the key behaviors. Is based on the principles of social learning theory. Is more appropriate for teaching skills and behaviors than for teaching factual information.
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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Developing behavior modeling training programs requires determining:
the tasks that are not being adequately performed due to lack of skill or behavior the key behaviors that are required to perform the task.
Key behavior - set of behaviors that are necessary to complete a task.

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Table 7.7 - Activities in a Behavior Modeling Training Program

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Hands-on Methods (cont.)
Behavior modeling
Modeling display - key behaviors that the trainees will practice to develop the same set of behaviors.
The display presents models engaging in both positive use of key behaviors and negative use.

Application planning - prepares trainees to use the key behaviors on the job.
It involves having all participants prepare a written document identifying specific situations in which they should use the key behaviors.
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Group Building Methods
Training methods designed to improve team or group effectiveness. Involve experiential learning. Four stages of this are:
gain conceptual knowledge and theory. take part in a behavioral simulation. analyze the activity. connect the theory and activity with on-thejob or real-life situations.
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Group Building Methods (cont.)
Adventure learning - focuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills through structured activities.
Includes wilderness training, outdoor training, drum circles, and even cooking classes. Best suited for developing skills related to group effectiveness such as self-awareness, problem solving, conflict management, risk taking.
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Group Building Methods (cont.)
Adventure learning
To be successful:
Exercises should be related to the types of skills that participants are expected to develop. After the exercises, a skilled facilitator should lead a discussion about:
 what happened in the exercise.  what was learned.  how events in the exercise relate to job situation.  how to apply what was learned on the job.

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Group Building Methods (cont.)
Team training coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal.
Teams that are effectively trained, develop procedures to identify and resolve errors, coordinate information gathering, and reinforce each other. The three components of team performance: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.
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Figure 7.3 - Main Elements of the Structure of Team Training

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Group Building Methods (cont.)
Action learning
Gives teams or work groups an actual problem, has them solve it and commit to an action plan, and holds them accountable for carrying out the plan. Addresses how to change the business, better utilize technology, remove barriers between the customer and company, and develop global leaders.
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Table 7.9 - Steps in Action Learning

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Choosing a Training Method
 Identify the type of learning outcome that you want training to influence.  Consider the extent to which the learning method facilitates learning and transfer of training.  Evaluate the costs related to development and use of the method.  Consider the effectiveness of the training method.
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