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Natural and Forced Convection Experiments

Natural and Forced Convection Experiments

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Natural and Forced Convection Experiment

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INME 4236

Forced convection experiments o Observations o Analysis of results o Comparison to theoretical correlations 3.Table of Contents Principle Objective Background Newton’s law of cooling Experimental Setup Description of the Equipment: Useful Data Procedure 1. Procedure for transient experiments Tasks Required for Steady State Experiments Tasks Required for Transient Experiments 3 3 3 3 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 10 11 11 2 INME 4236 . Free convection experiments o Observations o Analysis of results o Comparison to theoretical correlations 2.

Determine the heat transfer coefficient for flow around a cylinder under free and forced convection. 2. 5. Determine the effect of thermal radiation for both natural and forced convection. Natural and forced convection over a heated cylinder is analyzed and experimental results are compared with standard correlations.University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus Department of Mechanical Engineering INME 4236 . 3. Objectives 1. the rate equation is known as Newton’s law of cooling and is expressed as: q′′ = h (Ts − T∞ ) 3 INME 4236 . Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers.Thermal Sciences Laboratory Natural And Forced Convection Experiment Principle This experiment is designed to illustrate Newton’s law of cooling by convection and to understand how the heat transfer coefficient is obtained experimentally. Compare with standard correlations from textbooks on heat transfer. Understand the correlation between Nu. 4. Study the transient temperature response of a solid object as it cools due to natural or forced convection. Background Newton’s Law of Cooling For convective heat transfer.

T* is defined as T = T − Ts and as a result. kf h=− ∂T ∂y y =0 . T* = f(x*. the functional form for U* and T* can be written as. T∞ the fluid temperature. U* = f(x*. h is the convection heat transfer coefficient and q” is the convective heat flux. qs = − k f " ∂T ∂y .ReL. Ts − T∞ * In this analysis. heat transfer occurs by conduction between the solid and the fluid molecules at the wall. we can define the heat transfer coefficient as follows.Where Ts is the surface temperature. dp*/dx*). h can be written in terms of T∞ − Ts this dimensionless temperature profile T* as follows. U* ∂U * ∂U * ∂P* 1 ∂ 2U * +V * * = − * + ∂x* ∂y ∂x Re L ∂y *2 U* ∂T * ∂T * 1 ∂ 2T * +V* * = . so.ReL. h=− k f (T∞ − Ts ) ∂T * L(Ts − T∞ ) ∂y * y* =0 = k f ∂T * L ∂y * y* =0 This expression suggests defining a dimensionless parameter.y*. y =0 By combining Fourier’s Law evaluated at the wall with Newton’s law of cooling.y*. the fluid motion in the boundary layer and the fluid properties as well. it is influenced by the surface geometry. ∂x* ∂y Re L Pr ∂y*2 Independently of the solution of these equations for a particular case. Due to the no-slip condition at the wall surface of the boundary layer. Pr. The normalized momentum and energy equations for a boundary layer can be expressed as follows. The heat transfer coefficient h is a function of the fluid flow. 4 INME 4236 . dp*/dx*).

y* =0 The dimensionless temperature profile implies a functional form for the Nusselt number that depends on other parameters also. so the average Nusselt number becomes independent of x *. it can be shown that. Pr) or Nu = f ( Ra . Nu L = f (Re L . For free convection.ReL*. The experimental setup is 5 INME 4236 . Pr) This means that the Nusselt number. Nu = f(x*. Doing a similar analysis for free convection. The unit allows investigation of both natural convection with radiation and forced convection.dp*/dx*). Experimental setup Description of the Combined Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Equipment: The combined convection and radiation heat transfer equipment (Figure 1) allows investigating the heat transfer of a radiant cylinder located in a crossflow of air and the effect of increasing the surface temperature. Gr is the Grashof number and Ra is the Rayleigh number. the Nusselt number is a universal function of the Grashof and Prandtl numbers or Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers.Nu = hL ∂T * = * kf ∂y . The Rayleigh number is simply the product of Grashof and Prandtl numbers (Ra = Gr Pr). Pr) . For a prescribed geometry.Pr. for a prescribed geometry is a universal function of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. To calculate an average heat transfer coefficient. we have to integrate over x *. Nu = f (Gr. dp * is dx * a result of the flow field and can be determined and specified and so the average Nusselt number becomes.

Physical properties of air at atmospheric pressure: Appendix of Heat Transfer textbook. The cylinder can reach a temperature in excess of 600°C when operated at maximum voltage and still air. The experimental setup allows the cylinder and thermocouple (T 10) position to be turned 360° and locked in any position using a screw. An index mark on the end of the setup allows the actual position of the surface to be determined. A thermocouple (T10) is attached to the surface of the cylinder. 6 INME 4236 .22)× (Ua ). which results in an emissivity close to 1. The surface of the cylinder is coated with a matt black finish. Useful Data: Cylinder diameter D = 1.0 cm Cylinder heated length L = 7. where Ue is the effective fluid velocity and Ua is the fluid incoming velocity.designed such that heat loss by conduction through the wall of the duct is minimized.0. Beware of hot surfaces. The recommended maximum for the normal operation is 500°C.0 cm Effective air velocity local to cylinder due to blockage effect: U e = (1.

the temperature and velocity of the air flow and the power supplied by the heater. c) Repeat step 2 for different velocities the air flow and various levels of power input. Combined Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Equipment. 1.Figure 1. Free convection experiments Observations Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 V Volts 3 6 9 12 15 18 I Amp T9 °C T10 °C Analysis of results Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 Qinput W hr W/m2K hC W/m2K hC1th W/m2K hC2th W/m2K 7 INME 4236 . Procedure for convection experiments a) Connect instruments to the heat transfer unit b) Measure the reading for the surface temperature of the cylinder.

Comparison to theoretical correlations For an isothermal long horizontal cylinder.148 0. Q conv = h c A(Ts − Ta ) And finally we can determine the heat transfer coefficient as follows. Rayleigh number 10-10 – 10-2 10-2 – 102 102 – 104 104 – 107 107 – 1012 The Rayleigh number defined as.250 0.188 0. hr = ε σ (Ts4 − Ta4 ) Ts − Ta The heat transfer rate by convection is then.The total heat input is.333 g β (Ts − Ta ) D3 Ra = Pr . A(Ts − Ta ) You must report these results for all the data points collected.675 1. Qrad = ε σ A (Ts4 – Ta4) = hr A (Ts – Ta).Qrad From Newton’s law of cooling. υ2 8 INME 4236 .058 0. C 0. hc = Q conv . Morgan suggests a correlation of the form. Nu D = hD = C Ra n D k C and n are a coefficient and exponent respectively that depend on the Rayleigh number as shown in the following table. Qinput = V×I The heat transfer rate by radiation is. Qconv = Qinput .125 n 0.480 0.02 0.850 0. So.

Hilper suggests the following correlation.387 Ra1 /6 [ 10. Churchill and Chu recommend a single correlation for a wide range of Rayleigh numbers.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 T9 °C T10 °C Analysis of results Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Qinput W hr W/m2K hC W/m2K Re Nu1 Nu2 hC1th hC2th - Comparison with theoretical correlations For an isothermal long horizontal cylinder.  Nu D= 0.where β is the compressibility and for an ideal gas is calculated as β = 1/T film (Tfilm in absolute scale) and Tfilm = ½(Ts+Ta). Ra <1012 From both correlations. 2. Forced convection Observations Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 V Volts I Amp Ua m/s 0.559/ Pr  ] 9/ 16 8 / 27 } 2 . we can determine h C1th and hC2th and compare with hc obtained from the experiment. INME 4236 9 .60 { 0.

385 0.805 All properties are evaluated at the film temperature.618 0.330 0.027 where C and m are coefficients that depend on the Reynolds number. Using both Hilper’s and Churchill and Bernstein’s correlations we can determine the theoretical heat transfer coefficient values h C1th and hC2th and compare with the value obtained from the experiment hc.Nu D = hD = C Re m Pr1 / 3 . Start the heat transfer unit and set a voltage between 15 . and initial surface temperature (T10). where all properties are evaluated at the film temperature. Using a chronometer record the time and measure the surface temperature (T 10) to generate a time series table of at least 20 data points when the heater power 10 INME 4236 . Record the current. voltage. D k C 0.193 0. 2 Churchill and Bernstein proposed the following correlation for Re·Pr>0.4 1 Pr 2/ 3 1/ 4 [  Re D 1 282000 ] 5 /8 4/ 5 .3 [  ] 0.2 0.4-4 4-40 40-4000 4000-400000 40000-400000 m 0. 3. ReD 0. Start the heater until a steady state temperature is obtained on the heater surface without operating the fan. 3.466 0. Tfilm = Ts + Ta .989 0.62 Re1 /2 Pr 1 /3  Nu D=0.18 volts.911 0.683 0. ambient temperature (T9) . Procedure for transient experiments 1. 2.

you will generate the following plots for both natural and forced convection experiments: (a) Surface temperature vs heat input to cylinder for the natural convection experiment. (d) Show tables comparing the experimental values to the predicted values using the respective correlations and calculate the percentage difference between these values. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the same power input but without operating the fan during the transient. (e) What is the contribution of radiative heat transfer to the process? Tasks Required for Transient Experiments (a) Generate graphs that show the surface temperature versus time in order to compare to the expected theoretical temperature values on the same graph. (c) Report the experimental and theoretical thermal time constant of the system. (b) Surface temperature vs incoming fluid velocity for the forced convection experiment. 4. Tasks Required for Steady State Experiments You will collect all the experimental data required during the experiments for both natural and forced convection and will include this data in your report. (c) On the same graph.6 m/s. plot the Nusselt numbers determined from the experimental data and correlations vs Rayleigh or Reynolds number depending on the case. In addition to the required analysis and comparison with correlations. (b) Calculate the experimental and theoretical heat transfer rate from the system to the surroundings as a function of time and present the results in graphical form. 11 INME 4236 .is turned off and the fan is operating at a predetermined speed between 2 .

12 INME 4236 .(d) What is the contribution of radiative heat transfer to the process? Discuss the effectiveness of the lumped thermal capacitance model to describe the transient temperature response of the cylinder.

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