4.

Some theorists seem to suggest that the power to control communication is held by the producers of messages whereas other theorists argue that the power to control interpretations of texts are held by the consumers of culture operating within specific cultural contexts. Which of these positions is true? Why?

Communication can be defined as the exchange of information and messages which and is concerned with ‘how messages or texts, interact with people in order to produce meanings’ (Fiske 1990, p.2). For information to be exchanged there has to be a producer to create the message and a consumer or audience to interpret the message, and the control of the communication lies in and explain culture. And cultural studies

FOR PRODUCERS INTRO Shannon and Weaver’s communication model depicts communication as a source-channel-receiver process, with information stemming from the encoder and being received by the decoder successfully if entropy and noise is reduced. This communication model portrays a “linear conception of communication” (Griffin 1997, p. 55). The producer or encoder is the party in control of communication (i.e. the message) and the consumer receives the message without the option of other interpretations of the encoded message. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model - which falls under information theory – suggests that the power to control communication is held by the producer. FOR PRODUCERS Propaganda Silver bullet FOR Explain communication,

Use Frankfurt school to show how producers held all the power, using it to propagate, especially with the aid of technology and the advent of mass communication.
The Frankfurt school focused intently on technology and culture, indicating how technology was becoming both a major force of production and formative mode of social organization and control

Use reading the romance as example of how consumers can interpret differently. State the types of consumers.

as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.the state of having inconsistent thoughts. Producers media culture culture industries profit driven / propaganda Consumers who are they Audience Active vs passive Education Culture of internet/new media Individualism vs mainstream/popular culture . or attitudes. esp. beliefs.