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Architecture Education the Philippines
by Arch. Divina Ligaya B. Rillera
“A quality education has the power to transform societies in a single generation, provide children with the protection they need from the hazards of poverty, labor, exploitation and disease and to reach their full potential” Audrey Hepburn The beginning of the new millennium opened new doors to the field of education. As innovations and reforms
continuously sweep the global arena, institutions are striving to keep pace by putting in place measures that will assure quality. This concern about the quality of higher education With the recognition of the importance of
is no longer new.
the cultivation of knowledgeable and skilled professionals as critical determinants to the economic growth and standards of living, quality tertiary education is fast becoming an increasingly important policy in national agendas. A study
made by the Task Force on Higher Education in Developing Countries (2000) concluded that without more and better higher education, developing countries will find it increasingly difficult to benefit from the global knowledge-based economy. In view of this, countries need to educate more of their young
people to a higher standard.
Japan and other Newly
Industrializing Economies (NIEs), including Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan are already investing heavily on education, training, research and development in response to the call for human resource development for an improved economic performance. As quoted from Malcolm Gills (Task Force on Higher Education in Developing Countries, 2000) Quality of tertiary education cannot be over emphasized. The quest for continuous improvement is the aim of all higher education institutions. In order to attract a larger student Quality in this
base, quality must be maintained or upgraded.
sense embraces all the functions and activities of higher education: teaching and academic programs, research and scholarship, staffing, students, infrastructure and the academic environment. Along this line, Mutual Recognition The
Agreements (MRAs) are forged among governments worldwide. motivation behind these agreements is the growing need to ascertain that degrees of graduates from programs in one country or region be recognized in another. (www.accreditation.org/accords.php, July 13, 2010).
of MRAs forged for the technical profession is geared towards engineering programs. The Washington Accord, for one, is an international engineering alliance which was signed in 1989. It is a precedent in recognizing substantial equivalence in
It had commenced last 1999 and is composed of twenty one member economies with the objective to act collectively to promote economic and technical cooperation within the Asia-Pacific Region. It is a strategic priority of facilitating the mobility of qualified persons by developing means for the mutual recognition of skills and qualifications. Its purpose is “to sustain the growth and development of the region for the common good of its peoples”. The Dublin Accord. was forged for substantial equivalence in the accreditation of tertiary qualifications in technician engineering. was developed for Engineering Technologists or Incorporated Engineers after three years of education. on the other hand. Member countries of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) likewise had already forged an agreement for the purposes of recognizing “substantial equivalence” of professional competence in engineering. The Sydney Accord. divided into different branches. Engineering is defined as the science concerned with putting scientific knowledge to practical uses. electrical. 2006) However. engineering and architecture are two distinct fields. another agreement that commenced in 2001. (APEC Manual. normally of two years duration. and chemical engineering 3 .the accreditation of qualifications in professional engineering after four years of education. as civil. mechanical. signed June 2001.
2006) With the distinction drawn between engineering and architecture programs. Accredited. (CMO 61. July 8.com/engineering. To date. 2011) while architecture is the art. validated. the Canberra Accord which was approved and made effective by member countries in April 2009 is being forwarded in the Eastern Hemisphere. science. designing and constructing buildings in their totality taking into account their environment. S. The Accord on Co-Operation and Professionalism in Architecture between the Architects Council of Europe and the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards and the American Institute of Architects had been enacted in answer to the concern of mobility of credentials. and profession of planning. 4 . or recognized academic architecture programs under the Canberra Accord are ascertained to have comparability and substantial equivalence in terms of satisfying the academic requirements for the practice of architecture at the professional level.yourdictionary.(http://www. in accordance with the principles of utility. experiences and achievements in the architecture field in the Western Hemisphere. strength and beauty. The Accord (2009) embraces the key principles of the International Network of Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE) Guidelines of Good Practice GGP) as its benchmark for international good practice for quality assurance agencies .
Hon. Angara (2007) stressed the importance of quality education in response to the current down trending of the quality of higher education in the country. The Philippines is a part of the global movement that aims to improve the plight of tertiary education in terms of quality and access. Being a former University of the Philippines President. he highlighted three areas of reformation: • Upgrading academic standards in line with internationalization of higher education.and is reflective of the core principles of the UNESCOUIA Charter for Architectural Education (revised version 2005) and the relevant sections of the UIA Accord on Recommended International Standards on Professionalism in Architectural Practice (revised version 2005) as international benchmarks for satisfying the academic requirements for the practice of architecture at the professional level. • Revisiting the mission and priorities of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). but to educate and prepare the Filipino to be competitive and world class. He also mentioned that higher education no longer exist merely for manpower training . Edgardo J. and 5 .
The GATS. a treaty enforced January 1995. one of the major sources of skills and knowledge training of professionals. in order for this scenario to be realized in the Philippines. competitiveness and equity of supply of the professional services. The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) essentially laid the foundations to what is known today as borderless practice. The government seeks to attract foreign investments and foreign technology to catalyze national development. 6 . and Engineering Research and Development. aims to improve efficiency. which includes the Philippines. The preparation of these professional architects is therefore critical.• Developing the quality of education in specific fields such as Science and Technology. signed in December 1995 by member nations. both foreign and local. The current movement in the international trade scenario has also become one major concerns of the academe. in doing so. as a part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) identifies its goal as follows To give to our people access to cheaper and better quality goods and services arising from greater competition among suppliers. Mathematics. The ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services (AFAS). substantially eliminate the restrictions to trade in services among ASEAN member countries.
2005). (CHED. Professional Organizations. by virtue of Republic Act No. is a legal body mandated by law to oversee the higher education system in the country. and representatives from the industry and individual experts in the academe had collaborated to set minimum standards that are 7 . CHED together with the Professional Regulations Commission (PRC). 2010) was also tasked to set and enforce minimum standards for academic programs. supervise both private and public higher education institutions (HEIs). direct research activities. The organization of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). the profession will not be able to survive against international competition. CHED is an administrative arm under the Office of the President of the Republic responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies. rationalize higher education programs and develop centers of excellence (Pascua. Architectural practice in the country is given until 2020 to put in place measures to ensure that the professionals are equipped and fully prepared for the successful realization borderless practice. plans and programs for the development and efficient operation of the system of higher education. 7722 or the Higher Education Act of 1994. It is a body responsible for the It quality and relevance of programs offered by higher education institutions (HEIs).otherwise.
102. practice and techniques of the architectural profession in accordance with the identified scope of the practice of Architecture. It is the training and development of the students’ proficiency on theories. Architecture education. practices and techniques of the architectural profession. advisers and recommendatory bodies The field of Engineering and Architecture is identified as one of the most popular programs among HEIs as manifested by the number of student enrollment. 2005) is the training and development of the student's proficiency on the theories. which is still categorized under Engineering and Technology. as a field of specialization is recognized worldwide. series of 1991. Technical panels for each specialized programs are also forged and organized to act as consultants. 1993) Of interest to the researcher is Architecture Education. Architecture Education (UAP. (EDCOM. but distinguished apart from the Engineering program by the Department of Education. Culture and Sports (DECS) Order No. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2005) published the Charter for Architecture Education as a standard guide for all HEIs offering the 8 . The United Nations Educational.necessary to assure the public that the desired quality of education is at a minimum acceptable level when measured against this yardstick.
including expertise. The aim of the agreement is to establish criteria. commitment and accountability. autonomy. international agreement that had been forged is “The Agreement for Mutual Recognition of Professional Qualifications” between the Architects’Eur Council of European Union (ACE) and The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) and The American Institute of Architects (AIA). International Union of Architects (UIA) maintained that architectural education should ensure that all graduates have knowledge and ability in architectural design. MRAs have also been formed among government bodies One to assure quality and relevance of their products. Individual countries have their own set guidelines or standards to guarantee the quality and excellence of their programs. Another international movement is the UIA Accord on Recommended International Standards of Professionalism in Architecture Practice (UIA. certificates and practical experience qualifications that will facilitate the portability of qualifications for the provision of services within both political and economic entities though mutually acceptable standards for architectural education. practice and professionalism.Architecture program and those who are intending to offer the program. 1999). procedures and measures for the recognition of diplomas. including technical systems and requirements as well as consideration of The 9 .
and that they comprehend thoroughly the architects’ roles and responsibilities in society. and environmental context for architecture. In this light. the Philippines also strives to meet the stringent requirements for quality education that would meet the standards of the international arena by being a participant in the APEC Architect Project. and ecological balance. (APEC Manual. that they understand the cultural.health. social. which depend on a cultivated. historical. The aim of the APEC Architect framework is to establish a mechanism to facilitate the mobility of architects for the provision of architectural 10 . one of a number of sectoral groups established to implement APEC programs. the positive value of cultural diversity and the mutual benefits of cooperation in developing a framework to facilitate these goals. analytical and creative mind. safety. intellectual. economic. 2006) Participating economies acknowledge the public benefit of the mobility of architects in the provision of architectural services. The APEC Architect project is an initiative of the APEC Human Resources Development Working Group (HRDWG). The project was endorsed by the HRDWG at its year 2000 meeting in Brunei as a direct response to the Group’s strategic priority of facilitating mobility of qualified persons by developing a means for the mutual recognition of skills and qualifications.
created by virtue of the Department of Education. Pursuant to DECS Order No. the TPEE had included the Architecture Program under its wing. S. In view of the fact that Architecture is considered an entirely different field of study apart from any Engineering program.services throughout the APEC region by reducing current barriers to the export of professional services. S. TPEE was amended to Technical Panel for Engineering and Architecture Education (TPEAE). Schools in the Philippines and (CODHASP). Architecture Education as a higher institution program did not always have a body having formal jurisdiction over it. the governance of architecture education was integrated into the Technical Panel for Engineering Education (TPEE). Culture and Sports (DECS) Order No. 19. 102. various the organizations and regulating (PSG) agencies. During the same year. CHED. the TPEE convened a committee to review and formulate policies and standards for Architecture Education. This was promulgated by DECS Order No. the program was integrated to into the TPEE. 1977. 1988. In 2006. but due to the absence of an appropriate body to handle the responsibility of taking care of Architecture Education. the Council of Deans and Heads of Architecture professional Policies. in consultation with the United Architects of the Philippines (UAP). On January 2. for Standards Guidelines Architecture 11 . S. 1991. 1989. 53.
With the absence of a systematic education plan for the indios during the Spanish colonial regime. 16 of which are in the National Capital Region and 44 of which are accredited educational institution. Hence. there are 67 schools of architecture throughout the country. HEIs offering Architecture education should make it a point that they should measure up with the minimum set guidelines. 2006. CHED in cooperation with PRBOA had already initiated an MRA with the ASEAN and the APEC Regions. This was embodied in CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) 61. but from the 1900s (Lico 2008). This number finds its origins not from the formal education as we know it today. the Escuela Practica y founded in 1890 the 12 . S. In an effort to globalize architecture education in the Philippines. the APEC Architect Project. a law that mandated that all higher education institutions offering the BS Architecture program should subscribe to the stated minimum requirements.Education was crafted. To date. which aims to open the field of architecture to venture further into the global market. while recognizing titles and accomplishments of individuals. the formation of an educational institution for the academic teaching of architecture was consequently discouraged. particularly. Spanish government To augment this deficiency.
the Academia merged with the Liceo and established the Escuela de Ingeniera y Arquitectura. 13 . finally closed. This school was y later renamed de Ingenieria. a professional organization merging the practitioners of architecture. colleges and universities that opened their own programs in architecture after the war and continued to perform excellently in the field of architecture. The first school to really offer Architecture Education was the Academia de Arquitectura y Agrimensura de Filipinas.Professional de Artes y oficios de Manila which bestowed the title maestro de obras (maestro de obras). was offered as a three-year course. civil engineering Academia de and surveying. only to be reorganized and reopened in 1908. which offered a five-year course in architecture and civil engineering. The Mapua Institute of Technology was founded in 1925. Tomas (UST) in 1930. In 1941. Architecture. 1905 saw the closure of the Academia. there were other This time. which was followed by the institution of the School of Fine Arts and Architecture of the University of Sto. Adamson University had opened its doors to Consequently. In 1912 The Escuela was architecture students. In 1904. Arquitectura Agrimensura Filipinas in 1901.
Year Level 2. Degree Earned Students a. Faculty Members a. 14 . School Affiliation b. School Affiliation b.Moderator Variable 1. Number of Years in Service c. Faculty Status d.
S.of developing new skills and attitudes. (UIA/UNESCO Charter for Architectural Education. Being deeply rooted in man. his needs and his activities and the environment. Architecture is a field which deals with the manipulation and arrangement of spaces to answer man's needs and to house his activities. social and physical sciences. the environment. (CMO 61. architecture should take into consideration factors directly affecting and arising from man and the built and natural environment. 9266. in short. practices and techniques of the architectural profession in accordance with the scope of the practice of architecture as provided for in Republic Act No. technology and the creative arts. or the Architecture Act of 2004. ant entity must develop the capacity of shifting and changing .Conceptual Framework “To cope with a changing world. 2006) Under the UNESCO Charter for 15 . 2005). while relating such to a bigger context. Architecture is about creating spaces that change the lives of its occupants. the capability of learning. The Living Company The Nature of Architecture Education Architecture is an interdisciplinary field that comprises several major components: humanities.” A De Gues. Architectural education is defined as the training and development of the students’ proficiency on the theories.
balanced acquisition of subjects and capabilities require a period of not less than five years of full time studies in a university or an equivalent institution. s. and the Bachelor of Science Degree after the completion of the five year course. a Building Construction Technician Certificate after the completion of the third year. In the Philippines. 2007 specifies that an Architectural Draftsman Certificate is given to a student after completion of the first two years. It features a series of interrelated courses developed using the ladder type concept of education or the continuum model of learning in consideration of the student’s capacity to learn knowledge and skills. series of 2006. Also a two year internship period of suitable practice of not less than two years is required in order to qualify for registration and licensing. Standards and Guidelines (PSG) for the Bachelor of Science in Architecture or CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) 61.Architectural Education (2005). 32. 16 . MECS Order No. Architecture Programs subscribe to the mandate of UNESCO as promulgated in the Policies. The Architecture Program was developed considering the ladder-type concept evidenced by certificates given in succession at identified milestones.
the Technical Panel the at for Architecture and 220 and Engineering credit Education for established Program minimum 204 and maximum units. To date.In 1990. the PSG for Architecture Education had published a 232-unit curriculum for the Program integrating General Education. The Drafting Certificate is still given after the completion of all prescribed courses in the first two years. units the respectively. series of 2006) The need to standardize higher education in view of globalization and internationalization is being recognized by most governments. CODHASP (academic community) and 17 . a collaboration of CHED (government representation). plus a Comprehensive Course taken towards the end of the Program. Technical. the ladder type concept was retained with some revisions. Subsequently. Policies. In the Philippines. Professional. and Specialization Courses. a Certificate in Building Technology and Utilities after completion all prescribed courses from first year to the fourth year first semester. a Certificate in CADD after completion all prescribed courses from first year to the fourth year second semester and the Bachelor of Science Degree after the completion of the all the prescribed courses included within the ladder. UAP (professional representation). Standards and Guidelines for Architectural Education (CMO 61.
Essential knowledge is what students should know fundamentally. s. The evidence is an indicator by which it can be determined whether or not the student has met the standards. including ways of thinking. 7722 or the Higher Education Act of 1994.representations from the building industry lead to the formulation of the PSG for Architecture Education in 2006. communicating.” 18 . Frequently. The main objective of this mandate is to keep the architecture program attuned to the goals and mission of the Commission and the nation and thus make architecture education responsive to the growing demands for human resources in business and industrial world. standards are accompanied by evidence. and investigating. Standards also identify behaviors and attitudes related to success in and outside of school.2006) The PSG is a comprehensive listing of mandates required for the recognition of an Architecture Program as offered by Higher Education Institutions as guided by RA No. Standards (The Vermont’s Framework of Standards and Learning opportunities. working. Essential skills are what students should be able to do. as recommended by the TPETA. 2000) defined as the essential knowledge and skills that should be taught and learned in school. (CMO 61.
A preceptor (The Free Dictionary. In education. to the students or the end users. and learning opportunities. The learning involvement takes into account the activities 19 . (b) research and publication. (c) institutional qualifications. who gives one-to-one inservice training to undergraduate students in their practices or other places of work.. four unique factors were identified that contribute to instructional quality: preceptor activities. and (d) extension linkages. on the other hand. 2011) is defined as an instructor or a skilled practitioner a specific field of work. is the sum of the internal and external circumstances and influences surrounding and affecting a person's learning. preceptor activities may mean activities being undertaken by the instructor within the confines of the classroom or academic environment. Instructional Quality encompasses all elements and factors important for the successful delivery of a program. learner involvement.For the Architecture Program was summarized into four major areas: (a) instructional quality. learning environment. The learning environment (The Free Dictionary. in this case the medical field. 2011). In a study Identifying the attributes of instructional quality in ambulatory teaching sites: validation studies of the MedEd IQ.
(c) instructional facilities. Thus. it is important that members of an institution of higher learning be equipped with the necessary training and faculties for research and the dissemination of the results of studies conducted. professional 20 . (d) instructional materials. The university functions as an arena for discovering new ideas and the impartation of the same to be able to benefit the majority. The learning opportunities (Vermont’s framework of standards and learning opportunities. Under CMO 61 s. 2006 instructional quality can be summarized to include: (a) faculty qualifications. methods and supports and (e) student services. (b) library facilities.being undertaken and physical facilities used by the learner to reinforce knowledge assimilation. Research and Publication refers to the aspect of the institution focused on the development of a culture of research among the members. Extension and Linkages includes the relations maintained by the institution with the local industries. proven and disputed. It is a scholarly environment where theories are tested. It is also a must that knowledge and information acquired through studies be disseminated to the society in fulfillment of the social role of universities to the community. 2000) are recommended practices to support all students in attaining the standards in this framework.
mission and objectives (VMO) are very important indicators of the direction being undertaken by an institution. It includes (a) vision. mission. Institutional Qualifications are the credentials of the HEI to offer the Architecture Program. Vision. and (b) student competency standards. This ensures that the curriculum is updated with the current trends in the market. Forging strong extension ties and linkage with the community and the stakeholders to any field of specialization is an indicator of the relevance of education being taught in the university. standards are the outcomes expected from any student who undergoes programs offered by the institution. as well as providing education services to these groups.organizations and the public/community for recruitment and placement of graduates. 21 . It defines the rationale for the existence of On the other hand. student competency the institution. and that the institution has concern for the community it is situated in. objectives.
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