Slcrl ing Publishing Co., Inc.
'- .. I
Librar), of Congre" Data Anilable
Publ ished in 2004 by Stefl",!; l'ublishillg C..o., lnC".
381l'ark A''l'flur SOUlh, NY 101.116
published in Spain in 200J under ,"" l ilk Dibt<JO M l'iJIum Hununa by
l':lrnmon Edicioona, S ..... , Bored-on .. , SiUlI1
Copyri.,nl 0 2003 by 1'2rnIllIon Edic:ioncl, s.".
English In rublioo copyrislu 0 2004 by Stcrlong Publishing Co.. Inc.
Distributed in Canaoh by Scerling Puhli shi ng
clo C>"wian M3nt:b Croup
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Dimibtlwd in Creal Uritain by Chry»lis Book:!
64 BI't'Wff)' Rood, llHldon, Eugl.:md N7 'INT
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I!O Box 704. Wind!o.-.A"strili. NSW 2156
Pf)ntl-d li t
All roghTS I"e>C'f\'Cd
Slc.HIlS ISBN: 1-4027- 1148-4
.,. ..
lnlroduction 6
The Body and Its Proportions 10
Pmbl"llU in Drawi ng Ih" Human Figure 12
B3sic HUIll31l 14
Proportions of th" Figure 1 H
TIl" Child Moe'd 20
Elderly .1ond Obese r-igures n
Basic Anatomy and Synthesis 24
Tho, Head and Face 26
Th" l bno: From and I3ack Views 111
The Uppc:r and Lo\,:er u rnbs 30
The I-b n<b: Structure and O utline 31
The Pelvis: ' n ,c Shape of the Hips ]4
The FeL't: Inner Structure and Form ]6
A Well-Proportioned Drawing 40
The Unil S}1item: MeOl5uring the Body
Gcornelry of the: Human Body 44
The Gc:omel ric Sketch; Struct uring th" Whole
from Simple Forms 46
Symho,tic Colltour and {jnc Control. 48
The Virtues of Doing Studie$: A Good Form of Pnctice 50
Lines and Rhythm of the Figure
' n le Inn"," Rhythm of the Figure 54
111e Soft line l IS Modu\alion 56
Turni ng SpOtS into Forms 58
Analp:ing Poses and Gcsllircs 6z
111,' F.'1ui libmull of th., 1'oM- 14-
V,II)'iuI: d ... '! \>llli of V, ... \\, (>I,
'" Sp ...... 1>11
ofSo.·.·i ul! th., I' il-"m:: Open amI Clos.:d .... ppro:lches 70
11,.- I'll'" UI" CUIIII':lpc><rn 71
s.·J ..... t 1l .... ·1illllllo: Fi)!lIn-s 74
.m.! MOl ion :'!"h.' ..... ti ne 7(1
I)r;lWUl): lill' Hid,I" 1I I'"n. "f, 11(' Botly
Fo,", ... horr.·nin)!: 1lr.1\\ ;111-\ lh,' Nmk ill I\ 'rs!":c!!"", Ro
Tonal Techniques R4
Th.' EtK·(1 uf U)!ht 0 11 till" Nud.· X6
Sh'[d'IIlt!" ' 1' }II:l IIlr.l \\'i l ll: loiN
Th., I'run-..s of V"hunc ')0
EIT'X'b of Volum,· ').!.
l :hialUsnlru Workiu)! wllh Absol. u., CoUIT::I$1 94
The Clothed Human Figure 96
St udyiU)! the Inner St nlCn'n' of dl<' Body 98
ami 11.,IJs: T ... lI: l ll r:d Effccu 100
Dr.'I"·; Wr; lIkk-t to'!
Th .. · .. :lml 11_, <';<>1110::)(1 104
The Resources 108
It .:ndainJ! 1111' II l tllO!oph .... ,,· Aml1ll<1 the Fij..'Urt: 110
Cn·ating Vohllll .. · wilh Ac ..... III
Er.lsiUI( 114
to Di,,'olw COlli ours IU')
0l'milll( Up Spaces li S
[:I;I1I\:,-. i\,<, Il..Il)·Ihm 129
Hair T.·)(tl1rt' Ill ":.
The ofdl<' Skin 124 (.
, .
Til .. Nud ... Figl ln' ill Charco.11:Thc Oll ll ;n<,
Uu;lding:l fip;un' fmlll Gl-"()III<"ITIC 130
Dr.'Iwillg SL1 l1din,:: Figure: The ( Al41Ir.1posttl Ip
TIlt" Figure Fo.-.. ... hnT\CIIl--d:
tit" 1;"l1Ial" Nude 114
Uuikling Ol t Sui ns 13ti
Fil, 'l.I f'" wi th Effl'CU
n", M11e Fib'Ure frol1l thc\V,!ist Up 140
Th" profile: Th" Impor L1ncc ofConlol1r 14:t
A Clothl .. ) FiKllrr: f-01<l,' .mdT .. ·lm,r.-,; 14-1
Moddins the Figu .... in and C halk 14ti
lillI' Dr-twing of a I' igure 148
Modding Tones 150
Fib'lIre of a Young Woman .ll1d :I Gi rl on lit" Lkach Ip
Imnior with At1111"l'hcri c .. 1!i4
0(:1 Fi!!lln' in Silv • ."rl'ni lll ISf)
Index 159

Drawing the human
figure requires a
curious gaze and a
will to keep practicing
even if our first
drawings fail.
Observing and
d rawing the human
fi gure regularly allows
us to adjust our vuual
memory 10 physkal
forms, body language,
and facial expressions
in diffcrcm siruations.
he popularity that drawi ng the human figure has
achieved over t he course of is enough to
the to its practice. Drawing with the perfection
th"' t we observe in the great masters is a seemingly difficult
task, for there arc technical challenges in drawing the
human figure that are absent with other subjt:cts. This
compels us to put into practice I.--vt:rything we know about
drawing in order to <ldcquatcly solve: such problems as the
proportion of the limbs in rel<ltion to the whole body and
the representation of volume. joints, and muscle tonc.
Dnwing the human body pn.'Sents a greater challenge than
any other subject. bcc;l uSC bOth artist and vit"Wt.'T arc
intim3t"ly ramiliar with the body's proportions and the
physiology or the human figure. Here, evcn a small
in drawing become; evident. For this reason, an artist who
GI n masterfully draw landscapt"S, still or interiors may
make mistakt'S when drawing the human figurc.We oh:en
find the artist exaggerating depth and rorms- which
cannOt always be read as a product orhis particui:lr
interpretation, but or the need to disguise shortcomings and
inexperience in drawings or this n!lturt'. ....
Wc wi ll show in this book IhM drawing thc human body
m:w nOI be so difficult. froln a simple base and
a of t..icks and tt-clmiques, Ihe reader will
find himself :l.ble to adequatdy a nude fi b'\ue. The
IltIde is 10 be considered an ideal model for :I. full sludy of
and light. For l'l'ason, when drawi ng nude
il is impoTullt to study the model's ll natonlY, and also
the lighting, bccllusr li gllting plays a role 111 the
of deptll and rcl il· f 1Il 0rc--or Icss-prominenr.
Pnict icing dlis kind of dnwing sharpens vim:!1 perception
al tlw same ti me that it o ur abil ity to <kpict
fomL'o.Thc human figure is a highly suggest i\'C aud
C\'OC1Iti\'c subj ect, which l-an be appro:1chcd from many
different perspectives and individulll styles wi d lout diluting
From an acadcmic poim of view, dnwi ng the
lll1d(' Ihe bcst form of disci plillc because it forces the
mist to pay attention to proportion and tcadll'S the skillful
a k ul ation of orgotnicall y coordinatcd forms and sizes; from
In iuterpreti\,(, point of view. it allows liS 10 give free rein
to form and comour.

" ,
· .
N ~
8 0
N ~
· ,
~ -
• •
~ 1
· .
~ 1
· . . ~
n onk-r to propt'rl y introduce the study or the human figure.
let us SCI fort h a few gcncnl guidclinC'S that will allow us to
draw any figure. using 3 system of proportions that can be
adjusted 10 the view \ Ile have :1[ any given moment. Proportion
is the equi libriulll of that l'Stablish
among objects-in this C3SC. among the p.IrtS of the human
body. Although today artistic licensc <l lIow$ the dr.lwillg of
with specifi c stylistic quirla. it will be easier for the
novice to begin by following a sct of rules that will help him to
draw a wcU- pmportiom:d figure.



n any given era, learning to draw the human figure.
wlK'tller nude or clothed. is perhaps the foremost
gool of any painter. The nude is the most beautiful
and complex of subjects. and is oltcn considered the
greatest challenge. Although drawing the nude
figure is widely coll$idcrcd to be very difficult, it is in
fact generally easier than than a portrait, it
docs not require that tile artist focus on (aLia! details.
Figural Problcnu
Drdwing human body t«juircs the artist to g.1thcr
all of her skills in working with real form :lI1d
volume. As a subject. the hUIIl;m figure rc..-quires that
we put into practice an entire set of representational
skills as we arrange the limbs in a proportional
relationship [0 the body; it also lUjuircs dlC
representation of VOllllllc:5. planes, and
simple forms and their combination into more
complex ones. Once we can accuratel y render the
hum:m figure, it SlIfe to say that we can also take on
any other subject, no maner how complicated it may
Syulhesis, M redudugj01It1S 10
1111:;. "Ss",,;,,1 (ffl,lenl, is " kry
.forM.;II (M'frt/y.
In ""orr 10 ,,,,d'TSI<I/,d Ilu:jig.,.", iI ;s first
lI«essary 10 ,,,,dm lll,,d ii, i""", slmll"/"/'.
Ht mllSI oosr'rW IIIId ilifCr ",hal is biMrn
Imdrmcallr <Vt7)' ptJ5t.
By .ynlltt·sis ",jIll
IWO tld,i<vc' " Hlt>rr f').l'rt1.J.;W fi1!"If',
Slnrtil'!/lj.om" S;""'" aurUnt', 'l"
r ... , ..w.V' " sktrll if lilt'
/""- body.
The Secret of Simple Forms
Here's a strategy for approaching
till: chall cnges of representing the
human fib'llrc: fi rst. out a
surti ng point for the fib'1.l I"C based
on siInplc forms that adjust to the
comoul"S of the body (we will sec
this in the: following d laptcrs);
d1t.'fl , work with these forms until
you arrive at a convincing and
recognizable structure. From there,
lhc proportions Illilst be carefully
cst:lblishcd. making sure that the
fi guTt· has a proper equilibrium;
this is especially imporum when
drawing sr:lIldillg figures. Don't be
discouraged by your fi rst
drawings, which will most likely
look like crudely made dolls-a
jumble of skCldl),. ill- fitting forms.
The best way to sun is to reduce
complex fonm into simpler OIlI"S.
A t""awing or the
hUlllan figure
, hould
with "n 0>",1
represcllling the
head, amI then"
liue ror
the body. We
the ll add the
111Of'll< " nd the
line or the hips.
which C(lnnl.'(.' f5
the upper and
lower el<lremic;cl.
dr:'l\vUlg IS coll sidcn'd wilen the
figure's hCJd appl':\rs I;u"gcr than Ilor mal.or when
thl' arms seelll too long or too short--in other
words, when the fib'lln' dcviatl':S from what We'
consider norm.'lI. To avoid we look
to the Jaws of proportion :\s rcprcscntlx\ in :10
idl':\]izcd, cQIl\'cntionnl drawing oftlle hl1 ll1;\u form,
ill other Olle whi ch possesses :l perfect
relationship bctween the body's me;!SIlrc5. The way
we rcpn'SCU! [he hum,," fi gurt' roW)' is on a
Greco-R oman model , thl' cbsskal Grcck law of
proportion, which ;tdopted by thl' Romans :l nd
h tcr rcSllrf:u:cd during the Rcnais.uncc after
ccnnl ric$ of disusc.
Body Height
Tho.: law of proportion for the human fi gur\' is based
on a unit of mcao;urClllcnt Ih,\I corresponds precisely
to the measurements of till' head. According to the
d assicallaws of propol'tion. the total height of dw
h UlIl ;m body should be.- t'CJual to seven and a half
or sc"en ;md a half uni ts. l'r.lxitclt:s's law
a .ww ideal ization of the ho.nan body:
aceonling (0 this model , the 10Cl I height of the
,human body must equal eight he3ds. ln the
twentieth century, sciel]tif. c analysis set r1w proper
h,,"ight of the hum,1n body at eight and a h .. .Jf h,,"ads.
All of tht'$(' models arc V31id, bur for our purposes. we
win usc the measurement of l'ight he-Ads to simplifY
our of the acadt'1l1ic fi gure.
n,e law 41,mll(J't ja" oo,M all c;J:/" Iw"ds ),jdds"
"7''''St' /lliItj"II ,jt/w /"'IIIm' bot/yo TI,e
/ljllisj"" of III(" bi>tly ;1110 lInilS st1"1'1':1 /IJ 0 rifNt"1(f' for
("'rrflly dil ll jblll;'1j! mc/, c-k, .... ,,' if body.
()fir". ""ists ,dJ/ IIsr iI lilW /l"sed "',
'N' "n!<Is 1N" ,I,r 1m",,,,, ,,,,,Jr. " mon'
SI )1jzcd. (w"1!'lfed fi1!"" ,pith /I 1111)" rxprmior,jslit
( 1ItJf""n.
- I
A 1.\\\1 of pwpurtinn il.1SCci 011 un;'" u!ldid pri marily
it allows you 10 (:Ol1l p;lr<' th{' rod311omilip
between the by rdi:rrlll g to the
between tht'
In a prururuonallllo<ld. thl' figuro: will be
unit, (;111 ,\11.1 two UIl1t); wide . EJdl UIlU is l" jllli to
ttw: 01 th" h ... :Id. Th,' mppk .. (oute,de- Wit h
Ulil t number twu. The armpi ts .lIsa cOlllcld(' With tin-
bord"riin,' bctwf' ,' !l th,' :I nd third umn; and
1m.' na\'C1 IS iu.:;u.-d in Ulli l nUIllbc.·r fo ur. Ulll t
IllllnDcT fnur 1II,lrk .. t hl: i'lOlOltiun uf thl' dbows.
and is a f.,l rI )· I'rcn'IC lIlark lor tht, hl· .gllt of the
.IS lOll!.: as the facl'. :lIId Ill" I
IOC.l ll,d :lhCWl' r.ixth unit . The l..nces ..
loc.lled III t1w clivI, ling line bc.'hVl,,'1l thl' Sixth and
The IIml alo;o kts
thai .m: o f hdp in
unucrst:mding anatolll), ami tlw
tlf tlw lipln'; thc)' aft' al!\O :. 'rscilII
Width n:fen:nce wil en WI: Iln...l to cheo.:k tile D1«tt'
IIll portol lll
lltt' SW' p/IJK J,..",/ 1"''/ ,I.r '" 11K diJM»ff'f /o(".'f'rt. f"l " l • ., ,IN b.Jy ..... ...
'l/f"oIJ"mI ,...1101 'IJ,"" 11'1" ; ""1"1' IJ,.'S€ "..",.,,., .... <1 """,,,,,.,,.,..
nprril1l/y II,,· " ... ns",r", ... m ,I ... Jrri,C/" ""d lI'idlll .f II.r b.Jdy (whd, 41 ,..-r
f('(dll, 11"'11/'/ Ilr,,,It),

li,l'I' I/MI
di,';Ja III,. fmmal
i"", ,,"'. /1I1/If'S w"
als<> 1"')1'('11 ill II,r
n'Qr virw '!i II ...
1>,,,1),'111(' liur is
"h'li' "jsiblr ill I},r
n'lor 11"",'oU '"

11,r Ii,,.. 1/101 m/!rl:s ,,,," spi ....
,/""lft! fir <IS lite lUis if
/)1", .. rl,)·; ,M. u'"Y. i, ,viU
srm- as " ,rf"mr for plati,,!!
1/1(' ,11/1(' h.mJ' ,." ,';I/,r,
/!II!! of I"l' h"Jy.
< ,
"11 ... fIIr W Ihal
tlnnilJ6 Spill".
mid IIII' r;>;ll'I"",,,
f{ 'lu"s Ii",· dot'.?"(1
IIlt'jt-rl. iJ il !luidto
ft. WI',,,ri,,!! II",
flgllrr's ,f!C$,,,rr "S
/1;(11'(11 fw", r/, l'
The Back
When a fi gure is pictured from the back, rlw first
feature that \\"l ' not ice is the d ,:ar dcfinitiOIl of the
fi gure's wrtical line marking the verti cal axis
aCCL' I1Hlatec! by tile backbone, by thl' ri dh'C that the
spine for ms, by the separarioll of t hl.' bUll ocks. by
till' line describi ng the insidl' of the legs.
T he Qutliuc of t he Bo dy
The outline that marks the limits of the body is
dcscribt-d by the llI uscul1r n:lie& of th .... body. Muscles
an.' fles hy Ill asses tlut mold t he body. made up of a
special tis.\ue that ha!i the pmpt' rly of conrraeting and
changmg shape when the performs action.
The forms we appreciate 0 11 t ile surface of the body
result from the volume of all dle muscle
inclucling Iht, deepcst o nl'S, but ones clO$(.-st to lilt'
surfal'e are of grcater imel"t$! to the artist ,
r. 'f)\

Muscle Pairs
n.e l l JllI )(' if IIII' body U
dtjiltl:d by bc>tre strut, ... r
mulillt' la)n if nmstk
(mmng il. 1Jxo mruck u
11'/,.,>1 givu lilt' IK:>dy ju
(otIIO" O'.<. UkI' IIIl' 0,/1" parIS
if IIII' bed),. li lt' !llllpl' vf
m",£Its ((m Ills/'! hfo bl'l'ill'Il
do"", and sI.:rlrlird
All ,miSfits orr poim/ muI
S)'Hltlletrirnl, mll,,_:S
""ljLfcs "'" 1m protW.mud,
d,i(/, lrfrnlS tilt ftmtoun if
110" l,.,.!y.
When drawing the volume of [he body, it is imporrnfl[ to
TCmember ,"-'Very muscle belongs ( 0 a pair. If you draw a
fib'1.ll'l" from the front, the muscles should be symmetrical. Another
imporullI thing to I"Cmember is that the mU5C1cs ill the
extrcmitks arc long and overlapping, while muscle. in the roTSO
;uc fu[ :and expansive. Even though a woman's Ill\1sculamrc is
essentially the sallle as a man's, the female body has
a laye r of subcutaneous fat that the
external (orlll. For this rcas.on, the male
body will always display 11 morc
pronounced, voluminous
When drawing a
r •• - --', standing figure.

to J properly
j ,. di:slribut cd. To
disr-ributc t he
I) ... eight correctl)·,
L-'! {-=---,J keep the line of
the neck, the
hips. and the f«t
aligned, no matler
how much thc
body t wists.
J ---------
ROPORTIONS /1'(/1-('
,i.l;.;r.llq,roponio", of the Illale
body are not

l' lies in the
p"",'he,nale',. the fcmalc'§
on divi di ng li ne
between the third and fourth
units, although a woman's waist is
narrower and d oser to the chest
than a mans.ViL'Wcd from the
side, the arch of the back is more
pronounced than a man's, and as a
result, the buttocks appear more
pTO.nincm. O ne of the IllOSt
important facton in making a a
good drawing of the female figure
is placing the waist at the r ight
height . somewhat lower than a
man's;"this is one of the
anatom.ical featllrt:S that gives the
female body its characteristic
for m.
1ll ll' lna/e
botlr j () /IDw 1M
II "altl,m<gh 1M
II afla/",,,ical rnie(
is differNI,ftom 'he
The Outliue, Back and From
The female o utline is softer th;;111
the male in its transitions bcmten
one are:ll and another. The
buttocks protrude beyond the
\'t.Tticai line marked by the
shoulders, and the outline of the
legs describes a diagonal Ihal is
Ie$!, pronounced than the male's.
Viewed from behind, the most
Qutstanding characteristic o f the
/i:male form is the dear conl our
ofthc back ;1 00 hips, which is
clearly defined by the w:aisl.The
rdi ef of the felmle torso is far
dictated by the shape of the
The Female H ead
There an: several features that
cle:arly distinguish the female he:lld
from the male. A man's head is
usu;lUy mon:: anb'1.ll;lr than a
woman's, which is generally
roullder: nle bone structure,
especially the [mmal bone, is more
pronounced in a mail's face; :II
\\IOman's profile has softer features,
;Ill oval fa ce, and a mo re bulbous
fon:head. l=Urthermon:, ;I man's
neck is robust, while a wo man's is
more delicate.
Drawing ftmtlle
fonn Otl
grometrir srhr,m:s
makts il nuir, 10
dtl8mi,,1' Iht sin
/It,d posirioo if Nth
pan if IhI' boJ)t
A MY<" if
SubnlIQIJro"S fl t
givts tht J IM/"
body w/" JlI_S,
1'0",,41'4 fo nns
Je,ItluJII/t d by
'''' lIN iltld a
Drawing rrom
m-al is
est:tbllihing the
main reatures or
the remale body,
and is 311
imJX>rtant to
he law of proportion is important for dr:3wing
children, but it is k"SS reliable: than it is for ldult
fib'1.lres. During childhood the body is constantly
evolving. and anatomical proportions changt" a great
deal in a shon period of time.
A body fiat llm
"'-"Y routukd fomos l/r",
1/'",11 fltr folds if n'<TJ'

A hrad IJrKil1s
willi hl'P 0' '''/1, eme.for
Ilv "1111('1 skllll, .lfId
ttlwfhf'T for lilt: jaw
mId (hCfks.

Basic Proportions
Glle of the basi c differences
between a body and [hat of
an adu lt is the head: a child's head
is mudl more
compared to the rest or llis body.
This fenure is attenuated as the
body grows. In general, a
m:wborns height is only three
times the siu of his head. Whell
the child is approximately one
year oM, the tot:rol length orhis
body is three and a halftimes the
length or his head. Compared to
the head and the tOIK\ his legs are
rdatively short. At four years, the
head is still \'Cry large in
proportion to the rest of the body,
but because the child is taller, his
body now comprise:! "\'C uniu.At
tv.'CIve, the child's total height is
seven times [he length of his head,
and the middle of his body
descends toward the hips.
Tht /"'" if proporlic!IJ is imporltlUl .mtll
d"''''''!e thlld figllm, btll il is 1m miabk
IIu1II ;/ ufo, lilt' fiKJ'" if all "d,JI. dut' Jo
Iht grr,,' d!fJ"rHtn in proporliorrs 1M/ 0r«U,
du' ;' oggn:>u.1h.
As air body d .. "..I(lpJ. "'I'
middlr '!I IIII' body domuk -He
miMI .. of" body is loca/cd a/
she "",vol. till' ",iddl" of Q
11...... body is sligMy
ahovt 'he p'./,Iie /IN'''.
, .
_J -
Children's Forms
When attempting to draw a child fi gure, be aware of
ill rounded forms, and avoid sharp, angular lines. It 's
better to magnify the wavelike motions oflhe {;hild's
conto urs than £0 worry too much about getting the:
Pl'; rfl';ct proportions. Children are in a process of
anatomiul development. so iT is useless (0 try to
represent the shape ofthei T bodies with the same
precision that you would with an adult fi gure, male
or female.
The Middle of the Dody
If you draw a horizolltal linf down the middle of a
body from childhood through adulthood, you 'U see
clearly how the middle of the: body moves downward
from the stomach. At eight years, the middle lies
somewhere above the hips. The head very
slightly, while the arms and legs grow longer. The
drift of the middle of the body is basjcally the Tl..'sult
of the growth of the leg; during adolescence.
The Trouble with Live Models
Chil d models present several special problems for the
artist, fl ot the least of which is the fact
children- especially snull children-can never stay
put for long. So it is necessary to take frequent
breaks, keep them entertained with toys or other
items, and make sure that they assume the pose that is
most comfortable for them.
he shape of the human body dcpcnJs a grcat deal
on so when you t ry t.o draw a figure
corn: ccly, it is to understand your modd 's
anatomical fea tures and physical compl exion, which
arc: specific to their age and body type. in order to
pcrsollalizc the fi gure.
The Elderly Model
The body of an elderly person is distinctly different
from the proportions of an adult fi gllIe. The forehl':ad
is more ample as a resull of hai r loss, bag; appear
under the eyes, the skin is Jess taut than before, the
che>t appears to sag, the limbs arc flat:cid,and the
bone stru{;turc is morc visible. Very littl e muscle mass
remains, so the shape of the body is determined
entirely by the skeleton. As a penon grows old, his
skin loses its el asti city and begins to sink, giving the
impression that the bOIl I."S 3rc closer to the surface.
The skin's wTinkled, naccid texlUrc crates shadows
ill the model, which you can draw by millig gr.ly
\ ,
, \
III old 'W, Ihe 1IIJ1StiCS Ilffamf jlmcid o"d lilt< Sin"'''''' man;
cvid/"lli. ·l1le body hmll/res OVf", mId shoW$ i,llipi,..,1 diformilie.s.
·ne pe is old ogt" is ,,"'Sl "",dily visiblr. so il i,· importo",
la par spa;o/ o/letlli",! 10 ilSfoolures. ·H f bulky dOlhrs /I,..,,, by
{he r/dl'dy disguisr Ihr Imlisfo" lI<Ilic>II of Iltrir "I/olOmy.
1l1r m<>pr of tht body is ' lIJ,itmbiy "lD<Iiflnl
whmjl/ 1lClN", .. IlI'(3 illtl,r fIoWHl . stllm<llh,
b.m",kJ, tJild rh'll' u. dmu. "g tlll
jig""' lilt !.Nt 11""11 to do is Itl jrarr wilit tl
si'tlr/, bl1$rd 011 owl SlrllpN.
Obese Figures
There is a layer offal between the muscks and
the skin thaI fi Us in the &IPS and sofiens the
shape of the bones. The fat is barely visi bl e 11\
the body of an arh1cuc pct'5()n, it add:;
only slightly to the person's gi rth; but in an
obese penon. it can amount to as much as fi ve
or six inches, so it plays an role in
shapi ng the volulue and girth of the body.
This layer offal is not evenly di stri buted
throughom the body. In mell , it is gcncrall y
concentrat e(! in the chest, accentuating the
profile of the clcfl just below the pectoral area;
in the area below the chin; in the stomach; and
in Ihe buttocks. In women, fal lends to affect
the shape of the bream (which grow
disproportionately and look more fla ccid) , the
chin, the stomach, the t highs, and especially
the area around the pelvis and up to the end of
t he gluteus muscles. For this reason, the part
of the body Ihal stands out mOSI in an obese
woman is the exaggerated wi dth of the hi ps
and the large behind. T he other parts ofthc
body tend to look morc cylindrical , and the
folds around thejoi ntli are more pronounced
br..-"C:IUSC the Il csh there is fattier. The same
thing happens with the person's facial fea tures,
which tend to swell generally; body fat is
particularl y visibl e in the cheeks and chi n.
FW'itl/fiu (tlll groo v 10 Ihe
p<' im of lOlllpklrly
obwIri,W lilt' tJlI1lliill
JMpt'f oJ tl,t I,u",,,u bod)<
'n". ..... 0 1.nlNth lilt' (h,,,
... U/ 1M II4lk 0J,11(' ntl'k
Il'IIJ III Jl.o", rl" gmtltsl
nm."wl<lliOll oJjoI.
, . \ (

W hen you draw
t he race uf an
elderly penon. do
not 10
make the
and un big:
Ihese are the onl y
I .... 'U part!; of the
hod)' Ihal do l10t
stop growing
when we reach
atht llhood.
n it' obNc' bod)'fllII tlbD k
.,.,furrd 10 (,ret., nud 0111/1,
filII II(' ,urird
"''',/ )"'" If'''''/' lilt' t/rgm' of
ob.'Ji' I' JIIO"''' I/('f'f'.
he shape of the human body depends a great deal 011 i ~
structure, so an artist 's knowledge of anatomy i . ~ useful-
though nOt necessary-when he attempts to draw a human
figure correctly. If you have no knowledge of anatomy,
observation and synthesis is 31so a good \vay. Learni ng to
observe your model is fundame ntal for undersranding how
the figure is articulated, and synthesis is essential for
summarizing or breakillg down a subject to its essential parts,
into the cicmC': nts of the figure that havc a plastic and
pictorial value and into the thillgs that convey the pn.'SCIlCC
and attitude of the figure. The power of synthesis is an
enormously useful tool for drawing, beGiusc it allows the
a r t i ~ t to quickly represent a figure in a spontaneolls attitude
at allY place or time.

alld FACE
rawing the head and face is all inti midating
prospect, because faci al expressions change so
quickl y that capturing t hem precisely is a b'Oal that
only the most capable artist can attain. Hence. this
section will dt"vote no time ro the action
offacial features but will concentrate on the
relationship of the head. considered as a voJUIllC, to
the rest of the body,
The Proport ions of t he Head
According to the law of proportion. the human
head equals three and a half times the lellgth of the
forehead. so we will divide the height of the head
into three and a half From this division we
derive the following references. which will hdp you
to dnw a wdl- proportioned hc:ad: the tOp of the
head. the natural hairl ine. the position of the
eyebrows. the height of the ears, the base of the nose,
and the profil e of the chin.
Viewed from the front. the human head is like a
I't..-cbngle three units wide and three and a half units
uIJ. By searching for tv.'O lines that divide the
rectangle vertically and horizontall}, you will find the
location of the e)'es on the horizonGllline, and the
central axis of the nose 011 the vertic"lline. It is
important to notice that the distance berwcell the
l:}'l.'S is d ose to the width of one eye, and that the
lower edge of the lip coincides wi th a line that
- I

j ,)
LJ "

'111t s/6rti,eg poillt for
drawi,eg a fact iJ Iht ti/I
1i,1t' Jw lilt vtrtital 4Xis.
Slorti,tgjlOnl d,u /i,Ii',
whide divi.ks 1M foa ;'1
few, YO" tatl btgill /()
distribute 1M rtsf oj ,llt
jaci81 jtafwm

-;; ,-,'
tMt of J'II",r, I//f'
law if pfOpOttior' for lilt'
hlll"a" I"'ad is ",mk lip
oj a sd ifmea.lllrc",""u
{If 1",itJ II,M dfft', ,,,i,1i' lIS
divid the 1'.00 cqua lit I halves in he 100vcr UI
/' r-.....
ti "'-
t '\4
Q,,<t}'lll' the""'" if Iht htad.
draw a Jtmtir' lillt goi.tgfro", 1/", frmkad
10 1M /osmo <hi .. , [)jvitk 1M (WI 1m" Ihln'
and a IuJj parts. '111t ''PJ'ft' lillt will JtrW kI
deltrm;,,,, whtrr the hairli,,,, btgiw; lilt
$e(aluJ dividing fiue .lIarkJ the localio" if
tl,e ryt:f; Ihe fhim dtsWtlll fl'S Ihe 'lOSt; aeuJ
tht Iml showJ lilt' ,hill should go. "lllt
,,.,.,tn if /ooiltJ ire 1M vny cmltr if Ihe
laSl StgI!W>",
: It'l a good tonal
Drawing from the General to the Particular
When drawing the hCld, one should wOrk from the
genenito the p;a.rocular. You must lirsl sKL'tCh the
basic structure of the held: search for ih; generic
fonn, its mQlit pronounced or prominent angles. h's
enough to draw l set of liTles marking the location of
l'ach of the dements that will nuke up the face.
• exc. cilC to dnw a
I In,
( l! tonCi. Thil
--:. 'It:' , practice COIms!s
'" of omen,;ng the
. model attentivei)'
and atlempting to
divide the
different tonal
The Face
If you draw freehand, the dupe of the face from the
fTom should fit INi t hin an o\'al.
If you trace a vertical line to divide the face in two.
}'Ou can l'Stablish an axis of symmetry that will allow
you [ 0 place the facial features in a proportionate
manner; of course, this is only possi ble if you draw
the face from the frollI.
The base of the nose is located on a line dividing
the face down the middle, :md the mouth is
somewhat above the chin li ne. To these lines, you call
then add a line for the eyebrows. which will then
give you an adcquate outline for drnwing the head
and facial features.
The Head in Profile
. The c..'stablished proportions for the head in frontal
view can .. Iso be used for df1l\ving the head in profi le.
All ),ou have to do is extend the hori lontal lines .. nd
draw each c1cmenc of the face, only this time, from
the side. same horizontal divisions used for the
frontal view also nutch the placement of the parts of
the face in profile.
TIrsr four Jmwitrgs of 1M lINd ill
diffnrm poJilw,u show I/Il' rl .tlllgr$ in
IIIf'n,srtn'flltr.,s il ,lOOIn
Um/ffllm.d,·,tg Iht-/all' of PI'OpOI1Wn for lire Iltad in ImJilr ((III br
l't"r), .. 4..". d""","S pol1mits SUi" as Ihis 0I1f'. 1/ is Iho. a
mann of .imply adtzpting ' M- jetrlUra (Iud p<t'P""iOlu if III("
pmtIfl Ill" d""",,,S ,,, 1M jlliri(l/ _IUU"'MIIIS if II", ""', if
areas into
geometric $hape'
and tlM: 11 coloring
them in.
/?he TORSO:
f you anaiy£e a frontal view of t he torso you will
find that part of the body comprises the
pectoral tnusd t.-s, a set of thick. wide. pClltagonai
muscle'S set ill pailS. which expand or contract when
the anus arc raised or 100ven:d. Noti ce the
distribution of VOiUl lJCS, the profile alld expansion of
the thorax, from rhe from and the back, and how the
shoulders insert themselves into the thorax in
difTcrem positions depending on the view. The neck
gi\lt."S the torso :1 great expressive quality, lind irs
mu\Culature implies the Oexibili ty of the head, so it
nllJ:O; t always be shown breaking from the symmetry
m:ukcd by the spine.
The skr,rlra 1>1'/0'" fllO"'/""" /0 IlQ!ill a r/rm",,,g if tllr
1Il,,1e /ono. Bq;iu hi' rJlnWs/tillJ! <I !la/iclll (IX;$. Fnmr
,//('rr, 10 fit lil t rrclntr,:II/1JT forn' tf
,/1<' I<mO ,,.;/1,;,, riliJ Sf/WI""; 11K' rom' of l/no 101:«>
drpC1lds 011 !'OJ;I;O" 111111 1/'1' fiJ!"" mmlllrs. For tl
froural "i,,"; j/..'(Ic/' It.r 1/101","''''';11 ... 11 Ilillil"lnr
SI«I, tIS lhe ptrtoml lII' UCin, 1/'( 1Ibt/"III;II<l1
,,,mcln, <Iud 11K' J'''b;c /itH'. I II II,.......". ,.;.." , brlooll IIII'
spi"" m(lrk! lilt" 'xnfy\ axis.
\ I
The Body's Axis
If you analyze: the: rt:ar view of the
torso, you will notice that the
is dc:$Cribes the body's axis; it
is a line of symmetry from which
the fundamental ITIeasurt:menu of
the body an: established.
Starting from this straight
pc:rpc:ndicular, we have:
comtructc:d a ""aT vicw of the:
IOrso, taking into account the
following factors: the: distance
bt:tv:een the: shoulders and the
spine should he equal. t.'Ve1l i f
there is a slight incl ine:; the:
shoulder blades are the part of the
back that stands out most , and its
rdief is most evidcnt when the:
model has his arms open. The
shoulder bbde is rriangular and
should he acccntmred with a light
hatching. it's important lO notice
that the waist is mon: dc:arl y
marked in the frontal view than in
the view, because: from the:
rear, the Sl1TfaCl' of the back is a
continuous whole: from [he:
shoulder blades to the: lowt:r part
of the lumbar area, where you ("I n
appreciate: the flesh of tht,
T h e Female Torso
From both rhe front and the rear,
the relief of rile fenule torso is less
conditioned by rhe muscular
structure than the: nuk tor.;(); in
it, rhe transi tions between volumt.'S
are smoorhe:r.Two of the:
di5tinguishil1g features of the:
female toUO are the lower
shoulders and Illore promi llt:nt
hips. This contour can be easily
represented h)' two rriangl es
joined by thei r vertices. These
tri:lII1g.les should then round Oll l
their profile [ 0 achieve the curved
lines characteristic o f the fClm le
A good exercise
is to find
of fi guro.'S, seated
Or standing, nude
Or pm a
paptt the
image5, and find
the location of
the spine and t he
line of t he hips.
\l ij'


.. '
. . '
, ,

'1M ft-zlr 10I3i0 (m, Iw symhr:shed
4S I"", ''',-,",ed '"arrgkt Her JWO/ik
u.ll/w mOO' muptuouJ </tid Ihlt!
of 1m j,ips willlw ""'''' "",Ik Ilul1I rI
", ... ,'s. U110J you mall'lIlf!jtmah
Jorw, Iwt p J'Il mi"d ,Ilal ,Is cdgoo.J
should be Ir» pnmoullced, rllld mtlrt
simwy 1110" "
i ' ') ,
-;. ",.
rawing arms and legs meri ts a few remarks
bee.lUSt! it may problems with
proportion. The best way to draw the: limbs is to
analyze them based 011 circular or oval shapes. By
maki ng a prdimil1<lry sketch. m: C3il distingui sh
bc:twct:1l three wl;: ll- ddim:d a r C3S of any limb.
The upper limb compristS the shoulder, which is
characterized by the deltoid musek; the: arm, which
dt:rives its volume from the pr=ncc of the biceps;
and the forearm, which is shaped by a more
elongated circk For the leg, we: can divide it into the
thigh, the: knee, and the cal vt:'!..
'fht upper alld lower /;,,,b$ call be redUft'd /0 a fluId! of
owls Ihal will pron' '''''>' '",ju/ '" drawillg the muscular
a"a/om), if tlicsr it! their (])Trer/ proporrions.
Yo .. (1111 uSf' "" (lXi, Or" $Imighlline Ilrot
mm thmllJlhout Ihe liml, it! orner 10
situate the ]0'"/$ itJ Iheir prof'f'r
w,d 10 iN:lter lOttlroi Ih" dfotl of
symmetry t1ttJ 11,1' OUllittc if lite mH..,df!.
The Problem of the Lower Limbs
Tht: musclt:li in tht: lower limbs prelit:nt a mort:
complex form, but :lfter a detailed analysis you wi ll
be able to recognize e:lch of them.
The lower li mbs are made up of t\\'O essential
pllrts: the thigh, where the quadriceps :lnd the
sartorius muscle lit'S, and the leg itself, which consists
of the bulk of the tibiae and the calves. The knee lit:li
between these twO parK The knee is the joint that
articulates both of tht'Se parts, and it should look
rounded and prominent when it is drawIl. Notice
that if you measure the length of the leg from the
hamstring to the ankJe, the knee is not locatt-d in the
middle of the leg, but a bit further down, so when
you draw the thigh you should make it longer than
the calf. The calf muscles art: prominent in the lower
part of the leg. Tht)' bt-gin just behind the knee :llld
t:lld at the Achilles heel.

Women's Limbs-
The:: fe::male arm is ''Cry differem from th31 of Ihe
male: il is clmracle:: rized by 3n absence of
prominent mUKulatun:, by the regularity of its
propo rtiol15, and the delicacy of the line
defines its contours. The areas of Ihe: d bow and
wriS! joints narrower 111 the fe nmle ar m. And
the: shape of the muscles in a woman's legs is
barely visible: the thigh tapers delicately ;as it
approaches the Knee::, and Ihe lind of the leg
muscles an: unde::rstated, sofler tlun a man's, so the
ci rcle t hat for ms the knee should stand OUi only
barely. In the: lower leg, the: graceful calvcs also
taper 35 they appro:ach the: hc:cl. Ge:nerally,
,",,'Omen's cal\l\."'S are not \'Cry prominent , but they
do become rounder and gain in volume:: when J
woman wears high bed s.
l{iHllI'J' limbs tlW mOft ddWllt, tl"d IIIrf diJpll1)'
tI ntOR suMp IfIIIMU/m wlit! tlnfl tl glf'illn
,wrnII""R lilliif' wriw m/J m,kh
n.c vo lumenic
treatment .. r the
I 'I';",1u ;",,;,, ;f
)UU consider t he
shape or the arms
and legs as an
I assemblage or
thrcl.' cylindrical
parb or diffl.'r'l"flt
I" order 10 d""" /1" It!! /lfld m'''''' (orrtttlJ\
irs import"'ll ,/url J'O" hi' tlbk 10 disli.rguish
lire (iIdo.m fJlld diffrrtr'litllr Ik
positions tlia! Iht Ii",m dtpl'.I1;ng
OIl Ihe p!«.

t (he \'ery ("ud of the arms an: rhe ha nds... The
human hand has nearly as nuny import'.lnl
expressive possibil ities as the: facc. The hand is the part
of rhe body that offers the greatest number of djlTcrem
posit ions. It 's to master its structure and
shape, because when dl"Jwing the human fib'Urt' . the
hands and feet often end up in very poor shape. The
Il!.!ophyte will oftcn fOfC:b'O the former, or mcrely
suggest their shape:, putting them inside: 1 pocket or
hiding them behind the: mooel's
The Hand's Dimensions
If you tlke the total dimensions of :lII opcn Nnd,
viewed from the: b.:ack, with the: palm and fi ngers
extended, yo u will find that rhe: distance: between the:
wrist and knuckles is similar ro rhe: distance: bet\';een
the knuckles and the rip of the middl e finger. T his
isn't the only fact that you c:m by simply
opening up the p3hn of the hand. For inst3nce, you
will fi nd that, wi th the fi ngers outstretched, the length
of the index finger is equal to tllar oCthe ri ng fi nger,
and that the tip ofthe pinky coincides lines up with
the final joint of the: index finger.
".", ",nul, PWfI /d N
dim,'" In " propmtiOfltJl
",/"Iicru"ip II> 1M mt if
IIU' body. I I en" N oj grml
"rip to fol'o", 11K' gmnal
mit- Ihal $p«ijia l/r", Ihr
oj 11,1' /,m,d u.Of/1d
"" "i"al fil lhal oj Ihl'

- "-


Hi- kg;" wil l, 0 SIJ' UIff' lIud adtI" trapaoi<I ( I). III tIlt upper
plIJ'I Pj tl,l' If ,ombut...., dmu,,, lI<1Vt' 10 IIrt> riJ!lJI. mId slmlilfRj,.,." II
di'Wl"ra/ U'K'. " "' d""" tl,1' r/rumb (2). Pll)f" IIII' l ip of 11,1'
1I'IImb "'I' prop l mrl>ll" .. rll .... IIIdlrn';"1! ,lrl' 1>111111 ",1,,-" ' IIM' ji"gns
immIXI 1""m oj tl,e III11Id.lii- II,is r"IlI(' j"'1>fom (mJ
pmjrtllhr (J). Hi- /11l'fI mul' Ih,' .·,mrlllmlli,1l:J
ami dmlll '/If /umd am", 1/(/r/;"g1"'111 III (""melniSl« mll/illl' (4).
Th(' gt'OIIIf1ric skl'lilt if IUlfJd jJ rompkt£d
with II u..'ff.rh if tIw fi' tgm. u4rilh art
rqlUmllrd by OI-...u "h;( h tIlfTNpollll 10 (,,11"1,
or phalaux.
Configuration of the Hand
The hand is contle:cn:d lO the: :lrm
by the: c:lrp:ll bones, which form
the: wrist joim. The hand has (wo
f3cc:S lO cOllside:r: (he: back, whe:re
the: le:ndOlll; :ltld the: Illusde:s from
the top of the fOrt::lrm end, :lnd
the p:!lm, which has many SITI3IJ,
Ilc:shy muscles. The fingl'rs 3re:
made up of three small bones
each, except for the (humb, which
has only I\vo. This forces the
amateur artist to take pause and
study the particular form of these
bones; in doing so, you will
discover, for instance, that the
bonl'S arc thinner in the middle:
than at the: t:nds.
) I'
Synthe!>is of the Hand
you draw a hand, try to
reduce rhe nlt:r:!carp:!1 area to a
square unit from which the fingers
extend in 3 radial pattt::r n,or
Otherwise, start from the ov31-
based sketch discussed above. You
can then continue your sketch of
the hand by representing each of
the fingers by three ovals, olle for
each Or i LS scgmcnts. lf you do so,
it will bc easier for you to dr.lw a
foreshortened hand. The position
of the fingers is based on a sketch
m3dc lip of a of concentric
arches that make it to
resolve the form in any pmition. If
you can make a weU proportioned
gt:omcrric sketch it will be very
casy to adj ust the details little by
li nle until you finish the drawing.
unfinished hand
makes sense in a
nude drawing.
Think oflhe
fingers as minor
details compared
to the other parIS
of the body.

Afk, slurlrillg II'f Iwtufi; 5InKlI"l', il is imf>ouallllO
I'rlUliu dmJvi llj! lite ),,,,,,/ ill dlffneul p1SiriolU.AII
imelC$lillg is '" 11/ala- a !!fCo",rlrir
brfow hegillt,jllg II,r dtjiniliw draw;,,&. w lI",r)'VI<
(all wlflmMlld ils SInIEIIIW ",itlwIII dUlt'lIing on '''I'
de/ails. 'His I,,,,ula ,,1,0 ."" 10 obse,...,. iI,al
tile joinrs ill II,r fingers "",laid mil i" lIte fo,m <1 n
he hip is anotha main dement in drawing the
human fi gure. It ti lts on the axis of the spi ne. and
coincidt:$ with the point where the: legs flex in this arl"a .
.9'hb PELVIS:

THE SHAPE ,0/''t,1(' HIPS
The Protrusion of the Hipbone
Because thc: pelvis is connected to rhe he.n l by the:
backbone, it is constitutes the body's axis. Sever:al
muscles o f the: torso. the thighs, and the legs I1lcd at
the pel vis, which Sc!"VeS thc main support point for
this area of the body. O ne of the: Illost impoTllnl
p<l rt.'l of the pdvis, and the one: which most
noticeably affects the OUl er appearance of rhe fi gure.
is the iliac crest , which li nc.-'S up with the hipbone.
Don't forget to dr:nv this bone, particularly ill female
fib'Ul'eS and slillUlltt mo dels. Because a woman's pelvis
is wider than a man's. hcr hi pbone is much more
visible. marking a roft curvat ure: from the: pubic area
to the top or the bUtlOCKs.



[" "WI prclimiuary skmll,
11'1" ,..iII 10: lrow i' ''pUlul
d, r "·'I(S lI",rkiuS /11(
'''''''"a/;''', if lilt' "ips tmd
III( pubil lw"" I(. As "'"
<kurkp dll' Jmu';,rg.
I . ,rw(tuoal UMJ in
1_ala ,1IM' .... ,
."" ,ro/lrd

\ 'ji
IW maW a IMli,","",)' sJ..'tIt I,p a
dmll,;.rg, i"'portal" 10 UlJ..'f j"", d{(out"
/111' "r IIII' s/I(lO.ldm <!lId Iht
hips. 71!t lill U"I"I ",arks IIII'
I'quilibrilm, of lit(' posf.

Hi> Ilu>I<l</" 'I jol),'f'1 10
/lUl,k 1111" hip lill( 11M.
dmwi,lS a batk ' 1/" 11\
rid,,,, HtIr, IIII' 11""
marks fht uri/Smidt if tilt'
bul lotks bMtmn imporfOt.,
as .. <clI. foJt>l'u 1M
ill/emli,lS Iti'lIIgu/m
irrdetllafWr' Ilral forms j l/Sf
IIbove tht bul/Clf/u.
The Line o f the Hips
Thc position of the hips marks an
imaginary line in the body that
we must take into account when
.... 'C draw. T he line of the: hips is
seldom hori7.ontaL It tilts on the
»:is of the backbone, coinciding
with the point at which the legs
bend in this aI'ClII , and when the
hi pbone til ts, thc backbone
doesn't remain straight. but instead
acqui rt."S a soft curv.atun: 3t its
base. It almost always adopts a
slight til t, especially when the
body is in a resting position,
which makes part of t he wei ght o f
the body come to rest on one leg,
whilt: the mht:r Il"g remai ns flexed
and rdaxcd. T his pose: is call ed
If )'OU altend a live
model drawing
session in an art
school. it's important
to pnc:tice drawing
the hips in isolation.
Undentanding the
\. tilt of the hi pbone b
es",ntial to correctly
dn w;"s body ;"
any pou..
The pc/Pis is (Ot1l1rttn/ IO thr
br I/l r ,¥',lrI,m/ mlu",,,
or back/x",f', wllirll is ol,1'lfYJ
,;siblr fhr rider fliol
ruus dOll/l1llir lIIiddlr ifllir
Mrk. Thr back of til<' pc/IV is
OOllm'tI by a lIIuMI .. IHtW o"d
by Ihrpi iflll<' huIIOll.'S, wllil/I
mr lIIud, IIWf't pill"",), mill
,mmdrtl I" a "',,,,,m, body.

" ,


, ,
Thr a' to U IIiit' a t"mcoled PJ"f'mitl,
witll a /alJlf' base anti a narrow vmo ... A
U sho'ff'r Olltl wi.kr 111m. a mil" \
a110"'1 us to s« IIIr s"rdler "",,,n j" 1M hip
a Ioyn if fot.
he feet :are not as difficult 10 draw .as hands.
This is ix-c:ausc the feet have much ft.'V."Cr
possibilities o f movement . This limil:ltion tnm;lat cs
into a more homogeneous and continuous form with
fewer problems and inconsistCllcit:S.
Confi gu ratio n of the Foot
As a gencr.li reference for drAwing the foot , \ve think
ofil as consisting of thn:c " .. dl-dirrerentiatcd ;lTCU:
the tarsal or hc:el, the mCUCl rsal. and the area o f the
toes. The silhoued t: of the fOOl is conditioned in large
pari by its skeletal strucrure. The top of the fOOl: is
wi th tendons and tensor muscles. but the
joints, al though Ihey an: C\lCY bit as complex .as those
of the hand, don't display a struClUrr .as readily visible
as they do in the hands.
Synthesizing the Foot
The geometric sketch of the (001 is si milar 10 the ont:
we use for the hand: it begins with circle or oval
that corn.'Sponds to the hed, anothc.: [, more elongated
oval for the nlt:tatanal, l ud various lint.'$ or s.mallish
cylinders to represent the tocs. Once the sketch is
donc, you com .... ,ork o n the: form, profile, protrusions,
and roundncssc:s o f the: foot. If you want to give the
foot In athletic appearance, dr.J.w a prominent hed
and svdte toes, with very pronounced joints and

TIw J!roInrlrit s/.."C"ldlfor lilt' fOOl i, sion!"/m 10 ,,;edflll IIII'
I"md. r, sllOu/d lit' definrd by ° (irrie IholrorlQl'tlf,d$ 10 lilt 11«1
Ml'Q, o"olllff tlfJtlifor 1I1f melalArsm boo,t, and JI'I",ml $mallisJJ OI%1ls
for IIv loa.
if)'Ol4 Jet, .... '"
10 make ° mislokt
i" tllrfoolt
propoTIicms, (0"
di,.;Jc it ;11/(1 IIII'(t'
ports of l'qual
I"'WIl, jl/u,f,ill" Ilt
finl JItlrl U,WS lip
willi lilt 11« 1, IIIl'
SffOIuI romSfIO'IdJ
10 III#" miJdk 1idt1
of 11"'/001, oud lilt'
/as, marX.! tilt'
1nlj!II, if tlK' lotS..
Fim, we ,""SI dmw a rettalw.lcjor lilt" Irg,
WIt;'II , rombi"rd a Iriouglf, will
ro'Y;&"'t lilt geometric s/{tkll of lilt form r/
IIv fOOl ( /). Hi: 111m add 111'0 (IIrlltd /i,,1'1
10 Iilis ikelCh, lilt" Jt"(ooJ if ron,l«U
fa Iitt fOUr,lkd lillf" r/ tilt" Irttl .A o"gll
is sufficinll fer sj"."tiIJg tilt I<>fJ (2). U.
din, rmsr 1M strurfuruJ/ilrl'1 otuI '\'J)'
slowly tImw 11 .. flUlli,lt" if /lit fool, IIIiJ Ii_
dtltli/inii! lilt protnuiorl ifillt ... ddt o"J tilt'
I«s (J).
The Foot in Profile and Back Views
Drawing foot in profile is simple. A triangle
cO\.'Crs it almost entirely. The shapt: of the foot is
marked by the angle of the heel, part of the foot
which supporrs most of tht: body's weigllt. T he toe
area tlkes up slightly less than one quarter of the
It!l1gth of the foot from the heel to the tip of the hig
toe. A frontll on other hand, some
due to the foreshortening of the tocs. But
here, too, you can sketch a simple triangular shape,
although it will be much n3rroweT compared to that
of the profile. The back view is the simplest, and it
should haVt': as its main reltrt:nce poi nt thc protrllsion
of the and slight indication of the roes at the
other end.
The Bottom of the Foot
The bottom of the foot is also covered with muscles;
however, these muscles arc not as visi ble because the
skin on this part o f the body is very thick, and
aU bknd into a common that spans the arch on
the bottom of the foor. This part of the foot has a
very rounded appearance due to the greater visibili ty
of the hed and the fit--shy, cushioned parts of the
bonom of the fOOl. When drawing the bonom of the
foot, remcmber that the skin ht:TC has a
textllTe than on any other part of the body.
Aldumgh;1 Joes ,,0/ prNn,1 a dfgrct if (o,np/exily asgH'al Qj II,.. h""ds, lire fOOl rJl<lug<'S its
"f'P/'<'TG"«' Jepa"I;"g 0" IIIe"m1ll of'rieu' or 0" I}"IX' if ad;,rily il rior",s. Our pmri"'<$
gmlllet,it skrllhrs "'illltrip Iff 10 adapl 10 /J,P$C "l'U' am .. ",lat!trS (A a"d 13). I-/m>, as ,,1""')'5, the
p"pntditular di,ridi,'R li"e is if greOI/lell' i" coIJSlmdi"g jorm ""d emuri,w r/'al. a, wilh the
II", loes Jcscriht,,, CUIV<' a"d ""I a str"ighl (C, D, ""d E).

/, \


\ '

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\ \
4C =
: ""!900

"l:\1e mllst measure tile body: standing and aliI/(',
wI/ere/ely, in !lint! parts ",illl respect to its length. r"Or
able tlafllre has shaped mati in SI/(h tl wa), that the jit«
foutld ill the highest place, film it be admired alld
offer the othe-r JXl rts of tile body the prillciple of ils
I'omponi S<wlpture, 1504.

- I
\ ( '
very drawing must be organized within an mIion:;i and
comprehensible order, in order to establish a
comforrablc and appealing path for the eyes to follow. In
order to draw a well- proportioned figure, the arlin searchL"S
for an ideal ofbc3Ury, and finds hi s tools in the objective
methods founded upon geometry and measuremCilt. But
opposi tc the pllt"tly theoretical systelll$ of proportion, there
is what we might call an "intuitive" proponion based on
visual comparison and comroJl ed distortion, and we can
transl:ltc and accommodate the natural structures of the
body in a looser, morc expressive. and less mechanical way
than tilt' model descri bed by the classical bws of
he law of proport ions for the hunull body '''I(l ltld
be oflittle i f this knowledge could not be:
llS(>d wi th real-life lllodds. Thcory is an inestimable
help. bot it is the application of tocory to a real
model that determine'S the fi nal result of :l11y drawing.
Applying the Law of Proportio ns
Thanks to its the law of proportions is
tnl ly a useful tool for becomi ng familiar with (and
mcmori:ling) the of the rdative size of
the pans of a figure in relation (Q the whok Even if
the proportiol1l!i of a real figure do not match those of
a classical mood, there is still an 3<lj ustcd
correspondence bct\vecll the division of the figure
into ullits and the location of different anatomical
components sllch as the height of the shoulders, the
dlt'SI, the dbows, hips, etc. , whidl we have to
consider. For this it's
important to first proj ect body's of
symmetry; on it, will mark different
of law of proportion. If the figutt
is sl,owl, from tilt' back, we the
that line is aJready by

I" <I J' ",u/illg pou, imogi.uuy m1itnlli.1f!S
DR tmr.r1Ctol)' reJd to gi ... to
backboM m.d Ilw /0"'" lX'mllilia, in on:Irr
to pl= "lKJ>' ,/rrm 1m. (onf'Jpmufing
or IHrru'Ilt'm<'trlJ for r«11 ,mil.

Cross Sectio ns
We are not ahvays able to find standing fi gures, which
lend thelllsdves to the application of the law of
proport ion, so we must develop a set of rules Ihal
allows us to appl y the tmit system to fi gures that are
se;1tl'd or lyi ng down. A practi cal method is to draw
CI'OlIi sections 011 the is, to draw
"horizontal comours" onto nude bod y to show
the imagmary "diCe!!" tim corrc.-spond to the different
measuremems descrilx.-d by the law of proportion, In
ot her words, we follow the sallie method as v,-e
would if we were to build a cylinder- based form.
In a seated figure, these cua arc in the folds
of the sleeve, the shirt collar, the belt around the
w2ist, etc.
Measurement Problelns
Som(."[i llle!! we \vi ll find that the figure.' does not
prc.-cisd y match the classical male, eighl- and- a- half_
head modcl. This is normal. It is onl y logical thaI
reaJ..life should bt- solllewhat beneath claS5ical
mea5Uretllcnts bc:catlS{-, after all, cl assical laws deal in
kX.':I1 proportions, nOI ones. What is IliOSl
impoltl m is not whet her the fi gure 1ll(.':Isures seven
Of eight h(.-ads, but that the disuibution of Ihe units
be truly proportional.
Thl' dlWit"41 pTCfHl",'()flJ of
a 5Imuli"gfiguTf' de "a,
m,,,II, "0 mal/(1
11OII! """It lilt I.>vrl)'
J'tI'ul/4 <II assrmlt'S
ro"'l'iit""Itt/ JKlllllfr1. 71lu
fyslem if mranm:" " !'Jti (a"
be 4 gr.>oJ rifl"f('tla'.
lilt 11Io"4S"mo1l'l11S
oflhr dlWit"41 1411' if
pmp<>rtion is (01tI1'1it"nud
"0/,,,,, a/Wllft is silllug, 1),,".1:
dOl"", or fo,rsl"mrned. lu
11,1'$1' (451'S, 11'1' ,mut dml!' Ihr
jigufl''s SI'IIIHl rliug i,,"l"
s/metol1/' in a U'4lrd pcsitwn
mod tTY /0 ndjmt Iht
1IIo"d.{"mN(JII S
Am>IIIfT $)'$/flll for ,"r
(/aSliml Imil IJIl'tUW"'IIl't>IS II Ihl'
(!I'l'rl4ylng '" l'a"WCQal slim, or ouu-
S«Iicru. Ontt> II", 5krldl if lilt figllft
II't d",.., till' li'l(3 if dint wtioru,
wl,illl 11Wtnpmuli0 In,. MEmn,U (j lilt'
(Lwiro/ ,,,odd, iu ani ... 10 Shldy till'
profI('ftioow re/aliotlShips if" figutl ill
o or 1)"18 JHlSil iou.
he 11\l1nan {ib, rurc can be broken down into
simple geometric figure!; that easily adjust to ilS
descr iption. Every pose <I gencl:a1 sketch that
SllOlild encompass ;matomy in JUSt a few strokes.
It SllOUld be a simple form (all oval, a polyhedron. a
pyr:.mid shape, etc.) that is sufficiently rich to suggest
the position of different body parts.
The Geometric Sketch:
Structuring the Whole [roln Sinlple FOrlTlS
To sketch a geometrical model we begin by selecling
a composite omli nf;'-in other words, a $imple
geometric shape Oil which we can inscribe wllatever
po:sc the figure assumes. In this way, tbe work will
pn;scll t from tile start a more satisfactory visual
layouL The use of compositional outlines in sketching
is an efficient method for arranging the subjeCt and
:ldeqll3tely lip rhe pi ctorial space. tlms
hdpillg to organize the demcnts of the drawing so
that tile attention, 31l d the focal point of the
drawing, is whcre
v.'C \1I31lt it to be
'nw IJ(lSis if r.''''''y rtlm'(1
I'I'lIflcri'lJ: of Ilw f't"J't' is ,br
""dcrs,.,,,,liug if ils
Thr It"",,, ,, 1mIj' in i,s
w/",,,rttU: wpresrnrmi,," ;s
madr "p if 51""'1';£111,
rrliudriwl, aud ",rhog''''''/
suti,rf'S. Thest' 51"'1"'5 aJl' ,br
Joul1dm;(JII Jor drmvi"g t/ir
eXIJ'e,,,ilip.s,/w,,d, "lid IOTStt if
tllc /xJdy r"angl'S posi,;"", ,,/I
1'-" /"'tIf' 10 da is adjHSI r1w
poillf af ,';nlt of ilic rcamtg!cs,
m lJeS, Qr q limlm.
The Essence of Synthesis
Once the compositional outlinc is complctc, v.'C add
new gt:omctric Sh 3JlCS [0 dcscribc each part of the
body: an oval for lht, head. a rectangle for the thor:l x,
cyl indt·rs for the arms. a trapezoid for the pel vis.
Gt'Oml'tric shapes contain the essence ofsYll1ht·sis.
The goal is to combi ne simpk forms which
thc form as \vdl as thc pmponiollS of thl' All
ofthl'Sf: geometric fit;ures are arti culated amollb'St
by observing the straight li nes which
ddine the height ofthe and the tilt of thc
hips. and the curve that dC5Cribcs the backbone.
which, as we know, is not rigid, but rather produces a
tipping of the ischion and the hips. and a rotation or
spin that allccts thc orientation of the head.
Geometric of thc drawi ng
a:;; an articulate wholc that can be developed
simulcml'Ollsly in all of ill; parts, and in whiel, no
single pan is more important than any other.
As an au:tl"iliary
systl'm. you can
uSC a .... "Q()(f(.'tl
mO(\cI that you
can PO:1SC hO\n .. ... 'Cr
)":Iu lih. ' Illese
models are b>Ood
for practicing
I " Q grtJ/1U'lri((l1 "prt'Sl'''Mlio.! of
Iht j"'JJlQI! body, "hslmlliG"
fl"",/d "'""",... ,"'Iii "'I'tlOli,,,,
QJ " flgr," ,"<Ilk "" rllfirrir <f
si...,,u·T pHIS. VIII, by /ill"', 11,1'
boJio ",ill ' .11' iot(gn" rtSNtJJr
oWs 01 JPht'rn <lim ",ill brr_
.Mrt flo;"". r:cpm.Ji'"
JI, .. ct",n.,
or thl' :un:1l CUf artist, the b'Comctric: skt' lch of a fi gure is seldom an
Illsk; 11 0111'thckss. it can bt' simpli fied by followi ng a few tips. To begin,
thl' bl"st to do is try m SCt' the fi gure lIS whole and not in
such :IS dl t' posi tion of the feCI or the shape of the hair. Only after
drawing the gl'llcral outline of ti l(: model , when the problems of form
have been OVt 'rcOll1C and the proportions are approximately corn:cl . sho l11d
WI;:' address thl' deuikTo llIakl· a geometr ic sketch IS to understand thc
drJwi ug an articubtcd whole, .. 11 parts of whi ch can dll:n b(' dc\'elo pcd
sIIll u1tancously and of which no pan is more important than any other.
Proportions and Background
A fi !,FUI'I."S proportions be harmonized with
of Iht" background. to make that
Wl' adjust the to the back!;ruulld in a natllnl
marmer, and avoid having lhe of the
cut ofT a pan of the becausc we didn '{ clwck
t h l ' Illt'lIsurt: lllcnlll Wt' can
stain the blank using a p3per stul1lp--also called

JJtoforr a"y
s.,"'",etn'{ sk(ul" it is
1",1'''''''''' 10 11,,,,hl'$l.u tilt
fis"", la IT)' 10 ill(l14dt tilt
l lu .. ",lhj(Or1ll II';II,i,ja
JimJHt /lfY"IIrui( jO",I .
Cromtlrir.fo,nu <1f'!' ' /MtI
jOf tlJIIlroIU"g rml1C,'imU.
a IOrtiIl Oll --() r wit h om tu limit the space
that the figure wi ll occupy, Thes!! ini ti al marks are
guidclint'S that suggest the posit ion and dllll(' nsi()lls of
each part of the body, as wdl 3$ t il e IOlall rnb<th of
thr modd. The sketch includ('s a
clicuial ion ofthl' figure's pmporrious. which should
be reflected in Ill(' outline.
A t"rtillon. or
L'"."n a charcoal-
staine.I dOlI!. b
an excell ent 1<101
for Ilral·ticing
sket ches. 11
pro.luCC!s soil
line. that an: ea)y
1tf1 -r I
A gcwlll'lrif d.ylt:/, lOll/ira a Ji,npl .. f,...,t",ml ,,';11, d(fuill'
JIK>ka. ' K> ""'II (Cllr"'''lllr "" II" J10K ami Iht IlrCp«Iictu
c"d fowt ell fir, ;"''" Mt4ib if II,.. fifOll r (A). 'n/(' pi;/e-
tlm,,,,uS J/,c<./d br a fotJffl p.rlim;",,'1 orJ!ff'"II/<JI",II
" if 'ht model ",Ioiflr 11Ii1l1tf!/p UJ 10 cd"lII(t IOfI'IJ, d
--... IIIC" dnci/cd, d.-jill il i, ,, CII //;,II' (8).
TheVertical Lines of the Body
The fir.; t thing we must do before
sketchmg is lIlake series of llJarks
indicating the to
which we cail refer throughout
the enti(C sketchi ng phase. Qne
su(Cfire way to begin your
. ,.
drawing is to find the line of tile
shoulder.; and the head. It is
usually t'wer to draw from the
top down. From there we will
work downward through the
• r·
-I .. ....
... ,..jrt: .... ,..
bod)" drawing syntht'tic shatx-s 0 11
a standing surface, paying special
anemion to the vertical lines. Wt'
should look for directions and
rhythms and sec them as abstract
Verifying Dimensions
Drawing freehand allows us to
\'\Tify thl' precision o h he
drawing's proportions during tht'
early sketching phases. When
drawing freehand, the pencil
should be Ildd vt'rtic:.rolly with the
arm extended before the figure,
with the fingertip at o ne end and
the tlnll nb measllring at the other.
TIlis will help you confirm the

, .
proportional relationshi ps of the .I .
real model From these I ..
ml'aSlI re1l1ents we can draw by
transferring those proportions l'
onto the paper. Once the sketch IS
done, we once again place t1u,
peocil over it to m:.roke sure that
the proportional relationships ! . -'
between the different parlS'of the • ' ....
modd art: correct. )', .' N. rI ''J"


Awcilial)' li''''1 ta" ",. ' lJl'd
,PI ..... dmwi,'S " gromnril:
s""pr, JUlh /IS _ Iital
ami af
Nflitl. KrVn /IS au u:iJ a"d
rail ",. " Jed tJS a rifffttttt
poim /a rot""",r disl"'lfes.

I. .
• ' •
.. ,

,,' .,
' .


' .

fl ..... :'
.. ,
• '. r'
I r'r
.J ( I
'l'J : j'
"t '.
rawi ng is one of the most intel1..'Sting
cxen::ises for an artist to practice, because it
Cl.'1lters oll r attention on the foml's limits and
providl'S a focus that we can concentrate on
regardless of details, lonal values, or modeling
The rollIO," $iw,,/d be ou <!IJ/omorir,
f\'I'$lmal drowiug, (OIu£n,cd 1,rillloril), wilh
II", f,">",,,,1 dilmlCl(T oflllC ,node/ mid ils
('xpt1'$5;Oll mlher Ihau ",;Ih IIU orarouu-,
ptrj'tdiootiSI mulrriltg.
Met hod
Tile best way to pr:Jctice drawing the contour is to
lake a fine point pencil and start drawing the profile
of a figure from a detl'rminate point of vie-v, without
taking the penci l off pagl'. The line should be
unbroken and continuous, without ernSl1 res,
overlapping lines, or tremors.Your eyesight should
follow the contour of the fi guTC while the pencil
works on the page, responding to e:ich of your
thollghts. When starting on the contour or inner
silllOuettc of a new part of the body such as the
Ilands or breasts, yOll can refer to the drnwing in
order to find the point at which the new comOll r
should begin. Continue in this way until completi ng
the contour of the figure.
FOlllty I'lUp<Jrtiom are 'rp;(O/;II IIIB '1'1Jl" of
d'<!Ivillg, bllt ,vilh prafl;cr, tl' f at/iSI will
<lI"'ltl;re., Ioo$tr, morr rolltrollcd /iue.
A Great Disa ppointment
I, is very likely , hat your fi m attempts at this type of
drawi ng will prove a great dil;.appointlllem. Don', be
discour.tged: keep ill mi nd that this method requires a
great of pract ice. O nce you have gained more
experience. you wiU be able to vary your speed
according to your reactions, and your line will be
more fi nn and de<;isive. T he imporum thi ng is the
experience that )"Ou acquire while pr.lcti ci ng this
eXttCise. Once you 1lU$[er the ability to symhesize
using this technique. you will be able to make swdies
and sketches in the studio from memo ry. and WOn't
miss having a lIlodd to draw from.
Line Control
To achie\lt'" an interesting line in a study, the artist
mu\t use either a ver y fi ne instrument or a ver y thick
one. In ei ther case, you have to work quickly, and
foI.low the subject's forms with a continuous line.You
can usc the til t of the pencil or gn.phi te to modulate
the lint'" by altering the 'width of the stroke. A 1l1arp
penci l produces a sensual, fragile drawing, whereas
gnphite. which has a thicke .. line, will yi eld a more
intense, energetic drawing. The result should be a
sati!;factory, uniform line that provides all the
inron nation )"Ou need for obtaining tht model's post
and anatomy.
1M gmpl1ilr pmril is if 1M ffl(OSf
lOll''''''"1y "JI'd "'fdia for .. ,nking Ii,,,,
drawing1, "'" liltlt br lilllt, 1M bdl-pcilll
pI'Il htu f ormd a Ilifl lt IIInol!fS
1rotll'rofissiolUJ ""im ,Imllks Iv Ih, fillt,
ill/row, mId It.lfmiw lillrs 11u" il
Sr"lllel'" (OI/lOllri. !,g is ,,..rr 'lSiful for
lIlakilJS quick J/,uJits, wm:" 1/",
ionmcJi(J()l iftht
moJrI ..... (ll" p"'",i"",.
Gmphilt P"'"'s IMI1'
fXptcssilll' 111/10, (l pmril
mooe f TP11l /Ile S(lm{'
Ill(llm(lllH"rmuf il
provides lillcs pf /I
grr'akr mllgt if wid/hs
muJ ilttl115i,i,s.
A eKercise
ror li"e
d .... wing 10 Iry
to render figure
with , ingl e line,
without limnt: the
le3d rn >lll the
p3pcr. as ir we
.... ere drawing the
figure's "rome
with 3 ullgle
!'ieee of yarn. TIus
hd ps U$ dl ... -.: lop
.g'h& VIRTUES P/'


he best way to approach a figure and the probleJll.\ of
representation t h:l f it entails, is through the practice
of making studies of 3 model. Smdying t he figure based
on a rough sketch is a for m of constant learning and
perfecting for the artist.
A Minimum of Lines
In a of a model , you should situate the prinCIpal
lines with a minimum of snokes, with no concerns over
whether the resulting drawing looks unfinishtd. Doing
studies is a val id pract ice in itself and needn't be' justified
by a later work. The grace and spontalleity of studies
hav(' been apprecIated by professionals and amateurs ali ke
throughout the ages.
TIle T it ne Fact o r
Quick studies are notes taken ill the shono[ time
possible. Wi th practice. the lund becomes more
assured, so du! it learrl!i how £0 find
solutions to any anatomical
requirement.'fhe leisurely,
inconsequential tone of a quick
study makes It Clipcciall y
appealing. Often it
becomes a series of
small shows of dexterity
and visual sh:upnes,<;, On
thc odlcr the easiest
$lUdies t o make are those
for which the're is no time'
limit at all.
Yo", lkr'ullbfloks II/mild ".. foil if U/r<n,
QI,d doodl(!f Il-;/h " " "PP"tn" oroer, ".".
any gool Grhn IlulII 10 Ci1f"liIt {o>rccpts olld (';I:rrrist
)'til" s/,r>,",-
T he Use of Ha tc hing in a Study
In a >; rudy, til l' SkClcll bo;: light, never o\'I.'rdollc.
It i. 1lt."Ct. ... s;' ry to find blend oflighl and shadow
Ihat compOOl'l' the wi th its csS('ntial d el11cnts.
An ill SistC1J(T 011 hatching is 1I problem that
afflicts IIIcxpcrienccd artists, l11:1king Ihdr (lnlwi ngs
mnfu>; mg. If you work III graphi lt\ it is sufficient 10
nuk,' a Silllpll', hUIllC>gent."Ous g ray hatching; if using
charcO;tI, Iry darkemllK tht." areas wi th a
6ngt:rtip smint.-d with charcoal.
"'''r f"rpt11f' <f" muir is ' 1(>/ te, look II fiuislu-d
dr;nlli"x, bill '" sl .. "" 1M (,..1",11>1' 'f '/,r fil:""" /1 . lr",tI/f
{mlSfl/l"" "lfil"I",(/"""'.for III"'" d"/><l m" d'llIl1i",'(.<. or
J'T II swdr ,Ylllr
Tlw Imlclting .111 SIUdy
l'lmll!d III' lIIilli",,,I. " i$
slIfflfinllln dij/;' ,r""-,,,r
llit l' l'a(lr,/ ilfr<1S fir IIsiug
II sill'plr,gmy IWlrhill,(!
""",ill l' I Ilt r III/lilr ifll,r
•• !A,ill, R'pmmls I/Ir

i {I
II' I'
• •
Iv r the bcgimro;: r
iT i. good
(O "llIke
["hoose model
who ;'\11', 100
Ihin. A
model i.
to d ..
dcmaud_ s realer
c)(pc.ricnCt' on the
pari of thc "";$1.
HtII{/!i"S wilb rmll'tfP/p, /t'rs 1'''' '1"ickiy «lIn
parliNI if II,,' IIrG,/d IG ,,,,,uI' IIIHtI ill
HUml{rJ tlrmi/J,
7111' i'lSlnmomlS for I/wki'/j! !wdin W(IIt/d III' 1iJ.:/,t .,,111
,,,,,,,,bh-, 1111 II Idea 10 olll"')," mrl")'"
jn l'll'" p«J.",

n figure drawing the mastery arline is very important because.
besides defining [he c;om;rcte {;on(ours of volumes
neating 3 scn.<;e o f direuion or vital impulse in the drawing. it
creates tensions and particular cadt..'flces of the
figure. A knowledge ofthese dynamic gives [he figure a
sensc of COIlt.1incd motion and a rhythmic that C:lll be
of great compositional and interpretive interest. Thus, figures
appear to be described by a str.mgc equilibrium dominated by
action, in a constant emwined 1ll00ion and violent inflections
time alC propelled by a force that, al though sometimes
overwhelming, gives meaning to the post' and unitt's all of the
linear elements of the figure.

hydun is an important concept in drawing, taken from the
world of music. As in music, it is created by alternating
between accents, silencts, and neuml pasugcs.A pose has rhythm
when it is harmonically dynamic, full dyrumic alternations. The
distribution of these alternations determines the attraction and
intt'mt of the drawing's rhythln Accents in a drawing are the-
a\ttt;ltions of its continuity; for example. a diagonal inlerrupts a
vertic.alline. and vice versa. A static, symmetrically positioned
figured is the of rhythm.
The Line of Action or Strength
For a figutt to attain an impression of equilibrium and rhythm. it is
Ilt:Ces.sary for it to have an ifl[ernallinc, an imagi nary linc that extends
across the Icngth of the figure. in oruer to articulate ill; rhythmic
effect. This structunlline. known as the line of action, should be the
bam for any dnwing of a pose or movemcnt. Working with lines of
force allows us to approach the internal rhYlhm without the ftgure
becoming unbala nced. When constructing a pose. it is preferable to
first exaggerate the line of force and then take it to a more realistic
position; thus, we endow the figure widl an energy and Illot ion that
would probably not be perceptible in a rigid. conventional pose.
111 " bock I'ieu\ ,Iv
illlfl'nal rlryrJllfI
is rlmrl" /fu,jll.R"'s/rcd
by t/ir /jilt: desaibi"g
rl,e badlbotrt •
• 1M rl'ythltl is 111<I.wd by 1111 immw//ille IlulI s1''''/!.
11K bc>dr fmtn I, tad 1(lliw ftc' muJ (01/1'1'1'1 rl,l'
,,/IllUde if tile 1"'Si' or (I( /i"" rarricd "Ill by rl,( fii!."re.
n,js imag£ slwws /I slTirs if /l/IS/lbJe wa<>6f11 .. wdlls
/lkmgsidr tlwir ("'rtSp".uJillR myl/""ir lilln
The Expression of Gesture
In order to capture the rhyt hm of
a figure, it is essential to learn to
dr:1w its gesturc.Yoli r drawing
rJlOuld be nuid, like a doodle,
capturing the internal form of the
figure and reflecting its intentions.
Mter drawing the line of
strength, attune the gestures of the
drawing to each otller and capture
the essellce o f the body: don't
allow considerations such as the
figure's contours or measures to
confuse YOll . The drawing should
be quick and interesting,
preferably with no consideration
given to the contours or forms
outside the figure, attuned to its
rhythms through the gestures
COIl\'C}ed by your hand.
TIw lim; of actio" is the imagi.",ry rl'yllrmi£
UHf IIUlI fpatlS lire 1",'8'/' of the fw",t 10
,-lUll' tlU! tjftrt" """iot •. / .. tl" Jel of
modrh NIOII; lhi. /iJl e is mooified l'llCo,diJl8
10 rlw acriD" ~ i f O f m f d by the body.
I f we furce the
rhytlunic line of
the body, it
assumes a nlOre
forced tomon,
which mlnslates
into a more
W71fr1 HUlling" gtvIIU'lm
skrcl" it is NSfJltiallo"
into atUJUnl tM ,Iryt/lm of
the figure. 1k my/hm will
N lkstribfd by CIiTIIt$ ami
qlluk strokes marking the
inlf>Htion if Il, .. body.
he' rhythm of a line and its modulat ion is an
importam value in figulT dr.iwing. An inlctt'S1 in
the fon ru of a nude should be by the
chOlTm of the linC' strokes. This expression
demands some C'xagger;arion, or even
all of whi ch are completely leb<1tilll3tc if they
iruclIsity the visual quality of the \vork. T he'
d lllr:tCteristics of a line used 10 defi ne a contour can
transmit the l1:tturc of the [oTm, its materiality, surface
texture, and visual charge.
Descriptive Contours
Descriptive lines art" those whose ollly and
function to drscribe the profi le of forms and their
\'[)lulIle$. These lines arc responsible for the styli7..:ltion
of the forms that v.-e have- prt:viously discO\,'('lTd , and
they rdlect dIe u ri5ts perron.1l l visio n and stylistic
essence'. contour develops an authent ic
creation and organizat ion of anatomical form.
l \lnr" It(l/ 1"I'SI ally SIIm..'I' ",ill 11",
"nl(./it'l' /i,/tj bt'lcoW Irft rtpn'$Ctll tl)(' mMI rommOll stroJ,.·('J
' WI*" artists-lilt')' art" brot'ftl <l/tlllll'S'-'aHl. l1tr
fou, 00' ,III' IIII' ki .. ds ifli,tC'1 alllalrll, amSIS maIM
uri,,,. jar:fi,."., bill mritd III tllri, ImmSlfy autl Iititlmtll.
I (
, ----->
,. _---
Drstnl";'''' ...,.""',, is r.\-ptmnI &y a """ IIIIICUS lilll" SI.w.'t'
Qtulltas a pmt'/y rornpomlw,,01 jiluJill'. /1 fimtlWtIS itf n
p,tt'ric sI. ... ,tlt tkst:, ibiui! III( pn!fi1r if I," J'Rmr II1i,I,....,
"1!,<ffff jiw ils uvI""'l" (md 1I,oo,/i"g.
Modula/cd Jtrokts I!{frYI /lrr df1,tlt iftllr lillI'S. "I1,c;/
Ihi(lmcss ""irs rlrpl'lldluJ: ,}II "",WIlier llie mra /)('IIIJ:
1$ ill liJ:/rt a, sltarl/!'U'.
0.101' )'011 Iw,'t pmnitt with d!tforrll' ki", /J.f
JIniTs, )'1111 williif' oUr /0 ,"Mlliall' ,II,. li,U' til$i'y <!J )'A'
d""" MMII/oli,,!! 1/11' .mir 11 ...... 11 <ury";",!! flu> ,,,em,,,' fIt,d
thirl...,1nS iflll( ,j"l' tmWt/j,'E /0 r/lt',rfft!s if thl' d,m",,,!!. iI,
lIftltr t .. dtwilot' rlU' wlm".. if,/,r jig"" ""d ilJ '!WI
liS"ifK"''' l(>tllll rlllllt(!n..
Ajillf' js IIl' MrS Os.wr;old will, r/," I,.rml« ti1i!llll
"" "'1' flJZ'If"; i, to/III'S nJ 110 mrp.;se, Ihm,li'iI' "filiI' /'"(,
""S "led /0 muir. 1/,(, 1"4i1r if ,IJr
A Ihid.: lill" 1t'/'ri'll'rr/s" grmlcr .. ,,(r if I IIlU/"II' mill,
rllIlS, II!I',kf {I ""ul, ",0,.. .tlji";/;,,,, /rrKf', w;, I, <1
gt>,rro,u SIrc!'(.
Contour Intensity
If a line is tht' same consistency throughout, it
encloses the nude too coanely, ;md to express lhe
nuances oflight :tnd Sh3dow. A drawi ng rendered in
soft linL'S should thick lines with finer ones.
Fi ne li nes suggest a lightt·d art'a, whil e thi ck lines arc
perceived as describing shadexl pans. You can
emphasizc a line by rt'tracing if to give an illusion of
depth or create shwows. If the of the linc is
and fhe tracing is agile. the line will have
'Suffitient appeal that it will only require a fe-. ...
additions in ill> h:uching .

Line and Synthesis
Drawing in li nes is in large part a synthet ic
exercise in selecting contours. Linear symhl'Sis play:;
3n important prKtic:11 role whell dr.\wing fhe human
figure it allows us to quickly n:nder a figure
in a spomancous attitude at 3ny time or pl ace. A
s}'Iuhcfic figure or scene contains aU the necessary
information for the viewer to rccq,'TlilC the figure's
different actions and b'CStUIl.'S, capturing tht· gnee of
its motion.
For If bmf' .",dmlm.d"!I: ef"/(' lm.Ycdl"f,; (l!WJ, roll$ldrr
'his drf/d, '!r ,/rr smnr fif.ll.rr, III whi(J/ liglo,rr/ ""d s""ded
11,...11$ art' d .. mly IJif[rrt'II,ill,rr/ Iw" If""""J smy ""u/""s.
An "'1l)'
, - .. , - '1 of mastering the

soli line is to dnow
. the sinlOl.lcttc of.
figure without
taking into a count
7,/ iu solidity or an)'
r otht ... internal
I'rojeaion. Follow
the OUl er edge,
ignOfing what b'OCS
on ill$ide. The
or the
o.;on!Our d r.winG is
to :lChie,·c .. n e"lICt
bctW\.'CIl the what
the e)" 5t'('$ :0$ ;t
rOll(lw$ the
of a fi:.'n' and the
]illc the hand draWl
to repfeSenl il.
oI umr
If a fi gure is li ghted powerfully, it can be sketched
with spots of color, with hardly any lines at alL The
should be a synthesis oflight and shadow. of
ligln rd areas whi ch we Ieav'e blank 011 the page and
the that we stain using cll;lI1::oal or a piece o f
chalk laid full . This process omits the details
altogether, but incl udes the spc.:ctrum of middle grays.
The limits of the shadows a« also as good a reference
a'i rhe linl'S of a box-skcrch, pan icubrly in models
thaI a wdl· defincd outline whose contour
prcsenlli a dear C0l1tr:l51 with the background.
A jiw , /lOIs an' j .!/flliml for Ihr
h"",nll "''''/(lfII)lfj '"" """,/ It> shaM
quu-kl" ' j/f' (an uS<' ,ht t/cwic J?WY Muhi.rg.
",hkh if JII'f'uhn if pmnIld ",nth
J""" ilK' 1(I[/Jlrd "'MS nrt Itji bI""k,
wilh oolf1r "'I')' lilla or mtnlu.
W""", liN' fiR"" 11M JlUfI'p lOtlll<l$lS
ill fig/I', i, mil br Jknt/It'd ",.,h Jp<'Ii
IIIJ'toQ r{ /i,1n, III mil l if 11N'1l' II1m'
l'lIJI'S spoti .w.k /0 l/",pt· '''l
"I¥Ollltl(t ,md post' if f!R"""
In a rough sketch, hatching ean be
madc with a motion that mimics
your first. tentative lines, lCtlkving
l preliminn y tonal and 1l1odelifl8
intention.T he strokes ean be
dt:cisive or Shlley. This techni<Jue
relates the construction of
shadows to the expn:ssivt: lll'SS of
the stroke. so il is linked with
calligraphic muters closer ro the
realm of wri ting. This a1l0\\l5 for
much gll:ater gestural expression
in a sketch based on h.;uching.
Drawing with Water colo rs
A good way of setting up the
drawing il; by practicing tonal
w.ltercolors. Before starting the
drawing itself, we place the modd
in fronl of l single source of light,
lX:C:llIse shadows become
confusing if there an: several
sources ofl ight at one hllle.
&.forc: hatching, we can lightly
draw the outline of the fi gure in
order to have a tempbte or
guiddine for working. TIlen, U!iing
a flexiWe brush. we quickly and
nimbly apply dark watercolor on
the areu of the body that are
shaded, preserving the white of
the paper for the more brightly
lighted n e a . ~ . You will hlve to
forsake any intermediate tones:
precision is unimportant in this
drawing, so don't waste time
repairing forms and outlines.
3. rinally, we can add a few
strokes deuiling the structure and
prolile of the figure. The line
strokes combined with the spots
give the drawing greater
consistency and solidity. T hl'Se
Slrolet.'S were made wi th a pencil
the same color as the Spots.
1. In these three sequences we
shall see hO\v to practice sketching
with spots. First, using a tortilloll
or a conon ball lightly stained
with chalk, we draw the shaded
parts of rhe model on the paper in
a highly synthetic, simplified
manner, leaving the lighted :P.relS
2. The tones th.u serve as the basil;
for the sketch are 1l00V complete.
The series of SpOts traces tht'
structure and pri nciple ma.sses of
the fi gure and providl'S information
about the localiol1 of the light
"As paiuters, we seek to usc I/le motions oj tile bod}' to
sl/ow tile motions oj tllc soul ( . .. ) 'DillS, it is mldal
rl/at painters have a perfcct knowledge of the mot/oIlS oj
tile body and learn from nature in orner /0 imitate,
however dijJiwlt it may be, file IImltiple motions if the
soul. "
Leon B a t t i ~ t a Alberti: '/ lIe 'l1m" Books <f l'h;IJ/;"g, ]435.
. , £ .
. .. ,. I l ;
. I 'it' .
. ;;$" '
~ 1
here are no limits to the possibilities for creating imercSling, striking
poses. Capruring the energy and dynamics inll crent in the mood
depends in great measure upon the artist's dlOlce of pose and gesture. When
speak of gesture we refer not only [Q the or the
features of the face, but to the entire body. Every person has a parti cular \V3.y
of walki ng, sitting. posing, and manifesting herself physically; these arc the
unequivocal marks of her person, and we call these marks gest ures. The
gesrure of a figure transmits lIS way of being alive, its action. By defining the
expressive angk':S and directions of the body, we can capture the essenti al
gesture of a pose, implying its intention and energy in a natural way.
.o/f;',' POS E
he equilibrium orthe nude is a vcry import:lnt L1Ctor-t hc
verisimil itude and slabi lity of thl' composition dcpclld on it . Evcry
Ill"V pose p"-'SCllts a different problem to be Mlh-cd ill its compositional
The Stability or the Figure
The t-quili briulll or lh(' pose is an important f.1 ctor when drawing a
fi gurc. T lwrl· arc limits to 110w much a hU1l1all bcillg can tiit to 011(' side
or another withmll falling over. T ilt> task. , 111t.'n. is to CQllt roll hc stability
of t ht' fi gu re so that it dO\;s not appear to Ix· ' idli ng to
all<: of its sides. The (lll l'Stion of equilibrium is
!lot a problem i f the fib'U!T scated or lying
down. TIl(" risk of imbal ance OCCIi Tli when
ti l<' nude is standing. part icularly ill poses
that involve any violent 1ll0\'cmcnt in
the Ub'1lrc. ln [his type of llose,i t IS
possible to become disorkllt cd and
lose the horizontal axis. creati ng an
appearance of instabili ty.
A f l"nlll r,ri{/ll m"'fK'S-;"Nr / !1Nrllff J:'f'I1'"
slabilily 11"'/ IlIIlmU'l'. III otl;SI;'
symlllrlry .In! ht-1)('!(rrI. "I111" 1II0S1
mll/lII,lI' miulillll is I" dir,.,J{/(f' Illl' dim:lioll if
Il,r Ilroo Of of rh ornu 10 tlIl{'ir/ 011
if WIlli
"nt .. lillt" if J!fI1I.11r
J/1II11J IIIf' INIj!II. if lilt'
jl$!mf' jiPIII "'11 h>
botIOf,I,jmw lilt I I("(I/ I<>
IIIf' Ionyo of ,I,f'
s"I'IJPrt;'1j! 1f"R, on rllllilk
11,(' "'1*111 '!f Illl' IlOdy
III a 1« 1/ "K'''' oj n 'lUdt, lilt li,l<' (tml(d Ily
'11r bnrklJPllr {/III /J( ,,;cd <If " " a..:ir trf
J)'mml'''}" olln""'1J! IIJ /11 bninll(r 1/",/KIf'.


Firmness o f the Feet
The matter what pose it aSSUlIles, comcs
into ("ontact wit h a Stlp(lOrti ng surface through one or
bOl h feet, tile or the TIll' manner ill
which this conn c! is produced expbins the support :tl;
well as Ihl' cohcTl'Il("e of Ihe pose through
tquilihn ullI, so the entire lxxIy should appear
coheTCnt with to Ihe position of the
txtrcmitics. A frequem error when drawing sCl ndil1g
figun.'S h that thl:y do not appear to be touchillg tht""
!':round, and look as though they arc float ing or
The Cent er o f Gravity
A ratioll al IIl l'thad of the e{111ilibriullJ of a
Ilude's pose to find its cemer of gt:l vity. Tl1C center
of gr.l.Vity is found ill the abdominal for
standing fib'llreS, or :1.1 the base of the spine for a nude
vil'Wro from till' back. To check thl' stabil ity 01 the
figure, all Olle has (0 do IS imagine that center of
gravity and extend an imaginary venical linc from it;
if tht" line diviclcs the arca supporting olle or both of
the feet. the fi gure has a good e<]uili briulll; otherwise,
titt f('prt."Sent:llion is imbabncccl and the nude is
un:tble (0 support itself on its feel.
[11 a flat and in a fiunt:ll view, the
hllrnall body SllOWS a series of visible corrt'spolldell cc5
:md thllt (he fl!,'lITe 1I b'1"cat scnse of
conlpcns.1tl-cl l'qui librhllll. For this anlilysis, (he most
important linc is the o ne [hat di vidl""S the hurn.:m
6gure in two when vlewcd from lit e front.

A fn.'<Illcnt
mismkc that
M tiUJ
Ilr:lkc is It> til t the
figure forw"rd. To
m'oid this
miuake, you have
to project tm, lin ..

_____ __ -,J uf gravity omo
the sko.·tch.
To ",/"',,,r 1I11'f"II-bIl/a"rl""fwuc,
;"'JI"'/allT 11111/1/11" l)/lsi/iIl" IIJllw I?!s Ix-
(a.w;",;.'.': I1mlllll1l Ilwfirl 1".fi""I),
JIIIII'''''l"d..", 1111" fj" ... ,akr II,,.,..
ju' on ;mp <11"(.'",,, ;11 //tr skru/" 1111" ,nt <1
t"t hutr 51It'll1d appro' /",/a'I(NI.
"l7tr /i"1" g,m,'y 11/1<11, ,, 'IS Ie> rmllrol,l,.. ("q"i/ib,;"", "f ,/,t"
/" II,r.fim ,(I$(', 11,f' /ill l" if J,:1Il1.;I)" ill ,rtl,folls OI"$i"r ,f tilt
fioN slll'l'llr/ilt;t.: 11,(" l 'llSr, If) al'l)/,ilr1 ;"'M/I1I/ll"d rl1).
On 1/11" Mllrr IImlll, if foils illlmlll pflllt" /i", if ):IIl,·i'J·. (IJ
S/'Ollll illlllr tim,,;)!\.' br/llll : it ",ilium a,l/}('a( ;1II""II1I)rrd (1J).·l1or
rqlli/iitrilllll oflllr ""dl" ((111/>1" ,rrifil"dlry Jmll';,,!; Iltr 1'f'Ilim/lj"r If
gtm';l), alld t lt«k;'1j! """"/WI il plls ",jl/,ill Ilrl" /lim 41ltr Jm, .
SIIl'JlONiug fl.t" flt",r (C}.
hether the sketch is static or in Illotion, it is
to draw the 6gure from different
points of view and walk around the fi gure it as you
Every point of view offers the opt ion of a
different pose. Drawing the fi g\l re frolll the front ,
from the or in profile impl it'S a different
technic:!1 and psychological tedlll[{lue.
Studying the Pose
Ikforc drawing a nude. the an ist must consider
which 2lipectli he wana lO develop in his work: linc,
hatching. color. chiaroscuro, movement, etc. Certain
poses allow one to develop some of these 2Spt' Cts
belter than others. as we haw aln'ady said. II is
interesting to obseT\'C: the model from different points
of view and walk amund the figure as }'Qu sketch.
The best exercise for determining the focus is to look
at the scene as a around the model.
cho()sing the most {'xprcssivc and effective angle,
Every poim of view constit utes a different
Technicall y, every pose requi res diff .... rent
with a or k-sscr role assigned to dr:lwing,
color, or chiaroscuro, "
77M' firmrlll vift,' is anlOl Ig fhe mllll a flmcri l)t 10 aM"'; trol
Pllly aM,S il l'mtidt' a view if IIl r JOO', bUI a/rolllal vir", if'
IIII' llOdy l'I'W'IIfS "liifs and drlll;lj f/ wl l/rl' haftl,illg
nom mMrliug of tire figure mrnr illlrn1rillf,l.
til I'IfIftr UI IJnUT ,u,dmumJ modd, r'" IIIWI' /0 study it
fU a and onaIy.u Ut( SQtII(' pcoc}ioo' stl f'mI difJM'nl
poinu (If IIiru; tI'<I/.I.';ng o""md tIll' model 01U1 il
;n ill I'II I;rrly.
The Frontal View of a Figure
To draw the nude from the from implies personalizing
it, transforming it into a particular person rather than a
generic model. T hus, this type of pose more clo5ely
resembles the idea of a portrait. Although the purpose
may nO[ be to make a portrait, the fTOntil view of:l
nude forces the artist to pay serious considen.tion to
the face, and this means endo, .... ing it wi th exprt':SSion.
The Nude in Profile
We could almost $;\y the opposite about the nude in
profile. The contour is the dominant aspect of a
dnwing of a pose in profile: the form of the head,
facial features, shoulders, torso, abdomen, thighs-in
shon, of the entire figure.· rhCU' clements can be
represented wi th a sill gle, continuous line.This does
not mean that the volume and modeling are
unimportant . but dlt.'}' subo rdinate to
the lille of the [I is worth remember ing,
however, that a figure is rardy enti rel y in profile.
Some parts of Ihe whole appear only in a frolllal or
back view, making a three- quarters view advisable.
The Nude Figure Vi ewed from Behind
The back view of a nude, especially the female nude,
is a recurring subject in the b'Cllre 0(imil1l3te figure
dmving. T hese drawings cre:ue the effect of a figure
bring observed by the viewer without her

This impressiou of naturalness pTOVei to be of
great psychological interest. Technically speaking. a
rendering of the or female--can
rile analomy to a degree that it becomes
interesting in its own right.
.,," Jrgtlff! infron/Ill ,,;tIl' mt"im II I!IIIIl'
11nW.1<lI;:ud / U'lItmrnr '!f rhr}xr /Iud II I l..'f'Ir/lirr
mullIJCI! if 11K' rt'S/ citllf" bcdj.: flit ",vdtl in
,,"!fill', en /II(' IWHd, rrqHira" IIIC1I'
d"'llikd /U'"',,,rnl iftllr alll/Cllr$.

1 __
\ )

If we find it hard
tn understand the
figure from
posi tions, \\'C can
usc ;\ model like
m:ulncquin. an
e"ercis<:, il very
10 I'l:t(;c
Ihe dummy in Ihe
SlIm" pose ;t)
live model,
l uming ;t
of if from
different of
tll..,k of rr'l,,;m
IlfrWlInli;rmic" Iml n glrnl dml if
lIloor/i"g w Iwll' drwil" llor ,,,,Iumr!
'!f llof bIIdy.
ftt'11, thc succC!;S of:l pose lil-'1 in its negati ve
in noticing and renderi ng the for m of the
background, the empty spaCt:s surrounding the fi gure.
If we <in\\' Iht! forms oflhc.:st, various spaces, we
also end up drawing the fib'l1rt':, bUI wilh grcottc r case.
We sulve the problem of composition (hus: Ihe spaces
and the arc ullited whell we give equal
impon ance to all the pieces of the puzzle wi thi n t he
that limit the format .
AIl31)':.r.: ing the Counterlnold
T hl' Important thill g isn't dr:awing an an n or t he
position of the.' legs, but rather taking up the form of
lhc.'SC body parts by relating t hl'lll abstractly to the
space- that surrounds thelll, looking for t he Ilcg<ltive
fornls, or (OUlllermo]d, of t he figure. Therefore, in
order 10 unJnsund the forms of the modd we must
know how to identify the fi b" JTe'S coumcrmold.
We SUID,'Cst n very simpl e e xerc ise thnt consists of
reprcscllti ng tht, hum:1II Ub'1.1re in the choscn POSt.' by
dmwi ng t he different chi aroscuro of the shapes
t hat sur round t he model, wi thout using lines (Q give
t he111 their countcrs----simpl y using hatching bnsed on
tr.lcillgs that reduce the cont ours ofthe body. We
reali:le it isn't easy to scp.u :Jte t he fi gure from sp:Jce,
but wi th a bit of concentratio n and practice it can be
II ,!!('<!(f uilly If' nlln/y.u lis,. js Ie' fi'IJ:f"I tI ... ;lIIrwnl jllf!"I
rf ,hr " ",ar l 111111 (()/Ilfmmlr ('" ill l>njilc, d",,,,j,,gjl'O'" II,r IlIllf/tillg
of llw <'I" llIy Ip<I(n ,liar mwlrp II"' j Wlllc.
'n,(" (J1'I,/i((lIj'l/1 .1 /I (f'll/ l lml toid i" II,.. hl1lr" i",f $11Ifl<';S " """,,,()/I
<ifnI fill rmillS, II,,' 00frt';1If' 1" III/,iel, is 10 ""tkrJ«,,.. M IIOIIrl ami
Imfi/f'J h), IlSj"R INI(JI (O"'nul.
" \ ,
Solvi ng Foresho rt eni n g
We propose the foll owing method
a!i the most effeclive means for
solvi ng SOIll!:: particularly di fficult
problems, such :Jli fon:shortcncd
figufC'!i. l 11e only realistic soluti on
to lile problem of fOre!ihOTtcning
is to draw the fi b'll fe just as ic is,
not as one imaginC5 it to be; to sec
it as a geoUlt."tric figure, observi ng
the negative space sur rounding it.
Only dexteri ty and exper ience
hel p one to really sec and
w rrt.'Cdy render a foreshorten!::d
A shoo/d not Iw a "'pn!1tnMIWn of
<In Udnfrdjil!""' b"l nil inlnnttiOl1 OJ IM
f lJlu", wilh I/J,. " mounding spntt, Da,1I
/inN in tht b<l{k,RRIlmd spa" also kIp M
Ihf profile of/Ill' hetUI and s/Jem/den.
"171(' ""piirilli!'ft if ..
ct>.",tm oold if C'1pfrinlly
uJifl' / 1i41C" ,It .. fif(llrt'
prnrllls romplrx prun SUi /'
QJ ,lIPS(' Ii'l' ill"
""'lmpasICL I" 1/1tJt (""1'3,
u'"' will/,y /0 ",wlllizr lit ..
""'ply i"
(xlcl iO!' hI ,mlrr Ie' ro,raf')'
sfIllllI fir,. I)(ISC.
Abo\'e I II else,
keep in rnind die

spaces cOlllaill"d
J,. the figu re.
Iflhey do 110 1
..: malch t he lame
form II. t hose ill
Ihe n:al model,
t he fi gure hili nOl
been i ketdled
COT1't'Ct ly.

ow an arlist me body will determine
which he or she will take in expressi ng
the figure. Among o ther L"1C(On. , tht;: artist wi ll have [0
dccidl' if the drawi ng will haw an obj l..'(:tive,
descr iptive then II':. or a mon: subjective all d Op CIl
T he Closed or Descriptive Drawing
The finished o r dl..'Scr ipt ivc drawing pn:scnlS the
visible reali ty of thl' figure in a way that shows off tbe
Illastery and abili ty of the artist. The radicalization of
the analytical fimction magnifies the finished effect of
t ill: drawing. The profile of <I descriptive figure tends
to be iinl..-ar ami clost-d, iC'Jvi ng no space fo r
improvisation and subj ectivity; it is ii:r niH:d to the
re-creation of vi sual experience. Descriptive drawi ngs
display a constant effort to forsake convent iOIl alld
give gn::ater importance to )lleticulous all alysis, SO
that the dldwings translate into an exact rendering of
the human figure.
A $!.romclri< s/..oelrll
madr wilh dosrd
figurrs fi'OI'idt'S
Jolidfi$!.l' rcs willi
Ihi{k lim's 111111
fI{(rntHatr IliriT
owtlinN aud
I'OI .. nuolfit
Ink produces a
uniform, lasting.
worn-aWlly line
Ihat prm'cs very
atl mcti\'C whcn
rough skcu::hc. of
open figures.
nil' ralllOWr of IlIl' fiJ<."'" is
,,,,,,,lIy dcpirttd fillly in II
dosed dmr,';n$!..AII ifll!l"
"""1"",),, " S u",11 '"
tht' 1iJ<.1Ir /llDlj"lIs DIIIIIl"
bad)", /If(" r/c,,/lr JcJi"Cti,
leovi,,!.: /il/le 10 lilt'
;"'''/<.;11111;011 "f /ile ";l"W<'r.
TI,e rlosed fig"'!' is
1)1'ifird II)' II /inf:llr
Irrlll",elll o;f II,P
Q"tlillc and
rirJ. illierim ",,>drill/g.
It is II,l' (/"5(,S/ I,> a
r/cwiml 01" rt£adFm;(
/ I"('{/I" ,eul.
11" oprnji&"re is" lJidfor roct l};
ingl'll"ity. 11m! ,""tivity instr<U1 ~ f
«adem;ri!m.fo, lIIJ!g(!slion. mt/u!r tl"ln
nltional (ltd..,.
Agtomet,;, skeICh if'ln oprtl /IJ!IU'f is .u"'''l's
suggt'lli .... and SO>Itru-h", ;"dlji"ilr, l1"d should
lock "'ifi,,;slw. ,,01 quile solid.
• ;Y"
l . • ~
.c· .<ii§ .
. . "
,.". -
The Open Drawing
In suggcsti ng thc for m instcad of
explaining it complcrcl y, [he open
drawing requi res a ma rc poctic
treatment . allowing tilt.· spcctator to
romplctc it in her own imagination.
The opcn drawing, through its
brevity and unmt..<Jiacy, can a l ~ o be a
medi um for crystall izing idc-$. It is
accomplished by suggt."Sting ccrtai n
art.-as rather than completing them,
subtracting a fragment of the
drawing for the purpose of
interesting the viewer or drawing
hcr au cntion toward that point and
allow:ing her imagination to deduce
or co mpl etc it. Suggcsting the form
means rcsponding quickly and
spontaneously to the artist 's v:ision
of the Illodel and traci ng thc precise
moment ofthar vision onto the
paper. Naturally, this Illt.'ans that the
artist's compOSitional problem is
IIl On: or koss solved. and thc
geomet ric sketch of the model is
i ln.-ady more or less correct.
Oprn ji$!l</f"S tire cill1miflT;;ud by " "("'"
IIW,IU' .flines ill Ilw lightf'd I!atl, if 1m,
body. $(> Ihl1l Ihe sllf'<: Mlor must I$t"b/ish wI,el"<'
II.r jiglJre rnds and III .. bfllkgroomd begi"s.
A .•
he standlllg figure b'CneraJly (cwe'er problems,
each part of the body can be d early visualized. In C3Sl'S Whr:R
there is a problem with the body's proportions, we can always tum
to the classical law of proportion.
Synunetricft l or Asymmetrical Figures
Representations of the human body an: rarely symmctriclil. Artilits '''''l' 1' /
try to draw the model when it is Ollt of babnce, m .... king 1 motion
its arms, or ill a d<.. '1:CTlIl in:uc position. The frontal, symilletrical vil.:w is
used only in handbooks for studying thc body's proportions and
practicing drawing in general, and is rarely represented Oll[:;i de
this contt'xt .
A Jron/Ill "1" t$ffllilli/m if filL
Jlnndin1!.f ",," t sl,.,,,ld lll'oir/ txlrn;,'I'
f )"!,..,l lry; J}."lttfl,i<nI pmn ilK
Min 10 t1n1ll""' )' 11'Xtb.xJu
than nmJl jc
During the carly
or Icamillg.
it i$ a good
eXl!ttUe to copy
s<:ulpturcs in
pluter, which
diminalcs d,e
problem of color
in the dr..wing . ...
TIle plaster
model is ideal for
practicing form
and the
r l.'J'f"CK'Ilf3 l'OIl of
light and shadow.
Any WIlY if IlIOI.mrall
pmmlnl by rile J/(rnd;"I!
fiJ!Utrt body is dett-r",;rwd by
I/,r COfI1mlw/o. 1(1 tqJmfII l
"'Off! forcfd l"lMS ;1 "'ffu:rs 10
","mll llll'" Illf !I"pe if I!,r Iinl':J
oJ111t' shouldell <!lId llips.
The Contrapos[O
Contraposto is one of till: most
commonly drawn POst'S. T he
contraposto or ischiatic position is
determi ned by and incl ination of
the torso in the: Opposi tl' rure('li oll
from the pelvis. It is so named
because the ishion, a bone located
in the l lpper pelvis, tilts to one
side or the other dependi ng on
the position of the: figuw. Thus,
the weight of the body rt'Sts on
one leg while the other leg
appear!; reiax(.'d, in an atti tude
similar to a soldier at ease. T his
tilting motion of the hips is
U5ually accompanied by the tiltms
of the thorax in opposj rion to the
pelvis. Yoli can put this to the tcst
at home if you like. Stand in front
of a large lIIi rror. Keep your ft.'et
apart so that all of your weight is
evenly distributed, and tht:n rest
all of your weight on your left leg.
You will fi nd that your hipbone
tilts upward at the same time as
the shoulder line tilts down, and
vice versa.
'Ini, brit{ Sl'qumte show tile IlIlIl
nrtisl should follow wilen d""";'lJ! n
figurr in ronlmp<lsln il U "l'rmnry 10
5il,,(11( /i"es if ,/rou/dm and
/llpbol!€ (1). After milking I/lt J!fi""I'lri(
SJwtd" IJrom'd 10 Ihe ()lhn pam iflht
bod); /uqJ;'lJ! in mi"d rllal t/le kn" ofl/lt
IfR Ilull "'We,,', rlit btldyt is
lilim rhl' .'liIer (2). u.stly, ,"'" emst' Iht
SlTutlUmJ IiI!€J lI"d "",dn IIII' muswlm
rdlif synilit limlly (J).
ifll'l' l1Iul /yzr 11i( bo,Iy's skelaoll, u\' fi"d 11101 if IIIl: , .... ij:/II of
liI( body rem on one Ilion Ihe 01/1l'T, Ihc /111'/'0111' line
lil15 10 0111' sidr (1). IVhcu ,I,au';'Ij; 101$0, Itllill" lillJ ill
o1'1'osll( dlf'C(ri,m, mlll;,'X IIII' rolll'''IwSlo P<'silioll (2). ·n.r UI'I1tT
lorx> U dcarly difiurd by IIIC lillc '!i I/Ie s/wuldcrs, ,v/,il,· '''e /1lWr'T
pari is dgilll'd by IIII' li"r of III€ "ip/xme; ",ii/, I"is III milld,
IIOlitr /""" ",illl III( lill if IIII' !.ips. lilt kllers 1Ip/>Cllr 10 IJf III
diff"",'1 (3).
, \

, ,
'nlC c(JI11rapo5lo Is ""I' .fllrr mOSI comm,,,, posesfor
!landi"RflJ!Urt'; it U lilt po5f' Ihlll b",ilks lhe dJect
of symmeny lI"d gl= n crrltli" rl,}'II,m ilJid
mOlIfllICIII 10 I"" body.
, ,
, ..

eated or resting figures ayoy special favor among
amateur artistS. among other reasons bci:ausc: tht-y
present few composi tional difficulties, and the body
scKlolll prl'Scms excessive tel1sious bcousc the
muscular anatomy is relaxed. The bTfCatl"St probl em that
" 'C might encounter when drawing this kind of pose
is foreshortening, but we will bter 0 11.
The Scaled Figure
The Sl'at Cc:\ fib'tll"e involvcs several di(fcrclll
complications beyond those of the standing fi b'll rc; in
iI, the j oints and mt:mbcrs arc flOl shown as extensions
of the body. but as dillCrent surfaces lilat must be
conncCled 10 each other through \inc and shadow. It is
necessary to pay attention to the dorm ohhe joints
and the cxisu:ncc of hidden areas, buausc these will
rc."wal to use where each limb begins. -I
In tht· male figure:, the musdt'S lose their rigid
appearance beGl usc tlus impli L'S hardl y any muscular ,
tension; hen.;, the hatchi ng softens the intensity of till'
anatomical relief. In the female figun.', the brt'aSts
appear smoother, k"li/; tense. Drawing the chair 011
which the modd is seated is not absolutely necessary,
but if you decide to do so. do flot diminish t he
ccntr.al ity of the figure itself and Tftnder the chair only
leaving out the details. ..,
A quklllMy if slln(j,i,'i<! 0 willed/'R"" U 10 tsfo!JIisj, a IilJr (If
trltlra/ lUis II,al dMdf'S lilt body ;11111\1 m,d snllrs II> IlIllnnlt Illt
(If'S('. '1 1"" djffcrelff linN 5"Tmlmdi'W liM' body 10 lO'ify I/lr
tl/i,I,Yllllml nml IIeIWW, d!ffin'"' poj"ts 'ltl ooq"
Sntld tilt' tdSiol 10 dRIll' /:!rrMU(' 1/1(' mtJdtl)
""'Sib "1lptM IIII' ItIOSI ".WmI; JO(ItICIIrtku, 11K')' rtlJ"i"
7 il grmltr ""IIIM oj s..rfocn, mill fcrct IIII' o,tisl
II> dm!!' II'Ililt IIffl2< hiJd.." by bndy.
As WI' know, Slmed fiJ!UrfS pr£Sn11 U41D1
il/'I'I);,,/! Ill"" if proporlion, Jl) diffrrn.1 IfIt lllCds mm,
lit USffl jn ordrr II> skuh il prlriSlfy in/O ",1S;tion. Otrt'
such mrllJOd;s to hq;" willI a poelilllillDfr
dq*,i"" lill 'f till' body Qrld II ... lillI'S if tilt' lripb.>nr
m,4 sho,,14m ( I). TIlI'rI, lilt' Intj;IIr if tilt' U
mttfmrM Qrld lIlt)' illl' skruhd inlD pia« (2). 1llt' J/udy
;s a,mpklftl b), Jmwillg oftw slrnn"mllinf'S a,,4 ,m/yillj!
IllI' mtltOfm" flf lllt' fiJ!U1l' (3).
The Reclining Figure
The: recl ini ng or r .. 'Sting fi gure
COn\"e)'5 :a semc of calm, which
:a\1ows for a mon: n:lalttd focus
than when tht' model in an
lllKomfortabk' positi on. In this
type of pose it is han:lcr to find
vlsual alterations such as
contortioru. nr foreshortening,
b«'ausc L ... ·erythinf! lies relatively
insidc a p.1.ralld plane. In tl us case,
the objects related to the fi gure
dr:lwn can be o f gteat help. If die
figure is lying on a sofa, the
rectangular plane of the sofa helps
1$ to find the TI ght degn:e of
ilKlination in the f("s(i ng body.
In al most evcry drawing of
SCltt'<l or resti ng fi gures, we find
angles or pL1l1 t'S that recede into
space, somt'limt'S very abruptly, so
the point of view implied by the
fib'1.l rc is very important.
1M m:/inin$!/IJ!.II1f' ,.' ru.nJ/mm l /or
b«/t u dlt' 'OOfI ;tI'p"rAAI<I1 JXIM' for <I
1fI(JI/t/, m H"II m 1/"' ,_ ,11<11 rl'qHim
II" 1!,rI't1trJ.1 mm"" tj I,ur and lIw4d'u1!,.
tJ rl" rai;u;' IJ!/IJ:UI"i'" SNI,/rom rJ,r back, "it bacltbont
prr>1"J 'III iU'l'm/ juJl rorulnlll;,,, fIX;S. \lit (till mlllkllll'
pwP;>,'iontlll«alion if di/frrrnl P"TU if Ihr in
rrlllli,>n 10 lliu Ih,t.
QhjCC!s related to
a scaled or
rt.'cli uing figure
can be of greal
help, If the f lgliTe
is reclilling On a
bcd, the
rectangular plane
of tile bc:d ClII
help achic. ... 'C the
cor .... 'Ct degree of
receSliioll for the
figure lying 011 il.
A few .u.rokes a n'
,,'lIoogl1 to
insinuat e Ihe
",pport ing
.!' ... rf..ce.

.,: ..
J' 'ij,1 I
':.-r t
i ........
' ,
, '
,{ P(0SE-- -({lu/¥, ,OTION:
\ ,"'\ \; EXPRESS IVE U N E
"-"'\ - "!to "1,:, t oJ ....
"s..:o.; -.'1;, x ...... .. \, .. t:" ,....
'l' \ it'" ":.. .......... .......*- . D rawing thc figure in motion dr:twing a
' .. , .. l .... -? .... ' living fib'lJrt::· E\'l:T}' 1lI00'(.'1ncm CXpl'nSt"'i
, t.. ": ii-,...... 'IOmething. Thl' of ewry artl\ ! is 10 k ,lfIi how
"- f - to rt:prescnt this 3l"[ iOIl or that To R'present
',- y,JP .: • m()VCment is to undl'l"'SCl nd t lit- group ofbcnds ;lnd
" tI ) 'f" • extensions that take place within a
, .... ; bends alld CXICIl$lOIl$ corR'Spomling to ewry pose.
.. \

• .1 ',' t .. .. : "\ 'a" Drawing t he Muscles
."" /; ,
---..., .. T • ....--... l: - ' jJle muscles an: the dr iving force of tht, body, putting
.. 01""" • t, t"' the figure 11\ action. in motion. Kilowinp; how they
- 'l. '1." ,; J, move is a grr:lt help. because drawinl;': in
- . ' . .. .;... t
. !' . ,"-. tJ."" .... motion means putting visual Illl' UlOry imo
" ... ,""-:',
.. 1 J:t; even wil<.'u the period of tillll' is very brief, The

dtJ(ribn Ihf-
i,ml'f diylhlll.
1 & i
l4I1' clI II
fiR"'" ill mot,"lI!,
WI' I/IUsl P'" ",ide
propo,tillusjo. lIlt
JlIJ..'C' if jrolm"-s'
spm/llm;,y. and
rllyllm', """, if
,willI: so /limns
tlrj"" II;"J! SOl""
pam if IIII' mcdrl .
.'tt :i intcrnting part of drawing thing'! in 1I100ioll is
»:'""-.l) .4 discovering. and k'3rning how to dl1)io , thl'
of that luo\'Cmcnt: the tenst' musdr:s of ,111 athlct(" the
't{'-J. l .i' equi libri um of a ballerina. tht, SJX'l'Ci of a n llll ll' r.Thc
-::-:.<::':J.;' dilTcR:nt muscular tensions arc lIUdCI'SCOI'I.!d by thc
!f '1 :'1" intensity of the hatching.Tht: greater the contraction
'" 0«1 of the muscles, the greater the energy th:lt must be
, ' " 1.i rcpn.'M.'nted by the COntrast between light and
nit t}f«t.{ a It'q<<tlKt in " WI;"', j,mijiN mawJ"1! II snllly.f n
fiR""" in III/' fOOrJI' if prrfi'nn;uc Ill' n";",o. III litiS (tlJt, I"" 1HUl<1g<'
'!Ili,1ft r!luI lilt 11('''''' riff "'plf'U"lJlrd <I.f II SIIffNJ;rlll .{,,,,m l/"'l
de"J(!fISlllvr. /iit tlifft'rr'" Slfps Inkm br 'u",.'" 1""iffllllJillg II
" ,
. ".
tim .... ·.
Deformati o n
When drawing a fi gure in motion,
the artist should gt: t Gl rried away
by die visi on of the moment and
forgt-"l academic considerations.
"lbc ariisl GI ll b'O so far as to altef
the bodY'1i proportions as a
function of 1ll00'Cmenl; increase
the \vidth of an arm or leg,
CXill;b'Ctatc the curvature of die
oock, or suppn."'SS unnl"Ct-s.<i3ry
details. SOIllclime. the trajectory
of a line explains Illudl
more than an accumulat ion of
traces. lf tbe line is lively, it
cOl\veys figure itself, giving it a
more vital gl'UUrc.
Successive Images
Thill technique represents
throut,;h successive
with each figure in a
difft:rcl1l position placed on the
same piane in order to represent
1ll0VCIllCI11 sequentially.
Vanish in g
Vanishing, or the contours
of the fib'Urc. is a common
technique for sUg(,'<.'Ui ng action.
TIle source o(lhis effcct is die
bl urry or unfocused iUlag<-'S seen
in pholobrraphy.Thc dispersion of
Ihc con lOUT imbues il wilh
an cfrCCI of vibr3l101l , movcmClll ,
and displacclllcl1l .
[ II dmwil1gJ
dC'Kribilig 111"''''",
"1(' linl'f if slKngd,
sl HlU/d be PITy
DJWmll'f'; I/If')' (til'
nn! bto tx'W"'ud
,,, gi, 'f' lilt fiJ:Uff' II
if dr!Oflllll y.
Quick. t:nergt'rie
--,----', gi\'C lin:
1I100' e1l10:1l l 10 11
figure. Notice
how a tj uickly
"===",J drnwn
r.lthcr Ihan a
dctll i1t:d.
drnwiug. is better
301 cxprcu.ing
JnO\'cmcnt in a
If 11'1' d""" 1Ii."tI'" in ,,""ion,
;1 is imJX"flll<f UI ,,..00. £('1M
skclf/1t'J s,d tU 11/eSt'. ,<ilI;,-11
mm/I'n if lilt' posilifJlIJ
Illr body III t/,r OOUM
if IlIr
'nrc b/II'If'O "r
u .. Jm.std is
II lItry ""HIIIOI1
I«hniqur for
I"ggtsliliR mofiotl.
Thu I«lIniqut is
lilt' c,,"nffrptll" in
dmu.;I'RP tiN'
ll'llltl" if rlN'

ometimes. when dr.twing a figure, it is necessary [()
draw li nes where there are none, 01", to be more .........
precise. where we do not them. In some sated or
reclining poses some parts of the body disappear fro"!)
view and remain hidden behind the body. Thus, in
order to understand the structure of the figure, we
must construct an imagi nary contour that the
body in order to male the visible limb to the olle
that n:mains hidden &om view.
Advanced artists perform this process mentally, but
the beginner can make use of a dnwing depicting die
line and structure of the figure to understand hOW'
the hi&:kn parts of the body arc articulated. To too
end. it is often useful to dr..tw the model as oit were
transparent, drawing the vit."WS of the body that
felll2in hidden [0 the spectator.
Drawing flit J.gurt Q$ if it wtfI' ImlUp<1l't'" should dont
I<si'W II si!/i. elMn /i .... Ihal (<It! bt tTastd t,ui/y. Onct lht
Slrnduml drawing is Jirl'lhed, Iht lintS of /he Mdt/tn Wy
lhis ItdlniqW is
P JIlIlIyinlllJld
innto' JlnKf.itI' of
pilrts Clln be

. ..rJ--')' % /
Tht most d!lflCM{' pnr1 if IhiJ dFl2Witrg mdlwd ls "'",;;M

ji"ding Ikjlvc points ... 4 lht pla«s Ql which 1M
_ .J!MPl/s COII' rro ",Iht body in onItr kJ produa <I

Studying the Joints
If a figure is nOl in an upQght position, it presents j
several problems of some compleXity, in particular with
regard to the composition of the legs, and especiallY, in
those places that hide other pat;ts of the body (an
unseen knee, a foreshortened arm, a leg hi dds; lx:hind
ili. body). f
When drawing, it is impoJUnt to pay attention.to
the shape ofthejoinu and the existence of hidden r-
p;iru of the body, bec:luse they reveal where elleh pa1j
of the body begins. A good of rendering the ......
structure of a figure when some afiu parts are hidden
from view is to d",w the figure as if it \\o'ere transparent.
Doing so makes it casier to place the hidden parts
within the context of the drawing: we a n thcn draw
\he details o f the dr.lwing within the limits defined by
these lines. This method of drawing requires a
deal of observ.ltion in order ro determine where each
of the lines in the dr:lwing originates. to locate the
joints or flex points. and to note where they come to
rest withi n the structure of the body.
bodit'S, you
ihould uart by
reducing the
figure 10 simple.
spheres., and
1M wmiqur if l ranspattnl dIGwiOW iJ
Ina.. .... o:rrciM jor stwdying the if tM
m(ldcl. arlists also .. il III IIt1 irunprtfM
l i'Chmque or III pari if .. ptf$OMl sfylt .

ne or the gn.-atest probkms in drawing sealL'<i or
redining figures is foreshortening--
I"('prest'nting the hunun figutt" or one of its p::l115 ill
perspective. The art of foreshortening consistS of
representing the human body from points of viC'\\I at
which its dimcmiolls are diminished by per.;pectivc.
Bm fomhonl'ni ng not the same as ordinary
per.;pcnive--there is 110 need for vanishing points or
any of the IIlclhoill cmplo}'t:d in linear perspective.
A1tered Proportions
To approach a drawing of a foreshoncned figure.
we must make a greater effort to adapt the
different proportions of tile' figure on the page.',
because the diffl'rcnt parts ohhe body arc
altlTed considerably by pcrspeCtivC-:1IO arm
or a leg th::u seems to adv.mcc towan:l us, a
hind or a foot in which thc nngen or lOCOS
are perpcndicubr to our linc of sight.
Knowing this, 1111.' artist has a new factor to
consider when choosing the pose best
suited to her intentions.
If " ... hm.... ptrJIJ,,"S dmwillR tl fom'IOfIOlcd
l'rl/in;uKi'S""" lilt kslll,;nK 10 tkI is IIII'
figw"';11 tl hex drau" ;11 IlfflIJ«li,'t. 'f1U! /xrx tu15 ru
nguidt for ",duc"l<1 Iht size "Jlht j,'.ni>s Ih""W/'
d" rJJixt if pmpttlivc (A).
Oru the pmimilll!rr skettl, is dOt ot, lUI! rail ........
Ilot slmil",.,1 and shade i" IMfil[l<>e (B).
Tht p"'flt1iou oJlhr hex in Itlls 1<$ ""II'
lUI! mml adjuj( lilt proportiom 10 the dispo:!Itiatr if
1M figurt'. 1 .. I/ ,is "",>" till' p<1r1 if lilt drml'ing
10 1M JorriFOlmd always tmis lip folJdy mltlFR"" i ..
mnl ion In IIII' ""'" ,rufJl .. 1 pnrlJ oJlM body (CJ.
A tom""''' lalmiqutfol drau';"K Iht jo,n !.orlmrd
JogUrt is 10 grto/tr defini/Ion 10 IN fottgtoolld
olld krM 1111' middIt- or h«1<![rm,nd ,kelthi.., ""d
Ilna>1omf. Comjl<lrt 1M ''''ntn=/ of 1M jw ill Ihis
dmwmg lo /11f' Of/Il' I! (D).
Keeping Proportions in Mind
To render a foreshorieTled figure, it is necessary to
know the figure's proportions. as we seen. Having
the proportions at hand nukes it l-asier to imcrprct the
diminished proportions produced by foreshont:lli ng
without making mistakes or distorting the figure. But
it is as imponant to pay attl'11tion to we see
when we study a posl:-;md loyally render all of its
pcculiaritu.-s-for the n.-sui( 10 appear n·iJisric.
The Foreshortening Box
Perhaps tilt" theory o(foresho n c:ning
is most easil y understood if the
figufC is enclosed in a box divided
into e<lU;\1 uni ts along d1l' baek.
Whcll the box is stret(: hcd out wi th
tht· fl'l'! ill the tIle units
grow smaller as thl"y n..'Ccdc from t he
viewer. Therd"on':. the gel"1el':.l.l rule is
10 make the viewer see the parts of
the figure closest to him as larger. or
oversized---<11most cxaSl,'Cralcdly so.
Tile most (:OHl lllon (:omp1ctc1y
fon.'s hortem:d is the lying figure
observed from abml:. From this
position. the d osc..'St (limensions
appear mu(: h larger than the moll.'
distant o n!':!;; it is nt.'Ct.'SSa1)' 10 always
n..osp<:(:t the figurt.""'s appearance
without trying to corrett its
,," f : In recl ining fi gures
• -oJ : 11 IS 00111111011 rot
, some parIS or the
body to be
rorcshonened. In
thU caJe, the
loob oversized
and aPJ>Cars 10 be
ccaching loward
the roreground or
t he duwing.
app<lrcnt deformations t h::. t make thn.
kind of pose intert.'sti ng and give it
mc::. ning.
The Dynamics of
Foreshortening is an exceptional
medium for rcprest'nt illg
movcment , the ('nl' rb'), and dr.un::.
derived rrom Ill e human body.
This is how til e great masters Ii3W
it wilen they indud('d in their
painti ngs figllres seen from the
most vari ed points of vit'w and
in the II10U dynamic po5C.OS.
1..(/ lokI' a k>tW at " i'X""rplt if
forn/ltlfu?li.rg. '/1". jig"rrs '" righl ..... slanding 01'
"II ornloll'f. TIrl' fourf"J ,,' IIIr' lop if dlt'
an! los /crnllGTll'tll'd 1111111 IlliJiit dlJUSI 10
iH,/Ilml, RiJJt1 us III' 1I11t1(JJ1 atTial oJ
II,em. 'nlls se/ba(k rIll' OIItIrO/ll,' by tIIt/osi.W
lilt jigmrs in 00""$ "",llom/i'lV Ihr li,1(: if 11,1'
Iwrizao, <II llu' fOP fjCal<llM.

A s you g:1i n confill cnCl' III your abilit y to l"CpR'l;Cm the human figure in
flan exact Ilmnncr, you will ineviTably W<l lll to give your work a greater
sense of thrce-dimcilsional ity. This can be adm:vClI by means ofli ght and
tone. and, concretely. with (he rcpn..'Sclltalion of hatching. whicl1 c ~ n provide
volume, drmna, atlllosphcrt:, solidity, and greater depth to the corporali!)' of
the object. Tile <1 ppcaram:c of shadow in the figure br=ks tl1c boundlri(:s of
the drawi ng, cstablishes ne:l r- pictorial Cltq,'ori cs, and reinforces the
obj ective, tangible cOllcept of the representation.
he lighl source is a fUIlda.ncnlai pari that must be
considered carefully whl'n rendering the shadows
on the 1xx.Iy. These shadows define the form of the
surface on which they appear, or give nuance to fOfm
admirably, indicate the ti llle of day, create dramatic
effects or express a determined emotional atmosphere
in the drawing. The direction of the light in the
drawing should be studied well in order for :tll thc
shadow'S to appear on the side opposi te of the 1ll00in
light source. In a Iatcn] position. the light leaves the
opposite side of the modd ill shadow, and the volume
and relief cn.'ated by the projected .
.97ie EFFECTff'
The Effect of light
Form only becomes visible as a function oflight.
Light creates \'olume and other effects; it is ;m
essential part of any artistic represellt:ltion of the
nude. With enough light it is pomble to identify
C\'cry relief of the figure's body. That is why we Illust
study path of the light. Fin t , locate both the
d3Tkc..'St areas in the figure and thOM: that arc m(Y.;t
to light . Then, establ ish an ort.kr for the
different intermediate values visible in the figure. This
comparison is always based upon the idea of contrast:
"one shade darker than .another," or "one shade
liglm-r than another."
Shadows a" allAl}'S proj«ftd omo flw silk appot.ift IIw
lOI" lI' oj lixlr f. !f ,1'1' wry tIlt i"muity olul dirtnior/ if
1M IW wi/ijillll tlull fbI' DpJ>tIImrtU also
(hmwrs, txf,ibit;,rg sifrnfral"reS.}ix iml<l,,(I'. or moot
dml1ralu- rjJrtts. dtpnllliug 01', lilt (lilt.
II is lDIfItlimt$ irllnnfilrg
for Mgi,,,,;ni .. /ists '0
"IDkto siH,plijird sknthu
s,O(h /U litis 0I'1l' itt of'Iln 10
Itn .. , Ioow 10 plOl't lIlt
sluldool <H solid bIorks. as
if lloey II'trt 1001l101.'('I/£0/IJ
"S/(/iI11 "·Ihis r).'t'I'filt is
wry .. 4 .. 1 ill
""ifns","di. rg ,lor
rl'u,tiOl'llbip llot
dirl'ttiotl if ,lor lixlr' alld
II ... ptr?j«rioll if shodlJU'S
<It/ thtfIJll1" .
fi t ralt ,,/II <;f 5/111111'1115
a/""e, Ibt" JrrUC5 III /incs
I/,m mmk mllllllm. HCII".
/ISing dcttny l y"lbni( .......
/w,r /"wl((1 nllli
shod,'" nteo$ 1<> Mili, .....
",;,,;mlt/ '""1m'ssi"n
fig"" ..
Direct and Reflected Light
Oil1 . ."(;( light light on the body, so in areas
where it fall s we must use the li ghtt."St Y.1 111es--o&en.
the blank surface of paper. wi th no at
all). Sh:lclows COllll" through a progressivc
gradation of darker or a decisive contrast wi th
the liglm: r arras. Apart tmlll tht.'SC fund1mental li ghtl,t
shadt.-s. almost alW<l),!, appcar in the
of the figure-areas li ghtly j]]uminated by the
rdkct ions ofli)dlt on surrounding the
figure. Reflections arc nl'Wt as as dl·t·p shadows:
thl.. 'ir is in between that of darkest sll adows
and til e most well - light l'd 3rc:lS fi gure.
Shadows on the IlIlde create a true drawi ng. a
Sl. 'l·ics of non- anatomical COlli ours that give t he fi gure
a M.' me of dr:l lll:l.
Halthi"x is II,,' "("1'1/ll>rur ill {he "mlil/illg ""d pn:filr "f nfixmt".
HalrhillX nl'l' mil/file.," (tI1I1 Ulric/I. (", d IbrrrfOll' dese"",
sp«ial allrlJllOllfmm II,r tttliS!.
Bright rdk·cti om and shadows arc as
important as of direct li ght on the figul"t.".
These effece; arc a constant ill re:llity: ('VCTY object is
affected by reflecti ons and shadows ie; color.
The 5ame is true of t he figure.To render il with a
single source ofligllt is all artificial techllique.
The colors surrounding nude
proj ect thei r and
rell ections onto It; light creales
surpris ing harmonics and
effects. and reflects on
surface of obj ects. giving
d arity to the fi gure from
Illany diffeI"Cn t points.
:md creat ing
that the
continUi ty of the
lighted for ms.
8)' pI/HillS ,I!{fcrel/{ t1r:crres if J!rcssmr Oil
Ille (/mlk. , ... [(II! obltt;" t1;ffrmll
ime,,;iliN in itttlt/u""g.
. ........ .


When dl1lwing with
the Oat length of a
stick of cJmlk or
chllrcoal. the
important thillg is
to a
continuous line,
''3r)ing the pm:ition
of the stick in
relanon to the page..
A "'"0/' '' of ShilllOtv1 is II
",oootI IfIn/,oJ/or sludying
"If' nif /ribuli ,,,. 0",1
;"'rllsil), oJ IIIark,'" on Q
.hillfr. 77,(, l lU' I'M' ;1 '0
olSS;"'" rot h ""/lle 'dhl',Kn/
;11 flrf' Ul"iI1t'J" at lift /0 ,I ...
(O,tf'slH'"tfi"g p<lrtI of fl ...
bod)" _,,",iflR /0 '/11,.
t>jlig/rt j' Jg.
h:trcoal makes the task o fh:ll ching much easier: the
thick, tlat t race of the charcoal stick makes it
to render shadl:d surfacoo very simply, reduci ng the terms of
The Map of Shadows
The easic:;t proccdurt, for modeling or "sclilpting" a figure
is to or!9lli zc a set o f to nal ofli ght and shadow. This
means breaking down the image into defi ned areas, using
li ght . imcrmcdiall" t OIl(."S, ;!' Ild shadows--both those 011 the
figure and those it projects. The result of this analysis is a
" map" that can serV!.' as a sta rting poi nt for latl"r correcti o ns
or improvt' lll ell ts. Making thi\ sketch rcqllircs you to
reduce the many different t OI1(. 'S present in the IiV!.' model
to just a few toncs. As a gcneral rull', it necessuy to
havl" many gradations in contrast in o rdl"r to create t he
illusion of depth i n a dn.wing.
Working with the Flat of the Chalk
Olll' of thl' IlIOs[ ,1[U':Ictive ways ofbcgi nni ng a
dr:twinS is , h" fhll St:. il l b)' (11')' ml'di:. Sitch
charco.11 or Widl ch::trco::tl betWl'l' n }'<>Ilr finger.;,
il is possibk to rmin forms ora figun' ill a
highly W:l)" :l ltern:. ting of the
ofi LS fbI SUn.1CC' with dw line of ics point 10 render the
fOrm only 1'0 Ihl' point of imelligi biliry. Thl' (r:tin of
fl.1t sidt, of the d 13rco.11 helps render Ihe (larklle<.M'S of
the: body. '111(" o r stains art' 1I!.l'd. tht, fewt'l
wil11x:: (0 correct. OncC' the figurt' h:L( 1>«11
sketche(l, the of tht, drawing Il l'ed 1101 be T(' ndercd
with this dcgn.'C' of intt:llsity. be
rt:l1dl.'1'C'd as 3 charcoal on 11K, page.
allowing you to rl'i nforce the mail llim's of lh,' fi gurt:.
Rendering Uroad Tonal Groups
To bl'gin hmchi lll:\ a fi gure we must tl 1l'
asslgnnlt'nt of wIlles according to 3 rt·gimcn.
which maki ng the (Irawmg section by sc:ction
and CTeateS the risk of q U:lrtC'r ing the fi gure and
obscuring the reading of the lxxIys vol ume. The best
mel/loo is 10 l'Stablish brood (Onal groups before
manipulating their smaller. constitutive tom'S. To (10 so,
Wl' l'Subl ish each lo n31 incremC'nt by addi n).: a Iaycr of
hatching and rcpt':ltin!,: opc:ration until we arr ive at
the (l{'Sired (L1l' kness.
If "" n''I''r II,/, rirlllrl""/ .. ,,10 ,1,1' ""'",,,.. ,Irn"w,/'iI" , , ...
,rri,il1 f" 'I'I}' '''1'1111. /r:>.·//IIftll"."h, (OJ (A) . if r ... J!III ,II"'"
I''''SSIl((' .'/1 ,,/II' .1ill l'tI.I.'('5, II .. <>bini" n j,,,,lIn,}!mnrn IlroJ..'t' if
illll'us;/)' (Il) .
The WlI)'
10 rcn<kr a
I'rdil1lill3l), naill
i. 10 apply
COill ill11011S
hatching with
comhined wi th
;m.,nsc lilleal
E1o;II"',* II> /,,>In II lliforr cf
(harroo/III d,m" wll" ill Jik.
Elite PROCESS 0/
A drawing made' only with li m.'S d()t"; oat
fi.suffick llll y dcfint· tht' volumt' of til l' object
I-latching is ti ll' lI10st common tool for
fornu. lll1d ont.' of thl' skills that
the 100l g<'S[ to pl':lcricc dllring the It-aming stages. It is
nccl'S. ... l ry 10 shack alo11g (11(,' elll ire fi gure wi tholll
slOppi llg to work on Illl' {i{'tails, looking for spots of
slwdow that e:m give t hl' its total volullle il l
sllch a lVay til:!!, a nn ' till' conlOw"!> have bl'l'll pllt
i.no pbee. i l will hardl y be I1CCt.'Ssary to consult the
mudd in orner to 3d,! dll' l'Sscntial Sh;ldO\vs.
Dragging the Wi d th of the Da r
The most common \\'3y ofhatciling with charcoal,
chal k, or is to drag the \\;dth of the bar across
the p.1b'C, lIsi ng it to create a dlid:, broad that
r{'\'t'als thl' t(,,>;ture of thl' paper. Depending on the
forn with which the bar is clr.lssed, it is pOM.ible 10
vary the inll' nsi ty of the trace, and C\l'n fill Out an
an'a cllun'!Y until the groin of thc paper is closed.
r-.'oIia tI,r
",f,itl, ",.,tI'1L6 "
dl"ltl' '';'-, "",flllSf;'!.I?
tjJ«t (A ); ""tI "s;"g
IM;,u ,liar al/e"'ia.
, n"ooth;"R {If Nr"tli"J:
"ml " stulpltd rffict 0"
IIrr (B).
Jim IInfflli,!}! J/",,,/J
/)r "(>tJf' qrlitklr 1I.,Ir lJ.r
JIM if lilt sritk. liIlU'll
dm",j'lR ,." pt!J1f'f ,,,;/1,,,
luibk J,'ffli ... IIIl' lul/t/ling
".11 {'X/ribi, 11" 'II/trnnng
sptTkkd //,:\'"",',
H"tching Versus Ton,,1 Drawings
We can hntch using n Ill otion that milll ics the curvatuI'C
of the object , and t hus, achievc a strong, moddcd te): rure.
The hatching c:lTecr allows for better gcsrural e):llression
th:m (Irawing wi th :>culpt"cd tonl-:l. When using Cr0s5-
hatcl nng, or hatching across the o riginal shading in a
rei ler:ni ve way, we cover the entire surface of the paper
:l1ld giVI' gl'l':l ter imcnsit y to tile h:ltching. We musl be
coher"llI wi th ti ll' direct io n of the t r:lces in order 10
unilt' tht: c1ifft' rellt tOnal :lI1:a5 and gi\'e coherence: to the
dr:awi ng. The: lo n:l l or Stlin- b:lSt'd draWing, created
mainl y with smoot hed and blended spotS of cl larcool,
ch.1lk.or p.1SteIs, servcs prcp;II';l tion for a paiming or fot
a dr:lwing of greater brc:\dth. When considering the
appl ication of dlarcO:lI. pastel. or chalk srains on the
1)'1 pcr, bcb>in by appl yi ng liglll pressure on the' piece: :lIld
gl-adll :l Jl y increase tht, press ure :IS the drawing
This llK' thod of hatchillg :lchie\'t'S an atlllospheric
trealment Witll a grain)' textun.' and no lines or abrupt
ton.11 changes, with no rr.lce of Ihe indivi dual «roke •
. ,
Studying Values
In:l tradi rional drawing, the stu(ly ofva1ut'S is Il L1 mly
approached once the sketch is finished and
the ti ll' comours of the fi gure Ilave bet'll c.:stablishcd with
a strll ctural li ue. Evaluation is 3 way of creating VOltU)It'S
b)' ma king grad:lIions wi thin a single tOile. Wilen l
speaking of naluario n. we Illust think o nly abom bl1d
and white and forget about colors. SL1rting from tltis
monochromatic gradati on. It can be said that \':llues:lff'
tOIl t'S, or, to be more pn.'Cise, ti ll' different intensities of
tones. These ,,';l Im's enable the representation onighl :.ad
slla{low by incn':lsillg or diminishing their intensity.
TIU' dirrrt;oo r!tllt Iltlflhini dqwmb on 111l't'X1mtaI
rrlirf if lIlt fig..,r. F", iruUi"u, if 11'1" drmv tI sp
jorm. Ill r Illlfrll;n1,! slu,.dd IN ti ()'lindrkal
suifare, Ihr hQlrl!!fI!: s/IOH/d d<'$l"fi/!(' a lHrvr (8); if
IIII' Jr<,fou' is jlal, I/lf iJallhing s/Itl ,,/d drsrri lx-" sl miJ<h/
/inr (C).
, -
Onn- plUUN
sr";ning OR compkll1f, /h!'
dm",illJ< lI'q,,;m /l'ftlIU
pmision in nfliwl/Wn. nt
mn tI,t'f, ' /.W' II, r rdgr ",
l!(Jim tf r/,r lJ1Il11.! 1(1 milt '!'
""" .. difj"i/i, ... ",an.i r!('S in
f ill}, On'll.
1b creale a fIgure
wilh I rich gradation
of \ '31110.$, we muSt
forgel aboul lines and
conceptualize the
model in hl3ck and n rr:=7:;O
white. TIle graphite
pencil's great varielY
of harnesses and
formaUi makes il a
preferred lrutl'ument
for hatching, with a
wide ' pectrum of
possible 101les.

ften , when we dl tIll' h Ulll an figllTt', fi lial
rt'sul t :' PPC;II; nat :md umcalisti c. This is a
serious problem for many ;lI"tisrs: thl' fi gurl'
should have a thfcc:- dimcilsional forlll_
T lw Icch mquc of moddil lg is used very frcqUl' ndy
by artists who aspire to a sculRlUral corporal it y in the
nude. to an almost 13ctile sens.al ion that the (ofms :I T{'
curved mid OCctlpy deep space t he representatio n.
"anal grad<l lioll to modefll g the
other words, to creating the die" of voluml'.
Model i' lg is a diRT! conscqucnc"e-.ef the of
light :md shado\\" on the body of ttie Wt'
' walll our port raits to appc:lr more dll'cc- dinWllsional
1' ...... or morc solid, Wl' can " model" them with , k l. re Q:! ] or
'to .. l't'llci l and thell fuse t he h;nchi ng ' wlth a tortillon. or
•• eve n wirh o ur fingers.
;I .,
..... ...
'I' •
... " :; u .. w"der /I. e <\1/ .. ",(' ,/'f romm>r III 11,(,
.if 1/1<' ill ",O' driluS, 1/1(' f!.rI'aler Ille rJf«t
'" '
(lol/,iuS, gmt/illS U" :P ,"1 of I/m'f'-
iull'mily .l.'liIys, i l is /.I
diJUl1IsiO/llIlity will /J('.
"Iso'uli,,/I,' (<>I" .. '/liIe
"t......... tlilotli,' u '!( llu- ; 1",tlilfj!1. "/7,(
'.:'" mi$j,tl.' will! a
is drlim' t: <llId
1f'l1lI/ shift •.
" .IT./
For bel ler
modeling, il is
p..., re rable 10
work with
c harcoal sti cks
ralher Ihan a
c harcoal pendl.
Charcoal Slicks
smooth and " lend
e asily, while the
pressed c hHc.oal
or a penci l
prod uces ver y
intense lines that
arc hard to blend.
Forcing Contrasts
A of n' flectious al1<1 sha<Io\\'l Gm bt.-
produced 11), thc art ist 11)' surroundmg the liguTt' wi lh
d ement<; Ihal eK':lIe Imanet'S on th .. skin. Tllc
rt'flcction of lighl on a whirl,' dOlh makt."S shadows
light cr: if rhe cloth red, t ilt" sh:l(Iow .. arr tinted wi th
this color and the body \\ ilh its tonc. Simib. .. ly,
if an object imer rupts thc of til(' light , its
shadow will be cast un the nude, crl'ati ng :l n d lect
with pou' ntbl piclorb l mt.:'rt."SI.
Tr.msitions Between Shadows
Tr.lIlsi ti olls !x'twl'cn sha(lowl ---fiulll to dark and
clark to light--arc pro(Iuccd through means
dq )cnding 011 the ll1l'dia l'l1Iplo)'l'd. ln pencil, tl1l'SC
grad.1tiollS a .... : achi cwd by ti ghto.: lli ng Ihl' [I':Ice amI
3CCUlll ub ti llg cl\)SShald ll's to darken the slwdow;
wit h ch:lrcoal, ti ll' (brkcnill g is madl' by illlcnsi ryi ng
Ihe imprcssion of the nick, and tIll' IrallSitions arc
produccd by Gdil lg Ihe stail l of ti ll' charcoal; tht'
wi lh chalk or is vt.' ry similar. Till'
6dil lg e:l.Il also be donc wi lh a lortillon.
Controlling the Direc ti on of the Stroke
To produn' the effect of\'oll1lllc on a fi gure, we
conu-ol thc di rcction of Ihe sno ke. It is not sufficit,nt
10 appl)' hatching; Wt' must impress upon il til<'
propt.'!" direction. For insClncc, thc h.1 lr hi ng of an arm
sllOold be .:locular, In a cun't.-d surface slIch as Ihe
aixloml.' n or bUll OCks, il should also d.,.-sc ribe a curvc.
On thc otht'r hand, if the surf an' is f\a ([er, sud} as a
back or a torso, thc hatchi ng should be straight. As. 3
result, the rorm of these su\)kes should be consistl'l1I
with the w:w(' s and relicf'; or the body.
Modr/illR is bawd "" Il,l' «,. m-I dnniJ!fin" if I/l f rrli,.il if
II ... III",wII figl/'f, " "d it />fRi1lS 1.,;,1. , I/IfloC' lh Im". ;I;t>1/S M
Ildwr."CI' /ollr.s..
Thr tffi"n Imooll,i"Ji is
rum/."I itt (,' mYI
IIIddrlillg. HI/,r" 11ll' 1" "WlIft' if
lJ.r Ii".. is II ... INlIlI
<JJrrtf J!,i"" ,_inma',
proattti,'f!" IIIOf<' ,.;m.linl
q[«t ill IIw:h"".
.\lmkl;"x 1I.,"' I1S
S(1oil',i"g ",,/1, S4!fi
lon""i';''''1 ",' I'J(I"
",,,I , IUIlh'l
, oroJ'lfi'Ig" "'''ilf
"1't't'IU,lIlfr;1I II ...
$0' thin II>
trxl",n ""d ,hr
} rlds if Illr sk", ",..
,(wnlrtf Ily ,hr
,,>, ,",
11",111 .
hiamscum is till' gr.l (i.1tion . 1 •
from white- usuall y g ivell :IS the blank
to the most intense bl:tck [h;1t we obtain by
A Dramatic Effect
Chiaroscuro is the most dr.lmatil- oflightillg dTt'crs. It
consists of subjecting the IlU{k' to :1Il illll'OSC light
source that divides the :I n:ltomy into wry brightly lit
an:as ami and a total that blends into du:
b:lckgrolllld. Tilis effect was used frequently by the
p.1intcrs ohhl' Baroqul' period to illtcmi/y the
and of their intCllSt.' ti ll'
chlaroscuro--h:lt the grcatl'T th .. b l'(\.\'('(- n
light :l l ld dark ,,-:. Iues- the greater the reml ting of
VolWllC, and the more ('Videm the effect oflight 0 11 the
fi guT(; will be. Similarly, a gn-atcr contrast bdwecil light
;md shadow product'S a great.:r number of
va lul'$ tllat IllUSt be inciudt"l:i fi)r thl' forms to maimail l
a continuous also holds for the VOllllll L-S of
tlw nude, which are fOumk-d and in which thl'
transi tioll from lightio'St to most shaded prcxhlCed in a
smootn, manner: when this tmnsition is
imcrruptl.'d abruptly, the shadow appears and
the effect is a contour.
'r" ",,,,k willi
(ilim'l!SClIrO 1110,,·
emilj.,J«,u a
SOlUTe "'" IIII'
By (lpNlillg "I' u,f,i'f DIem Willi a iif/ rmslT
Oil a I1mll'IIR mol1r 11.,/1 imrl!5r fliarfOliI
Im'c/,;"s, .... [011 p.ool<fC a t/,iOmKUm <:Ifni
ill ,hc jrgmr, "/,,,imi/,S illlnmrr/inir 10111'1.
It Slim,}! ronlllUl /J(' n ......... light tlltd sJt(I(/l'd
<JmU (1 ,,11(> of f1k'IlkfinJ: prM •• n '"
dm.ltlIrir, mrprisi ng qfrrI in lilt fiR/Uf' .
Sh;lfp and Smooth Cont roisU
The group of chiaroscuro values
employed in :I drawing cOIlniwtes
a spect rum, within which v.<e can
choose a lighter or darker tone, or
accentuarr the contrast
the vaili es closest to white or
black. The spectrum of tOiles that
appear in the drawll lg affects the
intensity. harmony. and
aunosphere of the compcWuon.A
wide sJ>CctnllTl with a large
number of intermediate tones is
mOTC fertile 3nd visually lI ttncri\'t',
but if it is too rich, tho"t: is a
danger ofbreakillg up the IInlty
and harmony of the whole.
Li ght and Dark Areas
In :I chiaroscuro, the light areas
must always be fIl':c of pigment,
but if we make a mistake, \I.-'t: can
partly recover d lest': areas with a
soft L'F.ISe r. The darkest areas
ShOllld also be: given spl'cial
an tone, we leave the area
definitively and do not touch it
agam, to avoid Jl.'"ducing the
absorballcy of the paper, which
would m.1ke it impos.sible to
a (Luker tOi le, 00 mail er
how hard \O.l! try,
111 II r t.iQ1l)J(U/Il,
lighll'J (IT(/IJ sl_1d
bt lift
No,itr h"", lilt
mOilS liglitillJ! 1'1,,",1
dil.fOl, "I'J "'f
ollt/illl' 0" its ,igllt-
IUlnd sidr,
'111n1' IWI' d",...,il1,R' if" (I sl" lrrr (II/Oil' u, ro bcllrr
IIl1dcrs/(ll1d ,'', difli'rn-r N 'IUft1' (I ''O/ilmt
1/;11, modr/il1g <K $LIllI'''''''' rffms (A) lind ,,; 111
(lJifl¥OSl"ro tifrrn (B), 'n", jmHtr o:lribils smoolh
1(N1II/1","sit icm, wllt"n'af in til(' /aftrr, IIIl' (m,/mj /
bt"l'ft'I1111(' lighted /lIuI Jil(llkd ""'<IS is IIIOff'

ht' sn ldy of till' figure SllOUJd 1101 be re1c!,':Jlcd to dr.lwing nudes. We
shouldn't forget dothnl figun:s lkpictt'd in ewryday situati ons. For the
arn:m.'II T artist , (his Sll bjl'ct presents /Tom outset a simpkr n'ndcring
solution t],an the nude. bl'callS\.' clothing obscuTl:'s thl' Illodel's 31lalOlIlical
rdid s 3m\IllUscuiar protlle. TIlt' goalls not onl y to dr:.w a wdl-
proportioned body and li lt' posture it :ll;SUmCS, but also Il lC draping oric:
tilt: UCaSL'lI ,md that it produces. f'urtlll'rmoR", till.' clothing
that drcssL'S a fi gure Silould bl' represented cOllvincingly: irthe model miSL'S
h is ann, wril lkk-s il l hi s jacket should match tlll' limb's motio ll.

• e
- <
L - 'v

erhaps the hardest task for the am.1 t t'li r ;m ist 1--
dn.wing the clothed figuIT is the
form Iliddcn underneath tht., d othill g. ln 3 clothed l\
figure. Ihe problems [11:11 ar ise h:lVe to do wit h the ' .
quali ty of the textiks of the clothing, with their )
wrinkles ,uld curved SUn.1Ces, whi ch make it difficul t .
to undcrstmld ti ll" pose or altitude that the body /1 j. s/wuld nWIIl<lf/' tllr rlol/led figuR' 1
assUlnes in (crt;! in situatiollS.
Understanding t he Structure of the Figure
As with the Ilude hUITl.1n it is neCl'SS:uy to
UlldCrst:'llld the model as an o rb'anic whole, but with a
dodu,' d fi gure we an advalltage in that, if a part
oftht, bOody remains hidden or seems coufilsing, we
call try (0 imagi ne its inner stnlCture. the positi on
tlL1! the limbs adopt in :l nude pose. To do so, it hdps
to draw simple geometric SII<l I>t"S th<lt cOIl5[itutc the
dnwi llg's in/Tastructurc. From the re, the gool is to
<ld:l pt ti ll: clot hing to the IllOdd . Very few garmellts
reVl':l l lhe dl'uils of tile SO thc form of the
body <ll ld the wri llkl ts :I re detl'TIllincd by thc rypc of
garmclll \NOm by the fib'lltc and the weigllt and
rigidiry o f its fabric I
I 'I,
"sr 11'1 n IImlr, Ih, foMs 111 II, r
rll'/lulI}! m,d 1<'10/(;"11 luslrl//1 "I till" pesr
In ils nllirr/)'
fjll l(' ilJ!l'rrs In ,I,.. d""""8 mr '''f'Ifrillllioosr (/l'l/rirl,e il ""'Y""
dfOiml1 10 ''IS,,,Ji-tt Ilmr 1",1l'f strut/II" (A), ".,J.fw II,is mTJClfI i,
,041/ N- l{ KIf"I //rlp '0 IN' afliIl '0 i'''''Ii' 1f' "it .. lObi
lIudt', Md ' T)' 10 dim" ," from wrll (KIM' rtltl, f{ ,/1f' ptullw,u if,/ ..
J;",bs (n). fj "u"dl'l'JjiuJ<," 'hr fiP" is '<10 {(!IfIl'limrrd "lid u.- "fI'
"II,,/>Ir M J!' 1f'U m "U' ICI'm;rw/s Ofl ,II" "'ISis if IlIr 10h& /Iwy
(f<!" lr ill Il,r t lorlu',,);, I .... COli '''01 10 " gOJlI'ffri( /llId Iry '0
,mdrntalld tI' r body em tlK' Nulr ,!j's;IIIp/r ",I"mr,ri .. i /mJJt'J (C) .
The Folds of the JOloU
Depending on tilt: type of gar ment or fabr it:
th;lt covers the body, the motion of the figure
will be more or evident: it is easier to
discover a shape underneath a silk dress than a
woolen 0I1C. ElastIC such <'IS those
worn by gymnasts or cyclists. mold the body
\ but also confine it. T he fold\ in the clothing and
\ the (omours of tight garments arc a good index
'for finding the body's volume. as well as the
of several factors, such as the rigidity of
the f.,bric and the pby of the body's
artjculali ons and joints. Keep in mind that the
dbows, :lIld km:e$ arc suggested by
cn..":lSt';S ill the doth; the wrinkles and tensions in
thc.fab,ric actually explain the bends and
l1'05"i[iol1, of the limbs.
\ \
t Clpthing Reveals About Personality
A rticubr d othing style call tell us a great
dea lout the person we"ring it; likcwisc. wh"t
,,\Jb. influenct:S thc way we fcd and
Illovt:. gives <I woman a
ccrtain and llris is rcflcett'd in the way silc
sits. informal d othing, the
same person ,WJ'"fed complctdy diffcrcut, and
this will bc rdlehed in " mon: rdaxt:d pose.
Likewisc, a m"n in a suit and tic tends to sit in a
more r igid m.anner than ont' wearing informal
n,r I..ry ".",i ill dotl' fd
Ji.gum ;s ''J ;ml'l!fiCtlt;oJl. " Hi-
mllsm't ,,,ake Ihe m;51aJ. ... if
d""";"8 details "lid 1,";}(h" N. It ;s
ffSt:mial thaI "'''fint draw tI
sh' /(I, if Ihr poY (lJulJrom il
df, .. lop a 5J. ... /(h II"" ;,ulllda a
IJn' /i .. ,itlaTY SIIIdy if tllf
g.<UialiollS if ligl" "lid shadow.
Today, ",Melv rlolhill8 Imds 10
III: rlas/ic, ""d it "di,ms rlrnly
/0 'III" IIOlIy, so i/ dOf'SII oI'5LII'"
1111" O.JaIO'''''al J'lofile.
I\'" ti« in II,is If'riN if
"""'';''XJ ,I ... tI!ffi'n''''
IIlIUt.i11Jl, ",,"iMi/if'1 fot
"lJR..tll(;"g "Y
dq,it,jJlg i/1 nt'<!J('J
IO·IIIrt'J. n ... jim
l.ta/lPlrul '!( tl ... /iXllll';/
rl,e skrlth, (II ul/hrl'(' Is
I/oli,illg Ill'ltt. ,11m,
lil t jim s;," ,.if ,,,,
/0 ohMi" l Y'rlh('lit
11lI/(/.jll1! cffi'rll. A '""
J/rokn nrt' It}
IIIarl.: r/,.. dim:ti"" ,!111f'

. ;1


he IllOSt illl portant :tSpt.'Cts of the
c1othl'd fi b,\l rc are the dr..pi llg of
t he g:l rmt'1ll and (hl' type'S of Cfl>;ISl.'1
or wrinkles that it fornK A IOwl: l.
j :1ckel . shroud, or silk vcry
dirrcn,m from bare flesh.
Drawing C reases
of c101hi ng, f.1br ia. :1nd
o rn:lI llt'rl LS of ally kind prese nt a
St.- riOllS challenb'l! thM mer its
discussion. TIle creases Ihal eTJvel op a
fib'tm: can appear thi ck and r ib<id or
and v.l pomus, tl'll-
forms or the body undcrnc:ll h.
Lighter fu brics such 3S or cot ton
cn!;ue many slIlall wrinkles. ,nllt
usuall y pn!SCI11 \'l' ry fine \":llues;
vdw r :lI1d wool. 011 till' OIht' r h:md,
produce more rigid,
wr inkl es,Tht, CrtllSes and of
thin, r.,brics softer and
ilIOn! numerous; heavier labrics ha\'e
ft'we r and larger folds, A i-,'OOO
is to studies of
wri nkled ).:'Irmcnl5 that ),011 find in
your dr:aw(' r; h), doing so, you will sec
for youndf that c\'Cry fabric
own, propl,rtil"S dq>Cllding
on the quality of their how they
fall . and the dcgr('(' to which the)'
or refl ect li ghLThe
tllll lg is th;'! t your penni to
the SCns.1lio ll of the IIlmt'rial on the
clothed fib'Ure,
1'Of''' , ...".. dt;flIilrd d",,,,j";R lI'illl (111/
, 1St' II ... '<' r,tl"md ","I ,111'
SfIIJ'J. ";, tim'" ,uri.lklr$ n.mrlr. 'w 1/1"'1111 lor
m' tTlI' d,,,, I/I('Y ,mv/,Off' JI.,w.'11'S. "",/,/'''' III,.y
<lise s/" .. ,' "ON'S." <11m.< iIII ntlkll II,r IW" jilts
Clothing and Anatomy
To anal)'7.e the
folds of an item

ofdothina; . il is a
" good excrci$C 10
fi n t make a linear
treatmem of the
The rendent:y to usc:: s),nd1t:ti ( materials in the
manuf.1chlrC or all kinds or g;trmcnts crcat .. -s many
varied shines :lIl d reflections to rendcr in drawing.
EVl'n Ille or cre:lSeS created by loos .. ·-fi tting
athletic clothes an: rypicd of me ;\rtifi cial mMerials
they arc made of. Tight dothinJ; Cllnnot hide
;marol1ucal delects. A too- high hipbonc.
disproportionate ar ms, or poorl y dnr.wn ft'Cl will
be immediately noticeable. Tight clothing tcuds
not to show wTinkies and describes the
{ ' figure, drawing all
J On" w';nkk .. ,
C0l110111'$. in tltis
.,. .. ay. we will
'/' J,
an.1tomy pcrfl·ctly. by revealing rhe profik, and
because the muscle Ol;\SS can be seen through
/ . material with
the garment . toose-fi ttinJ; clothing,
however, hides the allatomical relief of the
body and shO\\15 more folds. Wrinkles
produce ;md in their crests. areas
on which light f.1 11s directly. This creates the
need to analyze the tonal '/llues and
c::arefull y nuance "'very surface more
meticulously than tight clothing.
... p which the
I ./ 1. ";lI"m(''711 wu
' /"
Gm,>llilr I'nlril;s II,e "'tlJl mrdim" for
drlkmr ' Klfk. Ht WII ",,,, j, ,1,,· lilllili '/ "'1'<U
allJ fill rwh '!flhNn in ",;111 gray ha/rlli,I.\:. 1/ is
'IC'I'r.SJary /0 grndr Gild ,."",.,... " .... y J"!hr,
ItT)' rnnimwru/y, bmmir II,.. gmdalil'lu if
IlfNil <Ill' I"'y.l;,.,.;n mtlJl <_3.
n,t ball-poi'" fIOl ;S Ilnll"". IIII'
00, .XII*, if all d""'ffl,e
immmrnlls, IJlII i , is "',.. .. 'Iu1ru
fmJ' fftll/y "srd by
a",'JfS. liS slrit,ly /i,WtJ, Mlnlirs
ftwrr Iht "UistiO ".,,1... ... IMUhin/{
011 (/",/Ii"J! bturd AI JlfrlllirJ if
OI'frl"T'pi,'S lilld

NKLES': :'"
ht.. traditional conlplclIlt'nt to
nudt.' figure is the drape and
Ih.11 it producClI. lrs nlllction
:mccdoral : It IS (annal
simpl y •
. thM allows
forms of the K to har moni ze and
:tdding 1I (Ouch
the i

Drawing the Drape
Dr.l wiug the dr:lpt: is :mother
of f.1shi on today. which,
Iradilional1y expected oon'!olSD
III pellCt! or charcoal the folds and the general (onn
of a cloth hanging or (;ll\ing OVCf a <: hair or 5(001. The
purpose ofthi!; exercise is to C)(t!rcl.'ie the student'S
skill III renderi ng light alld srndow, and in creating a
comphCl led and ddailed volume. Drapt:s an: also
mlcl'CS!il.!,; /Tom a compositional pai m of view,
b Cc;l Il S{' i f necessary, they allow for a balancing
pictori ;'!! spac!!' by compensating Ihe excessive
of the forms of the figure through the cr;'"cro,';n
thei r folch.
rr('lnn" " ""/sf ,,'IPrl!
«!.r{i.//), <'" •
. " "'/ "I""ing "1' slrml a f ·'
,hr /"&/IIIgl,,..,/ f/tM!.
· n Ul rh),t hm of
Lh" trace ;t r'-----,
Ca n he used to
render a drnpc
whi le also
creat ing an
au rael;,"" l:ib'"Ug
efli:cl. Zigzalli:ing Lf''''----'
IhM. ... call
a"d folds
rhythmicall y aud
fairl), nan,rnll)·.
Abstract Drawing
Drawing the drape c:m be considen:d an
abstract drawi ng, given tht: geomdric complexity
inherent in the folds and thciT imlcpendcncc from
tile figurative for ms. In this sense, it is int ell."Sting
when drawing tht' drape to find that tht: problt:ms of
line. chiaroscuro. and model ing an: nakedly t:vident
ht:Tt'. ' Illt' exact construction of folds and their
shadows is inessential; it is more interesti ng to
interpret drapes in an abbrcviatt:d. skt.'l.chy manner, in
agn:t:ment with the char.l(:teristK lightness of these
secondary clements of a figure dra\vtng.
Dr"P"f nl'!' " '"or»'
twnKti,., romp"'IU'IIIIO
0011, C/O/hid fiJ!. mf'$ Imd
tllllft .. "11"" add d ''try
ma",,("f"{'d dffOl'llli,y
iffm 111111 millis lilt
C!J'ml IIl'Ilbtsq"t.
Although you may sC"(' this ;!$ a complex prolJlem,
do not be discouragt:d. Look at tile' objt:ct as all
abstraction and reduce it to simple forms and
sur6 ces. The key is to obst:rve the way th:,t clothing
falls :md adjusts to the for ms of the body. It is a
nllltter of training )'Our Lj't: to appreciat e the str ucture
and form of wrinkks with clarity, as a whole lnd
individu:illy. This cohcn: nt vision allow'S us 10 sec it all
dearl y: a tucked-i n pan here. a protrusion there,o\'('r
here a broad conc:avily, etc.
if )'O" ohscJ"lor Ihe dmpe:s
nlld (I'!'tUN of (101/';"8 ill
iso/II';o", )"'" rml look at
litrlll as /ltl abwwl
w'"I"'S"',,,,,, TIll' ,,,rul
illl".,rlm" is 10
rofllidn 111m- sl",wln' o"d
, !(If forgrl Jir«tfull of
"it (Iollri",,: mrwd. I!.MI}'
,"";"klts (A), ,mil l l mighl .
,"'1h(m (ltAA'S (H).
if )'LII/ IIII' dm,villg afiKUre
l>'1'tl, "UI"y rwurI, )"'''
11111>, r/1OOSt 10 Slma,,1'!' till'
;'iformotiou. l ht Jint 5tq!
is 10 mdlu til, OIdlilN' oj ",
modtI ""d ww* U;l/'
simplt forms ;nd,mf j'tg tilt'
form olld posilicol if tnth
"'''tII, palintllr,
r.>:tmd ti" IWI(lnllg Ihll/
PUnlWaln mId gi'>t$
voI,m'l til lilt <!mi .
OM spo ntaneous fi!-:lIrc drawings aTe t:l kt'n from
ewryd1Y life, All yOIl have to do is observt: the
fib>1.m: home, on the SIn'l't , or at work, and find
pictor;:.1 asPt'cts, In f.1ct, one of thl' most interesting
for drawing smdit.:s is til e intnion; of public
buildings---b;u'S, restall rant , dance halls, etc.
In Ihl'Se sllfrounding;, fib'lll-eli appear in mOT{' natural
PO:;o', rcVt':11ing tll eir and sociabilit y, Drawing
the background in which you find the figure is of great
help in drawing the figure lateT,
Drawing Arc hi tec h lre
fib'l,rcs in an interior ofil'n in\'o[ws dealing
with the pcr.;pl'ct.i\"e of the setting. But pcrspecriw
need not lx- a prolJleUl , for iI, too, can Ix: used to
a d ear background, and t hus the COllllXlrison
of the size of th(' fi gure wi th (he objects in the
oockground can Ix: cxtTemdy practical in achieving a
JTa!istk n.-pn.'SCntltlon of the figure itself ;md its
" lls variation is of particular inten:st:: the
participation of architl'cture In (h(" cOIllpt».ition of (he
n:bti onship bcrv.ecn thl' figure and the dccor can be
so signific.ant th.at to ib,"on: it IS to dmy the dr.I\ving
what could potentially be one of its IllOs( nOlable traits,
if i'll/end cf ill slmI."t"1I /1tJ1 tk/Ul("(ttt' rllf fi..r.:rl.rs'
,,,moors, )"" tim", IlwlJf wi,1I a blUrT"(, I'm/i"", 1"'"
(JI;1Ii",,. a jlrrtJlrr i/ll'"1!fI(Ili(nI if alltl il s ""'kgmlllld,
Pm/Iffli.'t' is n l")' focI", ill rqlft'XfJlil1Sfigllrrs jll mil/lXI,
II/ Slnlf3 f ' l(l, m: flois omt', mllkt' tJe/e of ItOUll /l f fw"rrs J!ro ...
Jmallrr a"d Jl"'Rr=ivrj), d;Sloloml I/U'filfllo.., /111')' j!t'f
from II'f jOffg""md, J
/ I
Com;retion and Indeterillin3cy
figure: is genemll y rmdered concn:tdy
whik' itl; surroundings left sketchy and
indett'TllI inate. Its concretion dOt'Sn't
necessaril y IIl can we- II- defined contours,
but ruther a 1l10rc illl ense line (:I. very
common error beginners is 10 draw
:I. defimle COntour around the fi b'1.lrc, :l.nd
thus dcuching it completel y from the
backgmund). light conditions un ll1:1. kt
so that parts of the figurc appe;!r to meld
into till' backgrou nd, and part ohhe
wcct!SS of a drawi ng dcpends on softClling
it5 lIl:lrgins and omitting dCtllils, leaving
things to the vicwt'T's imagination.
The background that contt' xrwIJi zt.'S the
fi b'l.1re may just a few lint:.'; or
marks, but Ihl'f\! is :llw:l.)'S some
indication Ihal something more lics behind
thelll ,
A Stlldy if h'rrs i" nil lime" fmrtfJCtrpt' iJ
II<! MSy lllSk.f .... ,IH' fiJ!urrs nrt' nnorT stilf.
This j<,f(n nw'sI ," ",. JCkt ,i ..... tim,,, ill
Jyr,fl'Nis, nUll "ay aflrllli(III, I""i£ally, 10 ' hr
nl/;lI/or cf "If 1II,.arf IIUO 1<1 II" olljrr:/J
nrmmtf Mm.
'Ow I'n{rlr if Ihr (W)OI fw,lIIrs sll,>'1JJ
mOlt ill/rom', IIIOI,,,,,'1(rt/ 1i, 'f'S, IlllIirl, I,rlps
10 oiffi'mlfin("lhrrn fit"" II,r h«k)1r<xmo,

t 1,1
To draw quick
slUdics. a graphite
pellcil is among
the most

""d;",,,,. A

" b'l\'CS U$ a vancty
I" of strokes: drawing
with a , hilTpened
point (A). a dull

point (IJ). wi th
the point
Il completdy tilted
onto its side (q.


" Wi,I. rjJrcrs, bil'lItfi"j? tllltl slI/CJ(I lflinX. SII,I,. \'fSlilig jllm/()/JiIiIY. 1MbililY,
8m"il)'. densiry, tI"dfimlllr.ss, disappears mId is tli/rlled ill 'he jlllitf (III/I
i/lulI/giMe-a illlllil1(ms lIibmtioll Iltal Imllsfa/ rs (Iff Ille nppl'll mllctS tif tilt'
worM. "


{Ir.l wi ll g the fi gure, one of the :l1'list's biggL'St chall enges is to
('xpn:ss :md rcpn:st.·1]( the vari Olls IClo;WI1.:S :llld fOlllld on the hUllIall
body, sl1 ch as pi gmentation, wr inkk"S. and body and f.1cial hair. To do die
artiH IK"Cd rely 'iOldy on the b.uic dr.lwing Icdll li<III L'S of linc, blcndi nl,:. \'olullle,
aud gr:ldalioll--:\lI of which can .. Iso bt, :applit'd ill dr:lwi n,"", to ('R-all'
achieve his or her artistic int crprt'L1fion of till' human IlIOtld .
ht" atmosphere of;r. dnwing
dL'JlCl1ds on h:lTIlIony that
dominates thc scene and L,,\'oktli a
determinat e SCl lUl iol1 Qf light,a
faClOr of :l rtis(ic qU:llity th:!t is
important to observe.
Nonetheless, 1I 1.mrt from the
illtclisi ty ami quality of the
li ghting, there li re other f.,ctors (hit
conditiOfl tht, lltll10spllCric climate:
dlt." intonation of color.;., the
chiaroscuro dfccl , contrasts, a
greater or lesser usc of modeling,
Drawing the Air
Around the Figure
The <Itlllosphcn: should Ix: prt.'SCnt
in the work ;IS ;111 ;liT surrounding
the figure. The effect of ;ulllosphcrc
is an opti(;l.\ illusion prodIl CL'i.\ by
\v:ltcr v.lpor and the dust panicks
in the ai r. which discolors and
partly blurs the forms and profile;
of the figl.ln·.l1lis IS tht' opposi te of
the 1t.1rd contours lmd precision of
the dnwi ng. ' nIl,' atmosphere
shoukllx: fluid. cOlltiIlUOUS,
unified, and uninterrupted. The
absence of clari ty the kL')'. With a
(on"eet tOnal Lv.l luatiOIl of each of
the pIaIlL"S. we can
recreattO in them a li!:\htcr or (kl1."t!T
atmosphere, decidi ng o n the basis
of the intclISiry tones what
SP«"trulll of gr:tyS should occupy
each pbnc.
"0 ",hifllf' an afllWl'hrrit ("fol, gm)'S
aud lomll J!f"Mallo.lS sho,,1d ".. IJemled (III d
ow, 11'1111 II" ",siiJl! SlroJ..lf'J, a"d
wft ImllsitiC'1ls M/I I'I'tII 11>11/'1..
!( " If' blrlld .cmys
itllo ("11(/1 /'IIIrr,
diOlljullIillX nllf
illUIIsr I/(I{"t"S, Ihe
f1JZm" lOll'S
dtji ll il illil bill J!'I'i",
r.."i"/If ddi".d, diffitlt' ,woJi'" IIt<l/II' ,";/h s41linN
;,,/log,a/I' 1111'/"."1' /0 IIII' if/lwo papn,J!iviR,fl;' '''
IlIllKl$phnit rffivl.



.. -
Atmospheric Hatching
An 3t1ll ospheric effect ckpends
above :111 elSt' " 11 our skill dll r ing
the hatching process, we
il1( I'Ca..e the on Ihe
charcoal, or t' h;llk ;md
impress it!. sirokc UpOI1 tht, paper,
The goal is to or to color,
grndu311 y from a lighter
lone to the nn;t darker Olle, 311d
so 0 11. Eadl phase shuuld lx,
Kcompanicd by a hght fi llgertip
blending t" a",,,id abrupt shi fts in
tOll C,
The difference between
smoothing and blending lil'S in the
purpO!ie of each, [loth ope r:lli ons
require tkll we run an objecr--a
cottOIl r:lg. a fingl'rt ip, d C-QVer a
spot of pigmellt on Ihe page. [lut
smoot hing is illl ended 10
withdmw ,md c"tl'nd color.
t he purpose of bk nding is
to mix the lliffen: m tOlll'S by
repeatedly rubbmg the color, With
blcn(ling. til t: llatdling or colormg
also grows softer, but nOt as ll lUCh
as it does wi th
The Hazy Drawing
Charc"al is the idt'allllcdi ullI for
producing a hazy drawing, This
term refers to Ill:l ki ng \'ery subtle
tonal dl'Kribing forms
without drawlllg contours or
outlines, T hi s technique. which
produC(;s w ry foggy. obsClire
figull.-'S, consists of imistclltiy
rubbing the surf::lCe of the paper
wi th OI1C 'S fingert ips nntil the
figure's appearance bt'Collll's
v'-porous and atmospheri c. The
absence of visibl e pellci l strokes
imbues the drawing wit h
'f1,( ba;;d"t'SS if lilis il"
l!icM,i,,/ q,mlily, "I,f rffra iSM/,;rw<l by
;m;"m,/y u. .. Ibe gmys.
is used
a deal in
at " ""'pl,eric
drawings bc";'lI 'IC
;( miJ(cs mul bill'"
po'''''SSCS rich
lonal qualities.
{ml <llso
/,.. lillN.
II,e Ii"", I/I"SI M,r ,ilia
0/''iI''''' III<' if Ibr
,,/"(IIt;,t1! ;/5I' /;UI ;I',,1

w hi ll' chalk Oil ulluTt'd paper is 011(;' way to
Cfl' ate ;len'Il l'S, bll t lHi:-:i ng w hite ch:t lk with other
colors or wi th (.: h,m.:oal all ows for ilion: intl' rlll cd iatt"
cn:.uing 'Kl'cnLS. we GlI! play wi th the
int cr;lCl iOll of d U'l.T ditfl'CC]J[ f.1 C1ors: th e la nt" of the
p.l per, l'hl' o f chan' o'li or . '0101"cd chalk, ;md t he use
of whi te ch"lk. We (";111 thncfon- j Un e,ISl" rhe rnngc of
tonal v' lill es, which an: ll sed tu <:fl':lCC vol ullll" in the
Accents in White C halk
An acccm the "dllilio n of a [OI l l' lIIuch brighter thm
the papt'T and the orh.']" mcdi:l Iised. When we dr.lw o n
a colored bKkgrol1lld, the t Olll 'S Wt' (":I ll make with the
charcoal o r ch:t lk ;Ill: lill lill'c\ by lht." lllt"diullI :mel by
t ill' color of th., papl:r itsdf Nonetheless, th is problcl ll
can o\'crconll' by nddi ng tOll ches of wh ite; till"
COIllTllS[ is so sharp thnt th e drnwi ng bc:comes
newly intt'fl.'S[ill g_
11'1,;,,> IIm'lIIS

"I'II<',rntll«', I,,'r,"'sr
II,,')' ",",,' mil,""
mm"'.-I Iw"'o',." it,'
mltl ,11,"/1'0
I" stlU/i,·S
lllUl ,J..,'lritrs ,lid,
II.' 1/11',(·, ,""'11/$ mil
II<' 1II<1<lr ,I,,'
,f/," sid,·
,IMIt",,1 or r/",'k.
111,;,,· , /",Ik ",/" .. r.>I,.1'1 .'1(11
1'<""'';'/'' II,,· ,/r,,,..,IX ".,/, , I ",,,,I,
if ".<r'/ ,m ,I (,./,nrrllt.u-i..:I!" nmd.
111,;11' d",lk (, '" "/.<0' lor Il..",/,iur rl ill "
,lnlll';II.'I If II .. """, I"
""'Iim ... ", .. ",1 IIw
" ,1/(/111 1,<1 (III/I 11,m
NI"rl.'1 IIhI" " ".;,/, .. ,," ,I,,, ",lwl
Lighter GradatiOlls
Tn Hl.·;,U· l J.:r:ldl tlOIl b ... ·cwC\· n ,' hl n'ol l <l nd whi tl'
,' h:l ll-.., \\'\' liNt dr:lw with eh;! lk rrom to
.lI1othl ...... lppl yinJ.: It',s wit h e:lc h p:lSS.
thnl rim b yer wilh cll:'l rCOll , bu t thi s Wt'
:'\pply tl w Inust pn"slll"l' onto Ihl' e h:1n:oal wlt c rl' the
k ast I'R"'\III"C .\ppticd to the clt:. lk. and vice
I-I n\\,.: w r. it j , not (ht, ""' 1111('" tlnng to appl y c.: h:u CO:l1 t.o
chalk .IS to :. ppl)' ,· halk to c hal"l.:ual: a di ffer('"1It rt'!'" h
produn 'd on tht· Orol' l" in whi ch t hl' y :. re
u lIl y with (Iol's OIK' grow
,IC(l(S(OII ll'd to tll l· i .. imer .• ctioll ,
Acc ent Effects
Accents ill dlal k C,ln lx' :l ll"tied in swaths of
wilh (il- II St' n fl igh. ill the rOrln of points, or by
the ch"lk owr a given area. so that il
acquin's a gre<lll' r !,.'l.' lI l'ral bri ghul<'ss, Acce llls ha\'c 110
effect Whl' lI tht')' :In..' gr.l tll iWlIsl)' ove!' the
emil'(" Sllrf.1l'l' o rthl" drawing; thl'Y only st:l11d o ut
W ll l' lI 1111,:')' an.: l'{IlICl' ntratl"d ill thOSt., parts of the
dr:lwi ng t haI hl'lp prodllt:t' all illl'rc;li't'd .md
:Il'l'l' iltll aU' the volumc of thl' tigllTe. 0 11 some
ol'c;\siollS. it ili a), CVl' U be Il<'cl"s'I;( ry to add a light
hatching "TUuml tI](' acce nt.
/)eli'<I/" "",rk , I",ultl/", t/"ur ill IvI,;/,· wl"ro-' / ,)(,Iu;ls,
lu'f"" U' 1I';,1r litr", it is ,:harp 1i,H's
"ml ':' /'\''l{<'JI;w B)' 1/1(' ,Ir", ,...'"
al' I")' ,,, III<' IIt' IHi/. )'<III (,1/1 lilt imcmwdi",c
' Mrs Jr.'''' ,lie " ",,xi ll/IIIN /', i)!'fII lCSS.
"''0'/" "'on: I'n"CiloC
.. ____ .... lI<:<' "",<, i, t_
1'n:I;,ral>l(' 10 nSf'
wh ilc rolorc,I
1>Clll'il inMel/,1 "I'
Ih" mltli,ilHI;!1
L ____ ' or 1'3"<:1.
" .

'1IJilloft! ERAS ING
uring the pn)co.'SS of iLS CTl'ntioll , the
drawi ll g COIlMant l'hangcs,
10 the point that the initial St'r\1.'S
" only as a perdl; it is therdon- illlport:lIl t for
the artist to transform the work comt:mtly,
each tlme o.'Stablishi ng more forcefull y tht"
line that constitutes the drawill g's pl:lI1l'S
and forms,
As the fiml profi le of ti ll' (i r.lwing begi ns
to take shape, the li nes that it
begin to OVI:rbp with earli er lines, in a
w:ly that the process can Ix- S/,' L' n ;IS a
cont inuous correction of for lllS, IIl1tll they
overpower the earlier tines, maki ng it
U1 J1lecnsary to till'lIl ,
The M.ist ake as an Expressive Factor
In the work of many profeS!;ionnt nrtists,
cOrrt.ctions and repcritions arc dcl iber:ltdy
left ill the final drawing as a prncti c.ll
. resourcl' tllM vitality to till' dr:lwi ng.
or cven act ion or 11I 0V,' lI1l' lII in thc
fib'llre; these art" known a(
pentimenti. or regrets.
PelllimcnD express a strnngc f;b(' iwltiun
with unflnishednes.<i or skt"tchinC'SS, :lIId
with thc procl.'SS of dr.l\\ ing iudf, mther
t han the carefully fi nished pr()(l uct, a
teml enc), that reveals the romanti c in all of
when we make it is
prefer:lble to forget about them and draw
m Orl' precise, vigorous li ll es alollj:.tSide them.
Every drawing should be l'xpcrilll etl tal.
process, To tryout a form
tentatively, and then make and
corrections to ir-thl."'Sc arc fundamental
pans of c\'Cry creativc
CI,,,I(OO/ I IWkn it lJ(>f.j ilHr ' " t'rrUr '''1' ]i.e"¥('
If'ptnlttlly ill <'<lin ' " IIru' lillI'S ' Il llwd!fl' ,II{'
I' rtI';(' IIS OlltS; llOu""",,, ill lids s/.Y'lr/" , III' I'll r/irr
mnrks "If' still " tiblt "'I' /lfII' (1111'S.
Phantom Lines
Drawi llgs in chan:oal arc l1l:lde by
:ldding one ovcrl apping line after
:lnother, which are crast-.:l or
corfL"Ctoo over the course of
ncatill g the drowing. This
ac(.:umuiati OIl of discarded lincs-
"phantom" li nes---crea[(;.'S an
int(.:rt"Sting tOll al cfft.'(:t on the
foundati on of the page, and
someti rnt.'S even Iell dS a greatcr
expressiveness :l nd adds vari ety to
the drawi llg.The result is a ft.ow
confidellt, powcrfullincs that
emerge from what has, in fact,
heen an imense process of
drawing and redmwing.
Sol llt" m1i$1> usc pelllilrK'l'li lIS
"""Ihn menliS ,1 exprrssio". 111
uris lllSf", IIIf , in",lln"':ily of Ihr
legs II", jiRu," a.<t"llJt" 0/
mOliali .
All Intuitive Drawing
The contillued practice of drdwillg
the nude event ually the artist
, \11 intui tive knowledgc of the male
and female :l llatomics, which all O\\'$
hcr to render virtually allY pose
autom3tiGllly and render all of its
reliefS in tlll.. -ir correu place and
proportions. This knowledge is
gaint.";! by noti cing and correcting
the one makes, a.ll d by
aiw3Ys keepi ng in mind the basic
sket(h of proportions and the
body's essential anatomi(.:al
configurat ion.
.. ,
The complete
erasure that is
r - - --'l orten practiced in
the earl y phases
of drawing wi th
charcoal is
actually done to
creale phantom
lines lhal se/"\'C as
a basc for Ihe
nexi i tagc of the
drawi ng.
Petll;mrllli allow liS 10 wulrollllld Iile 115"
lir';".!!. (rl"III;rc 1"'l(t·ss ill tl.'IIS/llll1 r/, ... d''1",,,·,,I,
III/,;(h/ol((5 115'0 U'1{"(r lIud 111111.. ... drrisi,,"s n/Jt'"1
I/,e ({lrlITl ,J/«emelll ifl/re Iim/J.! ill /"tIlI' Imt'.
Nfw liUN alf" , III'("liltlllOS(d Oil ,h," ;lIilinl
''''I'S, IIl1d modify nl'I'rnml/lt" II,,'il
Iht' desired Il115t' i$ Ill/nil/cd. WNf/l WOrkillg'lII
a slIIdy, lilies on'srld"", .-msrd, ,,",ie/, ,,/1011'S
us 10 srr / Il(" , )m«jS tlIIlI 11,1' JiJ:l'''' /'115
II, r SInn (til Iii" III
n"gill, ;1 ;5 sliIIl'0ss;hir 10 SU I/, c IJreii m;IInry
pmil;oll iflh" 1';/;5 "lid Iwk).
" ","/

• ,
. '

. ..
llklldi"g 11';111 if ,lour
illsislt'IIllr. mn liRI"ru 1/'(' IIG/d,i,'R
IIIIIde c/'", ro;,l .
, or terrilloll , is:l stick made of soft. :lbsorbl'lJ{
paper with a poi lll at either cnd, used to rub :md
bicll d TOnes, (0 prodllt:e a gr.J.yi ll g or liglut' li inl; of
drawn ill pencil, charcoal, or chalk. Cotton balls
or swab:<; can also be IIsed for blending :lnd produce
slll ootlH.' r. more subdc n'sults th:lIl the tcrt ill e n.
T he Correctio n Effect
Stlllnpinp; is ill itsel f "Imost a form of corret:tioll. Wh:l t
we art' in fact doillg whell we lise a torrill on is reilloving
dust that would olil elwisc a<lIl crc to the p;lpcr. type
of correct ion changes ti ll,' dTcct ohhe line ran even
el iminate it alt ogdhcr. Stumping can also b: IIsl'd 10 fill
holes- those thaI \wrc previously free of d l'lrco:11
or chalk. This reduce'S the p:lpcr's capacity for more
h:ltching or color ing ill I:u er
71wsr fiJ.!lIfC's IIl('n'
armed rllli,...l" /'V
Ijllrs ,ufldr
,,';/1, pnslrl;
ajirmm'l , I,> Rj,'( I/ll'
fiJ.!u"'S "",rr mrp"mUI )',
1/'" I,m r fl d,/r,1 fl f r lV
/ill1'5 t/Jm "",/rrsw,...
,1I .. ir p"!(ifrs.
Opening Wllite Spaces and
Blending Lines
The ch:l.oco.'\l Slick (.-:l ll be smoothed
with a tortilloll , fi llh'Crtips, o r a
p.1illtbrl1sh .Wht'11 is
it bCW LIlt'!i lighter ; this is
alrnQ<;( the oll ly w;!y of c:n.":l.Iing
grarotio lls, oc-causc t he chanl,'t" ill
intClisity is b.1rcly notict'ablc wiLen
one tr.lC(.'S more or k<o:s mloothly 011
the paper. I-llgh- illl t"1lSity soft
graphite {'lUl :Ilso br smoothed WiUl
3 tOltilloll , which "llows lintS to be
Intq!r:tltxl and d imin. ..ll l"S thl' whitl'
'i(:W:<."S bcl wt'CII thcIII. By {,'f:1ding
tht' tonl"S, the tOI'lillon creates it
pt' n<'"Ct rcpn.'St'nr:llion of an objeCt;'
\-oI IIIIIC. All y Tllbbi ng tl 'clmi{Jut' l-:ln
be uscd to smooth dw lin(.'S of this
in'itnllncl1l. bill it is to
O\erusc this tt'ch ni'lIW becausc It
GIn drJin the fi lial drJ\\ ing

Twu " la),s or Smoothing
' Jbcrc arc two bask ways 10 practICe
smoothing: lo o;ofi:<."tl Ill<' h<.-J\·y linl'!;
or pmfiJt" of a model, we shon]cl
usc t he l ip of a torlillo n: lo slIl ooth
out large O1I"t.'a\, wt' liS\.' t he wide part
of ti ll' turtill on.T hl· mo tions o f the
haud follow tilt" \"OIUllIl"S of
tht' When \\"Orki np: 0 11
inlpn:ciSl' fOUIl(bliolls o r
'Illrfaccs.. lhc h<lnd make a
cirrubr Inolioll .
Smc.n/liuJ! mil ,,"ly "NI'f"J sll",k , .. ,,111
"III "Iw Illr 1,,!fi>tr "" "1f/11uilJl"
lc.w"w. l lJr " I" ",t/(oll' Y'''''·fiJ:'''f"J 1/';/1,
drI"!. "",/ btiJ.""Ilf"fJ.
.v,,""'f,;''Jl iJ i1 / IrN/"U 11,.,1 tJI.",-s ,Ilr 11I1i$!
I" nwklll,r j/ffill' 1"'1fS 'f ./i.eurr br
"",killl: sm..,..,h '''''lS;/fu"s '" I,,,,r Ih, '1 Ilrll'
,,, t,,·r/."" Ilir ">/,,,nn ,,,u/ rrlirJ if lilt'
I"ml.", bod,'.
111m, "",killS"
smtfr, "1'11' Rmrs
,md iI Jwipl' cf'/,r
I,,,I"!.,,, ilrr '''"'1'
Il stfillfi ...
It is w","lh noti ng
thai the
pou ibili l iCll of
whcn rOil usc

charcoal in "ick
nr !,<'IId ! forill .
he C.-;lSI'" (311 pby :lll important mlc in tht,
human fi gure. It Sl'TveS:lS .. drawiug lnstHllllcllt in itself, lIsefu l for
\Vorkill g wi th til e: qU:l liry of the li nl' and tone. We on lISC it to ".-k aT an
an:a, \mooth out a linc, o r drJw ill dmwing the oU[linc ohhe
figure by erasi ng 0 11 previously colored arc<lS. III the ,allK' way that we
CHI prodll Cl' diffcrt'J11 1.1ual iti (:!; of bbcks depending 011 the pressure we:
apply to the d l:Ul' U"1. the l'raSlT allows for all illvcr;c o f the salli e
t<..'chni{1t1t'; the Ill ore pressl!re you npply, till' whi tt'" the ('rasure will be on
th e p .. <-"rasure is sofi , whell tilt.' eraser passes sofdy over the
color jug it slllootllt:s it out light ly. Au crasur,' shows us how we can
<:Ollstrm:t a forlll usi ng bright lights on a d;lTker b:lckgroull<t.
All rrllSl'r (,m II(·
II sl·r/Ji'r "'",.. 1111111
(ro",·(lillS 1" "'Il":
",..(, ,," ,m' ''' /0
1(111",." ,,,It I
mor/,", 1/", ".Iief
'!( II"./Wdy.
D,.:.:Ir",,,s li Se .if,l,t elll$rr min's I/, r
,""WiltS ,!( Ihr I""'y, lirll'iHJ.: /" creme ""
<If(1 ,1"" n·",illds m 'if C ll'fo- R",,,,,,,
o.,(C 11,(" 1"/11' i.< $I"(",II! <'111, 11'1' InKt II,,·
"/l/Ii/lc of ,hcJigllll· Il Sill.C , 1/1 crllSer tIIlt!
"" " k ;IS I>rlglll sJX'IS /'1' I1llpiylll.1! '!If,tler
j m c lIS II'!' tms('.
Creating Effects with an Eraser
We can with :11\ l'rascr, Using Olll' ofits
sharp t(lr eX.1111pk. we nil c reate thick !illL'lI: if we r ub thl' l' uri!"\'
widt h of tlw all thl' p;lpc:r, \W Gill llI.1 ke.1 broad swath: ,Ind wl' Cl ll
finl' !illl"; by traci nj,:. with iN o r l n'tr.Ktabk l'rlSer,
Rl'trJct:lhlc ef:lSl'1'li an' \'l'ry lI:.o:flll lOr drJwlIlg on a pn'viollsiy colon'd
or diffilSl: drawill);, the shine ofthl' ski n is rdnforced
by npl' niu); li p white ,l TeaS wit h (he eDscr, as \\.cI1 ali by forms
and n...,;pn.:tin!! (hOM.' th,l( ,..-reau' Finally,
o n gn:all' r nuam;l' to ti ll' of COlltr.:l.sts by snli!)' applying;r
p,:n..:il nr ..:h;.lk :a nd followi ng the form oftlw nlrf.1ce,
Working with Charcoal
The 11II1 ;!ell ;IIlIlCSivelil'SS o f dl;lrcool makes it very hard to t"r.1se. [11
GlSL'lI,.1 soft ",'1.1111 el'.1St'r is t'S.<;\.-' n ti;l! . bl'cUl sc not only C,1I1 it bl' IIsed to
corrcc.: t bUi il is also IIsdill for lip \Vll ite wi thin
.1 or bknd to ti, e color of til l' p:lpl'r C\'CIl afte r it has
(lr.lwn upon,
"rI' ,111" ill""""".",, 'I1,1'f
"IT''' IIIt'/i"", ji>r ".jll, 'lit qU,l/lly
.f II /jllt "II
111, ... , flIt tRIm is mMrnI s<"'y "" " I",""i".'.! ,Of'
(,>It,,;,,!!, il i, '1.\./'fly, 1J "'" IIIr <:ITff'
flJflj;,l/y. ' ... (nt' flit miMic 11111/ tfn,/"'/"I flttU'S.
An ... raser
can also be u'lCd
hloller of
.\(lTU, crcal;ns
1'!.'<lUres and
(111 <l ens<: dmn:ool
haldling .

he imcrprctlltion of the model with expressive
linC'S cmpllasiz(:s its properties :U1d imbue!;
the drawi ng wi th Ch:lr.lctcr. A dr.l\\ri ng Il l,."(."<l not only
refer to represcntations :md Strul;lurcs in tile physical
world .. - i t can also cxprt.'Ss some of the personal trailS
of the artist: his emotiolls, imaginat ion. percepti ons,
and personality. The :lbstract qualit ies of form,
rhythm, and color always have :m emo tive responsc
for a perceptive artist.
Expression i n the Figure
Expression is a diffic\J lt concept to defi ne in a few
words wi thout givi ng rise to ambigui ty. A figure
drawi ng is expressive wh(:n it pOSS<.."S.5(..'S " life," an inner
vit:lli ty; when t he model appears animated and is not
reduced to pUI'C, cold repreSl"ntation. Expressio n COlJl
be achieved in several diOcrcm ways: by using
salUratcd colors; wit h intense. out of control lines; or
through formal distortion.
11 .. /1"11<" js 0"
!'SSe",;rrI JJ..'i/l
dllJlviJI.fZ 0 J"'dr from
f!fr.rspOO"II-,' !fIH·
((Imidn- thot ill JJI/7JJ),
f<tIt'J, ;1 is Jlf'a-unry ' tl
worn quickl)' 1J((/ll!Sf'
poJlUfCf tll1' rpm
III onkT 10 properly "ooA'(' all O:P"JS' w <lmUl;" }?, i' is
usdi./1o/lfartirr Ihf' j!ml'l,i( q'UlIi,y of' /'t lillt' ;,wl/.
mid st/ldy ilS "' /elmly III'" <lillYl'llIl.
Linear Marks
To achit:vt: ,II] expressive Ji ne in
OIlT dr:IWiLlgs, Wl' lImq work
qUkkly. barel y litl the pencil
fi u m the page, or sh;ldc. and
follow the m;!in lines of the
SUbjl'ct with a carefree,
stmh' of till' Pl·l lCil.
is 1I1;1l1i(l'Stlxl
th.anks to quickness
and work. which
,III OW5 for the improvis.1rion o(
li nl'S wi th a livcli nl'ss and streIJh>th
that arc to produce
with a slower, moJ1;'
exeCllt ion.
In this type o( drawing. li nes arc
l'xpn'sst: d quickly, and the (orm is
captured and represented in its
lOtaliry, wit h no dl't;lils, bm in its
full, dynamic anion. Its (eatures
dt:cisivt: and the press ure
applied to tht· lille vaTilos
depending on the emotional
rc(]ext'S of the artist: the line is
dt-cisivc and flexible if we loSt:
ourselves in the impulse of a
fleet ing percept ion.
£"/)'-':.<$;'''' dmll<iIY:.< aft· Ilw IIW$I aJ!pmpri<lle j,r rllr
/IIn/ inli ,if a JiXHrr. 'nr lillrs ill l/ri, kind of mlf'rla/',
Inr!fir slmUll ml rPllfj'5""'.

1':<1' .... $5i"'·
sfwkN joffi'$ III M
I'f'",/(rll,r liul' IWy
IIIf d,.wils <l lId
i,,>trad pl/sillg 0"
IlIr rllyll"" ,!lid
Shllll"'" II,r

'I " 111111.."1' <III
il is l>rllrr 10 !l'ork
, (
lIre pi'llril
poilll lilrM sUg/III
",MeI, gives !I,r liur ) 1'-'1<:-
XI'f'I1/rr pU'WlU"t' <ll1d
It is 10
alw3Ys can y 3
wi rh
YOll. By ob!iCTving
people and
d ... wing [hem
rrequentl y. YOll
will huild a visual
memory or
physical fur ms
and expressions,
and rou will g><in
prnctice in using
a quick,
air is a mal!cabk covering. It variu grc:lt ly
depending on a person's and comcs in a
wide array of forms aud textures that em be a
chalkllgc for the amateur artist. Hair Gm be
n:prcscnll:c.i ill three ways: first, dr:lwmg in synthesis,
while dctCflllinillg only thc dlccts oflight aud
slladow; s«olld. n::ndering the effectS of li ght al1d
shadow, the tonal values, modeling the forms. light,
and shine that determine the quality of thc hair; and
third, rencl cring thc hairstyl e by controlling the
direct ion o£dlt: line.
Haif Tones
No matter how dark the hai r is, .... -e must never draw
it in a tone intcll$C that it contrasts c)(<:asivcl y
with the IOIl(,."S of the face. We must sofi en this dark
color, making il as li ght as the most darkly shaded
tones of the face or ncck, to illtcgratc the tonal values
of the hair with those o r the r(:5t of rhe figurC, Subtle
iu light alld shadow Ildp expreu the
texture and vo lume or tllt' hai r. We can achieve tht!
c{fect o r SOrOlCSS wi th a blurry o r unfocusc.:d profile
or by addiug a satiny shine to give the a sil ky
III a q"ick sn"/l, I/l(' In.:fUTf
lIa;, is lrea/cd 01,1)'
mil,;,MlI),; il (a" br ,.." de1l'd
w;11I a $;",,'/r hlflt l';"J! ",ad,
up of di ,Mio"a/I;nN,
H -,
'l1,n"mr ...... 'fr!)/
",rlhoos for gi,;,rg
.'01""" 10 III, hmr
of Ji,,;sirf'tlfigmf$.
The 1110$1 dfrlliw
if 11u:g ;s 10
tOf1ll'i .... II,,,I«/..., if
hair <Il if Il ory .. -nt
1!Ir,.-kl, alld model
Mth alI'a s"/>I1mtrlr
Will, its ,,,m figlll
.wd wadtd ports.

IncIU,.. of 111(' irair.
wt' musl 1101 fOl$<'1
IIult lilt' 1)(',KiI /jilts
"''' I I a lllW)'S flo'"
in III( f<1mr
diml;"'1 <Il fhr
hair. Wlt(' 11 dmu; ,,,
(Urir Ila;" /<,,
i lllllfmr, If,,, /illtJ
",USf fIIrvt'd.
The Direction of the Stroke
Tht' c\in:etion of the stroke must follow the
direction of the hairstyle; therefore, we must t<lke int o
"e(OUI1l tht' sh:lpe of t he style e\'Cry ti1l1e \ \IC dr:lw
tbe Il"ir: wi lh slr:light h"ir. the li nes wi ll be very
str.1ight, willie with wavy the lines will be
CUT\'t.xI. Curly h"ir be rendcn·J wi th swirls, .,nd
vcry kinky hair c;ln be rendered III very finc doodles.
Thus, we achieve h;l ir (hat s(''CIlIS to TCJ ll y origilllllc III
the SCI!P. On the other h;lnd, it can al'iO be intcI'CSting
to 100S(' lr.lCC$ 10 expre$ the ligll tness of lht'
hair, ;I\'oidi ng:t solid. 0\'t....Jy "hc"vy" form.
DrJl !ilt'iff 1II1f!f'tlmfl(t'ill rro/ /i/r, /JOir
wJor ',,' IS' ,mIT 1I/'PI'tlr ...... y '11Imst'.
Ht >lUISI il1lC'1!f'lIt' ils "'.'" /lfImlNlic<ll1y
'0 11'111 f!I' llIr jntr as tI M " I('
IlUU/J lilly ''''1(''/111" if II,.. body.
n ll'f" tlrr I • ..., j,,/jj( 1>\1)'>' to rrprrstnl
bed)' IJllir; 1'fH' IS ' lilian .";IIJ IIllo:siK,
tIrI)' Ilt!ltlJi./;C. pmulld Irtrin;ei;
1/". lItlw. il Itt Sid" II)' IINOOI/"' IJ! III"
/III«lIi' l1: ",il" ltal//rtl",il"
(/wWIII. '/Jlr ri,f!;IlI shot, ..
boIlJ PIIJjiM/ilin.
Body Hair
When dr:lwing t ht' h"ir on the brow!'. or
pubic area. do not uy to draw c"ch h.1ir individu<l ll y.
You sholi id make thesl' only cll uugh
so that tht'Y iHl it:lI e the textli TC of the skin cOVl'red in
hair ;md the di fferent tonal iut('nsi til'5 d13( Iht."Sl' an':\S
exhibit compared to o thers. Tht." hair 011 ;a mali 's kg)
;a nd chest C'd n be rcndcn:d with shon , light.
or by sllIudging uf l:ireuiar or
irregular traces :lppliCtI with :l light touch of the
pc::nc il.
Lilla t/c5lribl".I! /Jail ,/",,,id,,', IN-
"1I!(oml;'1 is mo'" ':("1Ii< .. ' " I'llI")' 111(;'
illl(,lIIily n/lll Slll /' ,,, If(Sl.i/w (I silky
Ir"" Hll' IWf' / Oil III<' ;."it/r//cr ,11':f/mj.1S
"II S"!((I(f'.

' I,
. ,
' \
,oj'f!;,' SKIN
he skin is Ih" olltl' r lh:lt covers the
human body completely, givi ng Ih(" body the
appearallce of a singie, colored Although this
is 1101 Ihe [his surface prcsclllS wore
or lt$li pronounCt:d volumes. Every individual has ..
unique skm col or. bUl light al1ccb the color through
whi(h it is \X'rcdwd, creating diITt'rcnl 10 n;l] vaJ UI.'S.
Flesh Sh ould Look Like Flesh
WI1C: n dnwi ng.! !ludc. the 11(:5h sl10uld look like
flt.'li h. Whc: n (lecd with rcpl'l:scl1linl;l: the consider
the full owi ng f,l ctOrs: the wavy rcliclS of the muscles,
wrinkle;, the na\'el, the creases and joinll; in the
limbs,:1$ well <IS the Jnd r:l<;t' of the pcrsc:!11
picturt:(1. The fla ccid. \\lTinkh l ski n o f an el derly
person will not look Iht' same :IS the sm()()(h. but
skin of a child; silTIibrl y, a persall of color will hold
different IOnal than a white person, T he
\u lulIl cS of the body's flc.<;hy depend, above all
dsc, 0 11 the lIl usck-s , tissues, and the texture ami
firnll1t:ss skin, A lII ore Lvidcllt,l;cner.,1 fac tor to
consider appearance ofwrinklcs with llb'C, the
fb ccidity of tilt' skin in certain arc:u, and the presence
ofb.'l(;S, p;:!rticubrl), in the checks and neck.
) t
:iJ,'i" rot .. ,.,." lJOdr II/li, sJ", .. /d t..
Ifml"" d:ruliil)l TIU' 11f'SI1l,;"g is lei
al/rml" w nrmr IIZJ'fTcf
rf"llmu f7 ",IMUII ,11<' 1,'r!I' if",1Ir
(/"'"001 ltirl.: 011 tltr
rprrMrd litl<' ,'i,III,I/I'", ,III' lllIiry
(I><'('ri"Ji ,!f".r ski" tjJrclh'f'II"
'Ur '0 1"1,.11 r!1I"';"klN ru,d (n'<IJrS <IS
tlifillitr fomlS I>/td IlWid "1"('1(1111'1$ l/lftH
11$ /ld'il"")' "', lilt" mifiu' if" 11K'
Different Racial TYllCS
The law!> of proportion or
do.:scr ibcd at Ihe beginll ing of dIe book
aren't V3lid for L'\l:ryunc. T hc facia l
fcaUlR."S of a Black person are ilion'
pronounced than those of
smub rly, in ;1 C hinese person, the height
ofthe body equals some scven :md a half
r.lthcr th.l l1 ci",ht and ;, half
Somcnmcs, \w tind it difficult to dr.lw
fact's or bodks of ('lces other 11 ... 111 our
own for dlC si mpl e n:ason that we are so
[., ,111liar with our OWl l
proportion!> IIiat our pe,n :p tioll
wilen dr.lwmg other.; becomcs
li lll iu::d. T he only soluti on
to face this and seck
m.:w models. Once you Ila\,\:
progn-ssed as an and
ck:vclopcd you r powt:rs of
obsc.-rv:mon and
drawing diffcITnt r.ldal f)'lX"li
will become easier.
Shadows and Li ght
T ht- fl esh tones of a nudl'
shoul d always be at thc
st.."J'ViCl..' of the expression
of light and sh.,duws
0 11 ttl/,' ;an.atomy. lt
goes wi thout s;aying
that sh:tdo\vs c;an bc
dCL1' :t nd dense. or
son and tr.lIlsp;m: nt ,
and th:t t light can
be inu:nsc, direct,
or imlircct. We
must ;a lso consid('T
d1,1t tho:: tOnt.'S uf the
body \.;'lry depending
a ll the color
surrounding tho:: fi guTC.
This effL'Ct on t hen be
attenuated or into::nsificd by
surroundmg tht" fib'll TC wit h Ol hc r colon
thu COntrast wi th its profIle-. T hcn..f orc.
ski n color is ;a cn."atio n borne of me
treat mcllt of the work. and o n
be: mod ifi ed ;lIld affi rTlled as the: d .... wing
p TO{,'TCSSt.'S, :luCll uatill1!. corn:ctillg. or
intensifyi ng lhat color.
II iJ IlJif1d 10 IIlTJ(tjao dnnvillJ! IIlClfris <1 difTi"f'IIl
rll",ifilirs. I .. d,,;,'1! W, "'" diJ(<I"v 1/'''1 II.r skill "'''r
IlI1w tli{1't'I'C'!If /(Illn/ ''''/IIC'I, a" d ii/ .... ,!fr
di{1'rmll'G fro'" ,llc (wssk"I I",,'!
nJ f<l l l(cms / ' IC f"u.
"AI 1m indeterminate fIOUf;!rolll a Silllree kl/oll''' to /IS 10001'. the work oj an illeluctably COllies illlo /1, 1'
ulrlrld. Cold mfmlalioll, spots tlun (,nlpl into disorder, malllcnlatimlly exact collstnlc/ioll- --{/en( or
rrco"dile-Ioud or silem (/ralVing, smlJmlo«s IlI()rk/IJamhip,Jmifart's oj c%r or piallissimo oj wille,
tml1qllil, briule sl/riaces."
W. Gn)h","n" 3nd \v.t;.!;ily Kand; ,," ,y: Mibn, II 19SY.
/7,(' NUDE FIGURE /1/
he outline the fi rst anist must on the pagl' . II
of (t r:l wing t Ilt" structure of t he nlo(kl, laking
imo its lilllits nlld propurtiom, G"bri d Manin has done
in thi s t'xcrcisc. ln order to an adequatt· u udilll', it is necessary
ro calculate. (" ,:tI Llatc, sketch, try 10 umkrst:md how
forms an: an inilatcd. lf tht" otl tli nt' is Ilot rt'nckred corn:cdy. it will
bt: ncarly 1I11possihk to corrcer the dr.Jwing b tl'T.
1. T Ile ol ltlil K' should fi r.<l be:
madt' with til l ' thi ck sid(' o rthl'
dl;l n:oal stick bcrwccl1 your
fi llg<.TS. T hc basic forms of tIll"
fi guR" oudi ll cd
As YOll dr.I \" with thl'
d l.l n:o.l ] stick, your fingerti ps
SllOUJd blur the iJli ti.tl linc ;Illc\
blend it inlo the pJpl' r. 11l the
l:oLllposi rioll, we shoil id keep in
mill d Ihe illcii lle of the
the zigzag cOlll lX>Si tioll th.1( till'
ck:<cribl' ill rdatioll TO the
2, T he is 10 mt:aSl1Je, erase, and corrfft [he
drawing ;, $ yOll 6'0 along, lint ii, liu k by link, the
dr.lwing looks li ke the 111()(ld. Wlll'n, Jli:o.: r sl'vtTal
we fi nd tIle corl1.' CI lili l' , thi s ]illl' bt'
mnrked as "' k .. u im:isioll with til l' point of the
chaJeoal on the paper, whkh wi ll :dl ow you to
rrinton:e the fi gurc:>'s contOllr,
. ' .. .
"Oli"./· ". ."

111 ... 11 uo.rki,!( ",jill rl".mw ,1/1'111 im"
smaller I,irr('l ,,, mal'/' it (mirr ,,, mm"'''' .... )'1m'
slm/.."", "11 thr /lil/W'.
3.0011'1 worry If you h:wc to 'Hake a
{"orn'CI outhne 011 the fir;r try IJh -s a great of
p f:lCl icc: it "OllIl,t h ing you will aelli.:\'c olily :lfl l'f milch
Don'r 1I 'iC an cr.tScr whcll makinA your
a r.ll; wi ll sli ffi n' . Alld n-II H.'mbc:r how imerl'Stll lg
pcnti mc utl e m ht:.
4. T he final Tt'SUI I of this {'Xen ' ISt'
an outline thaI capu m .... till'
1)Ol;lUIY and .lttitudl" of thl' modd ,
witho ut ib't1o r ing tl u: corn 'C!
proportional n-b rioillohips of lll·t
body. 'Il l<: IIUpOftl lll til ing In: I'I,' is
to achieve an :KClU-:l t l'. synt hetic.
tirm {"omour line, ami a
Ill:!! doesn 't get lost i n ti l(:
clt,tails- Holin.- how thl' dr;l \\ illJ.:
ob"; ntn ti n:
illl1t: r of t he li gure.
the fee t. .
. :;..---"
The 1i.,;1 OUlline
should lw made
wit h the thick
side ort he
ch.IITo., 1 stick. 10
t he lim's
fi .. "r and more
HISS we must draw are the
of the shouldcn and the hipbone.
both somewhat t ilted. We dr.tw an
oval to represent the head, a
nX1:a ngic for the torso, and two .-/

shapes. The
Tl"Suh is a synt hetic outl ine
in which the pose that the figure
assunlt.'S and its for ms an: made
much mon- comprehensible.
Srani ng from t his sketch, we
continue to add new (orms
<It.-taili ng the volume of the body
aud till: si lhouette of t ile limbs
with gl'COlter prtti.sion.
<hecv,,", 01 of
:. ' the forms of the very simplifil-d
very few lines. There is no 0" ".., the human body
that is t OO complex to be
the fon m of the body
shapes thai can Ix-
i ,
3. All that L\ IIOW to complet ..: the
out line is to seeml' the prill eiple lint's of
the fi gure, without ddaili ll g lIll illl poTunr
(Orl IlS such t ilt' fingers. If YOl l you
can :. ppJ ying haldullg 3t this
poi lll.This pron'lOs Cl i l be done very
quickly [Ising till' edge of stick of
gmphitc. drawillg with the nat Slllf.1C(t
of the stick alld t hen snlll clging the
rt'sub with yOll r hall d. Mah- sure that
the i!leiinati on of the bodv is correct
by <.:hcckill £ the lines 0( ;'1(:
shoulders, the breasts, and the
• hipbone.
4. In this final imagt' we sec how, when
the plOfi le is rendcn-cJ with more si newy
li nes and the body is modd ed with
hatching, the b>'eomctric outli ll e St3rls to
dis.a ppcar. alld ill its pl ace we find the
body of a well proportioned figmc.
Emmrrs iu
IWI ou/r JIlT
Or d;m;um;u,e
lilies. Ur tI,,/JI,;u,e Il,e
'!f 11l" p"per 1/';11, a

r/wrroo/. /I'/' mil
IVIlif1{, SOIllC wry
ill/m-Sl ill,!! 10llal
GIUI "111/(1.>1'/' 1'';';
_""' __ """L _ f
a drawing

.... r",i;, complClcl)' is
wh"n wc inlcnd
10 cor" CCI
silU31"d Ii"".; Ihis
wa)'. wI' b"coml'
3wa", oflb"
ref"renc" poin .. "
w" shouldn'l US",
and at th" sat""
tim" correct
in tl>" oudint:.
n poses, the lillt's of tilt' shoulders and hipbone :lrC rardy
compl t' tdy horiw ntal. Allllost always, in reb xed POSCli like
the o ll e shown here. these li nl-'S :lSSU11l C slight lIldin:nion so (h:1I p:ln of
the body's weiglu I"eSts on OIW leg. while tlK" orhl'r kg is £l=lxi and
appeal'" more rela xed .'rhis type of pa;Ul rc, \vt: II:!vc seen, is k"oWTl as
the comraposto or ischiatic position, here rendered ill graphite pell cil by
I. [kforc st.1' lmg (Q dr:lw, we
should llI:! kc :Ill t"ffort to
umkP.il;md the body's posmre
llsing simple, synthetic skcktoll
to Jdltlc it. The first is to
pbce the oval for t il{' head ,1110 the
an: h de!'(: ri bi ng the backbone. In
the contr:lpo:;to position, the lilI es
ofthe shoulders ;md hips alw;l)'s
tilt in opposite dil"CCtioIlS. l11C first
lirlL'S should have a purely

2. Arrer placing the structural li m .. "!\
of the bod\,. rt becomes e;!sier to
draw tht;: of the llIodeL We
begi n with the head, on which we
will mark the 10r.; 3tion of the faci:! 1
fe:! tll res. then work down tu the
shoulders, kceprng irr mind th;!t
the from each of rhern to
dre backbone shOir ld be the same,
t.."I' C'I1 wilen tiltt..-d. Then we reach
the hipborll·s. whidl tilt frum tire
b.1ckbone at t he same poi nt :It
whi ch the Iq,'S ben{L
Itl s,'me l>I1m of II" , "'la/OJ")',
IIIC liue rlisal'/Jt'111'S " 1 a rt'm/l if
i IUJUI,iu-,!. ,,4,i(/, ,,1/01115
upo" (o"/,,,/Icd
;11 l l,e IUI/d,;,'.'!.
" f ,./ .-.'
3. Using :m wc diminatc the
.".. stn lCllll-al lillL'S that we used as:l guide.
/ The light , linear drawing &om the
stage III the drawi ng now gives
t{ W:ly to the model ing of shadows (whi ch
helps li S lllldersbnd the fOrms through
the dr:twing). 13m before doing so, each
of the body's volumes Ill ust be perfectl y
defillt;'d and proporriOrl L-d in relation to
the rest: the heiglll of the pectorals, the
armpits, the abdomen. (l, e pubic area, 3nd
the knees. Use ti le l'Cference points of the
cl assical law of proportions to properl y
situate thC'SL' cl ements.
In con(rnposto
poses, Ihe (ill of
the hips is
reflected ill the
knees. As a
response £0 (his
lilting. one of (he
higher (han the
1.1 1
:7"///> FIG U RE 1';- . ,- -,
t_/ / / <- ,
F 0 RE S H 0 RT E
N;T E 17\
1 't', L..J. )- ': -;,' .'
DRAWlNG /1t)n;_EMALc-NUDE "?
.... '>; "' .... ; '.'. .. /j
ile apphc:lt1on of the lawS' or proportion to' the iUli nan figure is -
ahcred when t he model 15 foreshortcl1cd- n1c:tJnng. when t he •
relati onship between rhe measurementS 'S'lllodifidby the rules

ways of .'.
. I is with practifc,
I by obser ving how a -
fOl"($horlcllcd ugllTc in charcoal.
exercise;' is [0 fi rst Outli ll l' the fi gure wi th
to situate conto urs by considering its
" -
\ \
- --
. first step is to L'StatJll Sh l ht:' outline of the
1 we begi n Wi'th2g. hite pencil.To do
. nuke usc of the bY n fami li ar geometric
draw an ation of the
i profil e we draw a soft _ mOllT 111 graphite pencil
based 0 11 thcpl'cvi outline, remembering rhal
because.' the fiSt! ying in bed with her legs closer
to the "iewer, t ey will appear larger. The sho:c ofhcr
head \3W reduced because it is furt her
2. We contilllic treating the empty sIXlC(.'S ,uOl lnd the
figure with new tonal fields. At this Sl;l.gc it is
neccss:Jry to emphasize the light wit hi n the darker
areas of the drawing. Using crude charcoal as wd l as
stick of pressed charcoal, it is possible to combine
Sllins and lines of varyi ng intensity.
3. Th(' <i:lrk<'St pam of the f.1ct' an.- 111<1d('
wi th a tortillol!, with link pn. .... ,urc,
soft lint'S :llIa w (0 11no [hc
ljustlll l"l f i n
pur ill this
is to colllpll'k' thl'
oHant'S crc:lt Cll by the d'<lTl;oal

4. Complt'II WIl(;lry
m<lke it so th<lt whell d\l"y occ ur
adj 3Ccnt to bri ght tOIlt'S, cbrk
tones wilt :lppear ilion' de llsc.
The s.a me thillg to light('[
(OIU:S, which IIIll Ch b r ightl'f
whcn th ... ,), :l(lj;l('e tll to da rk
1.\ \
If \\11rkilll; with
-----" charcoal
wC take
the precaution of
cven if
lift htl y, the
g"'l'hi l('
drawing. ' I1,C
11.' (, b)" tI,C
graphite pcllci l
an: o il)" and wiJ\
keel) the chaTCNI
(rom 1;lkilll; 10
Ihe papcr.
' J"
lll' oft hl' Ill ost au ractive ways ofbegi li ll ing a drawi ng is by llsing
rill' Ibt of any dry 1l 1l'ltiwll in for m, as or
chalk. Irs spect rum of tOil es is broad, but b" c3 usc of its c010r, it looh
lIl li ch Ihan eh'lI1:oal, and bri!;hrer. LCl\ see for oUhc1 n:s the
of drawi ng wi th by observing how Ether Ohvt- dl'
I' lli g a SC31t'd f(' 1II3h: fi b'll f!." wil h ber'Wl' U light
Mi d
I , Lk fofl' bq;illll illg TO
dl:!"', thl' makes
51llall sh ,tehes. If whl' n we
make the li ne we
kel'p ill lllind Ihe line
do:snibill g ti ll: b:ll'kbone.
ill the b:lst:d Olt
SL'lius the li lll'S l in t ser ve
as gllidepos[\ fOl' the
drawi ng will be Ihe dark
",hill' thl' light
wi ll be Id i unl'Oucilt' d,
2. J)1'Jgging thl' b;l r length wise we £l'l a th in Ii tie;
by Ihe (' min.' wiclth of t h .. b,n rtrross
pagl ', Wl' ere'l tl'.J Ihick, alll ple line that illlill edirttci y
fdl .. ets t he text l1re of tile pap .. r. A cor rect I1 SC or th e
t1at bar allow!, I1 S to rt:l1titT COlllpiL-X forllls in just;)
few Ill Olll ellts. we ca n see ill tllis state, it. i
. COllst nl cti\'e. The cleCJ ils ;t fe ull illl por t311l: olI.
Illa([c rs JfC l hl' stai ns and tht' i lll illcdiate
.• o f t ill' pose.

, .
3. We conslruni ng lhl'
figure wit h 111(' lengt h of tht' bolr.
\Vto have IlOC unti l this point U'lt.'<I
lines at aiL In a toual (h:lwiug. Ihe
grain of tht' p.1p<: r and tlu' p",-'SSun:
of OI'k'S hand give th(' fi b'1.lrt' Ib
lont'S. IAvcnding on tht' foret' WI.'
apply to the we \':Ity Ihl.'
brighlll t':S5 of the dr.lwing, Oy not
using li nt'S, tht' profill" of
tht' figure is d .... fined by il'i
CQntr.lst. and till' t'!Hpty sl):lCe o r
background surrounding the
fib'll rc is n..·I)r(. ... eml'(\ with gr.ly
4, With ewry new nrokc, the
previolls tayCrli of shadow art'
T ht, arc t'!ip t'Clally
ill the silk of the
body: Ihe dark('St slwdows appt':1I'
011 lhe ar lll, lht' abdomen , ti le
head, and th .... neck. Allhis Slaw,:,
Wt' combme the marooll stam
with somc lim.'S.
thl" point of the st ick makes
il easil"r 10 m ee thc fina) linl.'S that
define the fi gures profile. In th ....
sketchl.'"l<. It IS
nccess.lry to pay as much
to tht' dark an'as :Il> to the p:arts of
the body with intensc whites.
SaUb'1.linc i.. u .... ally
applil.-d to
textured. bon ......
llct> tht.'" olidill C ,tIl el li lt" preli minary sketch all: dOlle, we can now
examine how 1O propt.. Tl y shade the fi b'lITC. The first rhillg we must
{<I ke into account when drawi ng a figure with chiarQScllfO effects is that
light not elJvelop the entire body cx]uall y. One part of the body is
exposed to thl' rays of light, and it is here that ti le lighted arca occur.; ,
while the other part of the body :l ppc:II"S in shadow. To give shape to this
idea, Oscar S:lIl chis l iSe'S a burnt Si CIl Il:l pastel , which is sll fficielltly soft to
give its line a good (brkness agai nst <:aImed p:lpcr.
1. The sketch ofrll e model should be complete
before situating the because the shadows
shoili d bl: appl ied 011 a perfectly constructed sketc h.
Shadows are distributw llIlifonnl y usill g the fbt
side of tile bar to mark off the li ghted
wi thout applying excl.. .... bllt all owing for
l)Crwccn objects ;md l'St.1bli shillg the
middle tOIlCS in the drawi ng.
2. berwcell the flat o f the oor and the
lines, we darken the hatching. For a
of the diffeI"Cnt COIlt r;lsts that appear on
thc p.1pcr. we Gill the tOIlC th:lt
the b.1Ckgroulld; the briglltest, whi ch is
represellt(.'d by the color of thc Jnd the
intermediate: lOne, o f the fil"St, soft lines of the
fi rst b yer.
3. Using tIle flat of the pastel again, we finish
extending the background tones so that they
the figure and creatt: the ;atmosphere and
chiara.curo effect . The lighted an..-as appear al most
ulllouch .. :d , s.:allle color the paper.
To accenwate the b[ighte5t burstS of li ght coming
off the andIe, we color the li ghted area with whitc
chalk :lIld !lms cmphasize the effect o f r.uliant light. If
apply this effect indisc[imin:ltdy throughout the
painting, W(' can lose the luminous CffL'(;t we wert'
striving for.
4. The filUl n..'Sult shows th:lt ch:l lk an offer:l b'1'C3t
tonal r ichnL'SS th:lt st retchl.-s the limitS of pictori:l l
qual ity. We have gi\l\.'n nU:lllCe to the fi nal leXlun: by
using a [onillon to smooth out d JC mnsitions in tone
and the edgt!s of the shadow'S.
T o OCCCllb,
wc can a
piece of while
dmlk wi lh a
cUt! er.l-\ivinillhc
chalk puint
drawinl-\ fillcr,
more prcci:;e
l ill('s.
II t !l i\ cxcn:.isc \\'e wi ll work drawing ,\ 111:11.(' fr:om t he
w:mt li p !Ism!,'!: charcoal.md whm' chalk.ll1c (Omblll:ltIon 01 thest"
two mareri"ls \\- ill alll>w II' [0 study the ;neick-un: o fli!2,hl 0 11 rhl: tor.,o
:\JJJ the appli cation of :l lirst modd ing, albeil a very \ tructmniisl onl", Thl'
;Il ILhol" of [Ill s omwlIl g.. Esdl<'T R odriguez, shows us hoI\' to render the
:mJ.tolll y and Ill<:' pb y ,md sll :lclow on a hlllli atl torso in :l very
d fecti vc, synthcric WJY, without lunal mnsitions. which can bt· of gfl' at
11\ 0: to hq;i uuiug.

2. The sketch gin: way 10 a first.
31"cll tc nr:uivc, tonal analysis wi th
but bl, rOn- this IS done, each of thl' ck' lI\cnls
0( \11\; fi gllTc Sl10uld Ix perfectly wel l
defi ned ami proporl iOllal<' in rdatiol ] to the
3. Wi th dw dr.lwillg S(·curc. we begin to the
first dnrk.: lled ThL'SC will us to study tht
more <lcl'ply nnd accen tU:l te the areas that
arc cxpoSl:d to light. T he light source is on the r ight-
hand side, so we should begin drawing the dark areas
011 the Idi: wit h the stick bid-compk tdy
1. 1kgin b)'
dr .. wi llg rhe
omlir w a
stick of charn,a!.
keq)ing ill mind
rh" l ih " f tlK'
shoulders :Illd
4. Wl' mlOO(h ti lt' and control
tilt· of t il l' wit h uur
finb'Cr.;. prodUCIII!-: !,:rcat of tonc.
SrnOOl hi np, ICIl(1\ 10 connect differem paTu 10
(";Je h other. and thus lchic'TS :I ullity ill till'
fib'l Hl.' and soft lI100dlll g ()f1 thc reliefS of
St:lrtin!(: from tlw pn:\ ious \kt' lch , new
sHlrly of tlw modeling liS to :mal y7.e
the fi gure's 11ll1so lbt urc. We draw till' figun"s
lighter [QrK'S Wi t h a \ Iick of white chalk. 111
this \vay, the spL't' t nll H oftOlll"i broadcncd
to includc both the li gll leS! .ltl(1 d.1rkCSI of
gr.ty!i ;111<1 til\' imcr lll ccli:lfC £r3)'$ well.
Whi te eh;!lk \ hould Lx· used sparingly.
5. US(' the tip of till' , h;,":o.1.] (Q mah· sh:l rp
lines that define till' fi gun-'s profile and
contrast the halchlllg of ti ll' fact'. m:ck, :Illd
pectorals. Tht' din:ct ion of thl' light should lx·
\tlldiLxi C:1R' fi ,lI y Ihat all shadows arc
silLLJtcd oppooi l c t he 111.1in light source.
When smoo(hing
a charcoal
),our finb'Cn t o
' "IIf)' (he intl'"l15ity
of t he lone.
n this step-oy-step exercise, we will sec at the lund
of Malt! Bru how to usc a black COlltc pencil to
draw a figure from a strictly i inc;lT point of view, wi th
no hatching whatsoever. TllC characteristi cs of t ile
line uscd to define the contour c;ln transmit the
natur.tlncss of the form, its material ity, surface texture,
and visual charge. To do so, all one must do is contlol
the widlh and intensity orthe line on t1w paper.
1. As opposed to other cxcr-ciSC'S, in this case .. , ... c do not
begin the design of the dJ"oIwing usJng simple geometric
shapes. The right outline is made directly with the line of
tile pellcil, practi6ng a contOUf. T Ill'sC ini lial lilll.'S will be
very soft, which allows for casy {"r.!Sure and const<l n[
corrections. We tIlust first dnw thl' contours that arc
essential to underst.1l1ding and rt.l'rcscnting the form. \Ve
win do whatever to usc the lines
In the preliminary it is important to consider
the rig/..ag form described by the body's poSUJre. as we
call sec in the sketch above.
2. Based on the pn;vious sketch, we can construct the
whole profile of the figure linearly. The n,lce of the line
dO<.'Sn't have to be continuous or have J uniform intensity.
A line can disappear behind a curvc or be interruptL-d by
another contour. Al though the true drawing of the
contour provides a single lille value, the repR'SCnt.1tion
gai ns expressivcll css when we vary the width of the line.
3. We fi nish dI':olwing the lines
and internal ,omours Ih:! t
docribc the aJ"aI1Cl' or rctn'at
of (-.Id] pl rl and aIm the
parti cular character and tacril c
scnsation orthe clothing. The
inu.:r ior lines accentuate the
expn.. · •• sivcnt'Sli o f t h t" VOlll illC and
conUllUni catc till' thn:c-
dimc:ns.ional qU;J lity of each
form in relief :.Ind the quality of
the modeling. lfwc use a
modullw .. "<I linc to gi\.'I.' the line
dnwi ng the effect of volulI\e, we
sllOllidn't fi lrgct ,hal the shaded
an.'3S will hav, to be CXp rcssL't]
\ \ ~ t h thi ck, inl t."I1sc lines, whereas
lighter areas will be sug8t.-slcd by
[enUOllS, fine lint.'1I .
III mille lille
dmwinl\$ the
system used to
reprt' M'1lt forms
recalb a
topq:raphic map.
with difTe""'"1
lilies indicating
different levels
and I l l U ~
represellting the
relief of t he land.
.. ,
II the following step-by- step c\r.lwing, Ml'TCcdcs Gaspar shows tiS how
to cl othed fi gure. C harcoal om: ofdlt' preferred media (or
this the cOlllbin:ttiun of lim's and tonal gradations th:.!
it olll·r. (<lptUrt:s tht, crc:tses .1Ilt! wnnk1cs in rlothi ng.Thl" dr.lwi ng of
thl' fij.,'lIn:. Illadl' 011 co1orec\ p:1Jl('r, is cOlJlpkmc mcd by :lcccms ill wll ite
c1wlk 10 give it a llI otC n:tUl n l,
t . First " T make a sll1:tll. prdinunar y . ketch of th e
model . \ V" hcgin by drawing t he line of the backbone
and t he oval oflile he:l(l, :l11d around this st ructure
sill' wi ll insert the (t ifft'rent parts ohhe body. T IKIl,
using t hl' It'ngth of a piece of wlli te chal k. we
imruduct· t he lights that gIVe bri ghtness to
tlw back.
2. The fi rst on the papl'r should have a strict ly
constmct iVt' fllnction. We c! " IW thl' lint." of the
b;lCkbone ,md tll C oval of thc head. In n skd chy
mallll er, \ V(; rcsolw 11le prolile o( (he body ;'\nd (he
posil ion ofthl' arms with little more than ;'\ cur ve and
an oval. Wl' us,' the charcoal stick so not [0
overdr:l\V, so we C;t n then make correGt ions
3. Till' Im<.':10 of !l1\' outline- mul r:iply wt'
3ttt"IIIP( to adjust the SiZl'li of rliffl:n.'nl
an"l); and gil'!.' plUlx)r!mn to ... ·;u:h p:m of
ml' ix:xly. To end, we haw marked IIU'
waiSI line and 1Ill' ill Ih<' 'I n ns. The
drawmg of Illl' cOlllour remain
open, wi dlOUIColIII<'crmg t h t" iilll'li
cOlll pll'ldy. 'IJ Ih,11 il k'aw'I the option of
rounding (lUI tit .. I,mn by h,Hehi ng,
inslt':,Ii .
w ... · u ..... dw tl.11 uf ttw payi ng:
31[t' mioll 10 till" o f Ihe mood's
drt."S.'>. Tlw d(XClII l ill whil e chalk
compk'I1ICTlI IIll' halchlllg,
highliWltmg thl' [l' xtun: and till'
Vol Ullll:tric k)Clk O(,hl' d o thi ng.
4. in dCI:, i) :lllli using thl'
tip ofdK' white ,"halk , we TC' llb- t hl' {Irt:lils
of d'l" dothm!t. that in order to
XCl' mUJl l ' the [C).: lUll' nf the d orhiut.t. it is
u<;(."fiJ l lQ add 3 to tilt' ;rn."nts
and 10 tlw ,, In.'';,
of <"3( 11 wrinkk (mill its I';l rt . The
end T\.."'Iull j, <')(Cl' I!,"m drJwing Ihal
smooth '\01llt:"wha{
t!ath "r, a,H' Ut<i; th," whole is
wit h mbtk acccrllS in wlli te
U II.-C 'hc
<lnwII" Ihos<' Ihal
will he
hal Chill)! .• hcml<i
he boonc over
with Ih.,
charcoal. We U<e
3 1 ...... 1111011 10
make Ihcse firo; l
on the I'''per, II is
" " oul.:h ltl ruh a
slip;hd), dirl y
lortillor1 on the
1<' $' lighled
astels arc usually combilll:d wi th other drawing media such
as cha1k or charcoal, to broaden their to nal spectrum.
Because of its color, a pastel is Illuch smoother, brighter, and
warmer than charcoal. In the present Marta Bermejo
Teixidor shows us how [ 0 build me flesh t Ol lL'S of a modd from
a combination ofpastd with Illaroon and black chalk.Tlll'!;C
three colors combined with the white oCthe paper are more
than sufficient for making sketches, studies, and works that
require a dctaik-d chromatic
1. Just as we have done until
fl OW, the outliile is the first step
ill making the dr.l\ving, a few
gcnerai lincs in which we group
together simple
fonns that little by li ttle will
take shape until they configure
the profile of the figure.
,----- 1-
2. With small pi eces ofbbck chalk and pastels. W (" ..elnfoTce the
hatching in the empty spaces that envelop the
r. wc make hatching with pastels or chalk, we will
::;;;d;,;,ii;":;;; with a light touch and increase the pressure
!; using the lines of the sketch as a guide.
3. These first touchl.>S of chalk
should be added very carefully,
because there is no need to cover
the paper without first
considering the del icate play of
light and slladow on the fi gure.
thus avoiding cOvt: rillg its most
lighted 3reas. We then bl end e3ch
new 3ddition of chalk into the
other colors using our fingertips,
to 3c!Jil:ve an even tone and a
more pictorial efTe[:t overall.
4. ofhaf ching
m and pastel, we blend
Iho:: volumetric effecl. lf we
[Oil", using a cottOil rag. we achieve ..
.... The general tone of the bl ended
• hli chil}S is darker Ih:m when we usc a
.." onillon. Noncthck-ss. il is these fil'S[ . blenck-d
hatchings dl3.t we will usc to represent t ho:'
middle 10n t'S. The contrasts of the body should
be dnwn progn:ssively, fi nding the tonal val Ul-S
of each piane depending on the li ght that (.1115
on each one of them.
s. Th, [,,,, 1 dh, of ;, 5
black chalk, which creaCt:!> t he sharpcst contrasts
bcfWt.'t-"u light :lI1d shadow in the kft-hand
profile of the bod)'. and which we usc to draw
the projl'Cted shadows 011 the floor and wall .
The different smooth traces made with the t ip
of the chalk sketch the {;adal features and
distinguish the profi le of the outlint: of the
fi gure from the background. lIl ost visibl y ill the
kgs. The f;'nd mllil is a drawing with cl ear
pictorial intensity.
.. ,
Us;n!,: an e!<lscr.
we open up the
shil le in the flesh
of lhe fi gure.
During the
process of
drawing. " 'e have
slTlOOlh Ia)'CTS of
gray and reddish
duiOt (hM have
darkellcd Ihe
lone of the p3pt!r.
'Il ,C acct'fllS we
make wit h the
eraser heighten
the of
, 'Olu",c ;11 the
fi gure.
Ilt> purposes of linc drawing; are many, and they
vary depending on the artist: it can be a medium
fOf hatching, mudding, and tonal analysis or haw"
purd y descriptive role. In tile following exercise we
will sec, at the hand of Mercet.ks Gaspn, how to use
<I graphite pencil and develop the possibili ties of the
line, with no smomhi ng whalSot:ver, ro make a quick
sketch of a female nude fi gaR:.
I. The step is [0 fi x the m05t significant
con touTS, the linL'S that best capture the general
movement o f the fi gure. In a preliminary study, thL1"C
is 110 need to (face a previous skctch-bccausc the
sketchy nature of the study makes it unnecessary,
31t1lOug11 it is helpful to ma ke" mental calculation of
the IIlCa$Un..'S ;md proportions of the figure.
2. Often, the design of the cOntour and the first
Illolld ing linl.-'S are simultaneous. T hl:y both occur <I t
every moment , so <I shaded u ea or volume !;:Om be
made solid by simply varying the strokL-S and
suggestion of the contour linc.

f \




- ,. "
'\:: . I, - --
: J' <: 1
' X·'lI- , '.
! I,
3. The gencrnl pencll lillt."S much a way of
cxpres)ing \'Ohunr they are a boc nrrnl intonation of
a base which we.' GIll thell aCeentllate ill sih'11ifi c lnt
pbccs. As we drnw we fed for the volunw almost by
intuition , appl ying more or J...-ss pressure to thc penci l.
If we b'TIP till' pl·nci l fully on the inside of the ham\.
we cm control the din:ction of thr line ami keep it
froll1 being too intense.
.. 0
4. This drnwing. based on SOUl e ligbt
pendl hatchi ng, SUgJ:l"Sts the profile of
the fi b ... ln: :lIld the force of the 1lIassc5,
without representing them wit h 100ai
It :lcccntuatcs the voluUlcs and
of the body while avoidi ng sharp.
ehi:m:lSCuro contrasts and observi ng thc
unity of the forlll.
is Ihe
dominant reatu.e
.... in OIl r dr.owings,
we kL"'Cp
profiles rrom
geu ing lost by
muking them
whcrc\'Cr Ihere il
.. (old or a ,-cry
dl.ildcd area.
r---... -------·., I" nude fi gur,c, we encounter all of the robleills inherent I
. g the: flesh, which appears as a fal ' uni form surface; its
volumes arc 11 evident, but we 1l1ust grade them ..
colori ng of flesh, \\l hich:l t first glance :lppears unifOl: ·mroughout.
contains a series 'f nU:lnce; t hat are hard [0 appreciate by :In eye
un:lccUSlomed (0; 'the properties of color. The goa! is therefore [Q exerc' r
our eye until we' are to see dearly where the vol.umes of the b ".i
:Ire produced, and to bri ng dlem out by uSlIlg color,just as Esther, ' ve
V "
/ '
de Puig de!).lOll strates in [his exercise.

1. We make a sketch using
maroon pasteJ, profl!ing the
comour wi thl a firm, assured
srroke. T he trPtment of thc figure
is qui te free; e)1ere is a dC:lr and
intentiona! d4:propor tionally
betwccn the tpp and bottom parts
of the body. so. rendered to
achieve a gre:ltCr expressh't':lless.
2. Using the fJat' ofthe pastel we
apply a light pink tonc that will
correspond to the middle tones in
the drawing. first sbi llS are
made quickly)?t wi th confi dent
motions. I
, ,.
3. T ile greatest di(fICulty lies ill
grading thc·kkin 011 rhe basis of
color.;, bec,1l1Se it must
into mo'f pronounced volUq'les
, ,
and (orlm, based on differenll,
chromatic values. h isn't essentl
to lise tpc color spectnnn
suggested by the color of the
model-rather, we can U5C colors
far removed from the nuances of
the skin to create a dynamic work
througll color contr.lst.
" t
q \
graduall y CO\'t!I the figure in color,
we wOTkil,lg on
Following the (rearing it chromatic
' vi brali oll:-throughou! the wOrk, we make the
.background ¥,.tllow. 'Ule background color is
5pread delicately in order to nQt disrupt the
of figure. right. profIle of the
figure. the lower breasts, and the pubis are
underscored with wide of lIlaroon so
that Some these parts ohhe fi gure do not
blur iTUO the background. We should gnde
the figure's tones \'OlumetricaUy in the same
11,':1)' tlUlI we \\'Ould t he curvature of it vase.
When coloring where there is shade, the flesh
tone i>e<;omes cb.rker with the presence of
blues :lnd maroons; where there is light, it
grow brighter and W;\rmer tklnks to the use
of oranges, pinks. and yellm,,"'S.
5. Alter the lu(chi ng process, \ \Ie swt.'Cten the
trallsi riolls between tones by smoothing the
flesh lones with rhe pads of our fingers. Then,
using the ti p of the '\'\'e redraw the lines
orthe f.1ce. Once the drawing is fi nalized,
there is a visible chromatic variety in how we
sUgge'>tlhe culor and quality of the fi gures
as well as a ton:d contrasl between the
areas wi th shine and the darkest shadows.
Ir ro ur finb'CTS are
dirry with color
and th.· nexi step
is blending a liglll
oolor, be sure to
d ean them off
with a rag berore
you do so.
rYrt lt1c BEACH
harcoal is .. quick, direct medium. It is also among the most
bcousc by n;I(Ure, it ","311 be lIsc(1 to make wide.
undetailcd lines. T he wide spectrum of possible tOile; is another one of
its Jtb':lctions. ln this dcmQllstr:ltion. Mercedes Gaspar makes :l
composition of two 6guro with pronoulltt<I tonal effects 111 .. , a
great expn:ssiveness to the drnwing. It is to pay att ention to the
changi ng directions of the lights. shadows, and reflections 011 the f.1ce
:Uld clothing, because these fa ctors describe the volume of the bodies.
t . ' 10 draw the body of the adult figure. we stlrt with
all ill\lcr! cd (;onc; for the head, a cirde. For tile body
of the little girl , we draw:t circle and cone on itS side
to conVi')- the projection or her sh:.dow. We refine on
the comour, cClSing and doing it over if necessary.
until we :nljusl [he ini tial geoll1etTic for ms !O a
prdi min.u y sketch ill which can al ready begUl to
sec OlJll im: oflh e adult fi gure.
Charco.,1 is the petf<:et medium for findillg the
form without working on any of the det:lils. With it,
.... -e em stain the p:lpcr :md the guiding outlines
of the two figures while comparing the proportions,
mglC5. and ind in:ltions of the body.
We tl..,
cff .. « s of folds
and in
the wOluan's dress
... ..l .. with Ihe poim of
a d ,arcnal
on top of
2. Thanks to the skctclJiliS
we di d in the pn.vious Sh' p.
we were aNe 10 estl blt\h th. ..
profIles of Ih(' fi b'tUl"S and the
linear harmony of Ih,:ir two bodirs
as a unifit:d whole. T he fin! hatching
complet(."5 the rounded Qu ritllC of till: fOlm.
These fi rst few hatchings. which will be vcry
crude, should be made wil h a fh l charco:.l b:l
3. thick lines, we cover the
with a soft layer of charco.11. which \W t9ClI
511100lh wi th our We acce ntuafe the
cont:r.lsts o f the ili..1d ows imide rll e fi gu re; we
can obt:l in uniforlll tonal W*b tions by
softening or lightening thc hatching wi th a
torrill on. The background tone is an
refcnmce point for giving gre:.tcr or
intensity to the h:llching of the fIgure<;.
4, 10 fi nish the sketch of the oce;m, it
suflicient to add sOllle more intense tOil e:.
opcn SOllll' whi te areas in the crest of the
W:LVCS. We appl y the soft, dl'n$C linl' of the
crumbling charcoal in the final St:lges of the
dr:lwing, at the same ti me as we constrUt;t the
facLal featu res and the Cre:\S(.'S in the dOl hing
with sli ght tonal contrasts. The fi nished dr:lwing
sllOWS .:II si mplified tonal spt.-clnUJl in which 1.hc::
dark tones form solid m.'lSSC$ to unify the
he nch spectnltn of lonal values can be achieved when a figure
imegr:-.tcd into the atmosphere that surrounds it can be enriched
even further using gmphi te pencils of diOcrent h:l ronesses. Even though
Carlan! dr:lw$ figure in Wl' might say it has an :l uthcntic
pictorial effect thanks to the atmosphere created by gr:-.ys. With this
outli ning, its forms arc lIot d osed Ull to themsel ves, but instead relate to
and meld into their surroundi ngs, creari ng a sense of wllOlcness and a
uni fi ed imonation in the drawing.
t . The initi al li nes created
with an 1-113 graphite pencil
have an orient:l.tive character:
they first situate the
ardlitectural trame around the
figure based on perspct:tival
lines: the frame ohhe wi ndow,
the angle of the wall , :llld the
stone bench. Onto the!>e initial
geometric lines we layer those
of the figure in ir.; correct
proportions--rcnlell1ber the
technique of dr.lwing as if the
figure were 'I'P'""".
2. By holding the gr.tphite
pencil hori zontaUy, we can
quickly cre:lte :In are:l with :l
uniform tone, with 110 guiding
marks; we gr.l.dually fill in lhe
main (brk are:tS, di sregarding
the reli ef of the forms or the
outl ines of the figure. The goal
is to cre:ltc a diffuse Stain that
SllOWS tht· grain of the paper

3 . A lOrtill on will hel p us £0 elimi nate any
semblance of line> in the and
create smootll lr.msitions between £one;.
4. Placing thl: point a pendl o n its side,
WI" usc rol:uing mOllon 10 gradually dukcn the
inlcl'"ior shadows {hal contr:m with ti l<.' outli ne o f the
figure. Most prefer (0 create dl C 3UllOSpht"n' of
the drawmg usi ng the ICXlUrc of the paper, produci ng
a highl y accOIuplldwd g.1 mut ofl onC". ln reahty, by
!.imply gr.tzing the paper with the rip or the gn.pbik
we de"elop different to ti ll ' hatching. U5ing a
gr.tdual hatchin/-:. l-:l l1 obt:Ull blclldl'd [ol1ai
effects. II IS also pos.o. lblc to sofien the tOIlCS by
rubbi ng wi th a fi ngertip. Thl' of ligll! Oil [he
fac(' of lhc fi gure by openi ng up whllte
Meas with a :;oil craser.
5. A drnwlIl g as tim one GIn bl' thou!!ll! of:ls;'\
sum of ovcrbpping c:u: h of wbich lcaves
mark Oil paper and t he l1 ext layer
smoother :md richer; the fil1:'IIII1:"1rk!; 3Cccn(U:"I(e the
nmd.,nll:ntal fCil tmes of the fi b'1..rc:: the texture of dle
d othlrlg and hair. thl' lead u ;"\r5 o f the window. and
the configur..tion of the hands.
Many artius grow
ae<:1.nonlt.'<l to
"",i"l; graphite •
fX'ncils of a
hardlM'l'li. sud. as
2U 01' 4lJ, and do
11\ >1 exploit the
possibilities o(
a ' .. rict )' of
diflcrcm of
graphile within
.he drawing.
TIll' COnlr:ut
i)t,twccn the finc
o( a 21-1
g"'l'hitc pencil
and thc dcn!iC.
black lines 1>( a (,I)
yields ,'Cr),
auraeth'c results.
o gain mme pr.lcticc with lim.' alld to dt' mo nstratc the \'lilli e of
pt:'lltiull"uti in drawi uK. we will rt'pnxilice. at the h;mrl of Carlallt
,md usi ng a ft nd e figure holdi ng a dog. This is :t method
allows fOT R'w correctIOns, so if any arc made, they must be
rectifi ed by adding new lincs:li> <10 t his excn: ise we need silwrpolOt ,
avaibblc at allY jewelry store, or we can insert :l copper wire in a
medl.1l 1ical pl'ncil. We wi ll sdcct a r il!id, fine- grain paper :md cover il
with:t [Ol)'t.' T of white zinc pi gmen t or gouache. T he h ycr we apply
should be di luted wi th water: the shmt ld 110t. Once the p:l pcr
i t is l'C:lrly (0 usc.
I . \Vc bq!in t he composi li ollai stu<Iy of the model by
drawing masses based on simple geometric an
0\1111 (or the gIrl's h.::l.d, a circle for the head of the
<log, and a few more curves and to <1eS(:ribe
thl' locatloll of the other memi>crs. Afier making a
gCOl lll·trk oudine, \Y'e begi n our first apllro.ach to the
forllls of the model. T his si mple composi ti onal and
outlining exercise s.hould done on a separate sheet of
pnpcr, because silverpoint Jines cannot be corrected
ollce they on the paper.
2. This prclirninal)' study wi ll el1.\ure a IllOTe
ebborate drawing in which w{· can d early distinguish
(he comoul's of t il e figure. If, with other media, the
prel iminary penci l sketches or OUt!i Jll"S are m ...ver
definitive, when using sil verpolllt every line we draw
is permanent.
3. Once tht· pn:limill<l ry drawi ng complete. we
gndu:\Uy shade in the: diffcrcllt p:t rts of the: drawing.
applyi ng stretches of overlapping lines. The sharpened
silver lead gives the dl"3wing a vcry fine. detlik, l linc,
pc.--rh.1PS the nlOSt dd icate of lines possible in :my
drawing medium. Silvl'rpoint li nes can be erased to a
(Xlint if they are made on an ad«Ju:ltc surf.,cc, but
don't rely on this too much whell drawing.
4. The progn'SSion of dark shades excl usively
on the pressure we ;IPl'ly to the instrument , because
s.iJ\'erpoinc doesn't in diffcrenl hardnesses or
gradation ... like pencils do. Before finishi.ng, remember
that li nes 1It:I(k' with :l sil ver cutter gCI darker over
lime because they rust when thLY oxidize--when
they come imo cont:lCI wi th the :tir--just
sil\'erv.'are does,
If you wi, h to
IC!( (IJr'e and
din.'Ct ion of a
or hair.
,ake a blade and
pnoctice adding
(J\·crlapping laye ..
or paint .
resull.\ will
slIrprise you.
Ace ....... 112-113
A .. ,dnw.ng. 110
cloth",!; .nd. 101
(ctt,llt- .17
I .. nck, .\2- 3.1
he;wllf""c, '21,..27
Ii ........ JO.--31
tOOl(>, 28-29
A",h" «tun:, dn.,,,ng. 1114
Auno<ph"", around ligun:, 110--111, 154- 155
A:c .. ,ofh<><l)',1fl,29
body oxi<. l b. 29
prop<M. ion., 16, 19
'0,.,.0 ."d. 211-29
Blend,,,!\. 111. l lli- l l7
Hoo)' I""I;'", 14
Hody.,,,,!,,, ... 1""' 17, 19
Ill'n>b. of ......... f't!U ..... 2)
em,.,. of 6S
Ooall. (JICreis<'. j.W .... 147
a...rroal , HH.II9, 111. 115, 119, 128-129
0" .. ,*,,,.0 d"",,,,-?4-95. I3R-Il'I
Child {'fill""" 20-21. 152-1!>3
CIoM-d (<k:w.:"p'''''') dr.""ing<. 711- 71
CIotl,ed f'll"to. 96-105
mme:Cl .nd. l n4-105
dr.l""".nd, I02- 103
fcllh .nd. I (n.- In!. 144-145
pn><>n.liry . nd, 9?
>1.><1)',"101 jm"" bod)' '"'-'CIu", of. 'lH--'I'l
COlO' r <."Ilon. I 05
,looK. opt''''', So6-S7
d;...olving. by hlo:nd.o& l1 h-1I 7
II>(Cf,,1I)' .,.., 57
Ii .... 49
.,.,.,. 11.,';",48-19
___ ...... .. 73,132--1:n
C" .. rcrUIlI! miol.kcs. Sn- M;,t<kn
COI"nc' 68-(>9
O"(ur",.".,.,, n
r"",ilibrlUm of peon. 64-6S
"1'><;..,118-11 9
Ex",,,,,he 76-n. 120--121
fori.I. ,,.,,,,,,}",26-27

l"'m.M figu=:
boork/from, 19.29
lun"' .. \1
nlUOCubn,..,, 17
.""ti,1e. 19
proportions., 18-19
w,isu, III
h gl, .. 1 probic",...12
tones. 150- 151
"".10..99, 100-101 .1 02-10..'. 144 14S
' ;''''''I'''''<,,,inl:069. Hfl../! I, 134- 1:\5
1'n:>t, .. 1 virw.66,67
O;oo, .... ric okId"". I), 44--45

clooc:d "'f'pI"<*'h. 10
ko • ...., 6!IU"". 19

"""' "",,"*,h,71
and. S4-S5
" "'ph,,,), >C.'Cm, II
GeuUTU.''''I)-ting. 63. S<T 01", I'u5e!.
H.ir 122- 123
1-I. nd.,32 33
H •• ehinp. 51. 59.I!? 81'1. 90----91. 111
Hny dnwing. 1\1
_ 0111)0; 26-27
childn:n. ::!O
k ,rW<- f .... ....n, 19
In profole, 27
Joint>. 79, 99
Light .rod slloldow, 7. St<' air<> Clothed fl gl""s
chi.:lr<lllCuro eflCcts. \14-95. 1311-139
forcing conI ...... 93
hatchiJ'g .nd, \10-91
ligl,t cflCcl>.86-87
« flec' ion •• S7
.ketchil¥ ex=;"'. fI8-ll9
. kin 'Iw.li" ... nd, 125
vol"me .nd. 90-91. 92-93
Limn., 30-31
Li .....
of ac';on. 54.55
C<>1Irolling. 49
cxpr=i" .. ,76-77. 120-121
soli. 56-57
synti>e<is ."d. 57
M.1e fl gl' ''' u<rci!.<". 140-141
M.p of oJudows. 88
Miruk ..
COTr<;(ting without .. mi ng. 114- 115
cr:>sing. II 8-1I9
.u error, 114
"'limping. 11 6
Modcting t<-c hniqu ... 92. 93
bod)' olltli"e . nd, If,
cldcrly fi(;u ..... 22
fcllUIe figures, 17
li",bu nd,30-31
muscle pai .... 17
Obc$<: fil(Ure:<, 2J
Open dnr",ing<. 71
OpcniJ'g"",cc>.117. 118-119
Ov.1$, 19,20
"""",Bo>. 14f>- 147
""1,';<, 34-35
Pm . i",,,"ti. 114, l iS. 156
Plunh,,," lilles. 115
fbint of
closed approach. 70-71
conmpooo. 73.132- 133
cOlmt .... mold.
t''1uilibrium of.
!plum .nd, 63
moti"" .nd. 7(-,- 77
open approKh.71
profik "icws, 67. 142-143
«<lining. 75
$l.>nding. 72- 73. 132-133
, 'aryi"" pcint of "icw,66-67
view &om behind,67
P,..:<itt:les·, law, 14
Pr</,k "ic"",67, 142-143
Pmporti<>ns.l (1-23
hack ride, 16, 19
h2ri<: hum. n. 14- 18
budy hoight, 14
body outline. 16-17, 19
children, 20-21
defined, 11
ckktly flg""'"- U. V
f"n,,1e fi gt,"'. 18-19
fO .... horten;ng ."d, 69.80-81. 134-135
ofl ..... <I. 2(,. 27
l ..... d- ba.cd.14.15.18,20
intui l ive.41
m'l, hing IIlI i, ;, 15
mll",1t: ""i,.., 17
oo.e." figt' rn. 23
synthetic (",,'ouri ng, 48-49
unil _ystem, IS. 42-43
R.aciol types. 125
R""r. view frollt. 67
Reclining figu=. 75
Rdlect Kms.87
Rhythm. 54-55. 102. 120. 12 1
s...",d fi gure:<, 74
Seoing flgur.,.. 70-71
Sl .. ding.58
Shadow .. ';ff liglu and _h,dow
Silv<rpcin' t'Xcrcist;. 156-157
Simple form, ",,,et, 13
Skin qualitin. 124-125. ISO-l SI
Sm.,.,u,ing. 111. 117
Soft line. 56-57
Spine. So>
S .. biliry. "(fi!(UI", 64
Suim. bo.rildiIlK QIl. 136-137
Standing flgu ..... 17. 6$. 72- 73, 132-133
Snok. dit<CIion.93
Siudies, "i.t""" of. 50-5 1
Srlllllping. 11 6
$0.",,,,,,,;, ... in»g ... n
S)'nlhesi<. 12, 45, 57
Synthetic oollt<>uring,4S-49
'fCIIS&<>nS, S3
""(cn';, 112- 113
,,,,;st.....,urcn for. 1(1;1
. ""''''''he .... around figu re, 11(1-1 11.
154- 155
blendi ng, 111. 116_117
co,""'lillg. St<' M .... «.
upr=ive line<, 76-n . 120-121
fold,.99. 100-101. 102-103. 144- 145
. ki n, 124- 125. ISO-lSI
Tonalledllli'I' teS. 8S. s.... at", ligl" .lId

T",,,,,,.,,,,,, d r.wing. 78-79
Val".,. • .cudyi ng. 91
Va,u.J,ing (fadirljl,) (()nruu"'. n
wi, h accentS. 11 2- 113
clk<;o; of. 92-93
wi th lutching. 90-91
w"iu.celllaic figuT<;>. 18
w"tcrrulor d",wi"g. 59
White >C(Cn ... 112, 113
Whi'e "",,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ;ng. 117
Woman/girl 011 bnch .><ore;"'. 152- 153
Wri"klc..U.102- 103.&r 0/", f'<llm

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