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1 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
The Network Evolution
This document is for informational purposes only, and Tekelec reserves the right to change any aspect of the products, features or functionality described in this document without notice. Please contact Tekelec for additional information and updates.
Travis Russell • More than 30 years Telecom Experience • Expertise in voice, data, and signaling networks • Author of 5 technical books published by McGraw-Hill • Author of 13 patents in the area of telecom, fraud and security No degree …… learned through Bell System training and job experience!
3 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
For What’s Next.Some Basics 4 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
5 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 . The key standards are put into place by the member companies and ensure that phones will work all over the world.What is a Standard? › There are requirements. and used as the framework for more defined standards Standards define how a network or protocol behaves under all › There are thousands of standards published for wireless circumstances. networks. and there are standards. For What‟s Next. Requirements are ambiguous. They are ratified by the member companies through a voting process. authored by several different organizations.
including SIP Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Develops standards such as 802. and much more Copyright 2011 6 I Tekelec. ensuring compatibility between different countries • Those requirements are then used by the 3GPP and other standards organizations in the creation of a true standard.Telecommunications (ITU-T) Sets worldwide requirements for telecommunications networks.11 (WiFi). . and 802. Each country is responsible for adapting the standards and requirements for use in their own countries ITU-R is responsible for setting requirements for radio equipment including frequency allocations › › › › › American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Adapts ITU standards for use in the Americas GSM Association Develops standards for the GSM community and represents the GSM operators worldwide Responsible for the GSM standards used in most all networks today 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Develops the standards for the evolving wireless network Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Responsible for all standards applying to the Internet.Who Creates Standards? › International Telecommunications Union . For What’s Next.16 (WiMax) Also developed the standards for Ethernet.
For What’s Next.Channel Access Technologies › Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Access method at the data link layer Requires high performance filters in radio equipment Allows users to access satellite frequencies simultaneously. Copyright 2011 . Only receivers using the same code will receive 7 I Tekelec. but each user transmits at a separate frequency › Crosstalk is a common problem with FDMA Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the channel into time slots Commonly used in digital telecommunications such as E1/T1 Timing issues are the largest problem › Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Developed by Qualcomm Allows multiple transmitters to send simultaneously over the same channel using special coding.
Copyright 2011 . Allow them to speak one at a time. taking turns (TDMA) 2.Channel Access Technology Analogy Put several people into one room that want to talk simultaneously 1. For What’s Next. Allow them to speak in different languages (CDMA) (Thanks to WiKiPedia for this great analogy) 8 I Tekelec. Allow them to speak at different pitches (FDMA) 3.
For What’s Next. required higher power radios Cellular is a structure that allocates the frequencies into distinct cells. allowing the frequencies to be reused within close proximity Allows radios to use less power because base stations are in close proximity D C A B D C D B A B B C 9 I Tekelec. separated from one another. Copyright 2011 .Cellular Network Concept › The issue with radio telephone was the inability to reuse the same frequencies in a close proximity Radio interference was a common issue with these › › networks Overlap of coverage areas would cause cross-talk and noise Because of distance.
Why Are We Changing The Network? Because how we use the Internet has changed our everyday lives. The younger generation is driving many of these changes and will continue to demand an online experience everywhere they go. 10 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. and how we interact with one another has changed dramatically as well. Copyright 2011 .
16) LTE Advanced WiMAX Advanced 3GPP Family IEEE Family ????? Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next. EV-DO Rel B Standards IEEE Family 4G 5G 11 I Tekelec. WiMAX (802.The Evolution of Wireless Generation 0G 1G 2G Standards Org Radio Telephone AMPS Family GSM/3GPP Family 3GPP2 Family AMPS Family OTHER 2.5G GSM/3GPP Family 3GPP2 Family 3GPP Family 3GPP2 Family 3GPP Family 3GPP2 Family MTS-MTA-IMTS AMPS (TIA/EIA) N-AMPS (TIA/EIA) GSM cdmaONE (TIA/EIA) D-AMPS (IS-54 & IS-136) CDPD-iDEN-PDC GPRS-EDGE CDMA2000 1x UMTS (UTRAN)-WCDMA CDMA2000 1xEV-DO HSPA-HSPA+-LTE CDMA2000 1xEV-DO REV A.5G 3G (IMT-200) 3.
For What’s Next.Mobile networks evolution (0G to 2.75G) Japan & Asia Europe MTA Ericsson Sweden 1956 JTAC Japan 1983 PDC Japan GSM GPRS EDGE MTB 1965 CDMA IS-95 1xRTT NMT-450 Finland 1971 NMT-900 Finland 1986 GSM CEPT->ETSI 1991 GPRS EDGE MRT-1327 Russia 1958 TACS UK 1983 Americas GSM 1995 GPRS EDGE iDEN DynaTac Motorola USA 1973 dead-end AMPS AT&T USA 1982 D-AMPS 1990 (aka TDMA or IS136) Motorola CDMA aka CDMAone or IS-95 1xRTT 3xRTT never deployed 12 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
16e (mobile) 2009 WiFi HyperMAN UMB 13 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.Mobile networks evolution (3G. +) Worldwide GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS aka WCDMA HSPA LTE 2010-11 Americas. China. Australia GSM GPRS EDGE LTE advanced 5G ?? CDMA 1xRTT CDMA-EVDO aka IS-2000 dead-end 802.16m WiMAX WiMAX 802.16d (fixed) 2007 WiBRO Copyright 2011 . HiBurst F-OFDM 802. 4G. Korea.20 802. Japan.
) BTS BSC BTS PSTN (Fixed network) MSC/ VLR G-MSC BTS BSC BTS HLR Mobile Station Access Network Core Network 14 I Tekelec. SMS. For What’s Next. etc. Copyright 2011 .GSM network architecture VAS (voice mail.
etc. SMS. For What’s Next.GPRS/EDGE network architecture VAS (voice mail.) BTS BSC BTS MSC/ VLR G-MSC PSTN (Fixed network) BTS BSC BTS SGSN HLR AAA GGSN internet Mobile Station Access Network Core Network 15 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.3GPP R4 network architecture BTS MGW MGW G-MSC server PSTN (Fixed network) BSC BTS MSC server BTS BSC BTS SGSN HLR AAA GGSN internet Mobile Station Access Network Core Network 16 I Tekelec.
UMTS (3G) network architecture NodeB MGW RNC MSC server MGW G-MSC server NodeB PSTN (Fixed network) NodeB HLR RNC AAA NodeB SGSN GGSN internet User Equipment UTRAN Core Network 17 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next.Adding the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) NodeB MGW RNC MSC server MGW G-MSC server PSTN (Fixed network) NodeB NodeB HLR RNC AAA HSS IMS NodeB SGSN GGSN internet User Equipment UTRAN Core Network 18 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .3GPP LTE (4G) network architecture eNB eNB PSTN (Fixed network) eNB LTE HSS IMSHSS IMS MME/ UPE eNB internet User Equipment E-UTRAN Evolved Packet Core 19 I Tekelec.
Copyright 2011 .WiMAX (4G) network architecture BTS eNB PSTN (Fixed network) WiMAX AAA eNB HSS ASNGW IMS internet eNB Subscriber Station Access System Network Core System Network 20 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
as the traffic demands increase… • More nodes are added to the network • Which increases the complexity of the network • Leading to a mesh architecture that is unmanageable 21 I Tekelec.Putting together a network • Simple network starts with a few nodes • Direct peer-to-peer IP addressing • But. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .
The IP Cloud Application Application Application Application IP Cloud Application Application Application Application Application Application Application Application 22 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .
Transport services (i.IP Routing/Optimization .Unreliable/reliable transport . retransmission etc. For What’s Next.Transport port 23 I Tekelec. the IP layer requires IP address for routing. OSI L4 IP Address TCP/UDP/SCTP IP Network Interface Therefore.Analysis of IP network Relies on IP to provide transport services Addressing . abstract address must be translated to IP address for routing to the destination by IP layer OSI L3 OSI L2 OSI L1 IP Services . Copyright 2011 .) Addressing -IP Address .e.) Application Abstract Address › › › Application layer utilizes abstract address for identification of recipient However. URL. name etc.IP network management .Abstract (IMSI. ack.
Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.com SDM SDM Partition Based IVR1 myMrf@abc.com NPDB2 NPDB3 N+1 24 I Tekelec.Abstract address represents many things +email@example.com Softswitch SDM myDB@abc.com IVR2 Capacity Based IVR3 NPDB1 myNP@abc.
For What’s Next.Who knows about L4 context NPDB 1 • Variation in implementations NPDB 2 NPDB 3 N+1 SDM SDM Application Application • End point must understand L4 context IP Cloud SDM IVR1 Partition Based IVR3 IVR2 25 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
Layer 4 network view Issues with fully mesh network NPDB NPDB NPDB …. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next. 1 2 3 • Route management • Fault handling Application Application • L4 Network/Traffic Management • Connectionand address • L4 routing management (for connection oriented transport) resolution L4 Cloud Network Intelligent Layer • Subscriber Data management • Admission Control • Interoperability • and more SDM SDM SDM IVR1 • Network Interconnection • Load balancing/sharing … that effect robustness of the IVR3 IVR2 network 26 I Tekelec.
What is Long Term Evolution (LTE)? 27 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next.LTE/EPC Architecture Applications (Service Control & Databases) IMS HSS DRA DRA PCRF EPC (Core Switching & Transport) PGW DPI MME SGW EPC = Evolved Packet Core MME = Mobility Management Entity SGW = Serving Gateway PGW = PDN (Packet Data Network) Gateway DRA = Diameter Routing Agent HSS = Home Subscriber Server PCRF = Policy and Charging Rules Function IMS = IP Multimedia Subsystem DPI = Deep Packet Inspection E-UTRAN (Access) E-NodeB SAE = System Architecture Evolution (project name for EPC) 28 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next.Initial LTE Deployments – a series of islands LTE islands within 3G nationwide network Multi-mode devices supporting 2G/3G/LTE Initially. Copyright 2011 . LTE carries data only (limited VoIP) LTE 3G 3G 3G LTE 3G LTE 29 I Tekelec.
Copyright 2011 .Signaling Protocol Evolution › Diameter and SIP become the dominant signaling protocols › SCTP “point-to-point” connections remain Mobility and Subscriber Management Application and Session Control 30 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
For What’s Next. and 4 types of core agents Observations › 3GPP has defined many new Diameter applications for use in IMS. and 3G › Routing. signaling network management and congestion control not as robust as SS7 › Operators must determine how to cost effectively secure and scale their Diameter core networks 31 I Tekelec.Diameter Fundamentals › Defined by IETF RFC 3588 › IP-based AAA protocol designed for easy extensibility via the › › definition of new Applications [interfaces]. LTE. Copyright 2011 . servers. but these are not always used in practice Defines clients. and Attribute-Value Pairs (AVPs) [parameters] Requires security via TLS or IPsec. Commands [messages].
Rx Diameter (PCRF) realm DRA PCRF PCRF PCRF all messages for the same IP-CAN session to the same PCRF › GSMA PRD IR.909 – Diameter-based protocols usages and recommendations in 3GPP Defines need for Diameter infrastructure Inner Diameter Relay Pool Border Diameter Relay Pool Inter-operator Diameter Infrastructure to simplify the S6 and S9 network MME MME MME › 3GPP TS 23.88 – LTE Roaming Guidelines Defines need for a Diameter agent at the point of network demarcation MME VPMN S6a HPMN GRX/IPX S4 SGSN S6d Proxy Agent Proxy Agent S9 vPCRF hPCRF 32 I Tekelec. Gxa.203 – Policy and charging control architecture Defines Diameter Routing Agent to direct PLMN S-GW P-GW Non-3GPP GW Diameter (PCRF) realm ePDG DRA AF PCRF PCRF PCRF Gx. Copyright 2011 . Gxc.Diameter Agents in 3GPP and GSMA › 3GPP TR 29. Gxb. For What’s Next.
For What’s Next. and Application. such as Diameter-MAP. or modify the message. Might maintain session state. Copyright 2011 . Translation Agent – Proxy agent that translates between two protocols. Proxy Agent – Similar to Relay. Destination-Host. Maintains transaction state only. Request Request Client Answer Relay/Proxy Agent Server Answer Redirect Agent Request Redirect Request Client Answer Server MAP Message NE MAP Response Request Translation Agent Server Answer 33 I Tekelec. but might also look inside the message for routing decision. Redirect Agent – Returns routing information and then drops out of the loop.Types of Diameter Agents › › › › Relay Agent – Routes messages based on Destination-Realm (domain).
For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .Selected Diameter Interfaces in LTE and IMS Foreign LTE Domain Foreign GPRS Domain Gr vMME EPC Equipment Check SLF vPCRF MAP-Diam IWF S6d vSGSN vS4-SGSN S6a S9 IMS Registration Sh EIR S13 S6a Cx Rx IMS PCC IP-SM-GW AS Access to HSS MME PCRF Gx Gz P-CSCF Rf I/S-CSCF AF PGW EPC Mobility Management Gy OFCF IMS Charging Ro Re OCF Rc EPC Charging ABMF RF Home LTE/IMS Domain 34 I Tekelec.
Copyright 2011 . MAP <-> Diameter interworking) 35 I Tekelec.e.Challenges Raised by Diameter › Complexity and scalability of managing large number of SCTP/Diameter connections › Deficiencies with respect to network management and congestion control in Diameter › Lack of wide-scale deployment and proven robustness of › Need for specialized proxies. For What’s Next. such as HSS address resolution for LTE MM and IMS. and PCRF binding function (DRA) Diameter › Need for single point of interconnect to other LTE networks to simplify routing and provide security › Need to provide for roaming to non-LTE (2G/3G) networks (i.
lots of prove-in still required 36 I Tekelec. app-specific proxies required DRA for PCRF binding HSS address resolution for EPC and Signaling network management (SNM) › › › › › › Congestion control › Congestion levels and traffic priorities defined Application specific routing › › GTT can be used by upper layers IMS Robustness Wide-scale deployment. Copyright 2011 . years of experience › Early days.Diameter Comparison to SS7 Characteristic Routing SS7 Diameter › › › › › Each message independently routed Network-wide Dedicated SNM messages Route around failed paths Answer message does not contain routing info and follows same path as associated Request Hop-by-hop No dedicated SNM msgs Failures „discovered‟ with each new request Relies on reliable transport No defined traffic priorities Specialized. For What’s Next.
SS7 versus Diameter – Failure Scenarios Dest NE SS7 Diameter Server Case 1 . For What’s Next.Failure after Destination receives message › NE can dynamically route around failed element/path › Diameter cannot dynamically route around failure anywhere in the path Diameter Relay Diameter Relay Orig NE Client Dest NE Case 2 . Copyright 2011 .Failure before Originator sends message Server › NE can be informed by STP about unreachable destinations › Messages will continue to be routed inefficiently towards failed paths Diameter Relay Diameter Relay Orig NE Client 37 I Tekelec.
Copyright 2011 Operator_n . For What’s Next.Current MSC/HLR Roaming Front End SCTP/MAP Front End Front End Front End SCTP/MAP MSC MSC MSC SCTP/MAP Operator_2 SCTP/MAP SCTP/MAP SCTP/MAP MSC MSC MSC Operator_2 Signaling Hub Provider SCTP/MAP SCTP/MAP SCTP/MAP MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC MSC Operator_n+1 38 I Tekelec.
Expected Diameter Network DSR HSS HSS HSS HSS BE HSS BE PCRF PCRF PCRF Gx Operator_2 HSS FE HSS FE HSS FE HSS FE S9 MME MME MME Gy S6a DSR HSS HSS HSS MME MME MME S6a CSCF CSCF CSCF Rx DSR DSR S6a Gx/Gy S6d S9 S9 Operator_3 DSR HSS HSS HSS Roaming Hub Provider DSR Operator_N MME MME MME MME MME v4SGSN PCEF PCEF DSR HSS HSS HSS Operator_N+1 MME MME MME 39 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.
Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next. MME.Example PCEF – PCRF and OCS connectivity PCEF Gx and Rx PCEF PCRF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCRF PCEF = GGSN. DPI. ETC PCRF OCS OCS PCEF PCEF OCS PCEF Gy 40 I Tekelec.
3G Mobile Data Network with Diameter Relay PCEF PCRF PCEF PCEF PCRF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCEF PCEF DSR PCRF DSR PCEF PCEF OCS OCS PCEF PCEF PCEF Addresses connection limitations at PCEF OCS 41 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.
org User-Name= 234150999999999 HSS1 2.3gppnetwork. MCC=234) 1.3gppnetwork. Update-Location-Request › › Destination-Host=HSS2 All other fields same as msg 1 vMME 4.org Origin-Host= MME1 Origin-Realm= epc.mcc234. which is HSS2 in this example Subsequent messages are host routed. according to 3GPP TS 23.mcc234. MCC=567) Home PMN (MNC=15.mnc015.org Origin-Host= HSS2 › All fields same as msg 3 HSS3 › › › Initial Update-Location message will contain pre-defined Destination-Realm constructed based on IMSI in the User-Name AVP.3gppnetwork.mcc567. Update-Location-Request › › › › Destination-Realm= epc. Update-Location-Answer HSS2 › › Origin-Realm= epc. since the MME and HSS now know the identity of each other 42 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .mnc015. Update-Location-Answer Proxy Agent 3. For What’s Next.mnc123.003 Agent performs address resolution on message 1 and inserts Destination-Host associated with the IMSI.HSS Resolution for LTE Mobility Management Visited PMN (MNC=123.
A Word About IMT-Advanced
› The ITU has defined the requirements for 4G, but not the standards › ›
(the “how it will work” part) The 3GPP introduced their LTE standards to the ITU-R group in October 2010, and LTE was accepted by the ITU as the standards meeting the requirements of IMT-Advanced. Key Features of IMT-Advanced
services and applications
Backward compatibility with fixed line services and older technologies
Capable of interworking with other wireless technologies High-quality mobile services Worldwide roaming supported
Commonality of functionality worldwide, but able to support varying
Peak Data Rates (100Mbps for high and 1G for low mobility are
43 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
Introducing Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF)
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Vodafone Hungary Experience
“Unlimited Mobile Broadband” – No Overage Charges
Control Network Demand While Maximizing Utilization if Capacity is Available
› › ›
Fair Use Terms: If over monthly cap, bandwidth reduced from 3G speed to 2G speed during busy hour 17% bandwidth reduction vs. uncontrolled Calculations indicate 20% CAPEX reduction vs. uncontrolled
Only 3% of subscribers impacted Overall improved experience for
Enabled operator to become #1 in mobile broadband despite being #3 in voice
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2 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 0000 1200 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Without Throttles: › › › Peak BW ↑ 15. For What’s Next.2 15.Vodafone Hungary Experience Throttles Temporarily Halted 1.6 0. Copyright 2011 1200 .7% Overall BW ↑ 26% Throttles normally only affect 3% of attached subs 46 I Tekelec.8 0.4 0.0 Gbps at GGSN 0.7% 1.
Neutral.What Policy Does Applications Content Providers P-CSCF/ IMS Service Delivery Platform Akamai Google Microsoft Policy Server GGSN. B-RAS PCRF Subscriber Data Mgmt Network DPI/ Optimization SPR/HSS Centralized. Charging and Quota Management Copyright 2011 . SGW HA/PDSN CMTS. Subscriber. PGW. For What’s Next. Rules-Based “Brain” for Dynamic Resource Decisions across Multiple Access Networks › › 47 I Tekelec. Application and Network Awareness Bandwidth/QoS.
Basic Policy Mechanism – Application Application Server Trigger: Policy Request 2 Sub DB 3 PCRF/ Policy Server 4 1 GGSN Application Session Initiated Conditions: Rule Execution Action: Policy Decision 5 QoS. For What’s Next. Quota. Copyright 2011 . etc. for the Application 48 I Tekelec. Charge.
PCRF installs lower bandwidth cap for subscriber • If offpeak hours. no bandwidth cap Billing system updates subscriber quota upon new billing month Subscriber Data Server PCRF Internet GGSN 49 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. quota) User consumes data GGSN reports when quota limit exceeded If during peak hours. Copyright 2011 . monthly quota & remaining quota balance from SPR/HSS PCRF installs policy for subscriber (bandwidth.Mobile Broadband Bandwidth Management › How It Works (Several Other Variations Possible) GGSN signals PCRFon session establishment PCRFgets subscriber info.
For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .Mobile Broadband Service Tiers & Promotions › What to Do About Mobile Broadband Pricing? › Policy & SDS Provides Operator Marketing with Tremendous Flexibility to Segment Markets Gold Tier Highest BW Settings Fair Use Policy Setting -5 Gig Premium Voice Premium Video Silver Tier Mid Level BW Settings Fair Use Policy Setting -3 Gig Premium Voice Bronze Tier Low Level BW Settings Fair Use Policy Setting -1 Gig No P2P Allowed 50 I Tekelec.
quota) PCRF installs policy for application control on DPI (application entitlement) User consumes data GGSN reports when quota limit exceeded. OR DPI reports application usage PCRF installs new policy on GGSN and/or DPI based on subscriber tier Subscriber Data Server PCRF Internet DPI GGSN 51 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next. etc.Mobile Broadband Service Tiers & Promotions › How It Works (Several Other Variations Possible) GGSN signals PCRF on session establishment PCRF gets subscriber info and/or monthly/remaining quota from SPR/HSS PCRF installs policy for subscriber on GGSN (bandwidth.
EU Roaming/Bill Shock › EU Roaming Regulation in Effect July 1. notified & capped at €50 › Policy + SDM Can Manage Notification & Controls Without Major Billing Upgrade Identification of roamers Quota management Subscriber notification Bandwidth controls Application controls Most USB modem plans have had usage caps for some time 52 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. 2010 › Transition to Usage-Based Billing Causing Concern Elsewhere AT&T & O2UK iPhone plans now have usage caps Users notified when data roaming is €40. Copyright 2011 .
Copyright 2011 . PCRF blocks usage & sends user SMS regarding usage limit Subscriber Data Server PCRF SMSC Internet GGSN 53 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. PCRF sends user SMS regarding usage limit When GGSN reports when 100% of quota limit is reached. quota & remaining quota balance from SPR/HSS PCRF installs policy on GGSN for subscriber (quota) PCRF sends user SMS regarding roaming welcome & usage limit User consumes data When GGSN reports when 80% of quota limit is reached.EU Roaming/Bill Shock › How It Works (Several Other Variations Possible) GGSN signals PCRF on session establishment (SGSN info identifies user as roaming) PCRF gets subscriber info.
analytics.subscriber data. For What’s Next. subscriber data management and APIs to securely expose network assets • Policy analytics to evolve services • Diameter routing for security Benefits Strengthen subscriber relationship by personalizing OTT applications • Optimize quality of experience for customers’ preferred applications • Increase OTT revenues by adding incremental value . mobile advertising • Comply with net neutrality regulations and ensure network security. guaranteed QoS.Over-the-Top Applications Challenges • Addressing net neutrality requirements • Adding value to OTT apps • Higher costs/lower revenues • Maintaining customer relationship Solution Overview • Policy to apply QoS to applications • Policy. data usage. • 54 I Tekelec. Tekelec Confidential .
who they say are overloading networks without contributing enough to their upkeep.” 55 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.Business Opportunity Revenues from OTT Apps > Service Provider On-Deck Apps “Skype Mobile to Bring Video Calling to the Verizon Wireless 4G LTE Network” “NTT Docomo Partners With Twitter For New Location-Based Service In Japan” “France Telecom and Telefonica are seeking a new deal with Internet companies including Google and Apple. Tekelec Confidential .
Verizon‟s Application Innovation Center in San Francisco. which took a high-quality video stream and simulated it running over a congested network.” November 2011 Turbo Button › Verizon is using Policy Server (PCRF) as well as their own innovative.Verizon Turbo Boost Example “At . 56 I Tekelec. For What’s Next." the video's choppy frame rate and apparent quality improved. Tekelec Confidential . Verizon executives showcased.. inhouse network optimization API development to deliver the turbo button. › The turbo button can provide guaranteed quality of service for a subscriber‟s applications.the network optimization technology. When a Verizon engineer pushed a "turbo button..
DSR routes the message to the appropriate Policy Server 6. Policy Server installs policies for subscriber on the PCEF (quota.) 4. security etc. Policy Server queries the SPR/HSS for the subscriber‟s profile 7. For What’s Next. Tekelec Confidential .How it Works: OTT and On Deck Quality of Service 1. Application Server performs firewall functions (admission control. The subscriber receives the desired service 57 I Tekelec. OTT service provider triggers a dynamic connection in the Application Server 3. The device connects to the OTT service provider and requests service 2. Application Server converts the request to a 3GPP-compliant Rx request and sends it to the DSR 5. service level) 8.
User Data Convergence Changing how we manage subscriber data in the network 58 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.
Copyright 2011 . Apple.Telecommunication World is changing › Major Consolidation on going: › Value is shifting from Network to Consolidation of Vendors Customers Customer Experience Customer based routing Customer based policy Consolidations of Operators › Consolidation of networks (outsourcing). downloads. Facebook Content/ IPTV providers New business Models (App. Advertising) 59 I Tekelec.not › User Change: SmartPhones USB Dongles to Traffic Growth Deliver More Services with Less Investment Tablet Computers › Machine2Machine New players in network: Google. Technology shift: From TDM to IP From Voice to Data Access diversification: 2G/3G/4G/WLAN › › Bit pipe versus Smart Pipe Data Explosion Align Costs to Revenue Profile -. For What’s Next.
etc. CRM. etc. Billing. App Servers. Legacy archaic DBs. For What’s Next. etc. Off-the-shelf IT technology Lots of records/size of records Non-real-time Service providers are currently unable to effectively leverage the subscriber data 60 I Tekelec. switch-based Real-time requirements (involved in call processing) Inflexible Core Network Databases › VAS Databases Drivers for User Data Convergence (UDC) Back-office Databases › › › › SMSC.Today’s Reality: Subscriber Data is Stored in Many. Disparate Locations › › › HLRs. Wide range of different DBs Proprietary implementations Duplicate subscriber info › › › › Provisioning. SCPs. Copyright 2011 . MMSC.
IPTV Multi-profile Multi-device subscriber Multi-profile Multi-device subscriber Legacy platforms are a barrier to Multi-profile management UDC Subscriber Data Management goes beyond HLR/HSS Subscriber management costs are high Profiles distributed in many nodes No central view of customer data Profile duplication & de-synchronization Each roaming identity requires HLR entry Incompatible registration & authentication Independent call routing/mediation Economically disruptive solution Profiles converged in one node Consolidated view of customer data Full synchronization across domains Unlimited roaming identities per user Converged registration and authentication Optimal call mediation across domains 61 I Tekelec. 4G CableTV. 4G CableTV. WiMAX.Simplifying Multi-play Subscriber Data Management Legacy Subscriber Silos OSS/BSS/CRM/VAS Subscriber Data Management OSS/BSS/CRM/VAS SIP AS AAA HSS HLR/ AuC App Servers Other DBs Multiprofile DSL/Cable Access SIP/VoIP IMS GSM/ UMTS WiFi. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next. IPTV DSL/Cable Access SIP/VoIP IMS GSM/ UMTS/LTE WiFi. WiMAX.
Standardization Progress 3GPP User Data Convergence User Data Silos Application Logic Message Group User Data Storage Open User Data Capability User Data Repository User Data Convergence Message Group Application Logic User Data Correlated by A Data Model … UE UE Presence … Presence … HLR/AuC HSS HLR/AuC HSS › › › Separating the „brains from the brawns‟ Consolidating Subscriber Data (UDR) Standardized and Flexible interfaces › › › Reduce network complexity and eliminate redundancies Standardizing support for new services and applications Customized User Experience UDC is standardizing the “traditional SDM” approach It is just the first step towards true Subscriber Data Management 62 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .
multi-identity under common subscription › Extendible schemas › Data reuse › Front-end interaction via database › Object oriented global schema Relational Database › Relational data schema › On-line modifications 63 I Tekelec.Traditional SDM versus Tekelec SDM Traditional SDM: silos inside › Silo‟ed profiles and HLR LTE-HSS IM-HSS AS identities Monolithic SDM: silos outside HLR IM-HSS AS › Inflexible schemas › Data duplication › No front-end interaction Directory Server UDCSDM: breaking the silos HLR LTE-HSS IM-HSS AS › Multi-profile. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.
n 0..n 1 1 0...n 1 0... For What’s Next....n 0..n 0.n 0..n 0.Subscriber relational model DSFPref 1 1 1 Subscription SubscriptionID 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.n SIP Domain HSS Domain AAA Domain HLRsubsProfile HLR Domain 64 I Tekelec.n 0..n HSSsubsProfile AAAsubsProfile IMSI SIPsubsProfile 1 0..n IMSPrivId IMSPubID AAAusername MSISDN SIM SIPaor 1 0. Copyright 2011 .n 0.n 1 1 0..
Controlling the Network A look at the evolution of signaling 65 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .Control Planes Access Service 66 I Tekelec.
For What’s Next.Control Plane Commonality A common set of control plane tasks exist regardless of network technology – a call is a call whether it utilizes SS7 or SIP. SS7 NGN IMS LTE 67 I Tekelec. control plane interworking potential is high. Therefore. Copyright 2011 .
Control Plane Tasks Route signaling information from sender to one or more recipients in the network Matches the request with the location of the subscriber data in the network Non Access Stratum Routing Subscriber Binding Number Portability Mobility Management Authentication Supports text-based communication Providing portability instructions to various nodes in the network in support of subscriber portability Track and locate subscribers who are roaming about in the networks Messaging Value added Services Implements additional revenue generated services Ensure correct identity of the subscriber Establishes communication path between subscribers Connection Establishment Connection Management Access Stratum Manages resources used in establishing communication path 68 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.
Routing SCF Server Server HSS PCRF DIAMETER proxy GTT STP SIP Proxy DNS CSCF DNS SCCP (GTT Address) SSF Client Client MME SS7 69 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. NGN IMS LTE Copyright 2011 Diameter(URI) SIP(RURI) SIP(RURI) .
Subscriber Binding HLR HLR HLR AS AS AS HSS HSS HSS HSS HSS HSS DNS STP/GTT SCCP(GTT Address) SLF CSCF SLF Diameter Proxy SIP Proxy SIP (RURI) SIP (RURI) MSC Client Client MME SS7 NGN IMS LTE 70 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 Diameter(URI) . For What’s Next.
For What’s Next.TAU . Copyright 2011 EMM .Mobility Management HLR SIP Registrar Proxy HSS Diameter HSS Diameter ULR MAP LocUp/SRI SIP Registrar SIP Register S-CSCF MME VLR SIP UA SIP Register SIP UA Device SS7 NGN IMS LTE 71 I Tekelec.
Authentication SIP Registrar Proxy HLR HSS Diameter HSS Diameter ULR MAP (Authentication data) SIP Registrar MD5 with nonce S-CSCF MME SIP Register VLR SIP UA SIP UA Device SS7 NGN IMS LTE 72 I Tekelec.TAU . Copyright 2011 EMM . For What’s Next.
For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .Messaging SMS-C MAP (MO/MT SM) Messaging Server MSC/VLR SMS-Submit Messaging Server SIP MSC/VLR CP-DATA/RP-DATA/TPDU/SMS-SUBMIT MME S-CSCF CP-DATA/RP-DATA/TPDU/SMS-SUBMIT Proxy SIP/XMPP/??? SIP MSRP Msg Client Device SIP UA SIP UA Device SS7 NGN IMS LTE 73 I Tekelec.
Mobility Management Interworking HLR MM MM AS 3rd Party Reg SIP Registrar MAP LocUp/SRI HSS AS 3rd Party Reg Diameter ULR SIP Registrar Proxy S-CSCF MME SIP Register SIP Register EMM . Copyright 2011 .TAU VLR SIP UA SIP UA Device SS7 NGN IMS LTE 74 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
For What’s Next.Control Plane Interworking Non Access Stratum Routing Subscriber Binding Number Portability Mobility Management Authentication Messaging Value added Services SS7 NGN Interworking IMS LTE Connection Establishment Connection Management Access Stratum 75 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
The ability to deliver voice and applications over LTE using IMS and Pre-IMS concepts. Enable shared subscriber state information. Copyright 2011 . Consolidated PS profile enable seamless delivery of PS-based services in both 3G and LTE coverage. For What’s Next. Increase in handovers requires increased signaling efficiency and performance. Dynamic update and sharing of subscriber volatile data across domains. duplication of subscriber profile and provisioning information. Service Continuity Signaling Efficiency Voice Interworking Performance management 76 I Tekelec. Ability to monitor “island hops” for call continuity and vendor interworking.LTE solution requirements Enable Centralized Authentication Avoid Provisioning Duplication Seamless Mobility › › › › › › › Eliminate network redundancies between 2G/3G/LTE networks. Eliminate subscriber data silos.
SS7-IMS Migration: SMS Scenarios 77 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 . For What‟s Next.
For What’s Next.The “Essential” IMS Attributes Access types IP over LTE LTE 184.108.40.206.1 Access Independent / Roaming Supports IP over Cable Cable 170.193.3 IP over GPRS/EvDO GPRS/EvDO 170.11.4 Core SIP Session Routing IP over T1 T1 170.0 IP 78 I Tekelec.2 Multi-Media Supports (end-point negotiates) IP over WiMAX WiMAX 220.127.116.11.11.193.11. Copyright 2011 .193.5 IP over WiFi WiFi 170.
What Is Needed? SIP End Point Softswitch WiFi AP SIP End Point Media independent IP routing network 79 I Tekelec. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next.What Is Needed? • Logical separation of SIP signaling from the bearer path • Unleash the true media-independent power of SIP • Horizontal integration framework for SIP applications • Flexible routing architecture • Modern. flexible and dynamic routing technology • Supports flexible address abstractions (SIP.Tel URI. Copyright 2011 .) • Fully utilizes SDP capability for media negotiation • Let end points decide how to setup media Media and access independent signaling control SIP End Point SIP End Point Softswitch WiFi AP Media independent IP routing network 80 I Tekelec. etc.
) IP over WiFi WiFi • Fully utilizes SDP capability for media negotiation • Let end points decide how to setup media IP over T1 T1 IP over GPRS/EvDO GPRS/EvDO Media and access independent signaling control IP over WiMAX WiMAX IP over Cable Cable SIP End Point Access Independent / Roaming Supports SIP End Point Softswitch Media independent IP routing network WiFi AP IP 81 I Tekelec. flexible and dynamic routing technology • Supports flexible address abstractions (SIP. etc. For What’s Next.Tel URI.What Is Needed? • Logical separation of SIP signaling from the bearer path • Unleash the true media-independent power of SIP Access types IP LTE ? over • Horizontal integration framework for SIP applications • Flexible routing architecture • Modern. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .What Is Needed? • Logical separation of SIP signaling from the bearer path • Unleash the true media-independent power of SIP Access types IP LTE ? over • Horizontal integration framework for SIP applications • Flexible routing architecture • Modern.Tel URI.) IP over WiFi WiFi • Fully utilizes SDP capability for media negotiation • Let end points decide how to setup media IP over T1 T1 IP over GPRS/EvDO GPRS/EvDO Core SIP Session Routing Media & access independent signaling control IP over WiMAX WiMAX Multi-Media Supports (end-point negotiates) IP over Cable Cable SIP End Point Access Independent / Roaming Supports SIP End Point Softswitch Media independent IP routing network WiFi AP IP 82 I Tekelec. etc. flexible and dynamic routing technology • Supports flexible address abstractions (SIP.
2006 „06 | 83 Copyright 2011 .IMS Promises Focus How do we get there? SOURCE: Frost & Sullivan.
Incremental IMS approach 3GPP IMS NGN SS7 NGN SS7 NGN SS7 SS7 $ $$ Copyright 2011 $$$ „06 | 84 .
SoftSwitch based Signaling Architecture CCS#7 STP IP IP SIP SIP SoftSwitch SoftSwitch SIP CCS#7 PRI Circuit Switch PBX Copyright 2011 85 .
PRI PRI Circuit Switch PBX Copyright 2011 86 I Tekelec.Proposed Signaling Architecture DSN CCS#7 STP/SSR STP IP • HA Signaling Backbone • Scalability Backbone HA Signaling • Traffic Management Scalability • Traffic Management Point Centralized Monitoring • Centralized Monitoring Point • SIP Flexible Routing • Device/Access Agnostic • Application Triggers • Roaming Supports IP SIP SoftSwitch SoftSwitch SIP DSN CCS#7 CAS. . For What’s Next.
For What’s Next.Flexible and centralized SIP routing control Centralized OAM&P Routing DB Routing DB STP/SSR Routing DB Routing DB STP/SSR SoftSwitch SoftSwitch SoftSwitch STP/SSR SoftSwitch SoftSwitch SoftSwitch SoftSwitch SoftSwitch SoftSwitch VoIP 1 VoIP 2 VoIP 3 87 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
R4 based Signaling Architecture App App SSR SSR R4 MSC MSC Server R4 MSC Server R4 MSC Server R4 MSC Server R4 MSC Server BICC Signaling IP Routing Network (IP Address) 88 Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next.Transitional phase SCP SIP AS IMS AS SCIM (Service Mediation) STP SIP Signaling Router Call Session Control Function SSP SIP Client IMS Client CCS#7 89 I Tekelec. NGN Copyright 2011 IMS .
Highly Available . Copyright 2011 .SIGNALING BACKBONE Media . For What’s Next.Voice (RTP) SoftSwitch IP Phone 90 I Tekelec.Scalable .Multimedia SIP Signaling Backbone Video Server Media – Steaming Video (RTSP) Video Terminal SSR SSR SSR SSR .Robust .
Copyright 2011 .IMS Network Architecture for Fixed Line Gm P-CSCF Mj Mw Dx SLF MGCF BGCF MG MG I-CSCF SG Legacy Mg Mi ISC AS Sh Mw S-CSCF Mr Cx MRFC Mp MRFP HSS 91 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
Copyright 2011 .IMS Network Architecture for Wireless P-CSCF BSS Mw Dx SLF HLR SGSN MSC I-CSCF GGSN ISC Mw Legacy Network Sh S-CSCF Mr Cx MRFC Mp MRFP VLR AS HSS 92 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
Session Management Layer in IMS Data and Services Applications SIP AS SIP AS Presence ENUM AAA HSS DNS IP CAN Land Line P-CSCF S-CSCF S-CSCF I-CSCF Other IMS Networks Wireless MRF SWG SS7 IP CAN P-CSCF Session Control BGCF MGCF Media Control and Resources 93 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 MG TDM Voice . For What’s Next.
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
› Call Session Control Function (CSCF)
The heart and sole of the IMS network Distributed throughout the network to make it more scalable Divided into three distinct functions • Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) • Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF • Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF)
› Proxy-CSCF is the first access point into the network
A subscriber will first access the P-CSCF when using SIP When a device first receives its IP address, the device will look for
the nearest P-CSCF for network access
94 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
› Interrogating-CSCF is the second point of contact and is
usually a more regional node
The I-CSCF is also the gateway between networks, providing
additional security to the network
The I-CSCF provides functions such as topology hiding to prevent
› Serving-CSCF is the main control of the signaling network.
Access to critical functions such as the HSS is done through the S-CSCF.
Also provides registration procedures for every device connecting
unauthorized access into the network
into the network
The S-CSCF is assigned to a subscriber device when the device
is powered up
95 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
SS7-IMS Migration: Voice Scenarios
96 I Tekelec. For What‟s Next.
For What’s Next.SS7-IMS Migration Voice Scenario 1 – Call termination to 3G subscriber via 3G network VMSC SS7-IMS Migration GMSC IAM (DN) SRI (DN) HLR AAA SRI (DN) SRI ack (MSRN) IAM (MSRN) 97 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next.SS7-IMS Migration Voice Scenario 2 – Call termination to IMS subscriber via 3G network GMSC IAM (DN) SRI (DN) SS7-IMS Migration MGCF SRI ack (MGCF prefix + DN) IAM 98 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
For What’s Next.SS7-IMS Migration Voice Scenario 3 – Call termination to 3G subscriber via IMS network I-CSCF SS7-IMS Migration INVITE Location-Info-Request (Public-ID) BGCF Location-Info-Answer (Server Name = BGCF) INVITE 99 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .
Copyright 2011 . For What’s Next.SS7-IMS Migration Voice Scenario 4 – Call termination to IMS subscriber via IMS network I-CSCF SS7-IMS Migration INVITE Location-Info-Request (Public-ID) LIR (Public-ID) S-CSCF HSS AAA Location-Info-Answer (Server Name = S-CSCF) INVITE › In this case. SS7-IMS Migration (DSR) simply performs Relay-mode SLF. 100 I Tekelec. Redirect-mode SLF could also be used (not shown).
For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .IMS Subscription Locator Function Scenario 1 – HSS Provides (redirect) SLF Function S-CSCF Invite Location-Info-Request (Public-ID) Location-Info-Answer (Server Name= HSS2) Location-Info-Request (Public-ID) Location-Info-Answer (Destination Server) Diameter Agent HSS1 HSS2 Scenario 2 – Agent Provides (relay) SLF Function S-CSCF Invite Location-Info-Request (Public-ID) Diameter Agent HSS1 HSS2 Location-Info-Request (Public-ID) Location-Info-Answer (Destination Server) > Less messages > Reduced delay > Less HSS and CSCF processing 101 I Tekelec.
IP-SM-GW HSS vSGSN (Rel 8) EIR vPCRF AF. AF S-CSCF. P-CSCF PCRF OCF OFCF HSS HSS Rf Ro Rc Re P/I/S-CSCF. Copyright 2011 .Selected Diameter Interfaces in LTE and IMS Interface S6a S6d S13 S9 Rx Gx Gy Gz Cx Sh Endpoints MME HSS MME hPCRF PCRF PGW PGW PGW I/S-CSCF AF. AF OCF OCF OFCF OCF ABMF RF 102 I Tekelec. For What’s Next.
Function Application Function Call Session Control Function Domain Name System Diameter Routing Agent Equipment Identity Register Evolved Packet Core Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS Roaming eXchange Home Subscriber Server IP Multimedia Subsystem IP Packet eXchange InterWorking Function Load Balancer Long Term Evolution Mobility Management Entity MRFC OCF OFCF PCRF PDN PGW RF SBCF SCTP SGSN SGW SLF TCP TLS UE Media Resource Function Controller Online Charging Function Offline Charging Function Policy and Charging Rules Function Packet Data Network PDN GateWay Rating Function Session Based Charging Function Stream Control Transmission Protocol Serving GPRS Support Node Serving GateWay Subscription Locator Function Transmission Control Protocol Transport Layer Security User Equipment 103 I Tekelec. Copyright 2011 .Acronyms ABMF AF CSCF DNS DRA EIR EPC GGSN GRX HSS IMS IPX IWF LB LTE MME Account Balance Mgmt. For What’s Next.
(Release 8) 3GPP TS 29.0) – 3G Security.805 (v8. (Release 9) › 3GPP TS 23. (Release 9) 104 I Tekelec. Numbering.0 3GPP TS 23.0) – UMTS. addressing and identification (Release 8) 3GPP TR 29.909 (v8.3. For What’s Next.0) – InterWorking Function (IWF) between MAP based and Diameter based interfaces.203 (v9.003 (v8.305 (v9.0) – Policy and charging control architecture.210 (v8.1.2) – Diameter-based protocols usage and recommendations in 3GPP (Release 8) 3GPP TS 33.References › › › › › › › › IETF 3588 – Diameter Base Protocol 3GPP TS 29.0.0) – Mobility Management Entity (MME) and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) related interfaces based on Diameter protocol (Release 8) GSMA PRD IR.88 – “LTE Roaming Guidelines”. Copyright 2011 .0) – InterWorking Function (IWF) between MAP based and Diameter based interfaces.6. Network Domain Security.0. v1.3. IP network layer security (Release 8) 3GPP TR 29.3.272 (v8.
For What’s Next.In Closing ……. Learn all you can. and you will never stop learning! Telecommunications has been the most exciting and rewarding career I could have ever asked for! It will be for you too! 105 I Tekelec. Learn how to learn. › Just a few comments Don‟t expect to become rich when you graduate. You are privileged to be able to now get an education in this industry. because you will never stop studying. Embrace learning. Copyright 2011 . because many years ago there were no college programs for Telecommunications. It takes many years of hard work and experience to reach the highest levels.
2172 106 I Tekelec.russell@tekelec. For What’s Next. Copyright 2011 .460.com Tel: +1. Caribbean Region travis.919.Travis Russell Director.
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