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College of the Redwoods Academic Learning Center Learning Packet 2006
Table of Contents 1) Introduction: Word Decoding and Its Use 2) Definitions and List of Root Words and Prefixes 3) Explanation of Suffixes and Spelling Rules.Explanation 5) Helpful Study Quiz . 4) Phonics.
as well as. but at times. In each of these cases. Thus.Bill predicted that the results of the latest democratic election would leave the losing candidate suffering with hypertension.Introduction: Word Decoding and Its Use Word Decoding is simply a way of breaking up a word into understandable parts.“-sion” and recognize that this suffix often accompanies a profession or a state of being. Latin and Greek. Likewise. Through learning root words. you can give yourself a “code book” that not only helps you navigate around English. Here’s a quick example of how word decoding might work: Take the sentence. Roman. sometimes more flexible meanings. beginner or advanced. sometimes more specific. These include many of today’s European and South American languages. also languages derived from Greek. For example. we could guess that whatever the losing candidate is suffering from is not good. suffixes and prefixes. look at the word predicted. Phonics tells you how words are pronounced.” and “demo/graphics” would give you a picture of how people are physically spread out over a given location. English is a language that is derived from mainly German. prediction is a word or words spoken about the future. There are several words that we can derive “clues” through context. and German.Root Words are where many of our common English words originate from. In a final example. as in “demo/cracy.” meaning rule by the people. but it is not much help in understanding a word through context or by remembering that parts of words contain smaller. some other languages. the root word “demo” means people. one of the greatest tools any reader. Or. knowing just part of the word or knowing the root of a similar word might help you guess at the meaning of the whole word. General Roots and Prefixes Root Words. “pre” meaning before and “dict” meaning to speak as in the word diction. But the root word “hyper” means “high or excessive” and a moderately versed reader could see the word “tense” inserted in the middle. Because of this. they might look at the suffix. can have is to master and memorize a large amount of these root words. . Often a root word is a word in itself or is easily recognizable as the origin of other words.
Root Words may come at the beginning or end of longer words. audition be thoroughly bedecked. antedate antecedent. antifreeze. somnambulist ante before anteroom. besprinkled auto self automobile. benediction. antigen. aphasia. automatic. audiovisual. anarchy. Prefixes only come at the beginning of words and usually have one distinct meaning. abstemious ambul to walk ambulatory. Root or Prefix Meaning Examples a. antediluvian anti. precede. well benefactor. antichrist. antinomies. auditorium. amble. antibiotic audi to hear audience. besmirch.Sometimes root words have several different meanings. cess to go. auditory. autonomous. autoimmune bene good. Prefixes. audible. ceed. anonymous apathy. recede. antipathy. antithesis. secession. aberrant. ant against. autograph. beneficiary. benefit cede. but are not words in themselves. . exceed. proceed. antiseptic. benevolent. beneficial. ambulance. to yield succeed. antibody. without atheist. antebellum.Prefixes help to form longer words. opposite antisocial. abduction. an not. anemia ab away from absent.
clause. circumstance. enclose. claustrophobia. derange. converge. contrary. counterspy. away detach. contemporary. circumcision. encliclical de from. god divinity. circumlocution. compact. com with. cyclical. credence. circumscribe. deploy. compress. circulatory clud. confluence. circumvent. deodorize. deflate. credible. concatenate. exclusive. cis to kill. reclusive. conjoin. down. devoid. counter against. credential. deify . clus claus to close include. combine contra. chronic. suicide. degenerate. contravene. opposite contradict. divine. wheel bicycle. incredulous cycl circle. credit. incision. cycle. chronicle chronometer. counteract. deity. exclude. div God. credulity. conclude con. to cut fratricide. together convene. divination. circumference. circumorbital. anachronism cide. excision.succession chron time chronology. deice dei. circumcision circum around circumnavigate. contrapuntal cred to believe credo. circumflex.
not. extrabiblical extracurricular. induct. express. exterior extraordinary. deduct. epidemic dia through. heterodyne. extra outside of external. disarray. distemper. distaste. dialogue dialect. between diameter. equator e. dictionary. diction. dynasty ecto outside. exhale. exit. endogenous equi equal equidistant. ectothermal endo inside. disproportion. dialectic. dyna power dynamic.demo people democracy. dynamite. diachronic dict speak predict. exceed. enervate. abduct. malediction. ectopic. extrapolate. from emit. diagonal. dissuade. product. duct to lead. ectoplasm. equation. dyslexia duc. across. away. differ. transducer. dictum. dynamometer. expulsion. equilateral. disconnect. disperse. endoscope. reduce. dif away. equitable. dictate. extrinsic. ectoderm. induce dyn. ex out. dynamo. explosion exter. dysfunction. external ectomorph. equinox. diagnosis. dys. extraneous . withing endotoxin. viaduct. equilibrium. negative dismiss. verdict. aqueduct. indict dis. demagogue. disallow. pull produce. exclusive. disrespect.
intermission. inject. fluctuate. intercept. homonym. homosexual. trajectory. grammar. deflect. impossible infra beneath infrared. effluvium. dejected. intro between international. hypodermic. above hyperactive. innocent. hypoglycemia. eject. telegram. intravenous jac. confluence. heterosexual. biography. circumflex graph. homophone hyper over. into intranet. graphic hetero other heterodox. heterodyne homo same homogenized. intractable. heterogeneous. flux flow effluence. ejaculate . flex to bend flexible. intracranial.flu. hyperkinetic hypo below. infrastructure inter. gram to write polygraph. hypoallergenic in. internal. hyperbolic. historiography. hypertensive. hyperventilate. intermittent. hypersensitive. graphite. reflection. im not inviolate. ject to throw reject. introvert. impregnable. less than hypotension. autograph. innocuous. project. interject. introduce intra within. interoffice. influence. influx flect. reflux. lithograph.
microfiche. admit. metamorphosis. badly malformation. metabolism. metainformation meter measure perimeter. malady. morpheme. neoclassic. badly misinform. micrometer. multipartite. neophyte . ammeter. misogynist mit. metahistorical. mistake. neonate. megalomaniac. malfeasance. megalopolis meso middle mesomorph. mesosphere meta beyond. maladjusted. remit. mission morph shape polymorphic. micrograph mis bad. maleficent mega great. multimeter. missive. micrometer. missionary. miss to send transmit. million megaphone. mispronounce. change metaphor. megabyte. malcontent. missile. altimeter micro small microscope. permit. misnomer.mal bad. multipurpose neo new neologism. dismal. mesoamerica. multiply. microprocessor. misinterpret. amorphous multi many multitude.
conscript. nonabrasive. portable. periodontal phon sound telephone. transect. manuscript. transportation. photon poly many polytheist. again report. omniscient para beside paraprofessional. phonograph. section . import. sanction. realign. parachute per through. sanctimonious. proscribe. microphone phot light photograph. paraphrase. paramedic. perspire. perforate. perimeter. homophone. deport. persuade peri around periscope. intensive permit. retrogression. sanctuary. retract. secant. phonetic. script to write inscription. revise. polygon. retrospect. prescribe.non not nonferrous. report. sacrosanct scrib. sec cut intersect. scribe sect. perigee. dissect. scribble. export re back. polygamy. retroactive sanct holy sanctify. polymorphous port to carry porter. regain retro backwards retrorocket. nondescript omni all omnipotent. photosynthesis. phonics. omnivorous.
submarine. suprarenal. protract. semiconscious. unharmed. vehement vert. thermodynamic. transport. telemetry theo. syndicate tele distance. intractable trans across transoceanic. supernatural. retrospect. spectacle sub under. synchronous. convection. . thermo heat thermal. contract. unintended veh. semicircle spect to look inspect. traction. subtract. supercede syn together synthesis. semiannual. the God theology. semimonthly. substandard. detract. transmit. invert. vehicle. versatile. circumspect. vers to turn convert.semi half semifinal. telegraph. subvert super. advertise. vect to carry vector. prospect. thermocouple. supra above superior. telephone. vertigo. revert. tractor. polytheist therm. spectator. thermoelectric tract to drag. from afar television. below submerge. superscript. theist. retract. extract. draw attract. subnormal. thermometer. transducer un not uncooked.
g.reversion. . revitalize Explanation of Suffixes and Spelling Rules What is a suffix? A suffix is a word ending. but you can make new words from it by adding beginnings (prefixes) and endings (suffixes). For example. helpful *A root word stands on its own as a word. extravert. vitality. introvert vita life vital. 'comfort' is a root word. By adding the prefix 'dis' and the suffix 'able' you can make new words such as 'discomfort' and 'comfortable'. walking. It is a group of letters you can add to the end of a root word* e. vitamins.
verb. If you want to use the root word 'talk' in the following sentence: I was (talk) to Samina. As always.g. Probably the most common are 'ed' and 'ing'. run + ing = running Adding suffixes to words can change or add to their meaning. noun. Suffix spelling rules . 'i'. Here are some other suffixes and examples. You need to add the suffix 'ing' so that the word 'talk' makes better sense grammatically: "I was talking to Samina". 'u') you need to double the last letter when you add a suffix: e.1] For most short (one syllable) words that end in a single consonant (anything but 'a'.g. there are exceptions to these 4 rules. but they are a good starting guide: . 'e'. There are various suffixes we use.double letters Usually when you add a suffix to a root word the spelling of both stays the same: e. care + ful = careful But there are several important groups of words where the spelling of the root word changes when you add a suffix.g. e.g. adjective) the word belongs to. but most importantly they show how a word will be used in a sentence and what part of speech (e. Sometimes the spelling changes because of the 'Doubling' rules. 'o'.
g. 'o'. travel + ing = travelling cancel + ed = cancelled 3] For most longer (more than one syllable) words that have the stress on the last syllable when you say them AND end in a single consonant (anything but 'a'.g. 'i'. then you don't need to double the last letter before adding a suffix: e. pump + ed = pumped sing + ing = singing 2] For most longer (more than one syllable) words that end in 'l' you need to double the 'l' when you add the suffix: e.g. offer + ing = offering benefit + ed = benefited 4] If you have a word ending in a consonant and a suffix starting in a consonant. but the stress isn't on the last syllable.g. 'u') you need to double the last letter: e.g. enrol + ment = enrolment commit + ment = commitment .sun + y = sunny If the word ends with more than one consonant. you don't need to double the last letter of the word: e. 'e'. you don't double the last letter: e. begin + er = beginner prefer + ing = preferring If the word has more than one syllable and ends in a single consonant.
Suffix ed Example walk + ed = walked Suffix ness Example happy + ness = happiness ing say + ing = saying al accident + al = accidental er tall + er = taller ary imagine + ary = imaginary tion educate + tion = education able accept + able = acceptable sion cian divide + sion = division music + cian = musician ly ment love + ly = lovely excite + ment = excitement fully est hope + fully = hopefully large + est = largest ful y help + ful + helpful ease + y = easy .
u) to a word which ends in a silent 'e'.More suffix spelling rules 'y' to 'i' rule When you add a suffix to a word which ends in a consonant followed by a 'y'. When you add the suffix 'ness'. Exceptions to the rule. If you say the word to yourself you don't really hear the 'e' at the end. If you are adding the suffix 'ing' to a word ending in 'y'.g. Silent 'e' rule When you add a 'y' or a suffix which starts with a vowel (a. When you add 'ing' the 'y' doesn't change to an 'i' because you would have 2 'i's together: copy + ing = copying. noisy: noise + y = noisy.o.g. Silent 'e' words are ones that end with a consonant and have an 'e' at the end. e. The word 'like' ends in a silent 'e'. change the 'y' to 'i'.g. The word 'noise' ends in a silent 'e'. When you add the suffix 'y'. drop the silent 'e'. like. e.i. change the 'y' to 'i' to make the word happiness: happy + ness = happiness. love. The word 'copy' ends in 'py'. The word 'happy' ends in 'py'. . e. the 'e' is dropped to make the word. such as hope. keep the 'y'.e.
or 'ge'. liking: like + ing = liking. keep the 'e' if you add a suffix beginning with either an 'a'. The word 'peace' ends in 'ce'. If a word ends in 'ce'..g. inject (verb) + tion = injection (noun) instruct (verb) + tion = instruction (noun) . or give you important clues about what the word is doing. When you add on the suffix 'able' the silent 'e' is kept to make the word. (This is done to keep the 'c' or 'g' sounding soft. 1] Adding '-tion' Adding 'tion' to a root word can change the word from a verb (action word) to a noun (name of person. From verbs to nouns. For example if you add the suffix 'ness' to the root word 'unhappy' you would still change the 'y' to 'i': un + happy + ness = unhappiness Verbs.g. Exceptions to the rule.. place or thing): e. the 'e' is dropped to make the word. There are several forms of the 'shun' sound which are all suffixes that can change root words from nouns to verbs.Silent 'e' rule When you add the suffix 'ing'. nouns and professions Adding a suffix to a word can change the job that word does. or an 'o'.) e. peaceable: peace + able = peaceable NB: All these rules also apply to words which have a prefix before the root word.
The important thing is that you can see that the verb and noun are related in meaning. Sometimes the spelling changes slightly between the verb and the noun.g. . if the root word ends in 't'.the root word ends with a long vowel or a short 'l' . you drop the final 't' before adding the suffix.there is a consonant before the 'tion' sound (normally the root word ends in 't') N.B...From verbs to nouns. relax (verb) + tion = relaxation (noun) describe (verb) + tion = description (noun) Use this when: . e.
html 2) www. who are working on their pronunciation of written English. does not mean that you understand the meaning of that word.sadlier-oxford. who are just learning English and are unfamiliar with common spellings of sounds.com/phonics/phonicsindex. Just because you know how a written word sounds when spoken. this packet will not go into depth. but not as helpful to intermediate or advanced learners. This is because phonics does not help in decoding the meaning of a word.htm 3) www.starfall.Phonics-Explained Phonics is a method of teaching reading using the sounds of words.com/ - . However. Phonics is usually helpful to beginners. phonics may be helpful to ESL (English as a Second Language) learners.com/phonics/control_page/front2. but those wishing to learn more can find information at: 1) www.tampareads. Because phonics is often for more advanced learners.
dictate government. mind. patricide life.Helpful Study Quiz Root/Prefix/Suffix Meaning Longer Word Formed From Root/Prexix/Suffix bene chrono bio cracy gress geo audi. rule progress. opposit genocide. dic sign duct log or logos anim ante anti cide against. regress good . audio dict. spirit antecedent to lead diction.