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Structure

4.1 4.2 Introduction

Objectives

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Beams

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Types of Support Types of Beam Types of Loading

4.3

**Shear Force and Bending Moment
**

4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 Definitions Sign Conventions Relation between Loading, Shear Force and Bending Moment Maximum Value of Bending Moment

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams Beams Subjected to Couples Beams Subjected to Oblique Loading Summary Answers to SAQs

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In practice, all beams are subjected to some type of external loadings. As the beam is loaded, it deflects from its original position, which develops the moment and shear on the beam. Shear force (SF) and bending moment (BM) are very important in designing any type of beam because the beam is designed for maximum bending moment and also the shear reinforcement is provided for maximum shear force. Strength of the beam is design criterion for bending moment and shear force, whereas the stiffness of the beam is the design criterion for deflection of the beam. In this unit, you will be introduced to various types of beams, supports and loadings. Thereafter, methods of drawing Shear Force Diagram (SFD) and Bending Moment Diagram (BMD) for cantilever, simply supported beam and overhanging beam for different types of loadings have been discussed.

Objectives

After studying this unit, you should be able to • • • • identify the types of beam and types of support when it appears in building, structural system, etc., describe the shear force and bending moment and the relation between shear force, bending moment and rate of loading, draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for any types of beam subjected to any type of loading system, and show the position of maximum bending moment and position of zero bending moment (point of contraflexure). 5

Forces and Stresses in Beams

4.2 BEAMS

A beam is a structural member of sufficient length compared to lateral dimensions and supported so as to be in equilibrium and generally, subjected to a system of external forces to produce bending of the member in an axial plane. Ties, struts, shafts and beams are all one-dimensional or line-elements where the length is much greater than the depth or width. These are also known as rod-like or skeletal elements; and have different names depending upon the main action they are designed to resist. Thus, ties and struts resist uniaxial tension or compression, shafts resist torque and beams resist bending moments (and shear forces). The clear horizontal distance between the supports is called the clear span of the beam. The horizontal distance between the centers of the end bearings is called the effective span of the beam. If the intensity of the bearing reaction is not uniform, the effective span is the horizontal distance between the lines of action of the end reactions.

Beam

Support

Effective Span Clear Span

Support

Figure 4.1 : Clear and Effective Spans in a Beam

Whenever a horizontal beam is loaded, it bends due to the action of loads. The amount with which a beam bends, depends upon the amount and type of loads, length of the beam, elasticity properties of the beam material and the type of the beam. Beams may be concrete, steel or even composite beam, having any type of sections such as angles, channels, I-section, rectangle, square, hat section etc.

4.2.1 Types of Support

The supports can be classified into following three categories : (a) (b) (c) A simple or free support or roller support, Hinged or pinned support, and A built-in or fixed or encastre support.

A Simple or Free Support or Roller Support It is a support in which beam rests freely. A roller support is the simplest and gives only one reaction, either in x direction or y direction (Rx or Ry) normal to the support and offers no resistance against rotation or lateral movements. The reaction will be taken as acting at a point, though actually it will be distributed over some length.

Actual Ry

Symbolic Ry VA

Symbolic (Line Element)

Figure 4.2 : Simple or Free Support or Roller Support

6

Hinged or Pinned Support

In this case, the beam is hinged or pinned to the support. A pinned or hinged support gives only two reactions, one against vertical movement and another against horizontal movement (say Rx or Ry) but offers no resistance to the angular rotation of the beam at the hinge. The reaction will pass through the centre of the hinge or pin.

Rx HA A

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Actual

Ry

VA Symbolic Symbolic (Line Element)

HA – Horizontal Reaction at the Support ‘A’ VA – Vertical Reaction at the Support ‘A’ Figure 4.3 : Hinged or Pinned Support

A Built-in or Fixed or Encastre Support It is a support which restrains complete movement of the beam both in position as well as direction. The support gives all the three relevant reactions (say Rx, Ry and Mz), i.e. the reactions in x and y directions and fixing moment Mz. In other words, the fixed support offers resistance against translation in both the directions and also against the rotation.

A Rx MZ HA MA

Actual

Ry

Symbolic

VA

Symbolic

MA – Fixing Moment at the Support ‘A’ Figure 4.4 : A Built-in or Fixed or Encastre Support

4.2.2 Types of Beam

Depending upon the type and number of supports, the beams are divided into two categories : (a) (b) Statically determinate beam, and Statically indeterminate beam.

Statically Determinate Beam A beam is said to be statically determinate, when it can be analyzed using three static equilibrium equations, i.e. ∑Hx = 0, ∑Vx = 0 and ∑Mx = 0, where ∑Hx = algebraic sum of horizontal forces at section x, ∑Vx = algebraic sum of vertical forces at section x, and ∑Mx = algebraic sum of moment of all the forces about the section x. Examples are as follows : (a) (b) (c) Cantilevers, Simply supported beams, and Overhanging beams. 7

then the beam is called statically determinate beam. l3 are the lengths of overhanging portions.5 : Cantilever Beams Simply Supported Beam A beam supported or resting freely on the walls or columns at its both ends is known as simply supported beam. hinged or roller support.Forces and Stresses in Beams It can also be stated. ∑Hx = 0. Now.e.6 : Simply Supported Beam Overhanging Beam A beam having its end portion (or portions) extended in the form of a cantilever beyond the support is known as overhanging beam. Statically Indeterminate Beam When the number of unknown reactions or stress components exceed the number of static equilibrium equations available. A B Span (l) Figure 4. Propped cantilevers. A B Span (l) Figure 4. ∑Vx = 0 and ∑Mx = 0 then. if the number of unknown reactions or stress components can be found by means of three equilibrium equations. the beam is said to be statically indeterminate. The support may be fixed. l2. This means.7 : Overhanging Beam l1. The support may be hinged or roller support. and Continuous beams. we will discuss briefly each type of beam in subsequent paragraphs. i. Examples are as follows : (a) (b) (c) Fixed beams. A beam may be overhanging on one side or on both sides. 8 Fixed Beam . A B A B l l1 l2 l l3 Figure 4. the three equilibrium equations are not adequate to analyse the beam. Cantilever Beams A beam fixed at one end and free at the other end is known as cantilever.

Uniformly distributed load.10 : Continuous Beam l1 = length of overhanging portion.e. at a mathematical point as it will be distributed over a small area. l3 = span BC. is negligible. In practice. W W 9 A B . Concentrated or Point Load A load acting at a point on a beam is known as concentrated or a point load. A B Shear Forces and Bending Moments Span (l) Figure 4. and Uniformly varying load. l4 = span CD.2. A B A B Span (l) Span (l) l1 Propped Cantilever Figure 4. and l2 = span AB. it is not possible to apply a load at a point. A B C D l1 l2 l3 l4 Figure 4. It may or may not be having overhanging portion. is called propped cantilever. But this very small area. (a) (b) (c) Concentrated or point load. i. Continuous Beam A beam which is provided with more than two supports is called a continuous beam.A beam rigidly fixed at its both ends or built-in walls is known as rigidly fixed beam or a built-in beam. 4.9 Propped Cantilever with Overhang l1 = length of overhanging portions.8 : Fixed Beam Propped Cantilever If a cantilever beam is supported by a simple support at the free end or in between.3 Types of Loading A beam may be subjected to the following types of loads. as compared to the length of the beam. It may be noted that a continuous beam may or may not be an overhanging beam.

A B A B Figure 4. is known as uniformly distributed load (briefly written as u.13 : Uniformly Varying Load A beam may carry anyone of the above load systems or a combination of two or more systems at a time.3 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT 4.11 : Concentrated or Point Load A beam may be subjected to one or more point loads. and ∑Fz = 0. Such a load is known as triangular load. direction or point of application with time.).d. y. 1 2 ∑Fy = algebraic sum of all the forces acting on the particle in the y direction = Fy − Fy .1 Definitions Shear Force : General The static equilibrium of a space can be ensured if the algebraic sum of all the forces acting on the particle in the x. For all calculation purposes. the uniformly distributed load is assumed to act at the centre of gravity of load.3. ∑Fx = 0.14(a)]. z directions are separately zero [Figure 4. Uniformly Distributed Load A load which is spread over a beam in such a manner that each unit length is loaded to the same extent. ∑Fy = 0. Sometimes. ∑Fx = algebraic sum of all the forces acting on the particle in the x direction = Fx − Fx . the intensity of load may not be uniform and varying from point to point. and 1 2 10 . where. Sometimes.12 : Uniformly Distributed Load Uniformly Varying Load A load which is spread over a beam in such a manner that its extent varies uniformly on each unit length is known as uniformly varying load. Dynamic loads are those.Forces and Stresses in Beams Figure 4.l. A B A B Figure 4. the load is zero at one end and increases uniformly to the other end. Static loads are those which are applied gradually and do not change their magnitude. Loads may be static or dynamic. which vary in time with speed. 4. Mathematically.

Let us consider a section A-A parallel to y-z plane in the body (Figure 4.14(b)). y-axis A Fy2 Fy1 − Fx3 − Fz2 Fx1 x-axis Fx2 Fz1 − Fy3 z-axis A Figure 4.14(a) : Equilibrium of a Particle under a System of Forces These forces are general forces and their positive or negative sign will depend on.∑Fz = algebraic sum of all the forces acting on the particle in the z direction = Fz − Fz .14(b) : Equilibrium of a Body under System of Forces y-axis A A Fy Fx Fz x-axis z-axis A A Figure 4.14(c) : A Section A-A Parallel to y-z Plane Cut and Forces Exposed at A-A 11 . 1 2 y axis Shear Forces and Bending Moments Fy1 −Fz2 −Fx2 Fx1 x axis Fz1 −Fy2 z axis Figure 4. whether the forces are directed away from the origin or towards the origin.

12 . For the equilibrium of the cantilever. At this section there is a possibility of failure by shear as shown in Figure 4. Fz = resultant of all the forces acting on the left portion of the body in the z direction. the cantilever is liable to be sheared off into two parts. z directions are separately zero (Figure 4. these forces Fy and Fz are known as shear forces. y.Forces and Stresses in Beams The right hand portion is removed and the forces exposed on section A-A in the left hand portion of the body are shown in Figure 4. where Mx. The resultant force acting on anyone on the parts normal to the axis of the member is called shear force at the section C. Fx = resultant of all the forces acting on the left portion of the body in the x direction. Mz are the moments of forces taken about x. cantilever beam) subjected to point load P. ∑Mx = 0. It is clear that the force acting normal to the centre line of the member on each part equals S = P. Fx will create axial stresses or normal stress τx on the section. The force acting on the right part on the section C is downward. ∑My = 0. Mathematically. If such a failure occurs at section C. z directions. the fixed support at A will provide a vertical reaction vertically upwards. denoted as Fx. The resultant force acting on the left part is upward. Bending Moment : General For a rigid or deformable body. As the area of the section A-A is normal to x axis. Fy = resultant of all the forces acting on the left portion of the body in the y direction. z axes. Thus.14(d). However.14(e)). Consider a section at C.14(c). of magnitude RA = P. the rotational equilibrium can be ensured if the algebraic sum of moments of all the forces acting on the body in the x. the shear force (briefly written as SF) at the cross section of a beam may be defined as the unbalanced vertical force to the right or left of the section. y. P C A B RA=P C P RA=P S C S Figure 4. y. whereas Fx is simply an axial force. and ∑Mz = 0. Using the common nomenclature of beams and bending. The three resultant forces in the x. Fy and Fz do not create the same type of stresses on the section. My.14(d) : Development of Shear Force at Section C Now let us consider a beam (for example. the remaining two forces Fy and Fz act tangential or along the plane and create shear stresses τxy and τxz.

14(e) : Equilibrium of a Body under a System of Moments These moments are general moments and their positive or negative sign will depend on.14(f). Mx. My. whether the moments are counter-clockwise or clockwise. ∑Mx = Algebraic sum of moments of all the forces about x axis = M x − M x 1 2 ∑My = Algebraic sum of moments of all the forces about y axis = M y − M y 1 2 ∑Mz = Algebraic sum of moments of all the forces about z axis = M z − M z 1 2 Now. These moments are known as bending moments on a section A-A. The three moments. The remaining moments My and Mz acting on section x. “Mx. y-axis A My A Mx Mz x-axis z-axis A A Figure 4.14(f) : A Section A-A Parallel to y-z Plane Cut and Moments Exposed at A-A 13 . we see that same moments can be twisting or bending moments. acting on section x” creates a twisting action on the section. and Mxz produce a bending of the body around y or z axis and create linearly varying tensile and compressive stresses on the section.y-axis A Shear Forces and Bending Moments My1 − My1 − Mx2 − Mz2 Mx1 x-axis Mz1 z-axis − Fy3 A Figure 4. renamed as Mxy. The right hand portion is removed and the moments exposed on section in the left hand portion of the body are shown in Figure 4. depending on the orientation of the section considered. Thus. A little thought will show that all of the moments do not create same type of stresses on the section. Mx renamed as Mxx is a torque and produces torsional shear stresses on the section. Mz are shown to be positive for the sake of convenience. consider a section A-A parallel to y-z plane in the body (Figure 4.14(f)).

Let us now study another effect of load applied on the cantilever. the fixed support of A has to offer a resistance against this rotation. Now consider. Moment of any force is calculated as the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between the line of action of force and the section (or point) about which moment is required. Obviously the load on the part DB would cause the part DB to rotate in a clockwise order about D. The cantilever has a tendency to rotate in clockwise direction about ‘A’ (Figure 4.Forces and Stresses in Beams Mx = Algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces acting on the left portion of the body. the fixed support at A will provide a reacting or resisting anticlockwise moment of Pl1. for instance. taking moments about D. My = Algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces acting on the left portion of the body. (a) (b) ∴ RA × DA = P × l2 Couple = P × l1 (clockwise) (anticlockwise) P B C Net moment about D = Pl1 − Pl2 = P (l1 − l2) (anticlockwise). Considering the part DB. Hence. we find that there is a clockwise moment of P (l1 − l2) about D.14(h) 14 . taken about y-axis. for the equilibrium of the part DB it is necessary that the part DA of the cantilever should provide a reacting or resisting anticlockwise of P (l1 − l2) about D. For the equilibrium of the cantilever. Mz = Algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces acting on the left portion of the body. we have the following moments about D. Hence.14(g)). P D A MA = Pl1 RA = P l2 C l1 l B Figure 4. the section D.14(g) Moment of the applied load P about ‘A’ is equal to Pl1 (clockwise). taken about z-axis. considering the part DA. taken about x-axis. Taking moments about D. D P (l1 − l2) A MA = Pl1 D P (l1 − l2) D RA = P P (l1 − l2) P (l1 − l2) Figure 4. The cantilever is liable to bend due to the load on it. Suppose the part DB was free to rotate about D.

to the right or left of the section. at the section D. at a section.2 Sign Conventions Sign Convention for Shear Force (SF) Since the shear force is the unbalanced vertical force. therefore it tends to slide one portion of the beam. when the left hand portion tends to slide downwards with respect to the right hand portion.15(a) : Sign Convention for Shear Force (SF) It is said to be positive. This moment is known as bending moment at D. at a section.15(b) is taken as positive. On the other hand. upward or downward. Or in other words. Shear Forces and Bending Moments Thus. 4.3. all the downward forces to the section will cause negative shear. Or. the part DB provides a clockwise moment of P (l1 − l2) and the part DA provides an anticlockwise moment of P (l1 − l2).15(a). a loading which causes the beam to sag. with respect to the other as shown in Figure 4. Positive Bending Moment (Sagging) Left Side Right Side Left Side Right Side Negative Bending Moment (Hogging) Section Section Figure 4. will create negative bending moment. and where the bending moment is such that it tends to bend at that point to a curvature having convexity at the top as shown in Figure 4. While calculating the shear force or bending moment at a section. the part DB should provide a clockwise moment of P (l1 − l2). in other words. the end reactions must also be considered along with other external loads. for equilibrium of the part DA. It is said to be negative. Sign Convention for Bending Moment (BM) At sections. the bending moment (briefly written as BM) at the cross section of a beam may be defined as the algebraic sum of the moment of the forces. all the upward forces to the right of the section will cause negative shear and those acting downwards will cause positive shear.15(b) : Sign Convention for Bending Moment (BM) 15 . will create positive bending moment. when the left hand portion tends to slide upwards with respect to the right hand portion. all the upward forces to the left of the section will cause positive shear. a loading which causes the beam to hog. Left Side Right Side Left Side Right Side Section Section Positive Shear Force Negative Shear Force Figure 4. Hence. where the bending moment is such that it tends to bend the beam at that point to a curvature having concavity at the top as shown in Figure 4. On the other hand.Hence.15(b) is taken as negative.

. Consider a small portion of the beam between sections 1-1 and 2-2. the BM is said to be positive. The forces and moments acting on the element of the beam are as follows : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) upward force F at section 1-1. at a section. Now equating the unbalanced vertical force at section 2-2. The load acting on the small portion is equal to w δx. The BM is said to be negative. . at a distance x from the left end support as shown in Figure 4. Since the element of the beam is in equilibrium. Shear Force and Bending Moment Consider a beam subjected to external loading of intensity w per unit length.16 Taking moments about the section 2-2.16. (i) Thus. and clockwise moment M + δM at section 2-2. when it is acting in clockwise direction to the left and an anticlockwise direction to the right of the section. downward force F + δF at section 2-2. 4. 1 2 w/unit length x 1 1 δx 2 2 w/unit length M F 1 2 M + δM F + δF δx Figure 4. therefore the system of forces and moments acting on the element. anticlockwise moment M at section 1-1. the slope of shear force curve) is equal to the intensity of the loading.3. the rate of change of shear force (or in other words. at a section when it is acting in an anticlockwise direction to the left and clockwise direction to the right of the section.3 Relation between Loading. downward load w δx. must obey the laws of equilibrium. we get F + δF = F − w δx or δF = −w δx . (ii) . δx apart. . Let F and M be the SF and BM at left end to the element and F + δF and M + δM be the SF and BM at right end of the element. . we get M + δM = M + Fδx or 16 δM =F δx .Forces and Stresses in Beams In other words. M + δM = M + Fδx − w(δx) 2 2 Ignoring higher powers of small quantities and simplifying the relation.

The shear force diagram will increase or decrease suddenly at the point of application of load depending upon the direction of load. These diagrams give the clear picture of the distribution of shear forces and bending moment along the length of the beam. the shear force is zero.e. calculate the shear force at all salient points. A bending moment diagram for a structural member is a diagram which shows the values of bending moment at various sections of the member. 17 . the above relation is very important to obtain the maximum value of bending moment over the beam. The shear force and bending moment.Thus. the rate of change of bending moment (or in other words. where For maximum value of bending moment. the slope of the bending moment curve) is equal to the shear force at the section. Taking the moments at that section. we get the point where the maximum bending moment will occur. calculate the shear force just left as well as right of the vertical load (or reaction). at any section. by taking moments about the hinged or pinned support and equating to zero (∑M = 0).4 Maximum Value of Bending Moment dM = 0. for maximum bending moment. by a vertical straight line at the section.4 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS A Shear Force diagram for a structural member is a diagram which shows the values of shear forces at various sections of the member. ∑H = 0). It is clear that SF curve can be obtained by integrating the loading curve and BM curve can be obtained by integrating the SF curve. δM =0 δx In other words. Step 4 Starting from one end (left end). i. 4. the SF will be zero. Step 2 Find the reactions of other supports by means of static equilibrium equation (∑V = 0. But in actual practice. Procedure for Drawing the SF Diagram (SFD) and BM Diagram (BMD) Step 1 Find the reaction of any one of the support. Such ordinates are drawn at important points of the beam and a straight line or a curve is drawn joining the tops of all such ordinates. However. Shear Forces and Bending Moments 4. If there is a vertical load (including reaction) at a section. and BM dx will be maximum positive or maximum negative. The values of shear force and bending moment are plotted as ordinates against the position of the cross section of the beam as abscissa. Equating the shear force at a distance of x from the support to zero. can be obtained analytically. the bending moment may be maximum where shear force changes sign.3. maximum bending moment can be obtained. If the BM diagram is a continuous curve. Step 3 Draw a base line of length equal to the length of the beam to some scale.

x W B W Wl Figure 4. The SF just on the left side of the point load is + W. The shear force diagram will remain unchanged between any two vertical loads provided there is no loading between the vertical loads. If there is a uniformly distributed load between two sections. The following points should be kept in mind for drawing the shear force and bending moment diagrams : (a) If there is no loading on the portion of the beam the shear force diagram will be horizontal.17. We know that Mx = − Wx. Since there is no loading between A and B. the shear force will remain same over the length of the beam. SF at this section is equal to the unbalanced vertical force either to the right or to the left of the section. The bending moment will be zero at the free end of the cantilever and at the two supports of simply supported beam. Step 6 Plot the positive values of shear force and bending moment above the base line and negative below it. (b) (c) (d) Cantilevers Cantilevers with a Point Load at the Free End Let us consider a cantilevers beam AB of length ‘l’ subjected to a point load W at the free end as shown in Figure 4.Forces and Stresses in Beams Step 5 Calculate the bending moment at salient points. The shear force diagram and bending moment diagram can be obtained by joining these ordinates. The bending moment diagram will be inclined. Mx = − Wx (minus sign indicates right anticlockwise). x W A x l x W (+) SFD Base Line (−) BMD W. then we get 18 BM at B. RA = W ↑ (since. when x is zero. Consider a section XX at a distance x from the free end. Consider right side of the section. The bending moment at this section. MB = 0 B .e. i. ∑V = 0). The bending moment diagram will consist of either straight lines or smooth curves. the shear force diagram will be inclined straight line and the bending moment diagram will be a curve. the shear force diagram will be horizontal for the length AB. Fx = + W (plus sign indicates right downward).17 Reaction at the support A.

FA = + w l Reaction at the support A.BM at A. subjected to a gradually varying load from zero at the free end to w per unit length at the fixed end. when x is ‘l’. R A = Total downward load 19 .19. Since the loading is uniformly distributed load. over the entire length of the beam as shown in Figure 4. and the bending moment equation is straight line equation. MA = − Wl Since there is no other load between A and B.x 2 2 Figure 4. FB = 0 SF at A.x w l2 2 (−) BMD w .18 Consider a section XX at a distance x from the right end B. as shown in Figure 4. Reaction at the support A. MA = − (at x = 0) (at x = 0) (at x = l ) l (minus sign indicates right 2 wl 2 2 (at x = l ) The bending moment diagram will be in the form of parabolic curve. Cantilever with a Gradually Varying Load Consider a cantilever beam AB of length l. Shear Forces and Bending Moments Cantilever with a Uniformly Distributed Load Consider a cantilever beam AB of length l carrying uniformly distributed load of w per unit run. w/unit length x A x L Wl x B (+) SFD W. SF at B.18. the shear force equation is straight line equation. BM at section xx. the bending moment diagram will be inclined. MB = 0 SF at A. RA = wl. the SF diagram will be inclined and also. Fx = + w x (plus sign indicates right downward) SF at B. SF at this section. Mx = − w × l × anticlockwise).

Shear force at section XX Fx = + =+ 1 w × × x × x (area of loading between B and xx) 2 l wx 2 2l SF at B. SF at A.Forces and Stresses in Beams =+ =+ 1 × l × w (area of loading diagram) 2 wl (plus sign indicates right downward) 2 w . 2 The shear force diagram is in the form of parabolic curve as the shear force equation is parabolic equation.e.x l w/unit length A L x B wl 2 (+) SFD w. FB = 0. area × CG of loading diagram about XX) B BM at B. x MB = 0 MA = − wl 2 6 w x l (when x = 0).19 Consider a section XX at a distance ‘x’ from the free end. and (when x = l). when x = 0. Bending moment at section XX 1 w 1 M x = − × × x × x × x (Moment of the area loading between B and XX) 2 l 3 =− wx3 6l (i. 20 .x 2 2l w l2 6 (−) BMD w.x3 6 Figure 4. B FA = + wl . when x = l. BM at A.

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

Figure 4.20

The bending moment diagram is in the form of parabolic curve. Example 4.1 A cantilever beam of 8 m length is subjected to point loads of 10 kN, 15 kN, 25 kN and 20 kN at distances of 2 m, 4 m, 6 m and 8 m, respectively from the fixed end. Draw the shear force diagram and bending moment diagram. Solution Reaction at the support A = RA = 10 + 15 + 25 + 20 = + 70 kN. Shear Force SF at A = FA = + 70 kN SF just left of C = + 70 kN SF just right of C = + 70 − 10 = + 60 kN SF just left of D = + 60 kN SF just right of D = + 60 − 15 = + 45 kN SF just left of E = + 45 kN SF just right of E = + 45 − 25 = + 20 kN SF just left of B = + 20 kN SF just left of B = + 20 kN (considering right side of the section)

10 kN A RA = 70 kN 2m C 10 70 (+) SFD (−) 390 250 BMD 130 2m D 15 kN 2m 8m 15 E 25 kN 2m 20 kN B

25

20

40

Figure 4.21

Bending Moment BM at B, MB = 0 (since the moment at the free end is equal to zero) (considering the right side) BM at E, ME = − 20 × 2 = − 40 kN m BM at D, MD = − (20 × 4) − (25 × 2) = − 130 kN m BM at C, MC = − (20 × 6) − (25 × 4) − (15 × 2) 21

Forces and Stresses in Beams

= − 250 kN m BM at A, MA = − (20 × 8) − (25 × 6) − (15 × 4) − (10 × 2) = − 390 kN m. Example 4.2 Draw the shear force diagram (SFD) and bending moment diagram (BMD) for the beam shown in Figure 4.22. Solution Reaction at the support A, RA = + 4 + (1.5 × 6) = + 13 kN. Shear Force SF at A, FA = + 13 kN (considering right side) SF at C, FC = + 13 − 1.5 × 6 = + 4 kN SF just left of D = + 13 − 1.5 × 6 = + 4 kN SF just right of D = + 4 − 4 = 0

1.5 kN/m A RA = 13 kN 4 kN D B

6m

C

2m

2m

13 kN

(+) SFD

4

4

(−) 59

8

Figure 4.22

Bending Moment BM at B, MB = 0 (since, the moment at the free end is equal to zero) BM at D, MD = 0 (considering right side of D, there is no loading on BD) BM at C, MC = − 4 × 2 = − 8 kN m (− ve sign due to right anticlockwise) BM at A, MA = − 4 × 8 − 1.5 × 6 × Example 4.3 A cantilever beam carries a uniformly distributed load of 2 t/m over the entire length of 6 m and point loads of 5 t, 3 t, 7 t and 2 t at a distance of 2 m, 4 m, 5 m, and 6 m, respectively from the fixed end. Draw SFD and BMD for the beam. Solution Reaction at the support A, RA = + 5 + 3 + 7 + 2 + (2 × 6) = 29 t Shear Force : Starting from end A, SF at A, RA = 29 t 22

6 = − 59 kN m. 2

SF just left of C = + 29 − 2 × 2 = + 25 t SF just right of C = + 25 − 5 = + 20 t SF just left of D = + 20 − 2 × 2 = + 16 t SF just right of D = + 16 − 3 = + 13 t SF just left of E = + 13 − 2 × 1 = + 11 t SF just right of E = + 11 − 7 = + 4 t SF just left of B = + 4 − 2 × 1 = + 2 t SF just right of B = + 2 t

5t 2m A RA = 29 t C 2m 6m D

Shear Forces and Bending Moments

**(considering right side)
**

2 t/m 3t 1m E 7t 1m B 2t

5 29 20 (+) 13 SFD 3 7 4 2

(−) 105 51

15

3

Figure 4.23

Bending Moment : Starting from B, BM at B, MB = 0 BM at E, ME = − 2 × 1 − 2 × 1 ×

1 =−3tm 2 2 = − 15 t m 2 4 = − 51 t m 2 6 = − 105 t m. 2

BM at D, MD = − 2 × 2 − 7 × 1 − 2 × 2 ×

BM at C, MC = − 2 × 4 − 7 × 3 − 3 × 2 − 2 × 4 ×

BM at A, MA = − 2 × 6 − 7 × 5 − 3 × 4 − 5 × 2 − 2 × 6 ×

SAQ 1

(a) A cantilever beam of length 8 m carrying a u.d.l. of 3 kN/m over a length of 6 m from free end and 1.5 kN/m on a span of 2 m at a distance of 2 m from the fixed end and a point load of 6 kN at a distance of 1 m from the fixed end. Draw the SFD and BMD for the cantilever beam. A cantilever of 3 m length is loaded with a uniformly varying load of intensity 2000 N/m at free end to 600 N/m at fixed end. Draw SFD and BMD for the cantilever.

(b)

23

24. (d) (e) Simply Supported Beams In case of simply supported beam. and equating to zero. 3 kN and 3 kN at distances of 1. and 3 kN at 1 m.5 m. Construct SFD and BMD for the beam. w C l/2 l 1000 w/2 (+) (−) SFD x w/2 l/2 x x B RB = w/2 A RA = w/2 (+) BMD Wl/4 Figure 4. the bending moment will be zero and that point is called the point of contraflexure. the point of contraflexure is very important. RB × l − W × B l =0 2 ∴ RB = + W 2 B W W =+ 2 2 (On the other hand. Draw SFD and BMD for the cantilever beam of 3 m long which carries a uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m over a length of 2 m from the free end. since the load is at the mid-point of the beam. Simply Supported Beam with a Point Load at its Mid-span Let us consider a simply supported beam AB. 3 kN. 3 m and 5 m respectively from the fixed end. In addition to this the beam carries an uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m over the entire length of the beam.Forces and Stresses in Beams (c) A cantilever beam 5 m long caries point loads of 2 kN. Draw SF and BM diagrams for the beam. the reactions at the supports RA = RB = W/2.) RA = W − RB = W − B 24 .5 m respectively from the fixed end. carries a point load W at its mid-point ‘C’ as shown in Figure 4. span l.24 Let us first find the reaction at the support B by taking moments about A. Where the BM changes sign at some point. A cantilever beam 5 m long carries point loads of 3 kN. 3 m and 4.

25. The bending moment equation is Mx = + BM at C. the shear force diagram is horizontal. The shear force diagram is 2 Alternatively. Consider a section XX between A and C at a distance ‘x’ from the end ‘B’. It increases by a straight line law. w C a l x (+) (−) SFD x Wa l x B b RB = Wa l A Wb RA = l Wb l (+) BMD Wab l Figure 4. taking moment about ‘A’ RB × l − W × a = 0 B ∴ RB = + Wa l 25 . SF remains unchanged. the shear force equation can also be written by considering a section between A and C at a distance ‘x’ from the end A. The shear force equation is Fx = − W W +W=+ 2 2 This equation is valid for all values of x from horizontal. and is maximum at the centre of the beam where shear force changes sign.x 2 (‘+’ sign indicates right clockwise) when x = MC = Wl 4 l 2 Simply Supported Beam with an Eccentric Point Load Consider a simply supported beam AB of length l subjected to eccentric point load W at C at a distance ‘a’ from the end A and B from the end B as shown in Figure 4.25 To find the reaction at the support B. The shear force equation is Shear Forces and Bending Moments Fx = − W 2 (‘−’ sign indicates right upward) This equation is valid for all values of x from 0 to l . Since there is no loading 2 between B and C. l to l.e. i.Consider a section XX between B and C at a distance ‘x’ from the end ‘B’. W . The bending moment at A and B is zero.

W/Unit Length C A Wl RA = 2 l/2 l x SFD (−) Fx Wl 2 x B l/2 x Wl RB = 2 Wl 2 (+) Wl2 8 Mx BMD Figure 4. taking moments about A and equating to zero. Alternatively.26 Let us find the reaction at the support B. x < b.e. the shear force equation for the portion AC may also be obtained by considering the section between A and C at a distance ‘x’ from the end A. BM at C.Forces and Stresses in Beams RA = W − Wa W (l − a) Wb =+ =+ l l l (where l – a = b) Consider a section XX between B and C at a distance x from the end B. Consider a section XX between A and C at distance x from the end B. The shear force equation is as follows : Fx = − Wa W (l − a) Wb +W= =+ l l l (where l – a = b) This is valid for the portion AC. i.e. The shear force equation is as follows : Fx = − Wa l (‘−’sign indicates right upward) This equation is valid for the portion BC.26. It increases by a straight line law. RB × l − w × l × ∴ l =0 2 RB = + wl 2 B RA = wl − RB = wl − 26 wl wl =+ 2 2 . and is maximum at C where the SF changes sign. i. The shear force diagram is horizontal. MC = + Wab l (at x = b) Simply Supported Beam with a Uniformly Distributed Load Consider a simply supported beam AB of span l carrying a uniformly distributed load of w per unit length over the entire length as shown in Figure 4. The bending moment equation for the portion BC is as follows : Mx = + Wa × x (‘+’sign indicates right clockwise) l The bending moment at A and B is zero. x > a.

wl + wx 2 wl 2 wl ⎛l⎞ + w⎜ ⎟ = 0 2 ⎝2⎠ wl wl + wl = + 2 2 (at x = 0) FB = − B SF at C. 2 The shear force at B is equal to − The bending moment at section xx. Shear Forces and Bending Moments Fx = − SF at B. W/m x 2Wx l 27 B Wl A l/2 C l/2 R = .27.Consider a section XX at a distance x from the end B. varying gradually from zero at both ends to w per unit length at centre as shown in Figure 4. the maximum bending moment occurs at ‘C’ ∴ wl 2 Mmax = MC = + 8 The bending moment diagram in the form of parabolic curve as the bending moment equation is parabolic equation. Mx = wl x⎞ ⎛ x − ⎜w × x × ⎟ 2⎠ 2 ⎝ = BM at A and B is zero wx 2 wl x− 2 2 MA = MB = 0 B wl ⎛ l ⎞ wl ⎛ l ⎞ MC = ⎜ ⎟− ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2⎠ 2 ⎝2⎠ 2 wl 2 wl 2 wl 2 = − =+ 4 8 8 Since the shear force is zero at mid point of the beam. FC = − FA = − (at x = l ) 2 SF at A. (at x = l) wl and increases uniformly by a straight line law 2 wl to zero at C and continuous to increase uniformly to + at A. The shear force equation. Simply Supported Beam with a Triangular Load Varying Gradually from Zero at both Ends to w per metre at the Centre Consider a simply supported beam AB of length l. subjected to a triangular load.

Mx = = wl 1 2 wx x x− ×x× × 4 2 l 3 wl wx3 x− 4 3l 28 . FB = − SF at C. RB × l − ∴ 1 l × w×l × = 0 2 2 RB = + RA = wl 4 1 wl wl wl × w × l − RB = − =+ 4 2 2 4 Consider a section XX at a distance ‘x’ from the end B. the reactions RA and RB will be equal.27 Since the load is symmetrical. FC = − wl 4 wl w ⎛ l ⎞ + . therefore.Forces and Stresses in Beams Wl RA = 4 Figure 4. B RA = RB = 1 1 wl × × w×l = 2 2 4 Taking moments about A.⎜ ⎟ l ⎝2⎠ 4 wl wl + =0 4 4 2 (at x = 0) l⎞ ⎛ ⎜ at x = ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ =− The shear force diagram is in the form of parabolic curve as the shear force equation is parabolic equation. The shear force at XX. The bending moment at XX. Fx = − =− wl 1 2wx + × x× 4 2 l wl wx 2 + 4 l SF at B.

Simply Supported Beam with a Gradually Varying Load. Shear Forces and Bending Moments M max = M C = = wl ⎛ l ⎞ w ⎛ l ⎞ ⎜ ⎟− =⎜ ⎟ 4 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3l ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 wl 2 wl 2 2 wl 2 wl 2 − = =+ 8 24 24 12 Since. the bending moment equation is cubic equation. . Fx = − wl 1 w wl wx 2 + × × x× x=− + 6 2 l 6 2l .The BM at A and B is zero. where the SF 1 changes sign.28.5771 C Fx (−) SFD Wl RB = 6 Wl 3 (+) Wl 6 Wl2 9 3 Mx BMD Figure 4. RB × l − ∴ 1 l × w×l × = 0 2 3 RB = + RA = wl 6 1 1 wl wl × w × l − RB = wl − =+ 2 2 6 3 x Wx 1 W/m A Wl RA = 3 B l x x 0. the bending moment diagram is in the form of cubic curve. the maximum bending moment occurs at x = . Taking moments about A and equating to zero. . The bending moment will be maximum. FB = − SF at A. from Zero at One End to w per metre at the other End Consider a simply supported beam AB of span l carries a gradually varying load from zero at one end to w per unit length at the other end as shown in Figure 4. In this case.e. (i) SF at B. FA = − wl 6 (at x = 0) (at x = l) wl wl wl + =+ 6 2 3 The bending moment at any section XX at a distance x from the end B. 29 . i. 2 at C.28 The shear force at any section XX at a distance x from the end B.

577 l 3 ∴ M max = M C = wl ⎛ l ⎞ w ⎛ l ⎞ − 6 ⎜ 3 ⎟ 6l ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3 = wl 2 wl 2 2wl 2 wl 2 − = = = 0. Since. Draw SFD and BMD and also calculate the maximum bending moment that will occur.Forces and Stresses in Beams Mx = Mx = wl 1 w x x− × × x× x× 6 2 l 3 wlx wx3 − 6 6l .857 kN. the bending moment diagram is in the form of cubic curve. (i).143 kN SF just left of D = + 5. − wl wx 2 + =0 6 2l wx 2 wl = l 3 x2 = x= l2 3 l = 0. ME = + 4. 4 kN and 6 kN at distances of 1 m.571 kN m BM at D. B RB × 7 − (6 × 4) − (4 × 2) − (2 × 1) = 0 Thus.285 kN m 30 .857 = 7. To find the maximum bending moment. MD = + (4. MA = 0 BM at E.143 − 2 = + 5.143 kN SF just right of E = + 1.143 kN Shear Force (Starting from left end A) SF at A. . (ii) The BM at A and B is zero (when x = l and x = 0).857 kN SF just left of E = − 4.06415 wl 2 6 3 18 3 18 3 9 3 The shear force diagram is in the form of parabolic curve as given by in Eq. Solution Taking moments about A to find RB. equate the shear force Eq. the power of ‘x’ in the moment equation is of order 3. RB = 4. and RA = 12 − 4.143 kN SF just right of C = + 7. 2 m and 4 m from the fixed end respectively.857 × 3 = + 14.143 − 6 = − 4.857 kN = Reaction at B Bending Moment (Starting from right end B) BM at A. FA = + 7.143 kN SF just left of E = + 1.4 A simply supported beam of 7 m length carries point loads 2 kN. Example 4. .143 kN SF just left of C = + 7. (i) to zero.857 × 5) − (6 × 2) = + 12.143 kN SF just right of D = + 5.143 − 4 = + 1.

Example 4. MC = + (4.30 31 .5 42 (+) 34.5 SFD 45 46.5 11. MA = 0 7. Thus.857 × 6) − (6 × 3) − (4 × 1) = + 7.5 Mmax = + 14. 8 m and 9 m.587 SFD 1.571 kN m A 12 m span simply supported beam is carrying a uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m over a length of 6 m from the left end and point loads 6 kN.5 (+) 1.571 12.143 2 5.143 (+) 4 1.143 1m 1m C D 7m 4kN 2m E 6kN 3m B RB = 4. Here.BM at C.29 Maximum Bending Moment Maximum bending moment will occur at a point where the shear force changes sign.857 KN Shear Forces and Bending Moments BM at A.285 7.142 kN m Or MC = 7. respectively.143 (−) 4. Draw SF diagram and BM diagram for the beam and find the maximum bending moment. 3 kN and 4 kN at distances of 7 m.5 7.5 4.5 (−) BMD Figure 4. SF changes from positive to negative at E.587 14.143 kN m (considering left side) 2kN A RA = 7. 2 kN/m 1m 6m 12m C D 6 kN 1m E 3 kN 1m F 4 kN 3m B A 13.143 4. The Bending Moment at E will be maximum bending moment.143 (+) BMD Figure 4.143 × 1 = + 7.

32 Solution .5× 5) − (4 × 2) − (3 × 1) = 46. RB = 11.5 kN m The maximum bending moment occurs at D where the shear force changes sign.5 kN SF just right of D = + 1.5 kN SF just right of F = − 7.5 kN SF just left of B = − 11. Mmax = 46. Draw the SFD and BMD.5 kN m. and equating to zero.5 kN = Reaction at B.5 kN SF just left of F = − 7.5 kN SF just right of E = − 4.5 − 4 = − 11.5 × 3) = 34. and RA = (2 × 6) + 6 + 3 + 4 − RB = 25 − 11. MA = 0 6⎞ ⎛ BM at C.Forces and Stresses in Beams Solution Taking moments about A. FA = + 13. Bending Moment BM at A.5 × 6) − 2 × ⎜ 6 × ⎟ = 45 kNm (considering left side) 2⎠ ⎝ BM at D.5 kN SF at C. FC = + 13.5 − 3 = − 7.5 − 6 = − 4.5 kN B 6 =0 2 Shear Force (Starting from the left end) SF at A. MD = (11. ME = (11.5 kN m (considering right side) BM at E. MF = (11.5 kN SF just left of E = − 4. Example 4.5 kN.5 kN SF just left of D = + 1.6 A simply supported beam of length 8 m is subjected to a uniformly varying load from zero at centre to 3 t/m at both ends.5 × 4) − (4 × 1) = 42 kN m BM at F.5 = 13.5 − 2 × 6 = + 1. MC = (13. RB × 12 − (4 × 9) − (3 × 8) − (6 × 7) − 2 × 6 × Thus.

the SF equation is parabolic equation. the SFD is in the form of parabolic curve. Bending Moment 33 . Fx = − 6 + =−6+ Fx = − 6 + 1 3 ⎛ ⎞ × x × ⎜ 3 + (4 − x) ⎟ 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ 12 + 3 (4 − x) ⎞ × x×⎜ ⎟ 2 4 ⎝ ⎠ x − 48 + 24 x − 3 x 2 × (12 + 12 − 3 x) = 8 8 Since. since the load is symmetrical. SF at B.31 Shear Force SF at A. 2 To find the form of SFD. SF at C. Shear Forces and Bending Moments RB × 8 − RB = 6 t B 1 2 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛1 ⎞ × 4 × 3 ⎜ 4 × ×4⎟ − × 4 × 3 ⎜ × 4⎟ = 0 2 3 ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎝3 ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ RA = ⎜ × 4 × 3 ⎟ × 2 − RB = 12 − 6 = 60 ⎝2 ⎠ Alternatively.m Mx Figure 4. consider a section XX at a distance ‘x’ from the end B. the reaction at the support will be equal to half of the total downward load. R A = RB = 6 t 3t/m A x ¾(4−x) 3t/m B 4m 4−x Parabolic Curve 6 (+) x Fx (−) SFD 6 x 4m 8m C Cubic Curve 8t.Taking moment about A. FA = + 6 t FC = + 6 − FB = 0 − 1 ×4×3= 0 2 1 × 4 × 3 = − 6 t = Reaction at B.

Forces and Stresses in Beams BM at A and B.32.4 Figure 4. MA = MB = 0 B 2 ⎛1 ⎞ BM at C.8 (−) 8.6 0. since. 1.6 kN 11. ⎛3 ⎞ ⎜ 4 (4 − x) + (2 × 3) x ⎟ x M x = 6 x − (24 − 3 x) ⎜ × ⎟ 3 8 3⎟ ⎜ (4 − x) + 3 ⎝ 4 ⎠ = 6x − = 6x − = 6x − = 6x − = 6x − M x = 6x − ⎛ 3(4 − x) + 24 x ⎞ x (24 − 3 x) ⎜ × ⎟ 8 ⎝ 3 (4 − x) + 12 3 ⎠ ⎛ 3 (4 − x) + 24 ⎞ x2 (24 − 3x) ⎜ ⎟ 24 ⎝ 3 (4 − x) + 12 ⎠ ⎛ 36 − 3x ⎞ x2 (24 − 3x) ⎜ ⎟ 24 ⎝ 24 − 3x ⎠ x2 (36 − 3 x) 24 3 x 2 3 x3 − 24 24 3 x 2 x3 − 2 8 This equation indicates that the bending moment diagram is in the form of cubic curve. Bending moment at XX.32 34 Solution .4 15. Example 4.4 4.4 kN 9. the SF is zero at centre of the beam.7 Construct the SFD and BMD for 10 m span simply supported beam subjected to a system of loads as shown in Figure 4.6 26.2 kN/m 1 kN 5 kN 4 kN 3 kN 2 kN/m A 11.6 2m C 3m 10m D E 2m F 2m B 15.4 11.8 (+) 39.4 SFD 40 20.2 6. M C = (6 × 4) − ⎜ × 4 × 3 × × 4 ⎟ = 24 − 16 = 8 t m 3 ⎝2 ⎠ Maximum bending moment occurs at centre.4 4.2 (+) 0.

Shear Force (starting from left end) SF at A. FE = − 0.4 kN B Bending Moment BM at A and B. M F = + (15.4 − 4 = − 4. FF = − 4. Mmax = MD = + 40 kN m SAQ 2 (a) A beam 6 m long is simply supported at the ends carries a uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m over the middle 2 m length and point loads of 1 kN and 4 kN at distances of 1 m and 5 m from the left end respectively. FC = + 9.2 × 2) = + 9.2 × 3) = + 4. A beam simply supported at its ends has a span of 6 m. FD = + 4.2 kN SF just right of C. Shear Forces and Bending Moments 4⎞ 5 ⎛ RB × 10 − 2 × 4 × ⎜ 6 + ⎟ − 3 × 8 − 4 × 6 − 5 × 5 − 1.8 kN m = + 39.8 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ (considering left side) Since the SF changes sign at D. FD = + 8.4 × 4) − (3 × 2) − ⎜ 2 × 4 × ⎟ = + 39.6 kN.4 kN SF just left of F.6 × 2) − ⎜1.6 − (1.6 kN SF just left of C. the maximum bending moment occurs at D.6 kN SF just right of D.4 − (2 × 2) = − 8. FC = + 11. MA = MB = 0 B 2⎞ ⎛ BM at F.Taking moment about A and equating to zero. M C = + (11.2 × 5 × − 1 × 2 = 0 2⎠ 2 ⎝ RB = 154 = 15.4 − 3 = − 11.4 × 2) − ⎜ 2 × 2 × ⎟ = + 26. M D = + (11.4 − (2 × 2) = − 15.2 × 5) + 1 + 5 + 4 + 3 + (2 × 4) − RB RA = 27 − 15.4 kN SF just right of E.6 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎞ ⎛ BM at E.2 − (1. FE = − 0.6 × 5) − (1 × 3) − ⎜1. M E = + (15.2 × 2 × ⎟ = + 20.4 kN SF just left of B.6 − 5 = − 0. It is loaded with a gradually varying load of 750 N/m from the left hand support to 1500 N/m 35 (b) . FB = − 11.4 kN SF just left of E. FA = + 11.2 × 5 × ⎟ = 40 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ (considering left side) 2⎞ ⎛ BM at C.4 = 11.6 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ 5⎞ ⎛ BM at D. Draw SFD and BMD and determine the magnitude and position of the maximum BM. FF = − 8.2 kN SF just left of D.4 kN SF just right of F.4 kN 10 RA = (1.2 − 1 = + 8.

Forces and Stresses in Beams to the right hand support. the overhanging beam will be analyzed as a combination of simply supported beam and a cantilever beam.8 Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the overhanging beam shown in Figure 4.33.07 1.81 BMD (−) 12 Figure 4. Find the magnitude and position of the maximum BM.47 3. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for the simply supported beam shown in figure below.07 SFD 6 (+) 6 5.5 m B Figure For SAQ 2(d) Overhanging Beams An overhanging beam is a beam which overhangs from the support either one side or both sides. Such a point where the BM changes sign is known as contraflexure. 1000 N 2000 N 3000 N 1500 N/m (d) A 1.5 kN/m over the entire span and concentrated load of 4 kN and 5 kN at distances of 2 m and 4 m from the left hand support respectively. Indicate the numerical values at all salient points. There may be one or more points of contraflexure.86 (+) 0.93 (+) 3.93 (−) 3. The overhanging portion of the beam will be treated as cantilever. (c) A simply supported beam of 6 m span is loaded with a uniformly distributed load of 1. It implies that in an overhanging beam. Construct the SF and BM diagrams and find the magnitude and position of the maximum BM over the beam.5 m 6m E 1. there is a point at which the BM changes from positive to negative and vice-versa.33 Solution Taking moments about A and equating to zero.5 m D 1.8 kN/m 6 kN A 2m D 1m E 6m x 3m x B 2m C 1. Example 4. x 5 kN 0. Point of Contraflexure For the purpose of shear force and bending moment. We have discussed that the BM is negative for the cantilever and positive for the simply supported beam.5 m C 1. 36 .

MB = − 6 × 2 = − 12 kN m 3⎞ ⎛ BM at E.93 kN SF just right of D.07x − 24.7 x = 4. BM at section XX.47 kN and RA = 5 + (0.3675 Value of (x2 − 17.4x2 + 7.47 kN B SF just right of B.93 kN SF just left of D.47x − 22.93 − 5 = − 3.2475 Value of (x2 − 17. consider a section XX between E and B at a distance x from C.3⎞ ⎛ RB × 6 − (6 × 8) − 0.75 Value of (x2 − 17.8 × 3) + 6 − 11.54 = 0 x2 − 17.8 × 3 × ⎜ 3 + ⎟ − (5 × 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ RB = 11. FD = + 1.4x2 + 7.45 .5 = 1.47 (x − 2) − 0. Mx = − 6x + 11.35) = − 0.07 kN SF just left of B. MC = 0 BM at B.8 × 3 × ⎟ = + 0. MD = + 1.675x + 61.47 + 11.35) = − 0. FB = − 5. Mmax (positive) = + 3. − 0.35 = 0 Solving by trial and error.35) = − 1. FB = − 3.8 × 3) = − 5.8 (x − 2) (x − 2) 2 = − 6x + 11.8 Value of (x2 − 17.9 x = 4.54 By equating this equation to zero.675x + 61.675x + 61.67x + 61. FD = + 1.07 kN SF at E.35) = 0.93 kN Shear Force (Starting from the left end A) Shear Forces and Bending Moments SF at A. x=4 x = 4.65 Value of (x2 − 17.07x − 24.47 = + 6 kN B SF just left of C. FE = − 3.86 kN m BM at A. FA = + 1.47 = 25 − 11.81 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ BM at D. FC = + 6 kN = Load at E Bending Moment BM at C.04375 37 x = 4. M E = + (11.35) = 6.675x + 61.86 kN m Mmax (negative) = − 12 kN m Point of Contraflexure Since the bending moment changes sign between E and B. MA = 0 Maximum Bending Moment Maximum positive bending moment occurs at D and maximum negative bending moment occurs at B.93 × 2 = + 3. we get the point of contraflexure.4 (x − 2)2 = − 0.46 × 3) − (6 × 5) − ⎜ 0.94 − 0.675x + 61.07 − (0.

FA = + 4 kN SF just left of D.675x + 61. FC = + 20 kN = Load at C Bending Moment BM at C.00285 Point of contraflexure is at a distance of 4.9 Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for 10 m span overhanging beam having overhanging portion of 4 m subjected to a system of loads as shown in Figure 4. FE = − 6 kN SF just right of E. FD = + 4 kN SF just right of D. Example 4. MC = 0 38 . FB = − 26 kN B SF just right of B. Solution Taking moments about A and equating it to zero. FB = − 26 + 46 = + 20 kN B SF just left of C.34 Shear Force (Starting from the end A) SF at A. FE = − 6 − 20 = − 26 kN SF just left of B.745 Value of (x2 − 17.35) = − 0.745 m from the end C. Calculate the maximum bending moment and also locate the point of contraflexure. FD = + 4 − 10 = − 6 kN SF just left of E.Forces and Stresses in Beams x = 4. 4⎞ ⎛ RB × 6 − (8 × 10) − 3 × 4 × ⎜ 6 + ⎟ − (20 × 4) − (10 × 2) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ RB = 46 kN RA = 10 + 20 + (3 × 4) + 8 − RB = 50 − 46 = 4 kN B 10 kN 2m A x D 2m x 20 kN 2m E 40 B 4m 3 kN/m 8 kN C x 20 4 (+) 6 26 (+) 4 (−) 4 (−) 26 SFD (+) 6 56 Figure 4.34.

respectively.7 = 9. FD = − 7 kN SF just right of D.333 m from the left end A.7 kN SF just left of B. Example 4. FA = − 11 kN SF just right of A. FA = − 11 + 20.10 ⎞ ⎛ BM at B. Mx = + 4 x − 10 (x − 2) Equating this to zero. Therefore. Locate the point of contraflexure. FC = − 7 kN SF just left of D.7 kN and RB = 7 + 4 + (1 × 10) − 20. FD = − 7 − 4 = − 11 kN SF just left of A.3 kN = Reaction at the support B. Sketch the SFD and BMD for the beam. ME = + (4 × 4) − (10 × 2) = − 4 kN m BM at D.3 × 10) − ⎜1 × 10 × ⎟ = − 47 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ BM at E. BM at section XX. the maximum positive bending moment will occur at D and maximum negative bending moment will occur at B. consider a section XX at a distance x from the end A.333 m The point of contraflexure is at a distance of 3.7 − (1 ×10) = − 0.7 = 0. MD = + (4 × 2) = + 8 kN m Maximum Bending Moment Shear Forces and Bending Moments Since SF changes sign at D and B. FB = + 9. M A = (0. Mmax (positive) = + 8 kN m Mmax (negative) = − 56 kN m Point of Contraflexure BM changes sign between D and E.3 kN B Shear Force (Starting from the left end C) SF just right of C. B Bending Moment 39 .10 An overhanging beam of 15 m span is carrying an uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m over the length of 10 m at a distance 5 m from the left free end and point loads 7 kN and 4 kN. at free end and at a distance 2 m from the free end. Solution Taking moments about B and equating to zero. 10 ⎞ ⎛ RA × 10 − (7 × 15) − (4 × 13) − ⎜1 × 10 × ⎟ = 0 2⎠ ⎝ RA = 20. we get 4 x − 10 (x − 2) = 0 4 x − 10x + 20 = 0 − 6x + 20 = 0 ∴ x = 3.

− 0.3 + x = 0 x = 0.3 m from the right end B. Mmax (positive) = + 0. Shear force at section XX.045 (+) 14 (−) 47 Figure 4.3 + 1(x) For maximum bending moment.045 kN m Mmax (negative) = − 47 kN m Point of Contraflexure It is observed that the BM changes sign between A and B.045 kN m 2 1 kN/m 7 kN C 2m D 4 kN 3m A 10 m x x 9.3 m x2 x = 0.3 (−) 11 11 0. MD = − (7 × 2) = − 14 kN m BM at C.Forces and Stresses in Beams BM at B. 40 BM at any section XX.7 7 x B (+) 0. MB = 0 10 ⎞ ⎛ BM at A.3(x) − 1 × (x) × 2 2 (0.3) 2 Mmax = 0. MC = 0 Maximum Bending Moment Consider a section XX at a distance x from the end B as shown in Figure 4. M A = (0.3 × 10) − ⎜1 × 10 × ⎟ = − 47 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ BM at D.3) − = + 0.3 × (0.35 It is seen that the maximum negative bending moment occurs at A and maximum positive bending moment occurs at a distance 0. Mx = + 0. .3x − We have. Fx = − 0. the shear force is zero.35.

5⎞ ⎛ M A = − ⎜ 5 × 5 × ⎟ = − 62. FC = 0 SF just left of A. FD = + 16 − (4 × 4) = 0 5 kN/m 4 kN/m C 5m A 6m B 4m 16 D 41 5.08 . which overhangs on both sides. the point of contraflexure is at a distance of 0.l.5 6 RB = 65.08 + 10.x2 Mx = 0.d. FB = + 5.08 kN SF just left of B. of 5 kN/m on left side overhanging portion of length 5 m and a u.l.08 = + 5.92 = + 16 kN B SF at D.6 x − x2 = 0 ∴ x = 0. Indicate the numerical values at all salient points.5 2⎠ ⎝ Equating these two values.5 RB = 10.6 m from the right end B.6 m So. the moments about A. FB = + 5. It is subjected to a u. take moments about A. FA = − 25 + 30.08 kN B SF just right of B. Shear Forces and Bending Moments x2 0. of 4 kN/m on right side overhanging portion of length 4 m. Example 4.3 x − 2 Equating this to zero. FA = 0 − 5 × 5 = − 25 kN SF just right of A. Solution To Find Reaction at B Considering right side. we get 6 RB − 128 = − 62.92 = 30. 4⎞ ⎛ M A = + RB × 6 − 4 × 4 × ⎜ 6 + ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ MA = 6 RB − 128 Considering left side.3 x − =0 2 0.11 Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for 15 m span overhanging beam.08 kN Shear Force (Starting from the left end C) SF at C.92 kN RA = (5 × 5) + (4 × 4) − RB B RA = 41 − 10.d.

37. Solution Considering right side. FA = − 66 kN SF just right of A. take moments about A. we get the reaction at the support B. MB = − 4 × 4 × Example 4. FD = + 6 kN SF just left of B.12 5 = − 62. Find the magnitude of maximum positive and maximum negative bending moment and also locate the point of contraflexure. take moments about A. FB = − 10 + 18 = + 8 kN B SF at E.Forces and Stresses in Beams Figure 4. FA = − 6 + 12 = + 6 kN SF at D. MA = RB × 12 − 2 × 12 × 10 MA = 12 RB − 240 Considering left side. 12 RB − 240 = − 24 RB = 18 kN RA = 6 + (2 × 12) − RB = 30 – 18 = 12 kN Shear Force (Starting from the left end C) SF at C.5 kN m 2 4 = − 32 kN m 2 Sketch the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam overhanging on both sides as shown in Figure 4. MA = − 5 × 5 × BM at B. 42 6 kN C x 2 kN/m 4m A 4m D 8m B E 4m .36 Bending Moment BM at C and D. MC = MD = 0 BM at A. FC = – 6 kN SF just left of A. FB = + 6 − (2 × 8) = − 10 kN B SF just right of B. MA = − 6 × 4 = − 24 kN m Equating these two values. if any. FE = + 8 − (2 × 4) = 0.

37 Bending Moment BM at C and E. SF at section XX. M B = − ⎜ 2 × 4 × ⎟ = − 16 kN m 2⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎞ ⎛ BM at D. equate the moment equation between D and B to zero. Fx should be zero. − 18 + 2x = 0 ∴ x=9m BM at any section XX between D and B. MA = − (6 × 4) = − 24 kN m Maximum Bending Moment Consider a section XX at a distance ‘x’ from the end E. To find the position of M.Shear Forces and Bending Moments Figure 4. MC = ME = 0 4⎞ ⎛ BM at B. M D = + (18 × 8) − ⎜ 2 × 12 × ⎟ = 0 2⎠ ⎝ BM at A. Fx = − 18 + 2x For maximum bending moment. Mx = 18 (x − 4) − 2x × = 18 (x − 4) − x2 Mmax = 18 (9 − 4) − 92 = 9 kN m Maximum negative bending moment = −24 kN m Maximum positive bending moment = + 9 kN m Points of Contraflexure x 2 Let M and D be the points of contraflexure where the BM changes sign. 43 .

a vertical line of SF diagram. i.e. we get. Indicate the numerical values at all salient points. Some important points regarding these diagrams are as follows : (i) Where the rate of loading is zero. (ii) 44 . Characteristics of the Diagrams Shear force diagrams (SFDs) and bending moment diagrams (BMDs) are very useful which give the clear picture of the distribution of shear force and bending moment along the length of the beam. 1000 N/m 8000 N 4000 N 1600 N/m A C 5m 5m D 5m B 5m E Figure for SAQ 3(a) (b) A simply supported beam with overhanging ends carries transverse loads as shown in figure below.e. if there is no increase or decreases in SF curve between any two points. if there is any point load or reaction. i. In other words. W w/m W C A E 10 m B D l l Figure for SAQ 3(b) If W = 10 w. it will cause sudden increase or decrease in the SF diagram with respect to upward or downward direction of point load or reaction. There are two points of contraflexure. x2 − 18x + 72 = 0 x = 6 m and x = 9 m. If there is a sudden increase or decrease. such that the bending moment at the middle of the beam is zero? Sketch the shear force and bending moment diagrams. one at a distance of 6 m and the other at a distance of 9 m from the end E. what is the overhanging length on each side. it indicates that there is either a point load or reaction of the support at that point or in other words. it indicates that there is no loading between the two points. the SF curve will have constant ordinates and BM curve will vary linearly. SF line is horizontal and consists of rectangle. SAQ 3 (a) Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam shown in figure below. and it will not cause any distinct variation in the BM diagram.Forces and Stresses in Beams 18 (x − 4) − x2 = 0 − x2 + 18x − 72 = 0 or.

e. the SF curve will vary linearly and the BM curve will be a parabola. if the SF line is a parabolic curve between any two points and BM curve is a cubic parabola between any two points.5 (+) 3. uniformly distributed load. the SF curve will be a parabola and the BM curve will be a cubic parabola.875 kN in upward direction. The area of loading curve in elementary length will be equal to change in shear force and area of shear force curve in elementary length will be equal to change in bending moment. (ix) The maximum bending moment occurs at the point where the shear force changes sign and the point of contraflexure is the point where the BM changes sign.5 9. Between A and C The SF diagram is an inclined straight line between A and C.5 1. In other words.875 kN – 3.125 E 1. carries a uniformly distributed load of 1. i. it indicates that there is uniformly distributed load between the two points. (viii) At the intermediate supports. the bending moments are always negative. if the SF line is an inclined straight line between any two points. It indicates that there is a uniformly distributed load between A and C.875 kN. Shear Forces and Bending Moments (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) The BM will be equal to zero at the free end of the cantilever and at the simply supported ends. if any. and the BM curve is a parabolic curve between any two points. After drawing the load diagram for the beam.125 1.875 kN (6.875 A 1.875 kN = 3 kN).875 kN to 3. SF and BM diagrams can be drawn by successive integration for complex case of loading.875 kN – 1. the beam 3 = 2 kN/m between A and C.e. Sometimes. instead of load diagram. Example 4. it indicates that there is a uniformly varying load between the points. Thus. 6.875 D 1.38. a loading diagram is drawn first. At A The shear force diagram increases suddenly from 0 to 6.13 Shear force diagram for a loaded beam is shown in Figure 4. Where the loading curve is varying linearly. Solution Let us analyse the shear force diagram given in Figure 4. In other words.875 kN) acting in downward direction at C. In such cases. at A.(iii) Where the intensity of load is constant.875 kN. Determine the loading on the beam and hence.875 kN to 1.5 At C The shear force diagram suddenly decreases from 3.875 1. This indicates that there is support at A.38.5 (−) B 45 .875 C 1. The load increases from 6. draw the bending moment diagram. i. having magnitude of reaction 6. It indicates that there is a point load of 2 kN (3. a SF diagram will be given. Locate the point of contraflexure. the BM diagram may be drawn as usual. uniformly varying load.

Therefore.06 kN-m 2 ⎠ ⎝ M D = (6.5) = 10. It indicates that there is a point load of 5 kN (↓) at E. Load decreases from + 1. 1.125 kN to 0 at B.125 kN.5 and B. It indicates that there is a uniformly distributed load.125 = 3 kN) ⇒ 1.38 Between C and D Since the shear force diagram is horizontal between C and D. At B Since there is a sudden increase from – 9. which shows that the beam carries a u. of 1.5 ⎞ ⎛ M C = (6. there is a support at B of reaction 9. Between E and B The SFD decreases from – 6.5 × ⎟ = 8.125 kN. BM at C.l.125 kN by an inclined straight 3 = 2 kN/m between E line.875 kN-m .125 kN to – 9. Between D and E The SF diagram is an inclined straight line between D and E. BM at D.125 kN. 46 MA = 0 1. there is no load between C and D.875 kN to – 1.5 × 2. the beam carries a uniformly distributed load of (+ 3 = 2 kN/m between D and E.125 kN to – 6.Forces and Stresses in Beams Figure 4.875 × 3) − 2 × 1.25 = ( − 2 × 1.5) − ⎜ 2 × 1.d. Bending Moment BM at A.5 At E The shear force diagram has sudden decrease from – 1.875 + 1.875 × 1.

39 Solution Let us analyse the shear force diagram given in Figure 4.5 × ⎟ = 11. At A The shear force diagram suddenly decreases from 0 to – 400 N.125 + 5 + 2 x − 4.39.5 M1 (−) 480 N. 1.m M2 (+) (−) 720 N. Between A and B The shear force diagram is an inclined straight line and decreases from – 400 N to – 560 N. Fx = − 9. It indicates that there is a uniformly distributed load of (560 – 400 = 160) ⇒ 160 × 1 = 160 kN/m between A and B.0625 − 1.125 × 1.5 ⎞ ⎛ M E = (9. SF at section XX.14 The shear force diagram for the overhanging beam is shown in Figure 4. 440 N 1m (+) (−) 6m SFD 160 N/m 400 N A 1m B 6m x 3m D 480 N (+) C 520 N 3m D A 400 N (−) B 560 N C 2.0625 × ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ = 11.0625 m 2.75 kN-m Example 4.5) − ⎜ 2 × 1.m 5m 125 N.0625 ⎞ ⎛ ∴ M max = (9.39.BM at E.125 + 2 x = 0 (for maximum BM) ∴ x = 2.m BMD Figure 4. 47 . At B There is a sudden increase from – 560 N to + 440 N at B.44 kN-m 2 ⎠ ⎝ Shear Forces and Bending Moments Maximum Bending Moment Consider a section XX between D and E at a distance x from the end B.5) − ⎜ 2 × 2.125 × 2. Draw the loading diagram and bending moment diagram. It indicates that there is a support reaction of 1000 N at B.0625) − 5 × (2. It indicates that there is a downward point load of 400 N at A. Find the magnitude of maximum bending moment and locate the point of contraflexure.

d. Between C and D The shear force diagram is an inclined straight line which indicates that there is a uniformally distributed load of 480/3 = 160 kN/m from C to D. It indicates that a u. M C = − ⎜160 × 3 × ⎟ = − 720 N m 2⎠ ⎝ Maximum Bending Moment SF at any section XX between B and C.75) − (400 × 3. 1⎞ ⎛ BM at B. of (440 + 520 = 960) 960 = 160 kN/m is acting between B and C. where SF changes sign. Bending Moment BM at A and D.75) − ⎜160 × 3. the shear force diagram increases suddenly from – 520 kN to 480 N. It indicates that there is a support reaction of 1000 N (520 + 480) at C. 6 At C At C.75 m from the end A.75 m 3.75 ⎞ ⎛ M max = (1000 × 2. where BM is zero. x = 2.75 × ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ = + 125 N m Maximum positive bending moment occurs at a distance of 3.Forces and Stresses in Beams Between B and C Since the shear force diagram varies linearly from + 440 N to – 520 N between B and C. 600 – 160x = 0 ∴ ∴ x = 3. ∴ Mmax (negative) = − 720 N m Points of Contraflexure Let M1 and M2 be the points of contraflexure. MA = MD = 0. x⎞ ⎛ M x = 1000 ( x − 1) − 400 x − ⎜160 × x × ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ or 1000x – 1000 – 400x – 80x2 = 0 80x2 – 600x + 1000 = 0 8x2 – 60x + 100 = 0 2x2 – 15x + 25 = 0 (2x – 5) (x – 5) = 0 48 Thus.5 m and 5 m. Fx = +1000 – 400 – 160x For maximum bending moment. Fx should be equal to zero. . M B = − (400 × 1) − ⎜160 × 1 × ⎟ = − 480 N m 2⎠ ⎝ 3⎞ ⎛ BM at C. Maximum negative bending moment occurs at a support C where SF changes sign.l. But at any section XX between B and C at a distance x from the end A.

40 Cantilever Beam Subjected to Couple Let us consider a cantilever beam AB of length subjected to an anticlockwise couple μ at a distance a from the fixed end as shown in Figure 4. with the help of the reactions at both the ends.41. the bending moment. Since.d1 M2 = P2. To calculate the reactions at the support. Some examples of equivalent couples have been given in Figure 4.5 BEAMS SUBJECTED TO COUPLES A beam may be subjected to a clockwise (called positive couple) or anticlockwise couple (called negative couple) at a section. P1 d2 2 Shear Forces and Bending Moments d1 2 = d1 2 d2 2 P1 M1 = P1.d2 P1 d1 2 d1 2 M1 = P1. The bending moment at the section of the couple changes suddenly in its magnitude.4. just left of the section of the couple and just right of the section of the couple. the magnitude and the direction of the couple is considered. While drawing the bending moment diagram. should be calculated.d1 P1 Figure 4.40.d1 P2 M2 = P2. the shear force does not change at the section of the couple.d2 P2 P1 d1 2 d1 2 d2 2 = d2 P1 P2 2 M1 = P1. the couple does not involve any load. μ A a C B l− a l 49 μ (+) μ .

the SF on the beam is zero. μ A l 2 l C l 2 B μ l (−) μ l SFD μ 2 (+) μ 2 (−) BMD Figure 4. Simply Supported Beam Subjected to Couple at Mid-span Let us consider a simply supported beam AB of length l. The tendency of the couple will be to uplift the beam from its support A and to depress the beam at its support B. MC = + μ BM at A.42 Taking moment about A and equating to zero. Bending Moment (Starting from the End B) BM at B. the portion BC is not subjected to any moment. MC = 0 BM just left of C. the reaction at A.41 Since the moment is applied at C. MA = + μ (considering right side) (‘+’ sign indicates right clockwise) (‘+’ sign indicates right clockwise) Since there is no load between A and C. RB × l − μ = 0 RB = +μ l μ μ =− l l (Negative sign indicates that the reaction at A is downward) RA = Total downward load − RB = 0 − RB = 0 − Shear Force (Starting from the Left End A) 50 . MB = 0 B BM just right of C. However.Forces and Stresses in Beams Figure 4. subjected to a clockwise couple (μ) at mid-span. will be downward and at B will be upward. the bending moment diagram will be horizontal line between A and C. the beam is not subjected to any load. Therefore.

. μ A C B a l b μ l (+) μ l SFD (+) μb l μa l (−) BMD Figure 4. FA = + FB = + μ l μ = Reaction at the support B.43. BM just left of B.SF at SF just left of B. SF just left of B. A = FA = − FB = − μ l μ l (Reaction at the support B) Shear Forces and Bending Moments Bending Moment (Starting from Left End A) BM at A and B. subjected to an anticlockwise couple μ at a distance a from the left end A as shown in Figure 4. there is no load between A and B.43 Taking moments about A and equating to zero. l 51 Since. the shear force diagram is horizontal. MA = MB = 0 B μ ⎛μ⎞ ⎛ l ⎞ MB = − ⎜ ⎟ × ⎜ ⎟ = − 2 ⎝ l ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ μ ⎛μ⎞ BM just right of B. RB × l + μ = 0 RB = − μ l (Negative sign indicates the reaction at B is downward) μ ⎛μ⎞ RA = Total downward load − RB = 0 − ⎜ ⎟ = + l⎠ l ⎝ Shear Force (Staring from the Left End A) SF at A. M B = + ⎜ ⎟ × ⎜ ⎟ = + 2 ⎝ l ⎠ ⎝2⎠ Supply Supported Beam Subjected to an Eccentric Couple (considering right side) Consider a simply supported beam AB of span l. M B = − ⎜ ⎟ + μ = + 2⎠ 2 ⎝ μ ⎛μ⎞ ⎛ l ⎞ BM just right of B.

44 Solution Reaction at the support A. SF at B.125 7 11 (+) SFD 7 4 4 59 41 27 31 (−) 17 8 9 BMD Figure 4. 2 kN/m 4 kN. M E = − 8 − 1 = − 9 kN-m M D = − 4 × 4 − 1 = − 17 kN-m .Forces and Stresses in Beams Bending Moment (Starting from the Left End A) BM at A. MA = 0 + μa ⎛μ⎞ MC = + ⎜ ⎟ × a = l ⎝l⎠ + μa μ (a − l ) − μ (l − a) −μ= = l l l MB just right of C. SF just left of D. M C = = − μb l μ ×b l (Q l − a = b) (considering right side) BM just right of C.m 2m 2m B 2m C 2m 2m E 2m F 4 kN A 11 kN 9. M E = − 4 × 2 = − 8 kN-m BM just left of E. BM just left of C.15 Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the cantilever beam shown in Figure 4. FD = + 7 − 3 = + 4 kN Bending Moment (Starting from the Right End F) BM just right of E.44. M C = − Example 4. FA = + 11 kN FB = + 11 − (2 × 2) = + 7 kN FD = + 7 kN FF = + 4 kN = load at F SF just right of D. 52 BM at D. SF just left of F. R A = (2 × 2) + 3 + 4 = + 11 kN Shear Force (Starting from the Left End A) SF at A.m 3 kN D 1 kN.

SF at F.5x kN/m 9 kN.5 × 8) + 9 − ⎜ × 6 × 3 × × 6 ⎟ = 0 2⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ RB = 13 kN ⎛1 ⎞ RA = ⎜ × 6 × 3 ⎟ + 7.5 = − 4 kN Bending Moment (Starting from Right End B) 53 .5 × 6) = − 13 kN = Reaction at B.5 × 6) − RB = 25.5 kN 2 ⎝ ⎠ Shear Force (Starting from the Left End A) SF at A.5 kN FF = − 4 kN FB = − 4 − (1.5 + (1.16 M C = − 31 + 4 = − 27 kN-m M B = − (4 × 8) − 1 − (3 × 4) + 4 = − 41 kN-m Shear Forces and Bending Moments 2⎞ ⎛ M A = − (4 × 10) − 1 − (3 × 6) + 4 − ⎜ 2 × 2 × ⎟ = − 59 kN-m 2⎠ ⎝ Draw the SFD and BMD for a simply supported bema of 15 m span loaded as shown in Figure 4. BM at A. SF just left of B.5 kN 2 ⎝ ⎠ FE = + 3. SF just right of E.5 kN C 6m D E F 1m 1m 15 m Parabolic curve 2.m 7.5 57 51. SF at C.45 Solution Taking moment about A. FA = + 12.5 (−) 4 13 60.5 − 7. BM at B. SF just left of E. Example 4.5 kN ⎛1 ⎞ FC = + 12. M C = − (4 × 6) − 1 − (3 × 2) = − 31 kN-m BM just left of C.5 3.5 (+) 3.45 qx = 0. FE = + 3. 6⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ RB × 15 − 1.5 − ⎜ × 6 × 3 ⎟ = + 3.5 (+) 55 17 51 1m 6m 2m B 1.BM just right of C.5 − 13 = + 12.5 × 6 × ⎜ 9 + ⎟ − (7.5 kN/m A 4 Figure 4.

5 = + 51.m qx = 0. take moments about A.6x kN/m 7. M D = + 51.2 × 3 × ⎜12 + ⎟ + 15.Forces and Stresses in Beams BM at B.4 A B 12 m 2m E 1m F 9 kN.5 kN-m BM at C.5 + 9 = + 60.5 × 6 × ⎟ = + 51 kN-m 2⎠ ⎝ 6⎞ ⎛ M E = + (13 × 7) − 1.8 Figure 4.7 (+) M4 M5 (−) +12 M6 3. MB = 0 B 6⎞ ⎛ M F = + (13 × 6) − ⎜1.6 Considering right side.6 15.8 M1 M2 M3 47.2 kN/m 14. M C = + (12.2 21.5 kN-m 2⎠ ⎝ BM just left of D.2 × 3) + 24 = − 21.2 × × 12 ⎟ = M A 2⎠ 3 ⎝ ⎝2 ⎠ M A = 12 RB − 621.5 × 6) − 1 ⎛1 ⎞ × 3 × 6 × ⎜ × 6 ⎟ = + 57 kN-m 2 ⎝3 ⎠ Example 4.8 (+) 15.m D C 1m 2m x x 21. M D = + (13 × 8) −1.6 BMD 16.5 × 6 × ⎜ 2 + ⎟ − 7.6 kN-m 54 . M A = − (15.2 kN 24 kN.2 8.6 (+) (−) SFD 28.2 (−) 15.46 Solution Determination of Reaction at the Support B Considering left side. BM at E. BM at F.46 x 15.17 Draw a SFD and BMD for the beam shown in Figure 4. take moments about A.6 − ⎜ × 12 × 7.5 × 6 × ⎜1 + ⎟ = + 55 kN-m 2⎠ ⎝ 6⎞ ⎛ BM just right of D. 3⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎛1 ⎞ RB × 12 − 7.

2 × 1 × ⎟ = − 3.8 − ⎜ × 12 × 7. SF at F.1 = 0 or 0. BM just right of E.2 + 30 = + 14.2 + 24 = + 8.8 kN Shear Force (Starting from the Left End A) ⎛1 ⎞ FB = + 14. SF just left of B.Equating these two equations.3 x 2 − 1.2 kN FA = − 15.8 − 0. BM just left of E. SF just left of A.6 = − 16. FC = − 15.2 kN FA = − 15.2 + ⎜ × 12 × 7.8 kN-m 2⎠ ⎝ BM at A. BM just left of D.2 ⎟ + (7.2 × 3) − RB = 80 − 50 = 30 kN ⎝2 ⎠ SF at C. Maximum Bending Moment The SF changes sign at A.1 = 0 55 . 14. MF = 0 1⎞ ⎛ M E = − ⎜ 7.6 = − 21.6 kN FF = + 21.2 − ⎜ ( x − 3) × 0.46 SF at section XX.2 ⎟ = − 28. BM just right of D.8 kN-m ⎛1 ⎞ Fx = + 30 − 15.4 + 50 = + 21.4 kN ⎝2 ⎠ FB = − 28.2 × 3) = 0 Bending Moment (Starting from the Right End F) BM at F.6 12 RB = 600 RB = 50 kN Shear Forces and Bending Moments ∴ ⎛1 ⎞ RA = 15.3 x 2 + 1. MC = 0 M D = − 15. between A and B and at B. SF just right of A.8 x + 12.6 − (7.2 × 1 = − 15.6 × ( x − 3) ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ Equating this equation to zero. Consider a section XX at a distance x from the end C as shown in Figure 4.6 + 15. 12 RB − 621.6 kN-m 2⎠ ⎝ M E = − 3.8 x − 12.6 kN-m (considering left side) BM at C.2 × 3 × ⎟ + 15. M A = − (15. SF just right of B.3 ( x − 3) 2 = 0 − 0. M B = − ⎜ 7.6 = + 12 kN-m 3⎞ ⎛ BM at B.2 kN-m M D = − 15.2 × 3) + 24 = − 21.

M x = − 15.6 x 2 + 15.579 m To find the position of M3 and M4.2 x + 24 + 30 x − 90 − 0.6 kN-m Points of Contraflexure Let M1.1 [ x 3 − (3 × π 2 × 3) + (3 x × 9) − 33 ] = 14.1 ( x − 3)3 = 14. x⎞ ⎛ M x = − ⎜ 7.082 m 56 .2 × x × ⎟ + 15.1x − 63. M2. we get x1 = 4.9 x 2 − 12.2 x + 24 = 0 ∴ x2 = 1. we get 0.6 2⎠ ⎝ On equating it to zero.4814 m x2 = 14.1 x + 63. the value of x3 is negative.6 = 0 x = 2. where the bending moment changes sign. we get − 3.3 = 0 Solving by trial and error. 1 ⎛1 ⎞ M max = + (30 × 7) + 24 − (15. . consider a section XX at a distance x from the end E. . .1 ( x − 3)3 = 14.7 kN-m Maximum positive bending moment = + 47.8 x − 66 − 0.333 = 0 On solving by trial and error.2 × 10) − ⎜ × 7 × 7 × × 7 × 0. To find the position of M3.1x3 + 0.Forces and Stresses in Beams or x 2 − 6 x − 40.3 On changing the sign and equating it to zero. consider a section XX at a distance x from the end E. it should be ignored.1x 3 − 0. and M6 be the points of contraflexure.8 x − 66 − 0.1 ( x3 − 9 x 2 + 27 x − 27) = − 0.2 x + 24 + 30 ( x − 3) − ⎜ ( x − 3) × 0.8 x − 66 − 0.7 kN-m Maximum negative bending moment = − 21. ( x − 3) ⎞ ⎛1 M x = 15. consider a section XX at a distance x from the end C.6 × ( x − 3) × ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝2 M x = − 15. we get x = 10 m. To find the position of M2.357 m and x3 = − 9.2 x + 24 − 15.84 m Since.9 x 2 + 12.6 ⎟ 3 ⎝2 ⎠ = + 47.

5 m D 2. The vertical components (at right angles to the axis of the beam) of the loads on the beam will introduce shear force and bending moment in the member. Draw SFD and BMD and find the magnitude of maximum bending moment. Shear Forces and Bending Moments SAQ 4 (a) Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for the overhanging beam shown in Figure for SAQ 4(a) given below. 16 m length.5 m E Figure for SAQ 4(b) (c) A simply supported beam. 6 kN 2 kN/m 3 kN/m 7. we have been discussing the shear force and bending moments for beams subjected to an external load system at right angles to the axis of the beam. 20 kN 20 k N m A 80 k N m 24 kN 60 k N m 6 kN 40 k N m J B C D E F G H Figure for SAQ 4(c) 4.5 kN 3 kN/m 4 kN/m A 2m B 1m C 1. Take the distances between the points of application of loads and couples as equal.The points of contraflexure are at distance of 1 m.6 BEAMS SUBJECTED TO OBLIQUE LOADING So far. is subjected to a system of loads and couples as shown in Figure for SAQ 4(c) given below. The horizontal components (along the axis of the beam) of the loads on the beam will introduce axial force of thrust. 1. 57 .579 m. pulls or pushes in the beam depending upon its end position.357 m from the left end X and at distances of 1 m and 2. Whenever a beam is subjected to inclined loads.m 3 kN/m 6 kN/m A 2m B E 6m C 1m D Figure for SAQ 4(a) (b) Draw the SFD and BMD for the beam shown in Figure for SAQ 4(b).e.4814 m and 14. i. 6 k N. these inclined loads are resolved in horizontal and vertical direction.082 m from the right end F. 4.

598 kN 1.5516 kN .828 kN ( → ) Vertical component of 3 kN at D. ← force acting towards left) as positive and compressive force (i.8744 SFD 15.8744 kN R A = 2. = 4 × cos 45o = 2.5 m B 4. = 3 × sin 60o = 2.686 5.426 − 5. Sign convention used to draw the thrust diagram is tensile force (i. = 4 × sin 45o = 2.18 Draw the shear force.5 m B A 2m C 4m D 1. which represents horizontal thrust in the beam. = 3 × cos 60o = 1. whereas the other end is simply supported on rollers. the hinged end will be subjected to horizontal thrust equal to the unbalanced horizontal force due to inclined loads.7236 1.598 kN ( ↓ ) Horizontal component of 3 kN at D.5 Figure 4. → force acting towards right) as negative.5 kN ( ← ) Taking moments about B.47 Solution Vertical component of 4 kN at C.1032 (+) BMD 1.828 kN 4m o 5 kN 2m D 1.Forces and Stresses in Beams Thrust Diagrams If one end of the beam is hinged.828 kN 2. is drawn like shear force diagram.328 (+) 1.828 + 2.5 m E 5 kN 2. An axial force diagram.e. 4 kN A 45 o 3 kN 60 C 2.516 (+) 1.5 m 2.8744 9.598 + 5 − RB = 10. bending moment and thrust diagrams for the beam shown in Figure 4.5 m E 2.e. RB × 10 − 5 × 7.828 × 2 = 0 RB = 5. Example 4.5 − 2.9976 (−) 5.7236 0.47.328 (−) Trust Diagram 1.8744 58 R A = 4.8744 14.598 × 6 − 2.828 kN ( ↓ ) Horizontal component of 4 kN at C.5 1.

5) The beam from D and B is not subjected to any axial force. 4t 60 o 2t 30 o 2t / m A 3t F C 1m 2m D 1m E B 4m 2m 2t A 3.Shear Force (Starting from the Left End A) Shear Forces and Bending Moments SF at A.8744 kN SF just right of E.19 Analyse the beam shown in Figure 4.5516 kN SF just right of C.328 = 1.598 = − 0.5) = + 14.8447 kN = Reaction at B.5516 × 2) = + 9.828 − 1.7236 kN SF just left of D. SF just left of C.1032 kN-m (considering left side) Maximum Bending Moment It will occur at D where SF changes sign.8744 − 5 = − 5.7236 kN SF just right of D.732t 1t x 59 2t / m F . Locate the point of contraflexure.7844 kN SF just left of E. FD = + 1.464 1. BND and thrust diagram. ∴ (2.9976 kN-m M C = + (4.8744 × 4 − 5 × 1. BM at D.48 and draw the SFD.5 = + 15. The axial force diagram is shown in Figure 4. Bending Moment (Starting from the Right End B) BM at A and B.5516 − 2. Thrust Diagram M max = + 15.5516 kN FC = + 4. Thus. MA = MB = 0 B M E = + (5. FE = − 0. BM at C. ∑H = 0 + H A − 2. Example 4.828 = + 1.9976 kN-m Let us determine the horizontal reaction at A (being a hinged end). FC = + 4. FA = + 4.328 kN (tensile force).47.828 + 1.686 kN-m M D = + 5. BM at E.7236 − 2.5 = 0 ∴ H A = 1.328 kN The section AC is subjected to 1.5 kN (compressive force).8744 × 2. FD = + 1. if any. The section CD is subjected to 1. FE = − 0.

FB = − 7.732 × 3) − (2 × 1) = 0 2⎠ ⎝ RB = 10.0825 − 1.6495 kN R A = 2 + 1. FD = + 2. = 4 × sin 60o = 3.6495 + 10. SF just left of C.0825 kN FC = + 4. 4⎞ ⎛ RB × 8 − (3 × 10) − 2 × 4 × ⎜ 4 + ⎟ − (1.732 − 10.732 = + 0. SF just left of B. = 2 × sin 30o = 1 kN ( → ) Taking moment about A.0825 kN Shear Force (Starting from the Left End A) SF at A.732 kN ( ↓ ) Horizontal component of 2 kN at D.3505 kN SF at E.3505 − (2 × 4) = − 7. Bending Moment (Starting from the F) . FC = + 4.732 + (2 × 4) + 3 − RB = 14. = 2 × cos 30o = 1.3505 kN FB = + 0.464 kN ( ← ) Vertical component of 2 kN at D. FA = + 4. = 4 × cos 60o = 2 kN ( ↓ ) Horizontal component of 4 kN at C.Forces and Stresses in Beams Figure 4.0825 kN SF just left of D.6495 kN SF just right of B.6495 = 4.48 Solution Vertical component of 4 kN at C.6495 = + 3 kN SF just left of F. 60 FF = + 3 kN = load at the end F. FE = + 0.0825 kN SF just right of C. FD = + 2.0825 kN SF just right of D.0825 − 2 = + 2.

− 10. Thrust Diagram Horizontal reaction at A. Fx = − 10.825 m BM at section XX.464 − 1 = 0 + H A + 2. 10. Fx should be equal to zero.629 kN-m Maximum positive bending moment = + 8. Consider a section XX at a distance x from the end F.BM at F. BM at C.0825 × 1) = + 4.464 kN.6495 x + 25. to zero. we get x = 2. BM at B. Point of Contraflexure Equating the BM at section XX.9 m. BM at E.299 = 0 x 2 − 11. MF = 0 M B = − (3 × 2) = − 6 kN-m Shear Forces and Bending Moments 4⎞ ⎛ M E = + (10.464 = 0 ∴ H A = − 2.299 = 0 Solving by trial and error.0825 kN-m MA = 0 Maximum Bending Moment Maximum bending moment will occur at B and between B and E. 3.e.6495 ( x − 2) − 3 x − ( x − 2) 2 ( x − 2) 2 M max = 10.6495 ( x − 2) − 3 x − ( x − 2) 2 = 0 or or or 10.2475 kN-m M C = + (4.629 kN-m Maximum negative bending moment = − 6 kN-m.6495 + 3 + 2 ( x − 2) For maximum bending moment.825 − 2) − 3 (5. BM at D.825 − 2) 2 = + 8.0825 × 3) − (2 × 2) = + 8.464 kN (‘−’ indicates that the reaction is towards right) The portion AC is subjected to a compressive force of 2.6495 + 3 + 2 x − 4 = 0 x = 5.9 m from the end F.6495 x − 25.299 − 3 x − x 2 + 4 x − 4 = 0 x 2 + 11. The portion CD is subjected to a tensile force of 1 kN (i. 61 . + H A + 3.4695 × 4) − (3 × 6) − ⎜ 2 × 4 × ⎟ = + 8. Point of contraflexure is at a distance of 2.599 kN-m 2⎠ ⎝ M D = + (4. ∴ M x = + 10.464 = 1).464 – 2.6495 ( x − 2) − 3x − 2 ( x − 2) × = 10.6495 (5.825) − (5. BM at A.6495 x − 21.82475 m ≈ 5.

It indicates that there is a uniformly varying load between the two points. It indicates there is no load between two points. • • • • • • • • 62 . If there is a point load or reaction. The maximum BM occurs. If the SF diagram is in the form of parabola of second degree between two points. If a beam is subjected to a couple. The shear force at the cross-section of the beam is defined as the unbalanced vertical force either to the right or to the left of the section. All the downward forces to the left of the section and all the upward forces to the right of the section cause negative shear force. If the SF diagram line is horizontal between two points. If the SF diagram is inclined between two points. all the positive values are plotted above the base line and the negative values below it. The point of contraflexure is a point where the BM is zero or changes sign.Forces and Stresses in Beams SAQ 5 Analyse the beam as shown in Figure 4. where the SF is zero or changes sign. subjected to a system of external forces (including inclined load) to produce the bending of the member in an axial plane. the BM diagram is a parabola of second degree. But the bending moment suddenly changes in magnitude equal to that of the couple. when it is acting in clockwise direction to the left of the section and an anticlockwise direction to the right of the section. All the upward forces to the left of the section and all the downward forces to the right of the section cause positive shear force.49 is given below. the BM diagram is in the form of parabola of third degree (cubic parabola). The BM is said to be negative.5 m Figure 4. the BM does not change at that point. It indicates that there is a uniformly distributed load between the two points.7 SUMMARY • • • A beam is a structural member. the BM diagram is inclined.49 4. the SF does not change. The BM is said to be positive. 6 kN 4 kN 30 o 8 kN A C D 45 o 60 o 2m E 1m 1.5 m 2m 1. But the SF suddenly changes (either decreases or increases) in magnitude equal to that of point load or support reaction. when it is acting in an anticlockwise direction to the left of the section and clockwise direction to the right of the section. While drawing SF and BM diagrams. The bending moment at the cross section of the beam is defined as the algebraic sum of moments of all the forces acting on the beam either to the right or to the left of the section.

Maximum Bending Moment = + 15.• If a beam is subjected to inclined loads. FC = + 27 kN SF just right of C. MC = − 78 kN m BM at A. While drawing axial forces diagram. ME = − 24 kN m BM at D. their components at right angles to the axis of components (vertical components) will cause shear force and bending moment and their components along the axis of the beam (horizontal components) will cause axial force or thrust in the beam.165 m from the left hand support. FE = + 12 kN SF at B. FB = 0 B Bending Moment Diagram Ordinates BM at B. FA = + 27 kN SF just left of C. FD = + 21 kN SF at E.70 kN m at 3.25 m from the left hand support Maximum Bending Moment = + 5077. tensile forces are taken as positive and compressive forces are taken as negative. Shear Forces and Bending Moments • 4.5 kN m (a) (b) (c) (d) SAQ 3 Maximum Bending Moment = + 7. MB = 0 BM at E.6 kN m at 3. MD = − 57 kN m BM at C.5 kN m at 3.22 m from left the hand support Maximum Bending Moment = + 12750 N m at D Maximum Positive Bending Moment = + 37500 N m at C Maximum Negative Bending Moment = −5000 N m at B l = 1. FC = + 21 kN SF at D.25 m 63 (a) (b) SAQ 4 . MA = − 105 kN m (b) (c) (d) (e) SAQ 2 Maximum Shear Force = 10500 N Maximum Bending Moment = 13500 N m Maximum Shear Force = + 8 N Maximum Bending Moment = − 26 kN m Maximum Shear Force = + 4 N Maximum Bending Moment = − 8 kN m Maximum Shear Force = + 14 N Maximum Bending Moment = − 39.8 ANSWERS TO SAQs SAQ 1 (a) Shear Force Diagram Ordinates SF at A.

Maximum bending moment = + 11.Forces and Stresses in Beams (a) (b) (c) SAQ 5 Maximum bending moment = + 7.5 kN m at E. 64 . Maximum bending moment = − 96.965 kN m at E. Maximum shear force = − 35 kN.222 kN (←) AC = Tension CD = Compression DE = Tension. Points of contraflexure are at (3 + 5) m and (3 − 5) m for B.675 kN m at D H A = 3. Maximum bending moment = + 204 kN m at E.

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