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Ch.1 Meaning of Values

Ch.1 Meaning of Values

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Published by: Rafael Isorena on Nov 21, 2012
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Values

Nature, meaning & purpose of Values. Dr. Jay A. Garcia

The Meaning, Nature and Purpose of Values
Values refer to the major priorities that man chooses to act on, and that creatively enhances his life and the lives of those with whom he associates with.

The Essence of Values Etymologically. the word values comes from the Latin word valere which means to measure the worth of something. Max Scheler is the foremost exponent of axiology. . Axiology is defined as the philosophical science of values.

a person’s acts manifest his invisible order of values.” .According to Scheler: “Acts reveal the person’s value preferences. Like a prism that reflects the invisible spectrum of colors.

The Meaning. Nature and Purpose of Values Values is being itself or the richness of being in as much as it has power to attract the cognitive and appetitive potentials of men. – Brian Hall . Values refer to the major priorities that one chooses to act on.

esteemed. . approved.The Meaning. desired. and enjoyed by anyone at anytime.Brightman . prized. Nature and Purpose of Values Values means whatever is actually liked.

Moral experience cannot be reduced to other human experiences.Phenomenology of Moral Values 1. A description of moral insights into a moral experience shows the following: There is awareness of the difference between right or wrong. .

There is a “must” quality. We experience an “ought” in doing good & avoiding evil. it is expected & demanded that anyone be moral. Yet we are free to do good or evil. i. .e..

when we speak of & judge others. From phenomenon of dialogue. .2.

A value becomes moral because it is recognized as reasonable & freely chosen by a human person. independent of other values & preferred for their own sake.e..Characteristics of Moral Values. Moral values are pro-eminent over the other human values. . 3. 2. Moral values are absolute: i. 1.

4. i.e..e. Moral values are obligatory.. i. friendship remains a value to all even if the friend is a rascal. 5.Characteristics of Moral Values. they ought to be realized & cannot be postponed. . Moral values are universal & necessary for everyone.

1. They are pure valuable essences or qualities.Characteristics of Values Max Scheler. gives 4 characteristics or properties of values. in his theory of values. They are objective & transcend the sentimental perceptions to which they appeal. 2. .

Characteristics of Values 3. . i. 4.e. dependent & relative among themselves & with the perceiver. They are hierarchically given. They are always given in pairs. the positive value has always its corresponding countervalue.

there are 3 things to consider: . If all values or good are relative.   Value is relative.Tomas Andres. Any value or good may be viewed as: a) good for what? or b) good for whom? Value is subjective. in any relation. then. outlines other properties of Values.

Taken from the Latin word ad quem meaning “to which”. That to which the former is related or referred. 2. Taken from the Latin word a quo meaning “from which”.1. . That which is related to some other thing.

3.. The basis of relationship between the two terms. the reason why the term a quo is related to the term ad quem. . i.e.

Value has an absolute character since it has an objectivity independent from human appreciation or judgement. • Value is objective. outlines other properties of Values. value never goes alone but is accompanied by a countervalue. In its deepest structure. • Value is bipolar. .Tomas Andres.

Tomas Andres. • Value is hierarchical. outlines other properties of Values. a scaled gradation of values. . Within the realm of value & among the different classes & groups there exists a hierarchy.

there are three fundamental classification of values: .Classification of Values According to ancient philosophers.

A thing is useful when some other things are obtained from & through it. • Pleasurable or delectable good.• Useful or utilitarian good. . A thing is pleasurable when it provides pleasure to the subject.

• Befitting or becoming good. A thing is befitting when it develops. . or perfects the subject. completes.

• Intrinsic – for its own sake. .Other authorities classify values as either intrinsic or instrumental. • Instrumental – for the sake of some other good.

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