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# Control Engineering Coursework

TRANSFER FUNCTION
P.M.MENGHAL
FACULTY OF ELECTRONICS MILTARY COLLEGE OF ELECTRONICS & MECHNICAL ENGINEERING,TRIMULGHERRY,SECUNDERABAD -500 015 ANDRA PRADESH INDIA Mobile: 9440635370
Email:prashant_menghal@yahoo.co.in prashantmenghal@gmail.com

WARNING!
I claim no originality in all these notes. These are the compilation from various sources for the purpose of delivering lectures. I humbly acknowledge the wonderful help provided by the original sources in this compilation.
For best results, it is always suggested you read the source material

## Asst Professor P M Menghal

SYNCHROS
A synchro is an electromagnetic transducer commonly used to convert an angular position of a shaft in to an electric signal. There are six types of synchro, classified according to functions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Synchro Transmitter (TX) Synchro Receiver (TR) Synchro Differential Transmitter (TDX) Synchro Differential Receiver (TDR) Synchro Control Transformer Synchro Resolver

## Asst Professor P M Menghal

SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER

## SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER

Vs1n = kVm Sin t Cos( +120) -------------(1) Vs2n Control Sin DE-93 = kVmEngg t Cos Asst Professor P M Menghal -------------(2) Vs3n = kVm Sin t Cos( +240) -------------(3)

Let Vs1n ,Vs2n, Vs3n be the voltages induced in the stator coils S1,S2 and S3 with respect to neutral terminal. Then the rotor position of synchro transmitter shown in fig., where rotor axis makes an angle with the axis of stator coil S2
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The three terminal voltages of the stator coils are VS1S2 = VS1n - Vs2n =3 k VmSin ( +240)Sint ----(4)
VS2S3 = VS2n - Vs3n = 3 k VmSin ( +120)Sint ----(5) VS3S1 = VS3n - Vs1n = 3 k VmSin Sint ----(6)

When =0 from eqn.2 voltage induced in stator coil S2 is maximum and from eqn.6 The terminal voltage VS3S1 is zero.

SYNCHRO RECEIVER

e(t) C

## Asst Professor P M Menghal

The voltage induced in receiver rotor is proportional to the cosine of angle between the two rotor axis e(t)= KVm Sint Cos() = Angle difference between two rotors. When =900 i.e. The two rotor are at right angle ,the voltage induced in the Synchro receiver rotor is zero. This position is known Electrical Zero position of Synchro receiver used in error detector mode. The net angle between two rotor = (90 + C - R)

## The voltage induced in the rotor of the synchro receiver is

e(t) = KVm Sint Cos (90 + C - R)
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## e(t) = KV Sint Sin (R - C) Menghal Asst Professor P M

e(t) (R - C) Thus the synchro transmitter-receiver pairs acts as an error detector because the voltage signal of the rotor terminal of the synchro receiver is proportional to the difference in transmitter and receiver rotor shaft Position. e(t)= Ks(R - C)

## Ks = Known as sensitivity of synchro (Volt/rad)

E(s) = Ks[R(s) C(s)]

R(s) +
KS - c(s)
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E(s)

## Asst Professor P M Menghal

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SYNCHRO APPLICATIONS
1.Data Transmission
a d b a b a b

## Electrical Data Transmission

TX

TR

A.C.Supply
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## Asst Professor P M Menghal

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Potentiometer
Potentiometer is a transducer which converts angular position in to an electrical signals. It is ac as well as dc Linear Potentiometer

## The output is proportional to displacement ep(t) x(t)

x ep(t) =Kp x(t) Ep(s) = Kp X(s) ep(t) Block modeling is

+ E -

X(s)

Kp

Ep(s)

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## CIRCULAR OR ROTARY POTENTIOMETER

ep(t) (t)
ep(t) = Kp(t) Ep(s)= Kp(s) (s) KP
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E(s)
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## POTENTIOMETER AS ERROR DETECTOR

In error detector mode the electrical error signal produced is proportional to the difference in reference and control potentiometer shaft position. R(S) Ee(s) ee(t) (R- C) + KP ee(t) = KP(R- C) c(S) Ee(s)=KP(R- C)
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AMPLIFIER
1.Single Input Amplifier ei(t) KA eo(t)

2.Differential Amplifier

ei(t)
ec(t)

+ -

KA

eo(t)

## Eo(s) = KA [Ei(s) Ec(s)]

Ei(S) + DE-93 Control Engg

KA
Ec(S) Asst
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