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• It is up to us to define ourselves in some sort of relationship to our existence and take responsibility for deciding who we are. • We should not accept any predetermined creed or philosophical system. • We exist as independent agents, determining who we are and what we should do. • A doctrine that there is no difference between the external world and the internal world of the mind. • Focuses on the individual • Not a logical theory, but one that can be felt as an attitude or mood • Awareness, anxiety, choice take on special meaning • Revolt against the traditional philosophical stance • A way of life which involves one’s total self in complete seriousness about the self • The quest for personal meaning and determining personal values is emphasized. • All aspects of human potential should be developed. • Students define life for themselves as individuals. • Against both authority and group emphasis in education. • Emphasis on personal, authentic thinking and involvement. • It points out the importance of training the learners in valid reasoning and in making wise decisions. CURRICULUM: AESTHETIC AND PHILOSPHY Students are responsible for their own education It does not have a specific subjects subjects which are aesthetic and philosophy-based like art, literature and drama are considered relevant Places primary emphasis on the individual. We teach a child, not math. Education is an individual’s search for personal understanding, not something to be tested on Learner-centered and nondirective approach Criticized for impossibility of total freedom in a society with rules PROFESSOR: serves as catalyst Provides educational opportunities so that pupils can voice out their feelings and emotions Helps the child confront his or her freedom. Stresses freedom and the responsibility to make individual choices. Attempts to create a learning environment for students’ self-definition. Allows student to make their own meaning. Liberal education is a foundation for gaining personal freedom. Emphasizes humanities and the arts while de-emphasizing science. Teaching Method : Activity-centered and pupil-centered Role plays and simulations are frequently employed in the class room Pupils are motivated to engage n deep thinking Pupils : Active recipients of knowledge
Encourage to involve themselves actively to maximize the educational activities opportunities offered to them ESSENTIALISM • Idealism - Learn the essential ideas and knowledge needed to live well. • Realism - Mind learns through contact with the physical world. • Essential skills and practical knowledge needs to be learned. • Value the past but not captured by it as in perennialism. • Schools should focus on the basics or established disciplines - the 3Rs. • An educational philosophy suggesting that there is a critical core of information that all people should possess. • Back to the basic skills and academic subjects. Students should be able to master these subjects • Criticize interdisciplinary teaching • The curriculum of this philosophy is focused on core skills like reading, writing, and arithmetic. • Teaching of essential facts and concepts on Science, Literature, Health and P.E.; Hard Sciences, technical and vocational courses; • Arts for aesthetic expression; and Values of discipline, hard work, and respect for authority. • ESSENTIALIST believes that there exist a critical core of information and skill that an educated person must have. • the aim of education is to teach the young the essentials they need to live well in the modern world • It will develop individuals to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously • It helps individuals to adjust to cultural demands and live together in peace CONCEPT - Knowledge and skills that need to be taught to the pupils. Focus more on basics; what an individual needs to know in order to become a productive person. Change from time to time. Essentialism is said to be both practical and pragmatic. GOALS OF EDUCATION: Teach knowledge and basic culture Curriculum : Basic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic) Compulsory subject like Science, History, Art, and Music whilst Literature and Humanities are optional. Teacher : Skilled disseminator of knowledge • Teaches essential knowledge and is task oriented. • Avoids methodological frills and soft pedagogy. • Concentrates on sound, proven instructional methods. • Teacher is the expert and students are there to listen and learn what they need to know. • Strong emphasis on basic skills and scholastic achievement. • Teachers must be expert in content knowledge, teaches essential knowledge and maintains task-oriented focus Pupils : Passive recipient of knowledge • The role of the student is that of the listener and the learner. • The individual child’s interest, motivations, and psychological states are not important. • Teachers are authorities. • Subjects should stress usefulness and work should be task oriented and disciplined.
School is a place where children come to learn what they need to know and develop the skills needed to succeed in life. PROGRESSIVISM • John Dewey - Father of Progressivism • Philosophy and Education are identical, both involving the practical, experimental attempt to improve the human condition. • Major impact on the concept of the democratic American education ideal. • Views the mind as a problem solver. • People are naturally exploring, inquiring entities and learn through direct experience. • Student must master the scientific method. • Value of knowledge resides in the ability to solve human problems. • Subject matter provides information and methodologies for finding solutions. • The teacher is an intellectual guide or facilitator in the problem solving process. • School is a democratic society in itself, preparing students for community life. • Group activities and group problem solving to prepare for solving world problems. • It has no structured curriculum wherein it is child centered which give emphasis on life experiences. • This philosophy also focuses on the four (4) H’s : health, hand, heart, head for physical, emotional, social and manipulative skills. • It focuses more upon the child’s learning, than upon curriculum content of the teacher’s pedagogy. • Education which aims to give children the freedom to develop naturally in a democratic environment • focuses on a curriculum highlighting social reform as the aim of education • Schools under this philosophy are focused on the needs of pupils through tolerant discipline, encouragement of the arts and crafts, using manual work as an aspect of physical education, and simplicity of living. • New teaching methods are encouraged, ‘open plan’ school architecture and more imaginative use of space in all types of primary schools. It also promotes a child-centered classroom approaches. • do not believe in the existence of permanent truth that needs to be mastered by our pupils • Knowledge is something which is both relative and tentative and used to used to explain the present reality IS SAID TO UNDERGO CONTINUOUS CHANGES THEREFORE an educated people is defined as one who has the insight which enables him to adapt to changes his environment • TWO MAIN APPROACHES OF PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION 1. ‘CHILD-CENTERED’ 2. ‘SOCIAL-RECONSTRUCTIONISM’ GOALS OF EDUCATION: produce individuals who are ready to face changes in their daily lives Curriculum : Choice of subjects according to individual interest Teacher : Facilitator and manager Develops problem solving abilities and inductive thinking skills. • Helps children do what they want to do.
Stimulates students to plan and carry out activities and research projects using group processes and democratic procedures. • Is facilitator and resource for students. • Students learn by doing and discovering. • Center on students’ interests in real problems. Teaching Method : Inductive Pupils : Active seekers of knowledge. students be given the freedom to choose the subjects they wish to study that will ensure they study according to their personal interests. learning becomes more effective and pupils are able to maximize their individual abilities and potentials IDEALISM • A traditional philosophy asserting that, because the physical world is constantly changing, ideas are the only reliable form of reality • The subjects offered are essential for MENTAL, MORAL and SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT, to with: philosphy, theology, history, arts, mathematics, literature, gmrc, values education, christian living. • EDUCATION develops the individual spiritually, mentally and morally, thus education contributes to the development of mind and self, thereby, the school should emphasize intellectual abilities, moral, judgments, aesthetics, self-realization, individual freedom and responsibility and self-control. • Students must be encouraged to build-up knowledge and critical thinking. It is a fact that learning is a product of the learner’s own activity • The learning process must be made more efficient by the stimulation which comes from the teacher and the environment of the school • this regard, the teacher must be highly communicative using different teaching strategies, chief source of inspiration and knowledge, among others, thus, the school must encourage teachers to use effective teaching styles that would fit in to what the school envisions for the learners. • Socratic method: questioning • Believe that teaching and learning should focus on ideas. Teachers provide guidance by helping students become more precise and logical thinkers • Criticized for being cold because it emphasizes the rational and logical over other dimensions of the human experience. PRAGMATISM • A traditional philosophy that rejects the idea of absolute, unchanging truth, instead asserting that truth is what works • Experience and problem solving are key ideas • More hands-on, concrete experiences than lecture • Interdisciplinary problem solving • Criticized for emphasizing student interests too strongly at the expense of essential knowledge • This is particularly for social efficiency that train students to continuously and actively quest for information and production of new ideas needed to adjust to an ever-changing society. REALISM
Holds that the features of the universe exist whether or not a human being is there to perceive them • There are important ideas and facts that must be understood and they can only be understood by studying the material world • Curriculum emphasizes essentials like math, science, reading, and writing • Teachers emphasize observation, experimentation, and critical reasoning • De-emphasize feelings and other personal factors • Criticized for failing to take the whole person into account in the learning process • The curricular offerings for this philosophy are: • NATURAL SCIENCE, SOCIAL SCIENCE, LITERATURE, BIOGRAPHY, POETRY ARTS. • These consist of different related concepts that constitute the structure of the discipline which is said to be organized, separated and systemically arranged subject matter. • The scientific methods and problem solving approach are used, to with: • OBSERVING FACTORS • RELATED TO PROBLEMS • TESTING HYPOTHESIS • SYNTHESIZING • It provides the student with the essential knowledge he will need to survive in the natural world. • The teacher must possess a body of knowledge and is capable of transmitting it to students. In other words, teaching must not be indoctrinating but learning must be interactive. • In this way, the teacher must maintain discipline by reward and control the student by activity. NATURALISM The aim of education are the preservation of the natural goodness and virtue of the youth, preservation of individual freedom and creayion of new society with a life of simplicity, liberty equality and fraternity The type of education was general education because with specializations some men become dependent upon other men, democratic and universal education. The child learns through his senses, by observation especially without the use of books. The method of instruction is child-centered. PERENNIALISM • Nature and human nature in particular remains the same throughout history. • Education develops a person’s rationality. • Nurture of the intellect is essential role of the school. • Teachers are task masters, presenting knowledge and setting the rules. • Classical thought is emphasized through the study of history, language, literature, humanities, science, & arts. • Eurocentric view of knowledge and culture criticized because contributions are “dead, white, male writers and thinkers.” • Paideia Proposal - All men should seek a state of human excellence, enlightenment, goodness. • All children should have classical education that is rigorous, demanding, & disciplined.
Value traditional education that conserves the wisdom of the past. Passes on the next generation the accumulated wisdom of the past. Cultivates rational powers through contact with the culture’s best. Values and imitates cultures of the past. Student is there to learn what is taught. Curriculum is based on materials reflecting universal and recurring themes that cultivate rationality and deductive thinking. • Studies the classics of Western culture. GOALS OF EDUCATION: Teach knowledge and universal values which are everlasting. Curriculum : Humanities & literature Subject recommended: literature, mathematics, science, language and art Teacher : Expert disseminator of knowledge. Responsible to deliver knowledge and facilitate group discussions. Teaching method : Didactic; Teacher teaches and pupils learn without any opportunity to ask question. ; Has expert power and does not entertain his pupils' view Pupils : Passive recipients of knowledge; The responsible to work hard in order to gain as much knowledge as they can; Have to complete all the assignment given by the teacher. RECONSTRUCTIONISM • The curricular offerings in this philosophy are: social change philosphy, NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL/GLOBAL ISSUES, SOCIETAL NEEDS AND PROBLEMS, EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES • This curriculum is cutting edge information needed to correct current societal problems and build a new society. To make a better world, and prepare for the future. • Reconstructionist insists on promoting character education by making group decisions in the light of the consequences of those decisions. • They prefer the group problem-solving-project methodology. • People are responsible for social conditions and can improve the quality of human life by changing the social order. • Society is in need of constant reconstruction. Such social change involves both reconstruction of education and the use of education in reconstructing the society. • It does not really seek to find a new system of education, but one that worked well in the past. • school is a platform to build a new society • Curriculum : Social science subjects • Teacher : Agents of change • Teaching Method : Pupil-centered • Pupils : Have the courage to try and be active • emphasizes current and future orientations besides local and global issues • has to be creative and innovative in classroom • pupils are taught problem-solving skills trough activities, brainstorming, role plays and stimulation • to achieve the predetermined goals of education
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should be courage enough to try out new things and willing to change their existing paradigms
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