You are on page 1of 73



1999 - 2013





herbs, herbal extracts, spices and condiments." The products we carry are derived and designed from "traditional African" formulas based on African principles, herbal customs and herbal practices. We shop for authentic products to help our customers build and maintain a healthy and happier lifestyle.

BLACKHERBALS.COM specializes in heterogeneous, "African, Jamaican, and Caribbean

Check us out for all your natural and holistic needs.





54 Muwafu Road, Ministers Village P.O. Box 29974 Ntinda (Kampala), Uganda, East Africa Phone: +256 702 414 530 +256 782 917 902 Email:

RGL ENTERPRISES INTERNATIONAL -The Natural Herbal Solution, Black Herbals, Blackherbals at the Source of the Nile and the Black Herbals Logo are registered trademarks of RGL Enterprises International Inc. 19992016. All Rights reserved.


All prices listed online are in US dollars. U.S. customers please be advised that you may experience some delay in the receipt of your order due to increasingly stringent custom inspections and procedures.

Purchase at using Paypal An Easy Way to Pay - Debit, Credit, Bank Transfers, Invoicing
1. You do not have to have an account with Paypal to purchase products. You may use your credit card, debit card or bank account to purchase or we can send you our Paypal invoice. Your financial information is not disclosed to us, only to Paypal. In addition, we offer a secure server for your secure shopping pleasure. However, if you choose to open an Paypal account, it is a very simple and easy way to pay for purchases online, just go to 2. Shop at - Select your product(s). Buy one now or add to basket. All weights are expressed in ounces. 3. For faster checkout in the future, you can create an account with us (Optional). 4. Check your basket for accuracy. 5. Proceed to checkout. 6. Place your order without account or login at Blackherbals (Optional). 7. Provide your personal information and continue. 8. Select your shipping weight amount and continue to Paypal for payment of purchases. Shipping stated is for U.S. only. Please email us ( with your order if your location is not the U.S. so we can send you a Paypal invoice. Your personal payment information is provided to Paypal. We do not receive any financial information on how you purchase, only what you purchased.

9. O Order is com mpleted at Pay ypal. 10. Order is sh hipped within 2-7 busine days dep n ess pending upo availabili of products. Shippin time can on ity ng vary from 5-10 business day All order are shippe from Uga y ys. rs ed anda, East Af frica. DIS SCLAIMER We make no claims, we only sh R: e , how results. No claims f found on ou web pages or in print ur s hav been evalu ve uated by the Food and D e Drug Administration. Th informatio presented here is for educational he on d purp poses only. PRI IVACY ST TATEMENT At BLAC T: ACKHERBA ALS.COM, we are com mmitted to p protecting yo privacy. our We use the info ormation we collect abo you to pr e out rocess orders and to pro ovide a more personalize shopping e ed exp perience. Wh you ord we only need to k hen der, y know your n name, teleph hone numbe e-mail a er, address, and mai iling address Your paym details are provided to Paypal. When you p s. ment d place orders or access y s your account info ormation onl line, we offe the use of a dedicated secure serv The sec er f d ver. cure server s software (SS encrypts SL) all i information you input before it is se to us. Fu b ent urthermore, all of the cu ustomer data we collect is protected a aga ainst unauth horized acce ess. BLAC CKHERBAL ALS.COM d does not se trade, o rent you personal ell, or ur info ormation to o others. POLICY STA ATEMENT: We do not accept p phone/fax or rders or pay yment by c check or mo oney order. sently, we o only accept payments on p nline through Paypal. La h arge purchas may be paid through electronic ses h Pres ban transfers. nk MO ONEY BAC GUARA CK ANTEE: We stand by th products we sell. If y are not satisfied wi any item e he you ith (wit the exception of the ebook), pleas return the product, wi th e se ithin 30 days of purchase for a full re s e efund of the purc chased price e.

Blackherb A Marcus G bals M Garvey P Pan-Afric Universitys C can Commun Site nity of K Knowledg ge


BHSN #1 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - DETOX MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-001 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $15.00

DETOX MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, spices, barks and roots that help to remove organic/inorganic toxins that accumulate in the vital organs of the body such as: the lungs, kidney, liver, spleen, blood and the heart. Detoxifies the whole body. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #2 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX HERBAL TONIC MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-002 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

HERBAL TONIC MIX - BLACKHERBALS' Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks and roots for general well-being and energy. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #3 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX MALARIA MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-003 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

MALARIA MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to prevent malaria and for the treatment of fever, body aches, chills cause by malaria and hayfever. Can be also used for Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever and Chik or Q fever. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #4 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - FEME MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-004 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

FEME MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to target the female reproductive system and normalize the different functions. Regulates hormone and painful or irregular menstrual flows. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #5 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - BP MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-005 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

BP MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, and roots formulated to remove toxins and plaque from the arteries and blood vessels and to allow and maintain free circulation of the blood throughout the body. Helps to regulate high blood pressure (Hypertension). 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #6 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - DIA-B MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-006 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

DIA-B MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to repair the pancreas, so it can function normally to produce natural insulin that breaks down sugar to the level that the body can tolerate. Helps to control and regulate blood sugar. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. BHSN #7 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - RESPIRATORY MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-007 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

RESPIRATORY MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to remove viruses and infections that cause flu, coughs, asthma, bronchitis and other problems in the respiratory system. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #8 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - ANTI-VIRAL MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-008 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

ANTI-VIRAL MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan hers, spices, barks and roots formulated to remove viral parasites from the blood and body, boost the immune system and prevent infections and have proven anti-viral activities to help fight infections. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. BHSN #9 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - ANTITUMOUR/CANCER MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-009 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

ANTI-TUMOUR/CANCER MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, spices, barks and roots that have cancer-fighting components, scientifically proven to be effective against tumours and cancer cells anywhere in the body. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #10 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - IMMUNOBOOSTER MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-010 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

IMMUNOBOOSTER MIX - BLACKHERBALS' Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks and roots that boost the immune system and helps the body to fight disease. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #11 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - BLOOD CLEANSER MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-011 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00 BLOOD CLEANSER MIX - BLACKHERBALS' Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks and roots that strengthens the blood by cleansing it of toxins and diseasecarrying organisms. Excellent for sickle cell anemia and other anemic conditions. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #12 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - WEIGHT LOSS MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-012 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

WEIGHT LOSS MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices that lessen the desire to overeat, provides the energy needed for weight loss, increases metabolism and detoxifies accumulated fat and toxins from the body. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #13 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - BITTERS MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-013 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

BITTERS (EVERYDAY DIGESTIVE TONIC)- BLACKHERBALS' Proprietary Formula Mix containing herbs, spices, barks and roots for an everyday digestive tonic for the prevention of ulcers, for regularity and for all common digestive disorders. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #14 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - DIGESTIVE MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-014 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

DIGESTIVE MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to cleanse the digestive system including: stomach, small and large intestines/colon, remove bacteria and mucus and promote regular bowel movements. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #15 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - EPI/CNS MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-015 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

EPI/CNS MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing Ugandan herbs, spices, barks and roots formulated to remove toxins and parasites from the central nervous system. Helps with brain function, memory enhancement, epilepsy, ADHD, Alzheimers and migraine headaches. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #16 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - GOUT MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-016 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

GOUT MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots which remove uric acid from the body and reduces pain and inflammation from infected joints. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #17 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - STD MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-017 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

STD MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated using African traditional herbs to treat sexually transmitted diseases. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. BHSN #18 - AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX ARTHRITIS/RHEUMATISM MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-018 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00 ARTHRITIS/RHEUMATISM MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, spices, barks and roots formulated to remove uric acid from the joints, rebuild cartilage, replace natural fluids to the joints, stop associated pains. Good for arthritis, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis and joint pain. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN #19 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - HEPI MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-019 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

HEPI MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated for cleansing toxins from the liver and spleen to regulate and maintain good liver function. For all liver diseases. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.


BHSN#20 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - UTI MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-020 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

UTI MIX - BLACKHERBALS' Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots to cleanse the urinary tract of obstructions, toxins and infections. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. BHSN#21 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - FIBROID MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-021 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

FIBROID MIX - BLACKHERBALS' Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, spices, barks and roots that help to reduce uterine fibroids also containing cancer-fighting components. Clinically proven to be effective in reducing fibroid tissues. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. BHSN#22 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX -FERTI-FEME MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-022 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

FERTI-FEME MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to repair the fallopian tubes when infected. Helps to strengthen fertilized eggs and reduces problems caused by endometriosis and fibroids. Reduces environmental toxins and other causes of infertility. Aids in increasing fertility. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.


BHSN#23 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - MUSCLE PAIN MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-023 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

MUSCLE PAIN MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to relieve aches and pains all over the body due to arthritis, rheumatism , fever and infections. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. Packaged - 8 oz. BHSN#24 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - GOITER/THYRO MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-024 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

GOITER/THYRO MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to regulate/stabilises metabolism, reduces goiters associated with overactive thyroids leading to weight loss and increases metabolism for under-active thyroids, leading to weight gain. Removes toxins attributed to both. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. BHSN#25 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - SICKLE CELL MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-025 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

SICKLE CELL MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to help prevent sickling of blood cells using traditional African herbs. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.


BHSN#26 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - HEART MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-026 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

HEART MIX - BLACKHERBALS' Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks and roots formulated to strengthen and tone up the heart muscles. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. Packaged - 8 oz.

BHSN#27 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - DIPSOMNIA MIX (SUBSTANCE ABUSE) Code: BHSN-AHF-027 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00 DIPSOMNIA MIX (SUBSTANCE ABUSE) - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to remove or help reduce cravings for alcohol and drugs. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. BHSN#28 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - TB MIX (TUBERCULOSIS) Code: BHSN-AHF-028 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

TB MIX (TUBERCULOSIS) - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices formulated to help treat tuberculosis. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.


BHSN#29 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - PARA MIX (PARALYSIS) Code: BHSN-AHF-029 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00 PARA MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to restore energy flow in the muscular skeleton system. Helps with paralysis of limbs due to external factors. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives.

BHSN#30 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - HERNIA MIX Code: BHSN-AHF-030 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

HERNIA MIX - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to help shrink protruding tissues and swellings. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. Packaged - 8 oz. BHSN#31 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX - HEMO MIX (HEMORRHOIDS) Code: BHSN-AHF-031 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $20.00

HEMO MIX (HEMORRHOIDS) - BLACKHERBALS Proprietary Formula Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated to relieve hemorrhoids and repair hemorrhoidic tissues. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. Packaged - 8 oz.


BHSN#32 AFRICAN HERBAL TEA MIX (SKD) SKIN DISEASES Code: BHSN-AHF-032 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $.20.00

SKD MIX - BLACKHERBAL'S Proprietary Mix containing native Ugandan herbs, barks, spices and roots formulated using African traditional herbs to effectively treat most skin diseases. 100% Natural. Contains no chemical or synthetic additives. Packaged - 8 oz.

Bulk Traditional Herbs

CAYENNE PEPPER (CAPSICUM FRUTESCENCE) Code: BHSN-BTH-001 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $9.00

CAYENNE is the most useful of the systemic stimulants. It stimulates blood flow, strengthens and feeds the cell structure of the heart, arteries, capillaries and nerves so they will regain elasticity. A general tonic, it is also specific for both circulatory and digestive systems. It may be used in flatulent dyspepsia and colic. It is also good for the kidneys, lungs, pancreas, spleen and stomach. If there is insufficient peripheral circulation, leading to cold hands and feet and possibly chilblains, Cayenne can also be used for debility and for warding off colds. Capsicum meets the debility of young and old, but it is particularly useful in the elderly, when body-heat is low, vitality is depressed and reaction is sluggish. Tired, painful muscles, stiffened joints and relaxation of any part which are common conditions in the elderly are, in a measure, rectified by Capsicum. Red capsicum is one of the best sources for vitamins A and C. Vitamin K, B6 and manganese are also present. The amount of vitamin C present may be four to six times that found in an orange. Provitamins E, P, B1, B2 and B3 have also been identified as components. Ripe Cayenne pepper in rich in vitamin A, B, C, calcium, iron, sodium, phosphorus, potassium and protein. The Medical Uses Of Capsicum

Antibiotic - Capsicum is known for its antibiotic properties, since it helps the body to build up its immune system. In Africa, children are given pepper at an early age to increase their stamina and resistance to flu and viral infections. African women use diluted Capsicum as a douche to kill and prevent vaginal infections. Arthritis - Used as an herbal liniment for pain and sprains due to arthritis, rheumatism, gout and lumbago. Asthma - Taken internally as a tea, Cayenne is used for coughs, colds, and breaking up mucus congestion. Blood Pressure - Cayenne will normalize blood pressure and steady nerves. Cuts and Wounds - Powdered or fresh Cayenne can be applied to open cuts and wounds to stop bleeding, kill pain and prevent infection while promoting healing. In Cuba, Cayenne is crushed and applied to external ulcers and sores. The leaves are used to as a poultice to draw out boils. Cayenne tea is also an effective remedy for hemorrhoids. Dental Hygiene - The ashes of burnt Cayenne peppers can be used to whiten teeth and remove plaque. Heart - Cayenne pepper is a very effective heart tonic especially for older folks. In the case of heart attack, a teaspoon of Capsicum to a cup of boiling water taken internally will bring the patient back to consciousness. Internal Hemorrhaging - A teaspoon full in a glass of warm water will stop internal bleeding in the uterus, lungs and other internal organs. Insect Repellent - Powered Cayenne sprinkled in cracks and crevices will keep away mice, rats, and insects. Seasickness - Cayenne in a bowl of soup or tea prevents motion sickness. Ulcers - Contrary to the popular belief that spicy food aggravates ulcers, Cayenne pepper in combination with comfrey root will heal all types of ulcers. Yellow Fever - In the West Indies and Africa, Cayenne has been used for decades as a cure for yellow fever and other types of serious fevers. A little Cayenne pepper should be added to all herbal teas since it acts as a carrier and increases their healing and medicinal nature.

KOLA NUT (BISSY) POWDER Code: BHSN-BTH-002 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $12.00


Common Names: Bissy, kola nut, colero, cola acuminata A tea of the kola nut regulates circulation and cardiac rhythms and acts diuretically on the heart. It improves the appetite and lessens the desire for liquor. It relieves stomach aches and can stop diarrhea as well as purging the body of poisons. It relieves fatigue and malaise. Chewing on the seeds of the bitter kola tree, a common pastime among West African men is rumored to cure sexual dysfunction. That could account for the popularity of the seeds, or maybe it's because gnawing on them is also said to alleviate flu symptoms. The latter clue led researchers to investigate whether the seeds of the Garcinia kola tree might ward off viral diseases. In fact, it may do something even more notable. In lab tests, scientists found that extracts of bitter kola halt replication of the Ebola virus. A compound in Kola Nut called kolaviron, has been reported to significantly prevent hepatotoxicity induced by several hepatotoxic agents such as phalloidin, thioacetamide and paracetamol. Its chemopreventive effects against carbon tetrachloride, 2-acetylamino fluorine (2-AAF), Aflatoxin B1, and potassium bromate have also been reported. These findings indicate that kolaviron may protect against carcinogen and drug induced oxidative and membrane damage and as such may be relevant in the chemotherapy of liver and kidney diseases. The kola nut is native to tropical African and was introduced to Latin America and the West Indies to induce the enslaved Africans to work. In Jamaica, a tea of the grated nut is used as a coffee. The seeds are chewed as a stimulant because of their natural caffeine content. The seeds contain 46% starch, 2.36% caffeine, 3% fat and small amounts of glucose and sucrose. It can give one the strength to do hard work without getting tired. The twigs and stems of the plant produce natural eye drops. They are sharpened and the points are soaked in water, producing a slimy drop at the tip which is dropped into the eye. This liquid clears up pink eye and removes cataracts and other growths in the eye. It should be used as the last thing before going to sleep for best results. Kola is eaten by every branch of Nigerias culturally diverse population while virtually all Nigerians, to some extent, appreciate the fruits peace-making role. Although some ethnic groups do not have a tradition of according kola special significance, the nut has varying degrees of importance to the three major Nigerian ethnic groups, the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. A Nigerian saying goes that the Hausa cultivate the kola for food, the Yoruba for commerce, and the Igbo out of reverence. It is commonly believed that the Igbo have the most widely recognized symbolic, even spiritual, use of kola. The Hausa give the fruit minimal symbolic value but consume the nut in great quantities. For the Yoruba, kola seems to occupy a symbolic middle ground. Hausa tend to downplay the symbolism of kola in traditional settings. It is not true that the Hausa have no traditional use for kola nuts. It is often used as a means of inviting friends and wellwishers to weddings, child-naming ceremonies and other celebrations. One hundred pieces of kola nut, in a calabash, are often presented to a brides family by a willing suitor to signify his seriousness and puts a temporary hold on the efforts of competing suitors; the nuts are to be shared between the would-be brides relatives. Also, traditional Hausa musicians may be given kola, along with money, to signify that the host is honored to have the musician entertain. Rituals


Amongst the Igbo, who occupy a large portion of eastern Nigeria, the ritualistic breaking of the kola nut at major events is an honor reserved for high chiefs, clan heads and other prominent figures. For the traditional Igbo man, no visitor who is truly welcome can be received without the formal presentation and breaking of kola. The breaking of kola is very important to the Igbo. Among the Igbo, it is customary to break the nuts into several pieces, even after the natural lobes have been separated. Traditionally, only the oldest male present performs this role. To an Igbo person, kola is the ultimate sign of benevolence or the absence of hostility. The presence of kola also represents love and communality of purpose. Contraindications: Contains caffeine. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should consult their physician before using kola nut. CERASEE (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA) Code: BHSN-BTH-003 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $6.00

MOMORDICA CHARANTIA COMMON NAMES: Karela, balsam apple, paoka, madian apple, mexicaine, caprika, achochilla, cerasse TRADITIONAL USES: Abortifacient, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, burn, catarrh, constipation, digestion, demulcent, dermatosis, diabetes, diarrhea, dyspepsia, eczema, emetic, emmenagogue, emollient, fever, febrifuge, hemorrhoids, hepatitis, hypoglycemic, inflammation (liver), leprosy, leucorrhoea, leukemia, malaria, menstrual colic, pain, pruritus, purgative, rheumatism, scabies, skin, tumor, wound, vaginitis, vermifuge, cancer (breast), food, glucosuria, halitosis, hematuria, polyuria, refrigerant, bite (snake), anemia, colitis, kidney (stone), sterility (female), dysentery, gonorrhea, appetite stimulant, insecticide, laxative, rage, rhinitis, contraceptive, dysmenorrhea, fat loss, galactagogue, gout, hydrophobia, piles, pneumonia, psoriasis, sore, asthma, headache, scald, sprue, stomachache, cold, cough, hypertension, tonic gallbladder, contusions, lung, measles, suppurative, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Bitter melon (Momordica chrantia L.) also known as bitter gourd, African or wild cucumber, is known in Hindi as karela, as ampalaya in the Philippines, in the West African country of Togo as guingbe, and in the Caribbean as cerasse/cerasee. Cerasee is native to Africa, the Middle East and the Mediterranean area. It was introduced to Brazil by African slaves and from there it spread to the rest of Latin America and the West Indies. Today it reaches as far north as Texas and Florida, where it grows wild. Bitter melon fruit and leaves also have a time-honored use as a medicine throughout India, Asia, Africa and South

America. Cerasee also grows wild in Asia where it is used medicinally, and as a vegetable. The fruits, leaves, seeds and roots have also been used for a range of conditions. Bitter melon is used to treat diabetes, intestinal colic, peptic ulcers, worms, malaria, constipation, dysmenorrhea, eczema, gout, jaundice, kidney stone, leprosy, leucorrhoea, piles, pneumonia, psoriasis, rheumatism, chickenpox, measles and scabies. Externally, bitter melon is used for the rapid healing of wounds. A tea made of the vine is used for diabetes, hypertension, worms, dysentery, malaria and as a general tonic and blood purifier. It is also very effective to relieve constipation and colds and fevers in children. Women in Latin American and the West Indies use the leaf for menstrual problems to promote discharge after childbirth. In Brazil, cerasse tea is used as a tonic and remedy for colds, fever and pains due to arthritis and rheumatism. In Curacao and Aruba, the tea is used to lower blood pressure. In the Philippines, bitter melon is cultivated as a vegetable and cooked like other leafy vegetables. In Cuba, cerasee tea is used as a remedy for colitis, liver complaints, fever and as a skin lotion. A tea of the root is used to expel kidney stones. In India, the green, unripe fruits are soaked in water and cooked in curry and other dishes. The juice of the ripe fruit, which contains valuable enzymes and minerals, is taken for diabetes. Active constituents in bitter melon include glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, fixed oils, triterpenes, proteins and steroids. The hypoglycemic constituents are a mixture of steroidal saponins known as charantins, insulin-like peptides and alkaloids. These constituents are concentrated in the fruits which have also been shown to have the most pronounced hypoglycemic activity compared to other plant parts. Several other phytochemicals including momorcharins, momordenol, momordicins, cucurbitins, cucurbitacins have been isolated from the bitter melon. It also contains HIV inhibitory proteins code named MRK29 as well as trypsin, elastase and gyanylate cyclase inhibitors and lectins. Antifertility: However, toxicity and even death in laboratory animals has been reported when extracts are injected intravenously or intraperitoneally (with the fruit and seed demonstrating greater toxicity than the leaf or aerial parts of the plant). Other studies have shown ethanol and water extracts of the fruit and leaf (ingested orally) to be safe during pregnancy. The seeds, however, have demonstrated the ability to induce abortions in rats and mice, and the root has been documented with a uterine stimulant effect in animals. The fruit and leaf of bitter melon has demonstrated an in vivo antifertility effect in female animals; in male animals, it was reported to affect the production of sperm negatively. Bitter melon traditionally has been used as an abortive and has been documented with weak uterine stimulant activity; therefore, it is contraindicated during pregnancy. This plant has been documented to reduce fertility in both males and females and should therefore not be used by those undergoing fertility treatment or seeking pregnancy. The active chemicals in bitter melon have shown in animal studies to be transferred through breast milk; therefore, it is contraindicated in women who are breast feeding. Alloxan-induced Diabetes Diabetes mellitus can be induced in animals by partial pancreatectomy or by the administration of diabetogenic drugs such as alloxan, streptozotocin, ditizona and anti-insulin serum. These agents selectively destroy the -cells of the Langerhans islet. Alloxan, an oxidized product of uric acid, is one of the most commonly used models of experimental diabetes.

Antihyperglycaemic activity The antihyperglycaemic activity of bitter melon is the most studied and most significant. This activity of the fruit, seed, leaf and whole plant has been confirmed in animal studies. A study examining the hypoglycemic effects of the thirty most popular anti-diabetic Indian herbs found Coccinia indica, Tragia involucrata, Gymnema sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek), Moringa oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita and Momordica charantia (bitter melon) to be the most potent. A water extract of the fruit was found to be the most effective in diabetic induced rats and similar to that of glibenclamide. Anthelminitic, antiviral and antimicrobial activities Extracts of various plant parts of the bitter melon, including the leaf, fruit and seeds have been investigated and found to be pharmacologically active against microbes. A leaf, and a fruit, in addition to whole plant extracts have been found to have antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Isolated constituents including alpha momorcharin have been shown to have anti-HIV activity. Ribosome-inactivating proteins have been found to be active against both herpes and polio viruses. Anthelminitic activity against Ascaridia galli worms have been demonstrated in vitro. Anticancer activity Various preliminary studies (in vitro and in vivo) with crude extracts and purified fractions have been shown to possess anticancer activity. The anti-carcinogenic effect of aqueous extract of the bitter melon fruit was studied in a two-step skin carcinogenesis model in mice. Oral administration of the fruit extract protected the mice from the development of skin tumours and increased life expectancy. The extract also reduced carcinogen-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and DNA damage in lymphocytes. The fruit extract was furthermore found to significantly activate the liver enzymes glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase (P < 0.001), which showed a depression following exposure to the carcinogen. The results suggest a preventive role of water-soluble constituents of bitter melon fruit during carcinogenesis, which is possibly mediated by their modulatory effect on enzymes of the biotransformation and detoxification system of the host. Anti-ulcer activity The traditional use of bitter melon in the treatment of ulcers is supported by research suggesting the dried-powdered fruits in filtered honey have significant and dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis in rats. Antiviral activity against H. pylori would further contribute to this protective effect. Immunomodulatory activity Bitter melon extracts and isolated constituents have a variable effect on the immune system. It has been shown to be immune stimulating in some studies and immunosuppressive in some conditions. The clinical significance is not yet known as it likely to be highly dependent on type of extract, dosage and administration. Its immunomodulatory activity may explain its traditional use in psoriasis, which is now known to be an autoimmune disorder.


BOMBO LEAVES (MOMORDICA FOETIDA) Code: BHSN-BTH-004 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $6.00

MOMORDICA FOETIDA Traditional medicinal uses are numerous and many are shared with other Momordica spp. Traditionally, the juice of crushed leaves is used to relieve cough, stomach-ache, intestinal disorders, headache, earache, toothache. Skin problems caused by smallpox, boils, and malaria are treated with crushed leaves. The plant is further used as an emmenagogue, ecbolic (promoting childbirth), aphrodisiac and abortifacient.

GRAVIOLA (ANNONA MICRANTA) Code: BHSN-BTH-005 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $10.00

SOURSOP/MUSTAFERI) COMMON NAMES: Soursop, Graviola, Guanabana, Brazilian Paw Paw, Corossolier, Guanavana, Toge-Banreisi, Durian benggala, Nangka blanda, Nangka Londa PARTS USED: Leaves, Seeds, Fruit PROPERTIES/ACTIONS: Analgesic, Antibacterial, Anticancerous, Antiparasitic, Antitumorous, Antispasmodic, Astringent, Cytotoxic, Febrifuge, Hypotensive, Insecticide, Nervine, Pectoral, Pesticide, Sedative, Stomachic, Vasodilator, Vermifuge TRADITIONAL USES: Analgesic, Antispasmodic, Asthma, Astringent, Childbirth, Chills, Fevers, Flu, Diuretic, Gall-Bladder Tea, Glactagogue, Hypertension, High Blood Pressure, Insomnia, Lactagogue, Nervousness, Neuralgia, Palpitation, Parasites, Rash, Rheumatism, Ringworm, Sedative, Scurvy, Skin Disease, Tranquilizer, Vermifuge TRADITIONAL REMEDY: One-half cup leaf infusion or bark decoction 1-3 times daily or 1-3 ml of a 4:1 tincture twice daily or 2 to 5 grams of powdered leaves in tablets or capsules


twice daily. Graviola is a small, upright evergreen tree growing 5 to 6 meters in height with large dark green and glossy leaves. It is indigenous to most of the warmest tropical areas in South and North America including the Amazon. It produces a large heart-shaped edible fruit that is 6-9", yellow green in color, with white flesh. The fruit is sold in local markets in the tropics where it is called Guanabana or Brazilian Cherimoya. All parts of the Graviola tree are used in natural medicine in the tropics including the bark, leaves, roots, fruit and fruit-seeds. Different properties and uses are attributed to the different parts of the tree. Generally the fruit and fruit juice is taken for worms and parasites, to cool fevers, to increase mother's milk after childbirth (lactagogue), and as an astringent for diarrhea and dysentery. The crushed seeds are used as a vermifuge and anthelmintic against internal and external parasites and worms. The bark, leaves and roots are considered sedative, antispasmodic, hypotensive and nervine and a tea is made for various disorders for those purposes. Graviola has a long rich history of use in herbal medicine as well as a long recorded indigenous use. In the Peruvian Andes, a leaf tea is used for catarrh and the crushed seed is used to kill parasites In the Peruvian Amazon the bark roots and leaves are used for diabetes and as a sedative and antispasmodic. Indigenous tribes in Guyana use a leaf and/or bark tea of Graviola as a sedative and heart tonic. In the Brazilian Amazon, a leaf tea is used for liver problems and the oil of the leaves and unripe fruit is mixed with olive oil and used externally for neuralgia, rheumatism and arthritis pain. In Jamaica, Haiti and the West Indies, the fruit and/or fruit juice is used for fevers, parasites, as a lactagogue, and diarrhea; and the bark or leaves are used as an antispasmodic, sedative, and nervine for heart conditions, coughs, grippe, difficult childbirth, asthma, asthenia, hypertension and parasites. Many bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been found in Graviola as scientists have been studying its properties since the 1940's. Its many uses in natural medicine has been validated by this scientific research. The earliest studies were between 1941 and 1962. Several studies by different researchers demonstrated that the bark as well as the leaves had hypotensive, antispasmodic, vasodilator; smooth muscle relaxant and cardiodepressant activities in animals. Researchers re-verified Graviola leaf's hypotensive properties in rats again in 1991. Several studies over the years have demonstrated that leaf, bark, root, stem and seed extracts of Graviola are antibacterial in vitro against numerous pathogens and that the bark has antifungal properties. Graviola seeds demonstrated active antiparasitic properties in a 1991 study, and a leaf extract showed to be active against malaria in two other studies in 1990 and 1993. The leaves, root, and seeds of Graviola demonstrated insecticidal properties with the seed demonstrating strong insecticidal activity in a early 1940 study. In a new 1997 clinical study, novel alkaloids were found in Graviola fruit with anti-depressive effects in animals. In an 1976 plant screening program by the National Cancer Institute, the leaves and stem of Graviola showed active cytotoxicity against cancer cells and researchers have been following up on this research ever since. Much of the research on Graviola focuses on a novel set of phytochemicals called annonaceous acetogenins. The potent antitumor, pesticidal and/or insect antifeedant properties of these annonaceous acetogenins have been reported and patented. Graviola produces these natural compounds in leaf, bark and twig tissues, and they have be

documented to possess both highly anti-tumor and pesticidal properties. Active compounds from Graviola and other Annona plants have been submitted to the NIH anti-AIDS screen by Purdue University and their work is continuing with a number of other active plant species in the Annona plant family. Thus far, Purdue and/or it's staff have filed at least 9 U.S. and/or international patents on their work around the antitumorous and insecticidal properties and uses of these acetogenins. Three separate research groups have isolated novel compounds in the seeds and leaves of Graviola which have demonstrated significant antitumorous, anticancerous and selective toxicity against various types of cancer cells, publishing 8 clinical studies on their findings. One study demonstrated that an acetogenin in Graviola was selectively cytotoxic to colon adenocarcinoma cells in which it was 10,000 times the potency of adriamycin (a chemotherapy drug). Cancer research is ongoing on Graviola, and four new studies have been published in 1998 which further narrow down the specific phytochemicals which are demonstrating the strongest anticancerous and antiviral properties. In the June issue of Cancer Letters, Purdue researchers reported that the Annonaceous acetogenin, bullatacin, preferentially killed multi-drug resistant cancer cells because it blocked production of adenosine triphosphate, ATP, the chief energy-carrying compound in the body. In 1997, Purdue University published information with promising news that several of the Annonaceous acetogenins are not only are effective in killing tumors that have proven resistant to anti-cancer agents, but also seem to have a special affinity for such resistant cells. Cancer cells that survive chemotherapy may develop resistance to the agent originally used against them as well as to other, even unrelated, drugs. The term multi-drug resistance (MDR) has been applied to this phenomenon. Cancer research will obviously be ongoing on these important plants and plant chemicals as several pharmaceutical companies continue to research, test and attempt to synthesize these chemicals into new chemo-theraputic drugs. Graviola is safe enough that it protects healthy cells instead of killing them, doesn't cause extreme nausea or hair loss and this treatment doesn't make cancer patients drop huge amounts of weight, get weak, or compromise their immune systems. Herbal Secrets of the Rainforest, "Tropical Plant Database," Ms. Leslie Taylor, Prima Publishing, September, 1998.

GOTU KOLA LEAVES (CENTELLA ASIATICA) Code: BHSN-BTH-006 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $10.00 GOTU KOLA COMMON NAMES: Asiatic pennywort, Indian pennywort


PARTS USED: Leaves Gotu Kola, a member of the parsley family, has been used for thousands of years in both Ayurvedic and Chinese medicines. It is native to the warmer regions of both hemispheres, especially abundant in the swampy areas of India and Sri Lanka, parts of Africa, and in other tropical regions of the New World. Gotu Kola has no known toxicity. It is a rich source of vitamin K, and also contains magnesium, calcium and other nutritional properties. Gotu Kola is commonly known as "The Arthritis Herb" where the fresh leaves are used to treat arthritic conditions and has become extremely popular. Frequent reports of its efficacy have prompted the Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre to start a research project to investigate the popular use of Pennywort (Centella asiatica) for the treatment of arthritis. Gotu Kola has a calming effect on the body and is chiefly used to support the central nervous system. It helps to alleviate fatigue and reduce the effects of depression and insomnia. Today, it is primarily used as a brain and nerve strengthening tonic to help improve memory and mental and physical stamina. In clinical studies from India, this herb increased the IQ, mental ability, and behavioral habits of mentally retarded children and in other studies, it has also been shown to improve Alzheimer's symptoms. Gotu Kola can be used to increase brain function, improve concentration, learning skills and memory retention capabilities. This herb is the main plant eaten by elephants. That is why it is said that elephants never forget. In Chinese medicine, it is known as the longevity plant for its remarkable rejuvenating qualities and that it will increase the vitality of an 80 year-old person to that of a 40 year-old. Gotu Kola, a traditional blood purifier, tonic and diuretic, is commonly used for diseases of the skin, blood and to relieve symptoms related to colds and respiratory problems including congestion, fevers and sore throats. Gotu Kola has a positive effect on circulation, improving the flow of blood throughout the body and strengthening the veins and capillaries. It may also be used to support the heart by lowering high blood pressure, promote healthy liver and kidney functions, and to relieve symptoms of neuritis and rheumatism. Antibiotic properties found in Gotu Kola support the immune system and are especially beneficial in treating a variety of skin problems. Gotu Kola contains asiaticoside-an antibiotic-which is used in the Far East to treat leprosy, syphilis, psoriasis, cervicitis, vaginitis and blisters. The tannin in Gotu Kola may potentiate the antibiotic activity of Echinacea. The tannin in tea, made from the herb, may be inactivated by the addition of milk or cream. The primary active constituents of Gotu Kola are saponins (also called triterpenoids), which include asiaticoside, madecassoside and madasiatic acid. These saponins may prevent excessive scar formation by inhibiting the production of collagen (the material that makes up connective tissue) at the wound site. These constituents are also associated with the promotion of wound healing. Clinical trial have shown that Gotu Kola can improve healing of infected burns and wounds, help

those with chronic venous insufficiency and prevent and treat enlarged scars (keloids). Note: Gotu kola should not be taken if you are pregnant, breast-feeding or taking certain medications.

NEEM LEAVES (AZADIRACHTA INDICA) POWDER Code: BHSN-BTH-007 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $9.00

AZADIRACHTA INDICA In Swahili, the Neem tree is known by the name "Mwarobaini", which mean forty trees because it supposedly makes medicine to treat 40 different diseases. Among the treatments are an infusion from the leaf and fruit to treat eczema. An extract from the wood relieves asthma symptoms. The leaf extract is used to treat fever and the powdered root bark is applied to a toothache. The oil from the seed is applied to treat wounds, sores and cuts. Neem leaves have been prescribed to aid the digestive system, to decrease levels of glucose in the blood of diabetics and to stimulate the liver. Neem-based insecticides have been shown to be effective against over 200 different types of insects including head lice, fleas, locusts and mosquitoes. Constituents in Neem: Its main chemical broadside is a mixture of 3 or 4 related compounds, and it backs these up with 20 or so others that are minor but nonetheless active in one way or another. In the main, these compounds belong to a general class of natural products called "triterpenes"; more specifically, "limonoids." Uses of Neem: AIDS: Neem contains immune modulating polysaccharide compounds which may be responsible for increasing antibody production. Other elements of neem may stimulate immune function by enhancing cellular mediated response. This dual action can help the body ward off the frequent infections that generally accompany AIDS. Arthritis: The phenolic compounds containing catechin (which possess anti-inflammatory properties) may produce the anti-inflammatory effects. Studies have shown that the polysaccharides in neem reduce the inflammation and swelling that occur in arthritis. Neem helps to reduce inflammation; it also has pain suppressing properties. Birth Control: Neem has been shown to be a powerful, relatively inexpensive birth control agent for both men and women. Using neem as a vaginal contraceptive inhibits the spread of micro26

organisms including Candida albicans, C. Tropicalis, Niesseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex-2 and HIV-1, as well as resistant strains of E. coli/I and Staphylococcus aureus, in part by boosting immune-system activity in the vagina. Cancer: It has been found that polysaccharides and liminoids in neem bark, leaves and seed oil reduced tumors and cancers and were effective against lymphocytic leukemia. Neems success has been noticeably remarkable with skin cancers. A number of reports have been made by patients that their skin cancers have disappeared after several months of using a neem-based cream on a daily basis. Injections of neem extract around various tumors have shown sizable reduction in a few weeks time. Neem leaf extract significantly alters cancer development at extra hepatic sites by influencing hepatic biotransformation enzymes and antioxidants. Dental Care: Neem twigs contain antiseptic ingredients necessary for dental hygiene. Neem powder is also used to brush teeth and massage gums. Neem extracts prevent tooth decay and periodontal disease. Diabetes: As a tonic and a revitalizer, it works effectively in the treatment of diabetes. Heart Disease: Major causes of a heart attack include blood clots, high cholesterol, arrhythmic heart action and high blood pressure. Its leaf extracts reduces clotting, lowered blood pressure and bad cholesterol, slowed rapid or abnormally high heartbeat and inhibited irregular heart rhythms. Some compounds may produce effects similar to mild sedatives, which reduce anxiety and other emotional or physical states that may prompt a heart attack. The antihistamine effects of the nimbidin in its leaves cause blood vessels to dilate. This may be why the leaves help reduce blood pressure. Malaria: Both water and alcohol based neem leaf extracts have been shown to block the development of the gamete in an infected person. Neem leaf extract greatly increases the state of oxidation in red blood cells, which prevents normal development of the malaria virus. Rheumatism: Neem leaves have anti-inflammatory activity, similar to that in drugs such as phenyl butazone and cortisone. They can relieve pain and reduce acute pain edema. Stress: The explanation of neems anti-anxiety effect may be its ability to increase the amount of serotonin in the brain. Because it works well in small amounts, it could be safer than drugs currently used for stress, which may cause many side effects. Gastro-intestinal Problems: Neem is considered a useful therapy for ulcers and gastric discomfort. Compounds in neem have been proven to have anti-ulcerative effects. Peptic ulcers and duodenal ulcers are treated well with neem leaf extracts; and provides significant reductions in acid output and gastric fluid activity.

Vitiligo: Vitiligo is believed to be an autoimmune disorder that causes patches of skin to lose their color. It occurs in about five percent of the human population regardless of race, but most commonly in dark-skinned people. The two most common treatments are exposure to sunlight (or PUVA) or corticoster old drugs, but these are not always effective. Other studies showed that the internal use of neem leaves and bark were effective even without the cream. It may be possible that neem oil applied to the affected areas could aid in the reversal of discoloration. Chagas Disease: Extracts of neem reportedly affect the kissing bugs that transmit the much-feared Chagas' disease. They do not kill the insect; instead they "immunize" it against parasites that live inside it for part of their life cycle. Feeding neem to bugs not only eliminates the parasites, but prevents the young from molting and the adults from reproducing. Neem leaf or seed extracts may also be sprayed throughout the home where the kissing bug lives; this eliminates the parasites and prevents the bugs from laying eggs. Skin Diseases: Neem has been highly successfully against harmful fungi, parasites, and viruses. Although it can destroy these, it does not kill off beneficial intestinal flora nor produce adverse side effects. Neem is toxic to several fungi that attack humans, including the causes of athletes foot and ringworm and candida, which cause yeast infections and thrush. Fungicides: Neem has proved effective against certain fungi that infect the human body. Such fungi are an increasing problem and have been difficult to control by synthetic fungicides. For example, in one laboratory study, neem preparations showed toxicity to cultures of 14 common fungi, including members of the following genera: Trichophyton - an "athlete's foot" fungus that infects hair, skin, and nails; Epidermophyton- a "ringworm" that invades both skin and nails of the feet; Microsporum- a ringworm that invades hair, skin, and (rarely) nails; Trichosporon- a fungus of the intestinal tract; Geotrichum- a yeastlike fungus that causes infections of the bronchi, lungs, and mucous membranes; and Candida - a yeastlike fungus that is part of the normal mucous flora but can get out of control, leading to lesions in mouth (thrush), vagina, skin, hands, and lungs. Antibacterials: Neem oil suppresses several species of pathogenic bacteria, including: Staphylococcus aureus - a common source of food poisoning and many pus-forming disorders (for example, boils and abscesses), this bacterium also causes secondary infections in peritonitis, cystitis, and meningitis. Many strains are now resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics, one reason for the widespread occurrence of staphylococcal infections in hospitals. Salmonella typhosa. This much-feared bacterium, which lives in food and water, causes typhoid, food poisoning, and a variety of infections that include blood poisoning and intestinal inflammation. Current antibiotics are of only uncertain help in treating it. However, neem has

many limitations as an antibiotic. Neem showed no antibacterial activity against certain strains of the above bacteria, and none against Citrobacter, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus morgasi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas, and Streptococcus faecalis. Viral Diseases: In India, neem is also used to treat viral diseases such as small-pox, chicken-pox. Immunity Booster: Led by "Killer T" cells, the cell-mediated immune system is the body's first defense against infection. Killer T-cells are able to destroy microbes, viruses and cancer cells by injecting toxic chemicals into the invaders. Neem also boosts the body's macrophage response, which stimulates the lymphocytic system, and boosts production of white blood cells. Insecticide: Neem products are unique in that (at least for most insects) they are not outright killers. Instead, they alter an insect's behavior or life processes in ways that can be extremely subtle. Eventually, however, the insect can no longer feed or breed or metamorphose, and can cause no further damage. Antiseptic: The seeds and leaves contain compounds with demonstrated antiseptic, antiviral, and antifungal activity. Neem has anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, and anti-ulcer effects. Neem leaves contain an ingredient that disrupts the fungi that produce aflatoxin on moldy peanuts, corn, and other foods-it leaves the fungi alive, but switches off their ability to produce aflatoxin, the most powerful carcinogen known. References: 1. 2. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1998 Nov; 36(11): 1151-3 3. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2002 Feb; 79 (2): 273-8 4. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 1997 Jun; 37(6): 485-91 5. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1997 Jan; 55(2): 133-9 6. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 1992 Oct; 14(7): 1187-93


WILD AFRICAN BASIL (OMUJAAJA) OCIMUM SPP. Code: BHSN-BTH-009 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $6.00

WILD AFRICAN BASIL Apart from being a general tonic and vitalizer, basil has since ages been employed in hundreds of different formulations for the treatment of a range of ailments. In Africa, Omajaaja has been traditionally used to treat disorders of the mouth and throat, lungs, heart, blood, liver, kidney and the digestive, metabolic, immune, reproductive and nervous systems. It has been frequently used to treat coughs, colds, flu, catarrh, head and earaches, rheumatism and arthritis, malaria, fever, allergies and various skin diseases. It is used in reducing the toxicity of various poisons, including insect and reptile bites, to expel intestinal parasites, repel insects and purify the air. Modern research on this wonder herb has revealed many of its less known qualities. Basil protects against and reduces stress; enhance stamina and endurance. It helps increase the body's efficient use of oxygen; boost the immune system; reduces inflammation; stems rapid ageing, supports the heart, lungs and liver; has antibiotic, antiviral, and antifungal properties and enhances the efficacy of many other therapeutic treatments. Recent results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Ocimum sanctum as a radioprotector protects against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It also provides a rich supply of antioxidants and other nutrients. Recent research in its utilisation for diabetes, has demonstrated its ability to lower blood sugar and to regulate thyroid functions. In addition, it has been found that basil is a premier adaptogen, helping the body and mind adapt and cope with a wide range of physical, emotional, chemical and infectious stresses and trauma. It helps restore disturbed physiological and psychological functions to a normal healthy state. It is used spiritually to ward off evil spirits. As an essential oil, Omujaaja, has antimicrobial qualities. Wild African Basil from East Africa contains very high levels of eugenol. Eugenol is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils, such as clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon and bay leaf, which have demonstrated variable abilities against tested bacteria. Although the oil of basil was effective on all microbes tested, the highest antimicrobial activity was observed on Gram positive bacteria as opposed to Gram negative bacteria. This essential oil inhibited the growth of S. aureus and gram negative bacteria belonging to E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus and Pseudomonas. Its ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria in foods provides a reason for its ancient use in the culinary arts. Some of the Compounds in Ocimum spp.

Caffeic acid -- Leaf


1,8-Cineole -- plant p-Coumaric acid -- Leaf p-Cymene -- plant Limonene -- plant Linalool -- plant Methylchaviol -- plant Methyl cinnamate -- plant Myrcene -- leaf alpha-Pinene -- plant 2 B-Pinene -- plant Quercetin Rutin -- leaf Safrole -- plant alpha-Terpinene Trytophan -- leaf

MORINGA LEAVES (POWDER) (MORINGA OLEIFERA Code: BHSN-BTH-010 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $9.00

MORINGA STENOPETALA, MORINGA OLEIFERA Family Moringaceae Common names Cabbage tree, African moringa tree (En). Moringa thiopien (Fr). Modern scientific research is proving that Moringa leaves are one of the richest sources of essential nutrients often lacking in people's diets. Moringa leaves, gram for gram, have seven times the Vitamin C found in oranges, four times the Vitamin A of carrots, three times the Iron of spinach, four times as much Calcium as milk and three times the potassium of bananas plus eight essential Amino Acids. The seeds are used in east Africa to clarify and purify water. Modern science has also demonstrated its use in removing heavy metals, such as lead, from the water. Moringa leaves can be useful in combating malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers. A source of food largely related to its high concentrations of nitrogen, an element that

helps build muscle tissue and promote protein synthesis. Moringa also has antibiotic properties. Helps to strengthen the immune system and can act to prevent illness. India's ancient tradition has it that the leaves of Moringa prevent 300 diseases.The leaf composition has significant quantities of vitamins B, iron, iodine and protein. 25 grams daily of Moringa Leaf Powder will give a child the following recommended daily allowances: protein 42%, calcium 125%, magnesium 61%, potassium 41%, iron 71%, vitamin A 272%, and vitamin C 22%. Studies show that HIV patients given moringa leaf powder every day enjoyed greater appetites and weight gain. Adulterations and substitutes Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala have many characteristics in common. Use as a vegetable and water purifier are similar. They share several medicinal uses and both have high contents of oil in the seeds. Moringa oleifera has a faster development and yields fruits and seeds quickly. Moringa stenopetala is better suited to a drier climate; yields of seeds are higher and they have a higher coagulant content. Ethanol extracts of leaves and roots have shown promise in control of Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani in in-vitro experiments. The leaf extract causes increased uterine smooth muscle contractions in mice and guinea pigs. The medicinal use of leaves to expel a retained placenta may be related to these increased contractions. A crude seed extract strongly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp. and Candida albicans. The hypoglycaemic effect of an aqueous extract of Moringa stenopetala leaves was confirmed in nondiabetic rabbits. In in-vivo experiments the extract and glibenclamide were compared. The plant extract was found to lower blood glucose concentration although it was less potent than glibenclamide. The effect was observed to increase with time and with increasing dose of the extract. The Turkana people of northern Kenya make an infusion of the leaves, which is used as a remedy against leprosy. The Njemp people in Kenya chew the bark as a treatment against coughs, and use it to make fortifying soups. In the Konso area of Ethiopia the smoke of burning roots is used as a treatment for epilepsy and the leaves of certain Moringa stenopetala trees are renowned for their effectiveness against diarrhoea. In the Negelle and Wolayeta Sodo areas (Ethiopia) the leaves and roots are used as a cure for malaria, stomach problems and diabetes. The leaves are also used to treat hypertension, retained placenta, asthma, colds, as an anthelmintic, to induce vomiting and to promote wound healing. Moringa oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.


LANTANA CAMARA C/S, POWDER Code: BHSN-BTH-012 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $6.00

LANTANA CAMARA Linn. is a large evergreen strong-smelling herb, native of tropical America, All the parts of this plant have been used traditionally for several ailments throughout the world. Lantana camara is a significant weed of which there are some 650 varieties in over 60 countries or island groups. This species has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders. It has been cultivated for over 300 years. It is found in many African countries including some arid regions and is widespread in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. There has been much work conducted, especially in India, on the chemical constituents of lantana; extracts from the leaves exhibit antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. The use of lantana extracts as potential biocides has been suggested. For example, aqueous leachate at 1 to 3 percent can kill water hyacinth, a troublesome weed in many tropical countries. Lantana oil is sometimes used for the treatment of skin itches, as an antiseptic for wounds and externally for leprosy and scabies. Plant extracts are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancers, chicken pox, measles, whooping cough, asthma, emphysema, pulmonary tuberculosis, ulcers, swellings, eczema, tumors, high blood pressure, bilious fevers, catarrhal infections, tetanus, rheumatism, malaria, high blood pressure, diabetes, stomach problems, heartburn, dyspepsia, laxative, brucellosis, internal parasites, diffuse pain and as a restorative tonic (alternative). The leaves are used to relieve cough and as a antitumoral, antibacterial and antihypertensive agent. The root of this plant is used for the treatment of malaria, rheumatism and skin rashes. Several tri-terpenoids, napthaquinones, flavonoids, alkaloids and glycosides isolated from this plant are known to exert diverse biological activities including cytotoxic and anticancer properties. The results obtained studies show that the extract of the leaf of Lantana camara is cytotoxic in nature and may possess antitumor activity. The cytotoxic activity may be due to the presence of toxic lantanoids and alkaloids from this plant.



EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS Vernacular names Blue gum, Tasmanian blue gum, southern blue gum, fever tree (En). Gommier bleu, arbre fivre (Fr). Gomeiro azul, eucalipto comum (Po). Mkaratusi (Sw). Origin and geographic distribution Eucalyptus globulus is naturally distributed in Tasmania and south-eastern Australia, but is now widely planted and naturalized in subtropical regions around the world. In tropical Africa it is found in cool highland regions, especially in Ethiopia, where it was introduced around 1890.. The Australian Aborigines used the leaves as a remedy for fevers. Eucalyptus is very prevalent in Uganda. In African traditional medicine, an infusion or decoction of the leaves is taken, or applied externally in baths, lotions or enemas, against asthma, bronchitis, tonsillitis, colds, urinary problems and haemorrhages. The vapour of boiled dried leaves is inhaled against asthma, cough, flu, croup and diphtheria, or fine leaf powder is inhaled. In Sudan a decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat malaria and in Madagascar the leaves are heated and the vapour inhaled against this disease. Powdered or bruised leaves or a leaf decoction are applied on abscesses and wounds. A paste of powdered leaves is rubbed in against rheumatism. In Kenya a leaf decoction is used in a bath to treat chickenpox in children. In Ethiopia a leaf extract is gargled for treatment of meningitis. In southern Africa the leaves are used against stomach-ache. Gum resin from the plant is used against diarrhoea. Various leaf preparations are used as insect repellent, and in Kenya the fresh or dried leaves are used for controlling snails. Eucalyptus is also used for the treatment of diabetes, hypertension and cardiac diseases. In Latin America and the West Indies, a tea of the leaves is used for asthma, bronchitis and diabetes. A refreshing bath of the tea is good for pains, colds and chest congestion. The leaves can be simmered in an open pot and the vapors inhaled for sinus, hay fever, colds and chest congestion. The tea is also used as an antiseptic dressing for wounds, sores and open ulcers. The dried leaves strewn around the house will keep away insects and deodorize and purify the air. Simmering in a pot has the same effect. The fresh leaves can be chewed to strengthen teeth and harden the gums. Leaf extracts have shown antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects. Water extracts of the leaf have shown antihyperglycaemic and molluscicidal activities. Ether extracts of the leaf showed anthelmintic activity against Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostoma spp. A decoction of the leaves had in-vivo diuretic activity in rats. An ethanol extract of the leaf and a decoction of the seed have shown in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in mice and rats. Euglobals from the leaf have shown anti-inflammatory effects, inhibitory effects on the activation of Epstein-Barr virus and anti-tumour activity. Powdered leaves and leaf extracts provide protection against the pulse storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus. The leaves contain tannins (ellagitannin, gallotannin and catechin derivatives) and flavonoids (flavone glycosides with the aglycones quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and rutin).Eucalyptus globulus is recorded to have allelopathic effects on undergrowth and crops near the tree.
Vaughan, G., 2008. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. [Internet] Record from Protabase. Louppe, D., OtengAmoako, A.A. & Brink, M. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources vgtales de lAfrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands


SPANISH NEEDLE (BIDENS PILOSA) Code: BHSN-BTH-014 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $7.00

BIDENS PILOSA Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) Vernacular names Black jack, cobblers pegs, hairy beggarticks, Spanish needles (En). Kichoma mguu, kichoma nguo (Sw). Origin and geographic distribution Bidens pilosa is a cosmopolitan weed, originating from South America and common in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world. In Africa Bidens pilosa is recorded as a weed in many countries. It is reported as a vegetable or potherb among others in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cte d Ivoire, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, DR Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. It is considered one of the most noxious annual weeds in East Africa. It often becomes dominant after the eradication of perennial grasses, and displays allelopathic effects on a number of crops. Uses: In sub-Saharan Africa, the fresh or dried tender shoots and young leaves are used as a leaf vegetable especially in times of food scarcity. It is an ingredient of sauces accompanying the staple food. The leaves are, fresh or after parboiling, dried in the sun and stored as powder for the dry season. In Uganda, the leaves are boiled in sour milk. Old leaves are not suitable for consumption because they have a bitter astringent taste. Bidens pilosa is used as a medicinal plant in many regions of Africa, Asia and tropical America. Roots, leaves and seed have been reported to possess antibacterial, antidysenteric, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antimalarial, diuretic, hepato-protective and hypotensive activities. In Uganda, five different medicinal uses are known: the sap from crushed leaves is used to speed up clotting of blood in fresh wounds; a leaf decoction is used for treating headache; sap from the plant is put in the ear to treat ear infection; a decoction of leaf powder is used to treat kidney problems; and a herbal tea made from the plant decreases flatulence. Extracts of Bidens pilosa are used in southern Africa to cure malaria. The Manyika people in the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe retain the first water used for cooking Bidens pilosa foliage for later use as a medicinal drink to cure stomach and mouth ulcers, diarrhoea, headaches and hangover. The Zulu in South Africa use a suspension of powdered leaves as an enema for abdominal trouble, whereas in Congo a concoction made from the whole plant is taken as a poison antidote, or to ease child delivery and to relieve the pain from hernia. In South Africa, strong decoctions of the leaf taken in large doses have been reported to be helpful in treating arthritis. In Cte dIvoire, the plant is

used for treating jaundice and dysentery. The plant sap is applied to burns in Tanzania. In Nigeria, the powder or ash from the seed is used as a local anaesthetic and rubbed into cuts. The Giriama tribe from the coastal areas of Kenya use a leaf extract to treat swollen spleens in children. This tribe also uses a mixture of the dried and ground leaves of Bidens pilosa, soap and hot pepper as an insecticide for the control of leaf miners and other insects. The traditional application of Bidens pilosa in local medicine, especially for its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties, will remain of importance, the more so as the plants are readily available. The immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and especially antimalarial properties deserve further attention. Spanish needles are been used in traditional medicine systems for infections of all kinds: from such upper respiratory tract infections as colds and flu to urinary tract infections and venereal diseases-and even infected wounds on the skin. Research has begun to confirm these uses in several in vitro microbial studies. In 1991, scientists in Egypt first documented Bidens pilosa antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. Other in vitro studies have demonstrated its antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria including Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus, Neisseria gonorrhea, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. Extracts of the leaf also have been documented to have antimycobacterial activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmatis. A water extract of the leaf has shown significant anti-yeast activity towards Candida albicans. Much of Spanish needles antimicrobial actions have been attributed to a group of chemicals called polyacetylenes, which includes a chemical called phenylheptatriyne. Phenylheptatriyne has shown strong in vitro activity against numerous human and animal viruses, bacteria, fungi, and molds in very small amounts. In the tropics, Bidens pilosa is also used for snakebite and malaria; research has confirmed these uses as well. Several studies have confirmed the plant's antimalarial activity; it reduced malaria in animals by 43-66 %, and in vitro by 90%. With regard to its status as a traditional snakebite remedy, one research group confirmed that a Spanish needles extract could protect mice from lethal injections of neurotoxic snake venom. Other research has focused on Bidens pilosa's anticancerous characteristics. Early research, in various in vitro assay systems designed to predict antitumor activity, indicated positive results in the early 1990s. Spanish needles first was reported to have antileukemic actions in 1995. Then researchers from Taiwan reported (in 2001) that a simple hot-water extract of Spanish needles could inhibit the growth of five strains of human and mouse leukemia at less than 200 mcg per ml in vitro. In Nanyuki, Kenya, Bidens pilosa is collected for the extraction of natural dyes. Among the Efe of the DR Congo the root is washed and dried, then used as a painting brush. Livestock browses on the plants and in South Africa Bidens pilosa has been used as a fodder for pigs. However, dairy cattle are discouraged from browsing on it because the aromatic oil present in the plant has an objectionable smell that can taint milk. Chicken feed on the seed. In Uganda and in Mexico, the leaves are used as an invigorating or stimulant substitute for tea; while in the Philippines the flowers are used in the preparation of a kind of wine. The flowers are a good source of nectar for honeybees.
Mvere, B., 2004. Bidens pilosa L. Record from Protabase. Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources vgtales de lAfrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. Tropical Plant Database, Dbase File for Bidens Pilosa L., "The Healing Power of Herbs", 36

Rainforest Nutrition

WARBURGIA UGANDENSIS BARK Code: BHSN-BTH-015 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $12.00

WARBURGIA UDANDENSIS From stomach ache to epilepsy to erectile dysfunction to skin diseases and malaria, this tree, the Greenheart, known scientifically as warburgia ugandensis has been proven by laboratory tests to be a wonder drug of sorts - not just for humans but livestock, too. The tree grows all over East Africa. Warburgia ugandensis is a spreading evergreen tree 4.5-30 m tall, 70 cm in diameter, bark smooth or scaly, pale green or brown, native to East, Central and Southern Africa. The fruit is edible and all parts have a hot peppery taste. The leaves and seeds are sometimes used to add flavour to curries. Traditionally, the dried bark is commonly chewed and the juice swallowed as a remedy for stomachache, constipation, toothache, cough, fever, muscle pains, weak joints and general body pains. It is also effective in powdered form for treating the same diseases. Fresh roots are boiled and mixed with soup for the prevention of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disorders. The inner bark is reddish, bitter and peppery and has a variety of applications. It provides treatment for the common cold, tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema and other respiratory diseases. In East Africa, warburgia is used to treat malaria, visceral leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and helminthiasis. Measles is one of the major killer diseases of children in Uganda. There is currently no treatment for this primarily viral disease. Intervention treatment is usually directed at controlling secondary bacterial infections using antibacterial compounds. In Uganda, plants may represent a potential source of antibacterial drugs since extracts from some plants have been used in treatment of measles. The stem bark of Warburgia ugandensis is incorporated in milk or soup of both healthy and sick children to prevent or to heal measles. Warburgia ugandensis is known to have potent antifeedant and antifungal activity. This tree is the most valuable of the natural African antimicrobials and the bark and leaves have been used to treat yeast, fungal, bacterial and protozoal infections for centuries. In recent studies, W. ugandensis water extracts elicited antibacterial activity against both

Escherischia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Warburgia ugandensis water extracts also shows antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The claimed efficacy of W. ugandensis can be attributable to antibacterial and antifungal activity of its components. The dried bark is traditionally used as a remedy for muscle pains, weak joints, general body pains, stomach-ache, and toothache. The dried and ground bark is used as a snuff to clear sinuses and smoke from the burning bark is inhaled as a remedy for chest complaints and as a ritual for spirit possession.
Antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Warburgia ugandensis, Ugandan medicinal plants Olila, D., Olwa-Odyek, and Opuda-Asibo,J

PRUNUS AFRICANUS BARK POWDER Code: BHSN-BTH-016 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $10.00 PRUNUS AFRICANA Synonyms: Pygeum africanum Parts Used: Dried bark of the trunk of Prunus Africana Common Names: African plum tree, African prune, armaatet, bitteramandel, chati, inkhokhokho, iyangazoma-elimnyama, kiburabura, lemalan migambo, mueri, muiru, murugutu, muutimailu, mweria, mwiritsa, nuwehout, ol-koijuk, oromoti, red stinkwood, rooistinhout, tenduet, tendwet, twendet, umdumizulu, umkakase, umkhakhazi, umlalume. Traditional Uses: Aphrodisiac, bladder sphincter disorders, fever, impotence, inflammation, kidney disease, malaria, male baldness, partial bladder outlet obstruction, prostate cancer, prostatic adenoma, prostatitis, psychosis, sexual performance, stomach upset, urinary tract health. Geographical Distribution: Found in mountain forests of equatorial Africa including Angola, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Republic of Congo, South Africa, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Description: An evergreen tree, usually 10-25 m high, with straight, cylinder trunk and dense, rounded crown. Flowers are small, fragrant and white or cream in color. Fruits are cherryshaped, red to purplish-brown. The wood is very hard and heavy, pale red with strong cyanide smell when freshly cut, darkening to rich dark red or mahogany-brown on exposure to air. Dried bark is red to blackish-brown and has a strong odor, characteristic almond smell. Pygeum extracts have been used for more than 30 years in France, Germany, and Austria for patients suffering with prostate enlargement. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate that occurs in most men over 60, can lead to urinary frequency and nocturia (waking up at night to go to the bathroom). Frequent interruption of sleep

leads to daytime tiredness. The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs for the treatment of BPH has been growing steadily. Major Chemical Constituents: Active constituents include docosanol and B-sitosterol. Other major constituents include alkanols, fatty acids (62.3% comprising myristic, palmitic, linoleic, oleic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids), sterols, and triterpenes. The presence of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin has been documented in the bark, leaf and fruit of this species. Medical Uses: Treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (enlargement of the prostate), stages I and II (nocturia, polyuria and urinary retention), in cases where diagnosis of prostate cancer is negative. Bark preparations are used by the Zulu people to treat intercostal pains and elsewhere in Africa as a purgative and a remedy for stomach pains. In Europe, bark extracts are used in the treatment of BPH. Clinical data support its use for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms of Stage 1 and 2 BPH (nocturia, polyuria and urinary. Pharmacology: Research studies have demonstrated that African prune stimulates the secretory activity of the prostate, has anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic tendencies and inhibits cell proliferation. Standardised bark extract (lipid/sterol fraction) has been in clinical use in Europe since 1969. There have been numerous studies aimed at establishing both efficacy and precise mode of action. The beneficial effects noted in patients suffering from BPH following treatment with standardised bark extract include significant reduction in frequency of urination and residual urine volume and an increase in voided volume and flow rate, as compared with placebo. A reduction in edema and inflammation as well as diminished histamine-induced vessel permeability has been demonstrated. These effects have been attributed to the presence of phytosterols (anti-inflammatory, anti-estrogen), pentacyclic triterpenes (anti-edema, immunostimulant ) and ferulic acid esters (hypocholesterolaemic). Dosage forms: In traditional practice, bark infusions are taken orally. In Europe, the lipid/sterol fraction, usually obtained by extraction of the bark with chloroform or dichloromethane, is taken orally. Tadenan is one such preparation. For the treatment of BPH, 100-200mg of standardised extract/day in divided doses. Contraindications: Preparations of this species are contraindicated in cases of known allergy to members of Rosaceae, as well as during pregnancy, lactation and in children under the age of 12 years because of effects on androgen and oestrogen metabolism. Lipophilic bark extracts appear to be well tolerated in humans. A few cases of minor and transient gastrointestinal side effects e.g. diarrhoea, nausea and gastric pain have been reported and single cases of constipation, dizziness and visual disturbance. Precautions: A diagnosis of BPH is preferable before commencing treatment with standardised bark extract. Currently available evidence does not suggest carcinogenesis, mutagenesis or impairment of fertility associated with the use of Prunus africana.



BRIDELIA MICRANTHA Katazamiti, native to sub-Saharan Africa,is a semi-deciduous to deciduous tree up to 20 m tall with a dense rounded crown and tall, bare stem. All parts of the plant are used in traditional medicine. Bark infusions of B. micrantha are taken by the Zulu as emetics, the East Africans to treat stomach ache, tapeworm infestations, diarrhoea and as tonics for children and in Zimbabwe to treat infants coughs. In South Africa, the stem bark of the plant is used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal ailments, paralysis, and painful joints. Bridelia micrantha as it is formerly called, is traditionally used in the treatment of stomach ailments and diseases such as gastritis, salmonellosis, gastro-enteritis, diarrhea and constipation, tapeworms and as a emetic for poisons (causes vomiting). Studies have demonstrated antibacterial, antimalarial and antidiarrhoeic activity for B. micrantha. Properties: It is also used as a treatment for skin problems such as ulcers, boils, and rashes; for respiratory problems such as persistent cough, TB, pneumonia, bronchitis and pleurisy; as an analgesic (pain reliever); as an antimalarial; for toothache and gum diseases; for gynaecological complaints, for painful menstruation and to prevent or cause abortion; and as a stimulate and restorative tonic (alterative) for fortifying pregnant woman, for sickle cell anemia, HIV/Aids and anemia in general. Preliminary research on medical properties of Katazamiti has shown this herb to be beneficial in treating HIV/AIDS as it cures diarrhea and stomach discomfort, which are common illnesses in AIDS and contributes to the well-being of the patient. It has also been shown to be a possible principle inhibitor to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Scientific studies have shown that extracts of the whole stem demonstrated antimicrobial activity by inhibiting the growth of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Campylobacter jejuni/coli. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common chronic bacterial pathogens of humans. It colonizes the gastric epithelial surface and withstands the stomachs hostile environment by microaerophilic growth capacity and the production of numerous virulence factors which may lead to chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration and gastric cancer in later life. Infections in the developing countries have been reported to be higher than in developed countries. In Africa, 70 to 80% are infected with the organism and 61 to 100% harbour the organism in sub-Saharan

Africa. Studies on B. micrantha demonstate that this herb performed better than antibiotics, clarithromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin, in treating H. pylori infections. It also contains the sterol, taraxerol (a phytochemical found in dandelions and seaweed to name a few), which is used in producing anti-cancer drugs. Taraxerol-3B-acetate improves tolerance of exercise, removes fatigue and is an anti-aging, anti-tumour, hepatoprotective, an antineoplastic agent and an immune stimulate. Katazamiti is also used in treating psychological problems such as neurosis and psychosis.
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae) Benjamin I. Okeleye, Pascal O. Bessong and Roland N. Ndip; Molecules 2011, 16, 6193-6205; doi:10.3390/molecules16086193

SPILANTHES MAURITIANA Code: BHSN-BTH-018 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $8.00 SPILANTHES MAURITIANA Family: Asteraceae Compositae Other Names: Baajvok-olaw, salamatwe (Luo, Kenya), ekum (Masai, Kenya, Tanzania), mtango (Shambaa, Tanzania), mutata (Kamba, Kenya), nyakanyaka (acholi, Ouganda), shiranda (Kipkarren). Synonyms: Acmella oleracea Uses Genus Spilanthes is a plant of choice for many health-related disorders. Its traditional uses have been proved pharmacologically. The active ingredient spilanthol is proposed to be responsible for most of its biological activities. There are many other alkamides and secondary compounds reported from the plant. Originating in Africa and the South American tropics, the flowers and leaves of Spilanthes spp., also called the toothache herb, have been used in traditional medicine for toothache, stomatitis, throat complaints and in dental and gum care. It is one of major ingredients in popular herbal tooth powders and paste. The flowers or leaves are chewed or used in the form of a tincture for toothache, as an astringent, and to stimulate flow of saliva (sialagogue). In case of degenerative gum disease, Spilanthes mouthwash regimen (Spilanthes extract in a glass of clean water, as a swish after tooth brushing for several months) stimulated blood circulation in the oral mucosa. Rapid flushing of all the tooth and gum interstices by the freely flowing saliva

helps to cure the disease. The Spilanthes flower uses in modern times still reflects its use during the ancient times. It is still a notable treatment for toothache owing to the analgesic effect of spilanthol. Aside from toothaches, it can treat gum disease and throat infections; it is also used as an oral antiseptic. Traditionally, the whole Spilanthes plant is used in the treatment of dysentery. In Cameroon, the plant is used as a snakebite remedy and in the treatment of articular rheumatism. It is supposed to be useful in cases of tuberculosis. In Germany, the plant extract is used for the treatment of soreness or bruising. The herb enhances the immune system. It is used against blood parasites, especially against malaria, both prophylactic and curative. In the tropics, where malaria is prevalent, the Spilanthes flower has been known to also treat this debilitating disease. In the Northern parts of Brazil and Central America, this flower is added to vegetables during cooking. It adds flavor to stews and salads. It is combined with garlic and different types of chillies for flavor. In India, it was used as an additive in tobacco for flavor. In-vitro studies of the roots and flowers have shown strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. Also Candida albicans is inhibited. Spilanthes flowers are also a treatment for fungus and ringworm infestation. An infusion of the flowers of Spilanthes has potent diuretic activity and the ability to dissolve urinary calculi. It is antifungal, antiviral and immunostimulating, shows antimicrobial and antiobesity activities. A crude powder of the leaves used as an insecticide has proven effective against e.g. Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). Spilanthol, an antiseptic alkaloid, is effective at very low concentrations against blood parasites. It is a poison for most invertebrates, but is said to be harmless to warm-blooded animals. There have been studies in the use of extracts of the Spilanthes flower as a treatment to decrease facial lines and facial wrinkles. There is a promising effect for relaxing facial muscles to decrease visible wrinkles in the face and to diminish ageing lines and age spots. Many are eager to know if the Spilanthes flower extract can ultimately be a replacement for expensive Botox treatments but results regarding this study have yet to be announced. Spilanthes flowers may be used fresh; it can be chewed for the treatment of toothache and can also be eaten with other leafy greens or added to cooking as well. Spilanthes flowers were taken as tea or extracts added in water to get its full therapeutic effect.


PLANTAIN LEAVES, WHOLE PLANT, (PLANTAGO MAJOR) Code: BHSN-BTH-019 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $7.00 PLANTAIN (Plantago major) Family: Plantaginaceae Common Names: Common plantain, broadleaf plaintain, white mans foot Plantain (Plantago major) , also known as broadleaf plantain and Englishman's Foot, is a perennial weed, commonly found in waste places, lawns, meadows, and along fields and hedges throughout North America, Europe and Africa. This herb is believed to be native to Europe and Asia, but it now grows wild all over the world. It is one of the most widely used herbs in Latin America and Europe, where it is used as a treatment for cancer. The juice extracted from the leaves is used as an eyewash for those suffering from ophthlamia and conjunctivitis. A tea of the roots, leaves and flowers with the stalks can be taken reduce fevers, to induce menstruation and to relieve stomach pains. Plantago major was used traditionally to prevent uterine bleeding after childbirth (made into a tea and inserted via a douche). The herb has a long history of use as an alternative medicine dating back to ancient times. The young leaves are used raw in salad or cooked as a pot herb and are very rich in vitamin B1, riboflavin, chlorophyll and potassium. Plantain contains fiber, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, zinc and copper, as well as vitamins A, C and K. It is also a rich source of numerous phytochemicals, including allantoin, glycosides, phenols, salicylic acid and tannins. The International College of Herbal Medicine states that plantain leaf has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic and immune-stimulating properties. The leaves and the seed are medicinally used as an antibacterial, antidote for poison, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antitussive, cardiac, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic, laxative, ophthalmic, poultice, refrigerant, and vermifuge. Medical evidence exists to confirm uses as an alternative medicine for asthma, emphysema, bladder problems, bronchitis, fever, hypertension, rheumatism and blood sugar control. A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of a wide range of complaints including diarrhoea, dysentery, gastritis, peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, external haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, cystitis, bronchitis, catarrh, sinusitis, coughs, asthma and hay fever. It also causes a natural aversion to tobacco and is currently being used in stop smoking preparations. Extracts of the plant have antibacterial activity. Folk medicine attributes expectorant, antiinflammatory, and analgesic properties to plantain, and clinical trials with humans support these claims. The herb has been proven effective in the treatment and control of obesity, a use popular in some parts of the world, but rarely seen in America. Plantain has an appetite-satiating effect and

reduces intestinal absorption of liquids. Related anti-cholesterol and appetite suppressant effects have also been experimentally verified. Anti-tumor effects have been demonstrated in animals. Plantain leaf has a rich history of oral and topical medicinal use, particularly for the treatment of skin ailments, and it is sold today as a supplement for a variety of health promoting purposes. Plantain acts as a diuretic, helping to rid the body of excess water. A tea of the entire plant can be used for bladder and kidney problems, stomach ulcers, hay fever and allergies and to stop internal bleeding. It also promotes digestive health by helping to ease indigestion and heartburn and treat diarrhea and dysentery. Plantain leaf also soothes the lungs and promotes respiratory health and is used to treat coughs and bronchitis. Additional purported uses for plantain leaf include enhancing circulation, stimulating the uterus, treating cystitis and hay fever and reducing total cholesterol levels. Plantain leaves have antiseptic properties and can be used topically to promote the healing of damaged skin, reduce skin inflammation, stop bleeding, reduce pain and prevent secondary infections of wounds. The fresh leaves are used to dress wounds, dog and insect bites to stop bleeding and prevent infections. Plantain can also be applied as a poultice to help soothe bee stings, burns, rashes and hemorrhoids; and to relieve itching from insect bites. A poultice of the fresh leaves cures herpes, syphilitic sores and parasitic skin diseases. In addition, extracts of it can be used as a mouthwash to reduce gum inflammation and gum disease and to treat mouth ulcers. Held in the mouth, it heals ulcers, strengthens the gums, relieve throat irritations, coughs and nosebleeds. The fresh leaves are also good for teething babies. The Indians carried this herb around as a first aid measure. In China plantain has a very ancient reputation as a curing herb. It used for general debility, spermatorrhea, loss of sexual potency and to promote fertility and strengthen the reproductive organs. The tea in Jamaica is used to prevent miscarriage, stop diarrhea and the internal bleeding and to remedy dysentery. Plantain plant appears to be completely safe and nontoxic.
1. Basic Herbs for Health and Healing; Rashan Abdul Hakim, 1989. 2. The Health Benefits of the Plantain Leaf; Megan Ashton; April 29, 2011;

CASSIA ALATA / SENNA LEAVES (OMUCHULA) POWDER, C/S Code: BHSN-BTH-021 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $12.00 CASSIA ALATA L. Common Names: Ringworm bush, Omuchula

Origin and geographic distribution Cassia alata L. or senna is a shrub, 2-3m high, widely distributed in the tropical countries. It is native to South America, but has been planted widely for medicinal and ornamental purposes and is now pantropical. In many countries, including most countries of tropical Africa, it has become naturalized and is often considered a weed. It is is known as ringworm shrub, winged Senna, candle tree or ringworm Cassia, owing to its traditional use of the juice from fresh leaves or as leaf decoction against ringworm, eczema, pruritis, itching, scabies, ulcers and others skin diseases. Cassia alata leaves are used in Africa for the same properties. The flowers are used in bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory ailments. Other uses of Cassia alata are as an antihelminthic, antibacterial, laxative, diuretic, for uterine disorders. In Africa, cassia is also used for digestive complaints such diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, gastritis and heartburn. Other investigations revealed that water extract from Cassia alata leaves contained potential antifungal agents against C. albicans and antibacterial agents against E. coli, for the treatment of opportunistic infections in patients afflicted with (AIDS). These results were comparable to commercial antifungal drug amphotericin B and antibiotic chlorampenicol. The leaf extracts also exhibit various pharmacological properties: antimicrobial, anti-fungal activities as well as anti-inflammatory effects. The therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata leaf extract against Pityriasis versicoloriias been reported and finally the anti-aging effect of Cassia alata was demonstrated allowing the use of extracts of Cassia alata in cosmetic and/or dermatological skin care products. Uses: The main medicinal uses of Senna alata are as a laxative or purgative and in the treatment of skin problems. For laxative purposes usually a decoction of the leaves is drunk, and less often the flowers, roots or the stem are used. Skin problems treated with Senna alata include ringworm, favus and other mycoses, impetigo, syphilis sores, psoriasis, herpes, chronic lichen planus, scabies, shingles, eczema, rash and itching. Skin problems are most often treated by applying leaf sap or by rubbing fresh leaves on the skin. In veterinary medicine too, a range of skin problems in livestock is treated with leaf decoctions. Such decoctions are also used against external parasites such as mites and ticks. Other ailments treated in tropical Africa with Senna alata include stomach pain during pregnancy, dysentery, hemorrhoids, blood in the urine (schistosomiasis, gonorrhoea), convulsions, heart failure, edema, jaundice, headache, hernia, one-sided weakness or paralysis. A strong decoction made of dried leaves is used as an abortifacient. In India leaf decoctions are used as an expectorant in bronchitis and dyspnea, as an astringent, a mouthwash and a wash in cases of eczema. Decoctions of the wood are used to treat liver problems (jaundice), urticaria, rhinitis, and loss of appetite caused by gastro-intestinal problems. The seeds are a source of gum. The young pods are eaten as a vegetable, but only in small quantities. Toasted leaves are sometimes used as a coffee substitute. Senna alata can become a weed in pastures; it is not eaten by livestock and is reported to be poisonous, especially for goats.

The bark is used as fish poison and for tanning leather. The roots and the bark are reported to be used for tattooing. Senna alata is widely appreciated as a garden ornamental and bee forage. From the leaves of Senna alata a number of anthraquinone derivatives have been isolated. Crude leaf extracts have shown antibacterial activity against a range of bacteria. Antifungal properties and antitumour activity have been confirmed by tests. The bark of Senna alata contains tannins. The petals contain anthraquinones, glycosides, steroids, tannins and volatile oil. Extracts of the petals have bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria but not against gram-negative bacteria. Bosch, C.H., 2007. Senna alata (L.) Roxb. [Internet] Record from Protabase. Schmelzer, G.H. &
Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources vgtales de lAfrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.

BLACK SEED Code: BHSN-BTH-022 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $9.00

Nigella sativa Official name:Nigella sativa L. Family: Ranunculaceae Traditionally, Black Seed has been used for a variety of conditions and treatments related to respiratory health, stomach and intestinal complaints, kidney and liver function, circulatory and immune system support, as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antioxidants, anticancer, antiviral and for general well-being and to improve general health. Its can be topically used for eczema, psoriasis, arthritis, inflammation, and scalp massage. It has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries, both as a herb and pressed into oil, in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. It is believed that the nigella plant has been commercially cultivated for more than 3,000 years. The plant is mentioned in the bible, in which the seeds were used as an ingredient in bread. N. sativa seeds have been found in several sites from ancient Egypt, including Tutankhamun's tomb. Although its exact role in Egyptian culture is unknown, it is known that items entombed with a pharaoh were carefully selected to assist him in the afterlife. Images on temple walls show that Egyptian queen Nefertiti anointed her skin with the oil to promote beauty. A bottle of it has been found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. In more recent history, the Prophet Muhammad is said to have claimed that derivatives from the seeds would cure everything except death, and Pliny the Elder is recorded as having treated snake bites and scorpion stings with a poultice that included the seeds. Today, black seed oil is known by many

names, which indicates its wide use throughout the world. Black Seed is a excellent herb with many benefits, especially when it comes to maintaining a strong and healthy immune system. It is also very useful to individuals suffering from asthma and respiratory complaints, weakened or over-stimulated immune system, kidney or liver problems, digestive and stomach problems, arthritis and circulatory complaints, allergies and hay fever, and acne. Black Seed is a safe and excellent herb that can be used by anyone. It has no known side effects and has a long history of use for several thousand years. Nigella and melatin are two ingredients in Black Seed that contribute greatly to its highly diversified powers. These substances work together to provide the digestive benefits that have been revered in Black Seed. They also promote cleansing and assist with overall eliminating action. Two of the most volatile oils found in Black seed are nigellone and thymoquinone which were first discovered in the herb in 1985. Nigellone offers both anti-spasmodic and bronchodilating properties which contribute to Black Seed's potency against respiratory ailments. It also acts as an antihistamine which helps to reduce the negative symptoms of allergy sufferers. Thymoquinone contains excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. It is also a strong antioxidant and helps cleanse the body of toxins. Both nigellone and thymoquinone work in conjunction with one another to enhance Black Seed's action against respiratory ailments. It also provides a healthy alternative to the more commonly prescribed cortisone based therapies used by allergy sufferers.In one study on 600 allergic patients, 70% were completely cured of their allergies. The symptoms of allergy apparently included hay fever and asthma, skin disorders such as rashes, dandruff or inflammations, fatigue, bowel disturbances or lowered sex drive. Black seed provides a rich supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These ingredients play a key role in daily health and wellness. They help to regulate the metabolism, carry toxins to the skin's surface for elimination, balance insulin levels, regulate cholesterol, improve body circulation, and promote healthy liver function. A deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to a wide number of health problems including nervous system disorders, uninhibited growths, and skin diseases. Black seed contains over 100 valuable nutrients. It is comprised of approximately 21% protein, 38% carbohydrates, and 35% plant fats and oils. The active ingredients of black seed are nigellone, thymoquinone, and fixed oils. Black seed also contains significant proportions of protein, carbohydrates and essential fatty acids. Other ingredients include linoleic acid, oleic acid, calcium, potassium, iron, zinc, magnesium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C. Its linoleic acid and gamma linolenic acid content help form Prostaglandin E1, which helps the body to inhibit infections, balances the immune system, and regulates allergic reactions. Gamma-linolenic acid also helps stabilize the cell membrane. The seeds contain a number of ingredients that are beneficial to the body, including essential oils, alkaloids, proteins and saponin. Pharmacological and toxicological tests indicate that the seeds contain anti-inflammatory, antipyretic (anti-fever), analgesic, antimicrobial and antineoplastic (anti-malignancy) qualities. Testing on mice has shown that the seeds can increase respiration and lower blood pressure. Mice and rats who have been given the oil also show increased resistance to cancer.
Domestication of plants in the Old World (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. 2000. p. 206. 47

GUAVA LEAVES (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA), C/S, POWDER Code: BHSN-BTH-023 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $10.00 PSIDIUM GUAJAVA (Guava) P. guajava is a member of the Myrtaceae family, which contains at least 133 genera and more than 3,800 plant species. Guava is an important food crop and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical countries. In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. Guava leaf in African folk medicine has many uses, including diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, cough, painful menstruation, and hypertension. It is also used to treat acne, painful menses, tooth decay, gum infection and sore throat, as a disinfectant for wounds and as an antiseptic. Guava bark is used medically as an astringent and to treat diarrhea in children, while the flowers have been used to treat bronchitis, eye sores and to cool the body. The fruit is used as a tonic and laxative, and for the treatment of bleeding gums. Guava is used in Africa and Asia to prevent and treat scurvy. Ethno-medicinal reports document use of the plant in treating malaria. The results of the experimental animal studies also show the leaf aqueous extract of guava leaves possess hypoglycemic and hypotensive properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested traditional uses of the plant in the management or control of adultonset, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in some rural African communities. Guava leaf is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis (dysentry) and child diarrhea. Some of the traditional uses of guava leaves and bark have been scientifically appraised by experts. Scientific investigations on the medicinal properties of guava leaf products date back to the 1940s. Most scientific evidence examined the clinical efficacy of guava in treating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Other investigations examined anti-amebic, antibiotic, antidiarrheic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-mutagenic, anti-acne, antispasmodic, and sedative effects, as well as anti cough and narcotic-like activities of the plant species. Most phytochemical analyses investigated the properties of guava leaf products, revealing more than 20 isolated compounds, including alkaloids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, essential oils, fatty acids, lectins, phenols, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, and vitamin C (80 mg per 100 g of guava). The main active constituent in the plant is quercetin. Spasmolytic and anti-diarrheal effects are associated with its quercetin-derived flavonoid glycosides, which supports the use of this ancient leaf remedy in treating GI disorders. Essential oil extracts of the plant demonstrated an ability to kill diarrhoea-causing germs like S. aureus and Salmonella spp. and was found to be comparable to tea tree oil, as well as doxycycline and clindamycin antibiotics, thus supporting

the use of guava leaf extracts and essential oils where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. P. guajava may be useful in treating infantile rotaviral enteritis. Because they have a high content of Vitamin A, B, C and potassium, they keep the skin glowing, fresh and wrinkle free. They also help in tightening skin that has lost its elasticity. Among the vitamins and minerals present in the guava fruits are vitamin C, beta carotene, folate, vitamin A, vitamin K, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus. A high amount of lycopene which is a carotene and an antioxidant, is present in the pink guava giving it the pinkish or reddish color and several health benefits. It is helpful for people who are trying to lose weight. Various researches have proved that guava prevents cancer (kills cancer cells) and heart diseases. It also prevents age-related diseases like cataracts, Alzheimers and rheumatoid arthritis. 1. Guava, nature's solution for painful 2. menses, diarrhoea, pimples

PAPAYA LEAF C/S POWDER - 8 OUNCES Code: BHSN-BTH-024 Weight: 8.00 Price: $10.00

PAPAYA Family: Caricaceae A native of Central America, it was introduced into E. Africa in the 16th or 17th century and is now naturalized in some places. Papaya fruit is a rich source of nutrients such as provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C, B vitamins, dietary minerals and dietary fibre. Papaya skin, pulp and seeds also contain a variety of phytochemicals, including polyphenols. The unripe fruit is used traditionally among the Yoruba tribe of Nigeria for the treatment of various human and veterinary diseases including malaria, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia, jaundice, intestinal helminthiasis and for the management of sickle cell anaemia. Also, among the Yoruba herbalists, hot infusion of the seeds of the unripe, mature fruits of

Carica papaya is employed in the local treatment of poison related renal and hepatic disorders. In some parts of the world, papaya leaves are made into tea as a treatment for malaria. Antimalarial and anti-plasmodial activity has been noted in some preparations of the plant, but the mechanism is not understood and no treatment method based on these results has been scientifically proven. Foremost among papaya's health-promoting agents is papain, papaya's signature enzyme, which is found in both the fruit and the leaves. Both green papaya fruit and the tree's latex are rich in papain, a protease used for tenderizing meat and other proteins. It is now included as a component in powdered meat tenderizers. Papain is also applied topically (in countries where it grows) for the treatment of cuts, rashes, stings and burns. Papain ointment is commonly made from fermented papaya flesh, and is applied as a gel-like paste. Carpaine, an alkaloid present in papaya, can be used as a heart depressant, amoebicide and diuretic. Women in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other countries have long used green papaya as a folk remedy for contraception and abortion. Enslaved women in the West Indies were noted for consuming papaya to prevent pregnancies and thus preventing their children from being born into slavery. Preliminary medical research in animals has confirmed the potential contraceptive and abortifacient capability of papaya, have documented papaya's dramatic anticancer effect against a broad range of lab-grown tumors, including cancers of the cervix, breast, liver, lung and pancreas. The researchers used an extract made from dried papaya leaves, and the anticancer effects were stronger when cells received larger doses of the tea. The papaya extract did not have any toxic effects on normal cells, avoiding a common and devastating consequence of many cancer therapy regimens. Recent research also shows that C. papaya unripe fruit and dried leaves have been indicated in sickle cell anemia management. Scientists have reported that extracts of the unripe fruit and the dried leaves have definite anti-sickling property. Sources: Analyses of antisickling potency of Carica papaya dried leaf extract and fractions; Ngozi Awa Imaga* and Olusegun A. Adepoju; Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy Vol. 2(7) pp. 97-102, November, 2010 Wikipedia CHINESE LANTERN (TUNTUNU) (DICHROSTACHYS CINEREA) Code: BHSN-BTH-025 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $8.00


DICHROSTACHYS CINERA is commonly called "dundu" among the Hausa speaking people of northern Nigeria and "Kora" among the Yoruba speaking people of Western Nigeria. In Uganda, the plant is known as "tuntunu". The branches and twigs have long, straight spines; the flowers resemble Chinese lanterns and the tightly coiled pods are very distinctive. Bark is light brown to grey-brown with shallow grooves. All parts of the plant are essential in traditional medicine. Ntuntunu is used in many regions in Africa in the treatment of bronchitis, catarrh, colds, cough, pneumonia, tuberculosis and other lung diseases as well as for venereal, bladder and kidney diseases, as a diuretic, as an analgesic and for infertility. Traditional uses also include treatment for snake bite, abortion, gastrointestinal problems, painful menstruation, in healing boils and cysts, eye problems and teeth and mouth hygiene. The bark is used to treat dysentery, toothaches and elephantiasis. The leaves are a laxative and used to treat gonorrhoea and boils. It is also a remedy for stomach problems and can remove poison from snakebites. It is used as an aphrodisiac and as an astringent for scorpion bites. In Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, a decoction of the roots, leaves and stems are used in the treatment of epilepsy and other nervous diseases. In Angola, it is used in the treatment of neuralgia and neuritis and in Congo, it is used for polio. A recent research study, carried out to evaluate the antibacterial properties of tannins isolated from D. cinerea, reported antibacterial activity against Staph. aureus, Sh. boydii and Sh. flexneri, E. coli and P. aeruginosa.

KIGELIA AFRICANA (STEMS, BARKS & ROOTS) Code: BHSN-BTH-026 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $9.00

Kigelia Africana Saugage Tree, Cucumber Tree Kigelia africana occurs throughout tropical Africa, particularly in the drier regions and is widely used throughout Africa for a variety of purposes, particularly in local medicine, and more recently in commercial applications to treat various skin complaints. The diversity of complaints against which the plant is used includes fainting, anaemia, sickle-cell anaemia, epilepsy, respiratory ailments, hepatic and cardiac disorders, and nutritional illnesses

such as kwashiorkor, rickets, wasting and weakness. The leaves are sometimes used to prepare a general tonic for improved health and growth. The roots, bark, leaves, stems, twigs and fruits are used to treat digestive disorders. Administration is typically by oral ingestion or as an enema. The roots, bark and ripe or unripe fruits are taken as a laxative or emetic, to treat chronic and acute digestive disorders and against gastric infections. Infections of the genito-urinary tract, particularly venereal diseases, are treated both internally and externally with preparations of the roots, bark, leaves, stems and twigs. A commercial product containing Kigelia africana stem bark is used to treat Candida albicans infections. Sexual complaints such as infertility, poor libido, sexual asthenia and impotence are treated with medicines containing the fruits, roots or leaves. Commercially manufactured products are used for symptomatic relief or cure of skin conditions including, among others, sunburn, chafing, psoriasis, itchy scalp and nappy rash. A broadspectrum antimicrobial cream, reputedly effective against a number of common microbial infections, is produced from the stem bark. Powders and infusions of the bark, leaves, stems, twigs or fruits are used to clean and dress flesh wounds and open sores. Many dressings, topical treatments and infusions containing Kigelia africana are also used for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The bark, stems, twigs, leaves and fruits are infused and taken orally, or applied locally, to relieve rheumatism, sprains, haematoma and bruising; a decoction of the fruit and bark is used to relieve toothache and headache. Extracts of the bark, wood, roots and fruits possess antibacterial and antifungal properties. These extracts exhibit significant inhibitory effects in vitro against common Gram-negative and Grampositive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans. Of the naphthoquinones isolated in fruit and root extracts, kigelinone has shown notable antimicrobial activity. Kigelia africana is renowned for anti-cancer properties. Fruit and bark extracts have shown moderate efficacy against melanotic cell lines and dried fruit elicited lower cytotoxic responses than those of fresh fruit, indicating that the active principles may be thermolabile. The naphthoquinones lapachol and isopinnatal in some. Naphthoquinones and sterols isolated in root extracts suggest anti-cancer potential, although invitro activity is not confirmed. From Prota

VINCA ROSA (PERIWINKLE) Code: BHSN-BTH-027 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $6.00

CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (Vinca rosa) originates from Madagascar and has more than 400 known alkaloids. Some are used by the pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of childhood

leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, testicular cancer and cancerous tumors. Taken as a daily supplement, it improves the blood supply to the brain, increases oxygen and glucose, helps prevent abnormal blood coagulation. Extracts of Vinca rosa have significant anticancer activity against numerous cell types. A decoction of all parts of Vinca rosa is well known as an oral hypoglycemic agent. The decoction is also taken to treat malaria, dengue fever, diarrhea, diabetes, and cancer and skin diseases. Extracts prepared from the leaves have been applied as antiseptic agents for the healing of wounds, against hemorrhage and skin rash and as a mouthwash to treat toothache. The aerial parts are also considered diaphoretic and diuretic and decoctions are taken to relieve indigestion, dyspepsia, dysentery, toothache and as an emetic, purgative, vermifuge and depurative. In Uganda, an infusion of the leaves is taken to treat stomach ulcers. The aerial parts of the plant are also used for the extraction of the medicinal alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine. The alkaloids are prescribed in anticancer therapy. The dried root is an industrial source of ajmalicine, which increases the blood flow in the brain and peripheral parts of the body. It is used to treat the psychological and behavioral problems of senility, sensory problems (dizziness, tinnitus) cranial traumas and their neurological complications. Extract made from the seeds of Vinca major, is known as vinpocetine, is showing effectiveness in treating vascular diseases and brain-centered ailments. From studies on the effects of vinpocetine on short-term memory that the Vinca major extract does measurably improve subjects' short-term memory and substantiates the conclusion that vinpocetine has a positive benefit on short-term memory. Vinca major extract facilitates increased blood flow to the brain thus enhancing oxygen infusion in the brain tissue, enhances the brain's performance. The extract also stimulates the blood to release more oxygen to the brain cells. More oxygen benefits brain activity and enhances the vascular benefit in treating some forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's.

VERNONIA AMYGDALINA (MULULUZA) Code: BHSN-BTH-028 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $9.00

VERNONIA AMYGDALINA Mululuza, in Luganda, is a small shrub that is called bitter leaf in Africa due to its bitter taste. The macerated leaves of the plant are used in making soup while the water extract serves as a tonic drink for the prevention of certain illnesses.

The leaves have found relevance in traditional medicine as anti-helmint, a laxative herb, treatment of eczemafor its anti-mutagenic activity and as an anti-malarial as the herb is also known as a quinine substitute. Vernonia amygdalina (also call Labwori in Luo language) has also been reported for its use by wild chimpanzees for the treatment of parasitic diseases in Tanzania. The leaves are used in the treatment of diabetes because of its ability to lower blood sugar levels. Studies have shown that the aqueous extract also significantly reduced triglyceride levels and normalized cholesterol concentrations. This shows that the aqueous extract of V. amygdalina leaves have both hypolipidaemic and antioxidant properties. The possible hypocholesterolaemic potential and antioxidant property of V. amygdalina were investigated for its possible use for prophylaxis and treatment of atherosclerosis commonly found in diabetic diseases. The anticancer activity of organic extracts of V. amygdalina was first reported for human carcinoma cells of the nasopharynx 34 years ago and recent research studies have elicited antitumor activities in leukemia cells. In addition, it has been shown to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and shows promise for use as an agent to prevent or delay the onset of breast cancer and the herb's use as an alternative to Tamoxifen. By comparison, V. amygdalina is more than 17 times more potent than the most previously reported potent plant crude extracts on human breast cancerous cell growth and more than 170 times more potent than the least potent of the plant extracts previously reported by others. Furthermore, extracts from V. amygdalina have also been suggested to have inhibitory effects on prostate cancer cell lines with no effect on normal human blood cells. Nigerian Journal Of Physiological Sciences 20 (1-2): 39-42@ Physiological Society Of Nigeria, 2005


HARRISONIA ABYSSINICA of the family Simaroubaeae, is a small bush or tree native to East, Central and Southern Africa. Traditionally, H. Abyssinica is used for stomach complaints, menstrual problems and infertility. The stem bark contains a high number of sterols and ketosteroids. The root bark contains compounds called limonoids. The term limonoids was derived from limonin which are generally present in citrus fruits. Compounds belonging to this group have exhibited a range of biological activities like insecticidal, insect antifeedant and growth regulating activity on insects as well as antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, antiviral and a number of other pharmacological activities on humans. It has reported in the literature that H. abyssinica inhibits 90100% of Mycobacteria spp. such as M. avium, M. chelonae and M. intracellulare.

Throughout tropical Africa the root powder or a root decoction or infusion is taken to treat venereal diseases, fever and malaria, diarrhoea, urinary problems and intestinal worms. Less often a leaf and twig decoction is used for these purposes. In Ghana pounded and boiled root is taken to treat cough and whooping cough. In Ethiopia the Shinasha (Boro) people use a decoction of roots to treat dysmenorrhoea. In Kenya a root decoction is drunk as a remedy for dizziness, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, bubonic plague, swollen testicles and tuberculosis. It is also taken to induce abortion. The Nyamwezi people swallow the smoke from burning root bark to treat hookworm infections. The roots and bark are crushed and soaked in water and drunk to purify and strengthen the body. In Kenya and Tanzania a root decoction is drunk in the treatment of cancer. The root is also used as a rubefacient. In Uganda a root infusion is drunk to treat snakebites, hernia and is used as nose drops to treat insanity. The root powder is applied to incisions to treat migraine. In Uganda Harrisonia abyssinica is planted to protect the garden and house against bad spirits. Throughout tropical Africa crushed leaves, a leaf decoction or infusion are used as a wash to disinfect wounds and abscesses. A root decoction is used for this purpose by the Shinasha people of Ethiopia. In Togo a leaf decoction is drunk to treat diabetes. In Kenya a decoction of leaves and twigs is drunk to treat haemorrhoids. The Nyamwezi people apply the pulped leaves to snakebites. Leaf sap is drunk to treat general body pain. In Tanzania a hot leaf decoction is prepared as an inhalation to treat headache. In Uganda a root decoction is used in the treatment of livestock against east coast fever and lumpy skin disease. The methanolic and water extracts from the stem bark showed moderate antiplasmodial activity in vitro, and low toxicity in the brine shrimp toxicity test. Crude and methanolic root extracts showed significant in-vitro antibacterial activity against different strains of Helicobacter pylori. Root bark and twig extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and moderate activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteria responsible for the disease gonorrhoea., Numerous studies have shown an association between increased prevalence of HIV infection and the occurrence of opportunistic fungal infections. Among the different HIV-associated fungal infections, oral mucosal lesions caused by Candida species are by far the most frequent manifestation. Candida albicansis the most causative agent, accounts for more than 90% of cases in sub Saharan Africa, where 70% of the world cases of HIV/AIDS are found. Oral candidiasis, including oropharyngeal and oesophageal candidiasis, are very common, causing significant morbidity among patients. Reports from laboratory testing of the antifungal activities of H. abyssinica have demonstrated its use as an effective antifungal treatment for Candida albicansis. Emongor, V.E., 2008. Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes mdicinales 1.


MAYTENUS SENEGALENSIS Code: BHSN-BTH-030 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $8.00

Family: Celastraceae Synonyms: Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. Parts Used: Leaves, Roots, Stems, Bark MAYTENUS SENEGALENSIS (Lam.) Exell, called the thorny staff tree is a shrub or tree, growing in the semi desert regions of both Asia and Africa. Its roots and bark are traditionally used in the folk medicine of some African regions for the treatment of a number of ailments, including chest pains, rheumatism, snakebites, diarrhoea, eye infection, and dyspepsia (indigestion). It is also used as an antibacterial, antimicrobial and antibiotic. An extract of the roots and barks is used for severe headaches, an analgesic, for skin rashes, muscle spasms, excessive sweating, fevers, parasitic intestinal infections, as an anti-inflammatory, for arthritis and muscle pain, for nausea, vomiting and diarrhea The leaves are used for malaria, yellow fever, and tryanosomiasis. It is also used for fertility problems, venereal diseases, pneumonia, epilepsy, and as a tonic. In Luganda, it is called Naligwalimu. Following the traditional use of the plant in Sudan, Kenya or Tanzania, it was demonstrated that leaf, root and stem bark extracts of M. senegalensis possess in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antibacterial activities. Folk Medicinal Uses Roots of the related Maytenus senegalensis chipped into beer have been used in Zambia as an aphrodisiac. The roots, which are slightly bitter, are also mildly laxative and are used in various parts of tropical Africa for gastro-intestinal troubles, especially dysentery and a poultice of the green leaves has been put on sores in Tanzania. Maytenus senegalensis is a potential alternative chemotherapeutic agent of Schistosoma mansoni. The activity of the plant has been show to be directly proportional to the concentration of plant extracts. However, higher concentrations of the plant extracts should be used for a similar work, in addition to identification of the schistosomacidal compounds (active ingredients) of the plant. Screening studies on antitumor properties of the root and stem extracts revealed in vitro cytotoxic activity against carcinoma cells and in vivo antileukemia effects. Interestingly, plants of the genus Maytenus are used in South America to prepare infusions or decoctions as anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedies for oral and/or topical administration. Evidence for the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of M. senegalensis root extracts has been scientifically established. Such extracts contain maytenoic acid, which was found to be an anti56

inflammatory triterpene twice as active as the NSAID indomethacin and only three times less active than hydrocortisone. M. senegalensis roots could be employed in therapeutic preparations for the treatment of inflammatory-based diseases. The plant material can be also regarded as a source of the potent anti-inflammatory principle, maytenoic acid. Chemical Constituents The Celastraceae family is a source of important bioactive secondary metabolites. Alkaloid amines such as cathine often occur in this botanical family as also, rarely, benzylisoquinolide alkaloids. Celastraceae members are commonly tanniferous, containing anthocyanins, sometimes saponiferous, only rarely cyanogenic and without iridoid compounds. Among the compounds isolated from their species, triterpenes and triterpenoid quinonemethides are of great interest due to their wide range of biological activities. Constituents as -amyrin, lupane derivatives and quinoid pigments are considered typical of the Celastraceae family members. Compounds isolated from the Maytenus genus include the ansa macrolide, maytansine, and related macrolides such as normaytansine, maytanprine and maytanbutine. Two of the more well-known chemicals are mayteine and maytansine - alkaloids long documented (since the 1960s) with antitumor activitity and which occur in other Maytenus plants as well. Other isolated compounds include spermidine alkaloids (celacinnine and celallocinine) and nicotinoyl sesquiterpene alkaloids (maytoline and maytolidine) as well as catechin, procyanidins and phenoldienone triterpenoids. Sources: Anti-inflammatory activity of Maytenus senegalensis root extracts and of maytenoic acid, Sosa, S.; Morelli, C.F.; Tubaro, A.; Cairoli, P.; Speranza, G.; Manitto, P.; Feb 1, 2007; Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology. "Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, Two Traditional Herbal Medicines"; G da Silva, R Serrano, O Silva; iMed.UL, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-019 Lisboa, Portugal; 2011, Volume 2, Issue 1, Page 59-65, DOI: 10.4103/09769668.82320

SARSAPARILLA ROOT (SMILAX ANCEPS) Code: BHSN-BTH-033 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $12.00

Photo: Bart Wursten Ndundu Lodge, Vumba

SARSAPARILLA ROOT belongs to several families containing about 200 different herbs. Jamaica Sarsaparilla (Smilax ornata in the Liliaceae family) was introduced in the middle of the sixteenth century as a remedy for syphilis, and later came to be used for chronic rheumatism.

Sarsaparilla is very useful as a tonic, alterative (gradually improves health and endurance), diaphoretic (increases sweating) and diuretic (increases urination.) Its active principle is a crystalline body, parillin or smilacin. It is a valuable herb used in glandular balance formulas. Its stimulating properties are noted for increasing the metabolic rate. Various Smilax species are used to treat infections and inflammation--especially those affecting the skin and intestines--in many countries including India, China, Europe, the United States, Brazil, Guatemala, Saudi Arabia and Africa. All the Sarsaparillas have medicinal properties and can be used in the same way. Sarsaparilla is efficacious in proportion to its acrid taste. The properties reside chiefly in the cortex, though the bark is generally used. The name Smilax was used by the Greeks to denote a poisonous tree others derive the name from Smile, i.e. a cutting or scratching implement, in allusion to the rough prickles on the stemSimilax in China is taken in decoction for boils and abscesses, rheumatoid arthritis, urinary tract infection, enteritis, diarrhea and as an antidote to mercurial poisoning -- nearly the same indications as sarsaparilla. In many different cultures they have been used for the same conditions, namely gout, arthritis, fevers, digestive disorders, skin disease, and venereal disease (gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes), virility, infertility, menopausal problems in women, aphrodisiacs, leprosy, eczema, bruises, ulcers, boils, abscesses, urinary tract infections, and rheumatism and psoriasis. With its reputation as a blood purifier, sarsaparilla was registered as an official herb in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia as a syphilis treatment from 1820 to 1910. The effectiveness of smilax in the treatment of skin disorders, such as the acne of adolescence caused by raging androgens, has received some experimental support. Flavonoids in sarsaparilla have been documented to have immune modulation and liver protective activities. Sarsaparilla root attacks and neutralizes microbial substances in the bloodstream through its antibiotic activity. By acting as a diuretic and diaphoretic (promotes perspiration), sarsaparilla encourages excretion of toxins and waste materials and acts as an antidote for various poisons. Evidence seems to support sarsaparilla as an endotoxin binder. Endotoxins are cell wall constituents of bacteria that are absorbed from the gut. Normally, the liver filters out these and other gut-derived compounds before they reach the general circulation. If the amount of endotoxin absorbed is excessive or if the liver is not functioning adequately, the liver can become overwhelmed, and endotoxins will spill into the blood. If endotoxins are allowed to circulate, activation of the alternate complement system occurs. This system plays a critical role in aggravating inflammatory processes, and activation of complement is responsible for much of the inflammation and cell damage that occurs in many diseases, including gout, arthritis, and psoriasis. Binding of endotoxin in the gut is associated with clinical improvement in these individuals. In a controlled study of ninety-two patients, an endotoxin-binding saponin [sarsaponin] from sarsaparilla greatly improved the psoriasis in 62% of the patients and resulted in complete clearance in 18%. In further support of sarsaparilla's effects as a binder of endotoxin is its historical use in the treatment of fever, as absorbed endotoxins produce fever. From the limited information available it appears that sarsaparilla's medicinal effects as it binds bacterial endotoxins in the gut, rendering them unabsorbable. This greatly reduces stress on the liver and

other organs and is probably responsible for sarsaparilla's historical use as a tonic and blood purifier. This ability to bind endotoxins is also the probable reason why sarsaparilla is reported to be effective in many cases of psoriasis, gout, and arthritis. Heavy metallic contaminants in the blood can be extracted from the system with the judicious use of sarsaparilla. Sarsaparilla exerts strong power over fibers and tissues of the nervous system that may be particularly beneficial to those affected by toxic chemicals. Sarsaparilla has been extensively used in the food industry as a flavour component and foaming agent in root beer, frozen dairy desserts, candy and baked goods. Sarsaparilla is now also used to flavour and mask the taste of medicines.




Finger millet, Eleusine coracana L., is also known as African millet, koracan, ragi (India), wimbi (Swahili), bulo (Uganda) and telebun (the Sudan). The colour of grains may vary from white through orange-red deep brown and purple, to almost black. It is an important staple food in parts of eastern and central Africa and India and the principal cereal grain in northern and western Uganda and northeastern Zambia. The grains are malted for making beer. Finger millet can be stored for long periods without insect damage and thus it is an important commodity during famine. It is believed that Uganda or a neighbouring region is the centre of origin of E. coracana, and it was introduced to India at a very early date, probably over 3,000 years ago. Finger millet has a high fibre content and the highest calcium content among all the food grains of wheat, maize (corn), sorghum or rice. This is exceptional food for anyone suffering from calcium deficiencies such as osteoporosis. Good for women and children as a dietary substitute for milk. Millet supplies serotonin and tryptophan -- two compounds that work synergistically to uplift mood. Millet is also safe for individuals suffering from candida as it does not feed yeast. It is an excellent source of magnesium, calcium, B vitamins, phosphorus and fiber. These important nutrients reduce the risk of Type II diabetes and migraines.

SORGHUM FLOUR (SORGHUM BICOLOR) Code: BHSN-G02 Weight: 1.00 Price: $3.00

Sorghum is an ancient grain first domesticated in Africa and spread to other parts of the world around 3000 B.C. The cultivated sorghum of the present arose from a wild progenitor belonging to the subspecies verticilliflorum. Some sorghum lines, those containing a pigmented testa, are high in anti-oxidants. In addition, the wax surrounding the sorghum grain contains compounds that may have an impact on human cardiac health. Research is showing that these compounds

can lower cholesterol. In addition to these benefits, sorghum is also a gluten free food and is therefore safe for persons with celiac disease. Sorghum grows in harsh environments where other crops grow or yield poorly. They are grown with limited water resources by a multitude of small farmers in many countries, usually without the application of fertilizers or other chemical inputs. SIM-SIM (SESSAME SEEDS) Code: BHSN-G03 Weight: 1.00 Price: $3.00


Groundnuts (Peanuts) are a rich source of protein (roughly 30 grams per cup after roasting) and monounsaturated fat. Recent research on peanuts and nuts in general has found anti-oxidants and other chemicals that provide health benefits. Groundnuts are a significant source of resveratrol, a chemical studied for potential anti-aging effects. Groundnuts contain five important nutrients namely food energy, protein, phosphorous, thiamin and niacin. It maintains and repairs body tissues. It builds a resistance against all infections, such as hepatitis and tuberculosis. Groundnuts contain 13 different vitamins (including Vitamin A, B, C and E) along with 26 essential trace minerals, to include calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, manganese, selenium, zinc (which is good for protecting brain function), and boron, which helps to maintain strong bones. Ground nuts or groundnut products are useful in the treatment of hemophilia, and inherited blood diseases, which cause hemorrhage. It is also useful in nose bleeding and in cases of excessive bleeding during menstruation in women. Groundnuts are very high in dietary fiber content so they are very good for digestion. Groundnuts are also good in the management of diabetes, and HIV/ AIDS. Caution: Do not use if an allergy to peanuts exist. Good in gravies, soups and porridge.


MORINGA SEED POWDER - (MORINGA OLEIFERA) Code: BHSN-G05 Weight: 1.00 Price: $14.00

The increasing influx of heavy metals into water bodies from industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities is of global concern because of their well documented negative effects on human and ecosystem health. Scientific studies have shown that M. oleifera seed powder, a well known source of natural water clarifiers is effective is effective in heavy metal detoxification of water, with particular emphasis on lead. Major sources of lead pollution in water are lead-acid batteries, lead pipes, solders, agricultural chemicals, lead mining, lead paint and vehicle exhausts. Lead is a powerful neurotoxin and a range of pathological conditions is associated with acute lead poisoning. The water soluble Moringa seed proteins possess coagulating properties similar to those of alum and synthetic cationic polymers. Scientific studies were conducted and have confirmed the coagulating properties of Moringa seeds after observing women in the Sudan using the seeds to clarify the turbid Nile waters.



Blackherbals TRADITIONAL AFRICAN HONEY is pure, raw, unprocessed, unadulterated and filtered only to remove the debris. A natural food. Honey is composed of sugars like glucose and fructose and minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium chlorine, sulphur, iron and phosphate. It also contains vitamins B1, B2, C, B6, B5 and B3 all of which change according to the qualities of the nectar and pollen. Copper, iodine, and zinc exist in it in small quantities. Several kinds of hormones are also present in it. Approximately one half of the human diet is derived directly or indirectly from crops pollinated by bees. Honey is a natural antiseptic, accelerates skin healing and effective in the treatment of ulcers. African honey has powerful antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties and contains phytochemicals that kill bacteria, viruses and fungus.




Cayenne is the most useful of the systemic stimulants. It stimulates blood flow, strengthens and feeds the cell structure of the heart, arteries, capillaries and nerves so they will regain elasticity. A general tonic, it is also specific for both circulatory and digestive systems. It may be used in flatulent dyspepsia and colic. It is also good for the kidneys, lungs, pancreas, spleen and stomach. If there is insufficient peripheral circulation, leading to cold hands and feet and possibly chilblains, Cayenne can also be used for debility and for warding off colds. Capsicum meets the debility of young and old, but it is particularly useful in the elderly, when body-heat is low, vitality is depressed and reaction is sluggish. Tired, painful muscles, stiffened joints and relaxation of any part which are common conditions in the elderly are, in a measure, rectified by Capsicum. Red capsicum is one of the best sources for vitamins A and C. Vitamin K, B6 and maganese are also present. The amount of vitamin C present may be four to six times that found in an orange. Provitamins E, P, B1, B2 and B3 have also been identified as components. Ripe Cayenne pepper in rich in vitamin A, B, C, calcium, iron, sodium, phosphorus, potassium and protein.

WILD AFRICAN BASIL (OMUJAAJA) OCIMUM SPP. Code: BHSN-BTH-009 Weight: 1.00 Price: $6.00 In Africa, Omujaaja has been traditionally used to treat disorders of the mouth and throat, lungs, heart, blood, liver, kidney and the digestive, metabolic, immune, reproductive and nervous systems. It has been frequently used to treat coughs, colds, flu, catarrh, head and earaches, rheumatism and arthritis, malaria fever, allergies and various skin diseases. Basil protects against and reduces stress; enhances stamina and endurance. It helps to increase the body's efficient use of oxygen; boosts the immune system,; reduces inflammation; protects against radiation damage; stems rapid aging; supports the heart, lungs and liver; has antibiotic, antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal properties and enhances the efficacy of many other therapeutic treatments. It provides a rich supply of antioxidants and other nutrients. Recent research, in its utilisation for diabetes, has demonstrated its ability to lower blood sugar and to

regulate thyroid functions. In addition, it has been found that basil is a premier adaptogen, helping the body and mind adapt and cope with a wide range of physical, emotional, chemical and infectious stresses and trauma. It helps to restore disturbed physiological and psychological functions to a normal healthy state.

STAR ANISE FRUIT POWDER (ILLICIUM VERUM) Code: BHSN-SC-02 Weight: 8 Ounces Price: $10.00

Star anise, star aniseed, badiane or Chinese star anise, is a spice that closely resembles anise in flavor and is obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of Illicium verum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China. The star shaped fruits are harvested just before ripening. Star anise has been used in a tea as a remedy for rheumatism, and the seeds are sometimes chewed after meals to aid digestion. Star anise contains shikimic acid which is a primary feedstock used to create the anti-flu drug Tamiflu. It is produced by most autotrophic organisms, but star anise is the industrial source. With the spice route to Zanzibar and into Africa, the spice was introduced into the African continent prior to the 1700s and incorporated into the curries and traditional dishes of regions which are now Ethiopia and Tanzania. With the expansion of the spice route around the Cape, star anise was introduced into Europe in the 1700s. The later migrations of Chinese and Indian people into Africa resulted in the entrenchment of star anise as an important ingredient in the culinary traditions of our continent. The active ingredient of Tamiflu is oseltamivir, which is synthesized from shikimic acid. The first commercially viable developed source of this organic acid is the star anise pod. During the 2005 fears surrounding avian flu, and the cycle of Tamiflu stockpiling that ensued, star anise supplies were nearly exhausted globally resulting in a shortage of Tamiflu. Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum), a similar tree, is not edible because it is highly toxic (due to containing sikimitoxin). Instead, it is been burned as incense in Japan. Cases of illness, including "serious neurological effects, such as seizures", reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, which causes severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract and digestive organs.

CINNAMON (CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM) Code: BHSN-SC-03 Weight: 1.00 Price: $6.00


Cinnamon was used in ancient Egypt for embalming. In ancient times it was added to food to prevent spoiling. During the Bubonic Plague, sponges were soaked in cinnamon and cloves and placed in sickrooms. It was the most sought after spice during explorations of the 15th and 16th centuries. It has also been burned as incense. The smell of cinnamon is pleasant, stimulates the senses, yet calms the nerves. Its smell is reputed to attract customers to a place of business. Cinnamons unique healing abilities come from three basic types of components in the essential oils found in its bark. These oils contain active components called cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, and cinnamyl alcohol, plus a wide range of other volatile substances. Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and is one of the worlds more important spices. It is one of the oldest tonic plants in the world. Traditionally it is taken for colds, flu, and digestive problems and is still used in much the same way today. It is used as an antiseptic, astringent, aids digesting, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-nausea, anti-flatulence, antidiarrhea, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-clotting, carminative, and hypoglycemic, promotes sweating, uterine stimulant, warming stimulant, expectorant and immuno-stimulant. Cautions: Avoid if pregnant, use with care in feverish conditions, can be toxic if taken in excess, do not take the oil internally. It can help in the prevention and resolution of common flu and colds; it can also help treat catarrh and other types of infections. Fevers affecting the person can also be treated using the cinnamon which helps in reducing elevated temperatures in the body.



The Castor Oil plant (Ricinus Communis) is native to India, Africa and Central America and grows wild in most of the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It was cultivated 6000 years ago by the Egyptians, who used the oil as fuel to burn in their lamps. It was known to Herodotus, who calls it Kiki, and states that it furnishes an oil much used by the Egyptians, in whose ancient tombs, seeds of Ricinus are found. The oil has many good external uses. In China, it is used as a rub for deformed faces and joints. Warm Castor Oil is used as a rub for arthritis and rheumatism and as a bath oil, it relieves many skin problems. In Jamaica, the plant known as agnus castus is used to cure constipation and bodily pain. The oil applied to wounds will stop bleeding. Hot Castor Oil massaged into the hair will strengthen it and eliminate dandruff, lice,

fleas, and other scalp problems. Mixed with olive oil, it will blacken hair and mixed with cocoa butter, it will make it grow. The leaves can be used in a bath to reduce swelling in the joints, to relieve all bodily pains, and to increase the flow of milk in nursing mothers.

BLACKHERBALS 100% NATURAL SHEA BUTTER Code: BHSN-TO-03 Price: $10.00 Shipping Weight: 4.00 Ounces

Natural African Shea Butter has numerous uses and advantages. It is used in the treatment of dry skin: helps prevent ashy skin, chapping, chafing, rashes such as psoriasis, eczema, etc. For treatment of scars: fades away burn marks, spots on the skin, scars, old scars, stretched marks, old stretch marks and keloids. Shea butter can be used for the treatment of dark spots, blemishes and skin discolorations. It is an excellent after-shave cream for the treatment of razor bumps and rashes. It helps to firm up wrinkles and aging soft skin tissue. Rejuvenates skin cells and cleans pores and can treat normal to oily skin. Apply Shea Butter to the scalp to help prevent weak hair from breaking, fading or thinning out. Use as hair treatment and regular dressing oil. With Shea Butter on the scalp, there is absolute no room for down drops or scalp sores to develop. For pain (swelling and arthritis): if you have arthritis ache, joint pains or muscular ache, massage Shea Butter into the area. Also for muscle relaxation and stiffness due to stress. As a natural sun screen, Shea Butter blocks harmful UVB ultraviolet rays and is used in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. In Africa, it is used in cooking daily foods. Traditionally in African Religion, Shea Butter is the oil and the food of the gods of Obatala, Songo, Olokun and Orisha Orumila.

FRANKINCENSE (BOSWELLIA SPP) RESIN Code: BHSN-TO-07 Weight: 4.00 Price: $10.00

Frankincense and Aromatherapy


Frankincense is highly associated with religion and spiritual practices. In the ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Persian, Hebrew, Greek and Roman civilizations, Frankincense has played an important part in spiritual practices. One reason being that with so many people gathered in one place there were a lot of germs. Burning the Frankincense helped clear the air and protect people from sickness. Many people also believed that the smoke of the incense would carry their prayers to heaven. Frankincense is an aromatic resin. It comes from a tree called Boswellia thurifera, which is native to Northern Africa.The tree looks like a shrub and sprouts small flowers. A deep slash into the bark of the Frankincense tree is made so that the resin can ooze out. When it first comes out the resin is a milky white color. It takes several weeks to three months for the resin to fully harden. The hardened resin takes on a tear shape and turns a brownish color. This gummy resin is then harvested by scraping it off the Frankincense tree. Today, Frankincense can be burned in its hardened, gummy form; but it has gained a lot of its current popularity by being processed to oil form and used in aromatherapy. When its processed to this oil form it takes on the name essential oil. Frankincense is still used in its gummy, hardened form today. You can burn this to use as incense. With Frankincense essential oil you can burn it in an oil lamp, in a candle or add it to a pan of hot water. Burning the actual Frankincense or the oil is most often used for its stimulating and disinfecting properties. When the vapors are inhaled they will help to elevate your mind, relieve depression, slow and deepen your breathing, and fight against infection by supporting your immune system. Using essential oils for massage or skin care is also a part of aromatherapy. You get the benefit of inhaling the vapors as well as the physical benefits for your skin. Frankincense kills bacteria, which makes it great for cleansing your skin, especially for clearing up acne. It renews skin cells and restores the skin tone, which means that its helpful in the treatment of scars and wounds. Frankincense also fights against wrinkles. Because of its inflammatory properties you can also use Frankincense to soothe joint pain and arthritis. Frankincense is used is during childbirth. Because it slows and deepens breathing, its perfect to use during contractions. Many people are opting to use aroma-therapy during labor. Frankincense and myrrh were the first tree resins (sap) used by the Ancient Egyptians. They were burned to clear the air in sickrooms and during religious ceremonies to drive away evil spirits. There are four main species of Boswellia which produce true frankincense and each type of resin is available in various grades. The grades depend on the time of harvesting, and the resin is hand-sorted for quality. Frankincense: Clears the mind, spirit and lungs. Has a calming effect in stressful situations. With its warming and soothing effects on the mind and emotions it is excellent for meditation and prayer. Traditional medicine Frankincense resin is edible and often used in various traditional medicines in Asia for digestion and healthy skin. Edible frankincense must be pure for internal consumption, meaning it should be translucent, with no black or brown impurities. It is often light yellow with a (very) slight greenish tint. It is often chewed like gum, but it is stickier because it is a resin. Burning frankincense repels mosquitoes and thus helps protect people and animals from mosquito-borne illnesses, such as malaria, West Nile Virus, and Dengue Fever.

Medical research For therapy trials in ulcerative colitis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis there are only isolated reports and pilot studies from which there is not yet sufficient evidence of safety and efficacy. Similarly, the long-term effects and side effects of taking frankincense has not yet been scientifically investigated. As of May 2008 FASEB Journal announced that Johns Hopkins University and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have determined that frankincense smoke is a psychoactive drug that relieves depression and anxiety in mice. The researchers found that the chemical compound incensole acetate is responsible for the effects. In a different study, an enriched extract of "Indian Frankincense" (usually Boswellia serrata) was used in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of patients with osteoarthritis. Patients receiving the extract showed significant improvement in their arthritis in as little as seven days. The compound caused no major adverse effects and, according to the study authors, is safe for human consumption and long-term use. In a study published in March 2009 by the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center it was reported that "Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability." Sources:
















8.00 8.00 8.00

$20.00 $20.00 $20.00










































8.00 8.00 8.00

$20.00 $20.00 $20.00



























8.00 0.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00

$20.00 $12.95 $6.00 $12.00 $6.00 $6.00 $10.00 $10.00





8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00

$9.00 $6.00 $6.00 $7.00







8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00

$12.00 $10.00 $6.00 $8.00 $7.00



8.00 8.00 8.00

$10.00 $12.00 $8.00

8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00

$9.00 $12.00 $6.00 $9.00

8.00 8.00 8.00 16.00

$9.00 $8.00 $12.00 $5.00



16.00 16.00 16.00 8.00 8.00 16.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 4.00 4.00

$5.00 $5.00 $5.00 $9.00 $9.00 $15.00 $10.00 $6.00 $10.00 $10.00 $10.00

Please email us if you have any suggestions, questions or concerns. Prices Effective November 2012