International Max Planck Research School for Advanced Materials st Summer School in Stuttgart 1

Crack-Tip Plasticity and Fracture Toughness
Alexander Hartmaier

Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart

Overview

• Short phenomenology of fracture • Modeling plastic zones with discrete dislocations • Dislocation nucleation at crack tips • Identifying dominant deformation mechanisms • Theoretical description of crack-tip plasticity

Overview

• Short phenomenology of fracture • Modeling plastic zones with discrete dislocations • Dislocation nucleation at crack tips • Identifying dominant deformation mechanisms • Theoretical description of crack-tip plasticity

Mechanical testing Standard tensile tests Fracture tests tensile test with homogeneous specimen • homogeneous plasticity • necking (slip localization) • failure by tearing 3-pt-bending with pre-notched specimen • confined process zone (yielding) • stress concentration at crack tip • failure by cleavage or general yielding global behavior local behavior. sensitivity to flaws .

1999) Process zone as toughening mechanism for ceramics Needle-like microstructure in Si3N4 Crack has to do additional work on its path .Fracture and process zones • • • (Aldinger.

Fracture and process zones • • Toughening of brittle Cr by Cu inclusions Crack has to deform Cu particle and to re-nucleate afterwards (Flaig. 1994) .

Fracture and process zones (Bidlingmaier. Wanner. Köck. Clemens. 1994) .

Walkup. Duchaineau. Gao. Seager.Fracture and process zones Large-Scale molecular dynamics simulation for copper (Abraham. 2002) . Diaz De La Rubia.

Overview • Short phenomenology of fracture • Modeling plastic zones with discrete dislocations • Dislocation nucleation at crack tips • Identifying dominant deformation mechanisms • Theoretical description of crack-tip plasticity .

1986) • materials science • dislocation mobility • nucleation criterion • failure criterion • numerics of dynamical evolution dislocation population .Discrete Dislocation model • elasticity straight interaction of dislocations in infinite medium with semi-infinite crack (Lin & Thomson.

Discrete Dislocation model • elasticity straight dislocations interaction of in infinite medium with semiinfinite crack (Lin & Thomson. 1986) fdis = fcrack (ri ) + fimage (ri ) + i=j (i) finter (ri − rj ) Kb fcrack (ri ) = √ f (ϕ) 2πri µb fimage (ri ) = g(ϕ) ri µb ri − rj finter (ri − rj ) = O .

ϕi ktip > kcrit √ = 2MPa m . 1996) shielding of sharp crack tip (Lin & Thomson. 1964) fdis (rsrc ) > 0 • nucleation criterion: homogenous nucleation at fixed source position (refinements: Roberts. viscous motion (tungsten: Schadler. 1986) ktip µb =K− 1−ν • failure criterion: dislocation f i −1/2 ri .Discrete Dislocation model (i) vdis = v0 (i) fdis m(T ) τ0 b Q exp − kT α m(T ) = + β T • • materials science • dislocation mobility: thermally activated.

Discrete Dislocation model • numerics of dynamical evolution • dislocation population constant temperature T. constant loading rate K’ introduction of superdislocations to save computing time .

Riedle. Fischmeister. 1998) . Reality • • model captures qualitative dependence on temperature and loading rate correct order of magnitude for fracture toughness (!) experimental work: 3-pt-bending tests on tungsten single crystals. Hartmaier. {110}<1-10> crack system (Gumbsch.Model vs.

Overview • Short phenomenology of fracture • Modeling plastic zones with discrete dislocations • Dislocation nucleation at crack tips • Identifying dominant deformation mechanisms • Theoretical description of crack-tip plasticity .

Hirsch. Zhou. Xu. Riedle. 1998) . 1994. 1997) (Gumbsch. Gao. Argon.Dislocation nucleation • • homogeneous nucleation overestimates ductility at low temperatures dislocation nucleation in brittle materials occurs at discrete sites (Roberts. Hsia. 1991. Booth. 2001. Fischmeister. Xin. Thomson. Ortiz. Hartmaier.

Dislocation nucleation • • dislocation nucleation at jogs produces “inefficient” dislocations for shielding cross-slip mechanisms can transform jogging into blunting dislocations (Hartmaier. Takahara. Narita. 2002) . 2000. Higashida.

Dislocation nucleation .

Dislocation nucleation • • Shielding of complete crack tip only after coalescence of half loops Translation into 2D model: 1. nucleate dislocation lines at source position r 2. shielding taken into account after motion over additional (”incubation”) distance δ = δ(λ) (Roberts. 1996) .

Dislocation nucleation • • results from refined nucleation model better agreement with experiments in low temperature regime fracture toughness at low temperatures is nucleation limited .

Overview • Short phenomenology of fracture • Modeling plastic zones with discrete dislocations • Dislocation nucleation at crack tips • Identifying dominant deformation mechanisms • Theoretical description of crack-tip plasticity .

Fischmeister. 1998) . Hartmaier. Riedle.Predeformation experiments experimental work: predeformation to 5% plastic strain prior to crack initiation facilitates dislocation nucleation obstructs dislocation motion (Gumbsch.

Deformation mechanisms • • • N = 90 N = 239 N = 466 number of dislocations proportional to size of inverse pile-up also found for equilibrium dislocation configurations (Brede. Haasen. 1988) velocity of leading dislocation is rate limiting factor .

dislocation multiplication) .Deformation mechanisms • low temperatures: deformation is nucleation limited (except predeformed material) • intermediate temperatures: deformation is mobility controlled (saturation in nucleation sites) • high temperatures: transition to ductility not only due to shielding (crack-tip blunting must be taken into account.

Overview • Short phenomenology of fracture • Modeling plastic zones with discrete dislocations • Dislocation nucleation at crack tips • Identifying dominant deformation mechanisms • Theoretical description of crack-tip plasticity .

s. q only dependent on elastic constants and Burgers vector . Lin. Thomson.Force balance at crack tip Nd G = gt + j=1 gd (j) Total force on defects = force on crack tip + force on dislocations K (1 − ν) G= E 2 ktip (1 − ν) gt = E 2 Nd gd j=1 (j) =C ktip kc s Nq Identification with energy release rate (Weertman. C. 1983) Result of numerical simulations.

Force balance at crack tip Kc = 2 kc + CN q Fracture toughness is only a function of number of dislocations .

Scaling relation 1 N∝ ˙ K Kc vdis K=0 (1) dK 1. Scaling relation for points of constant fracture toughness . number of dislocations is only a function of velocity of leading dislocation 2. Arrhenius relation between loading rate and temperature for all points of constant fracture toughness −1 A Q P (Kc ) = exp − ˙ kT K T2 = ˙ k K1 1 ln + ˙ Q T1 K2 3.

Scaling relation Scaling relation is verified for simulation results (left. with constant m) and for experimental data (bottom) .

DDD paves way to predictive descriptions of crack-tip plasticity and fracture toughness.Conclusions Modeling: • • • • • Discrete Dislocation Dynamics needs phenomenological input. but in general not rate limiting Crack-tip plasticity can be described as thermally activated process with same characteristics as dislocation mobility . Fracture: Irreversible processes at stress concentrations determine toughness of a material Dislocation nucleation is necessary condition for plastic relaxation. but yields information on deformation mechanisms.

References .

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