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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
CE-05016 DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE
CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5
SPILLWAYS ENERGY DISSIPATOR RESERVOIR GRAVITY DAMS EARTH DAMS
CE 05016 DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
1. Irrigation Water Power and Water Resources Engineering (in SI Units) by Dr. K.R. Arora 2. Theory and Design of Irrigation Structures (Volume II) by R.S. Varshney, S.C. Gupta and R. Gupta
1 (b)]. In some cases. (A saddle is a depression of the shape of saddle used for riding a horse). Generally. some energy-dissipating device. .1 DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES I CHAPTER I SPILLWAYS 1. Moreover. is provided at the toe for the dissipation of excess energy. a liberal spillway capacity should be provided because they fail as soon as they are overtopped. excess water is discharged safely to the downstream channel. The maximum water level is estimated from the inflow flood hydrograph. 1. The design of a spillway requires utmost attention. At the same time. For earth and rock fill dams. The spillway surface should be erosion-resistant to withstand the high velocities created by the fall of water from the reservoir surface to the tail water. the spillway should be located so that the spillway discharge will not undermine the downstream toe of the dam. Such a spillway is called a saddle spillway.L. which may cause serious damages and even the failure of the dam. On the other hand. because as soon as the water level in the reservoir rises above a predetermined level.1(a)] or at the end of the dam near abutment.). concrete dams can withstand some moderate overtopping and may have less liberal spillway capacity. the reservoir level should not rise above the maximum water level (M. A spillway acts as a safety valve for the dam. and the dam is not damaged. which is in addition to the main spillway at the dam site. The spillway must have adequate discharge capacity to pass the maximum flood d/s without causing any damage to the dam or its appurtenant structures. a saddle spillway is designed as an auxiliary or an emergency spillway. a spillway of much larger capacity than that required would be an uneconomical design In addition to providing adequate discharge capacity. A spillway may be located either in the middle of the dam [Fig 1. the spillway is located away from the dam as an independent structure if there is a suitable saddle [Fig. Generally.W. the spillway must be hydrodynamically and structurally safe. A spillway of inadequate capacity may lead to the overtopping of the dam. Many failures of dams occurred in the past because of improperly designed spillways or by spillways of inadequate capacity. However. such as hydraulic jump or a bucket. Spillways are provided for all darns as a safety measure against Overtopping and the consequent damages and failure.1 Introduction A spillway is a structure constructed at or near the dam site to dispose of surplus water from the reservoir to the channel downstream. storage capacity of the reservoir and the spillway capacity by flood routing.
It must have adequate discharge capacity 2. indicating the reservoir storage at different reservoir elevations. It is the same as the design flood hydrograph of the spillway. The spillway discharge should not exceed the safe discharge capacity of the downstream channel to avoid its flooding. indicating the rate of inflow with respect to time. The surface of the spillway must be erosion resistant. 6.2 Fig. It should be provided with some device for the dissipation of excess energy. 4. indicating the rate of outflow through spillways at different reservoir elevations. The spillway capacity should be equal to the maximum outflow rate determined by flood routing. Reservoir-capacity curve. 1. 1. as discussed above. may he summarized as follows: 1. The spillway must be so located that the spillway discharge does not erode or undermine the downstream toe of the dam.2 Essential Requirements of a Spillway The essential requirements of a spillway. The following data are required for the flood routing: (i) (ii) Inflow flood hydrograph.3 Required Spillway Capacity The required spillway capacity is usually determined by flood routing.1 1. 5. . (iii) Outflow discharge curve. It must he hydraulically and structurally sat& 3.
3. the inflow flood is usually taken as the maximum probable flood (MPF). Possible damage If there is a possibility of extensive damage on the downstream. design cost and possible damages. Inflow flood hydrograph 2. In the former case. a smaller flood such as standard project flood (SPF) may be taken. Best combination of the Storage capacity. the maximum outflow rate and the maximum rise in water surface can be determined. Capacity of outlets 4. Available storage capacity If the available: storage capacity of the reservoir is quite large as compared to the inflow. whereas in the latter case. its location with respect to inhabited and developed area. Gates of spillway 5. Available storage capacity. a spillway of smaller capacity will normally be required. Capacity of outlets If the dam outlets can be used to discharge a portion of the flood. By operation of gates. higher heads may be created above the crest so that greater outflow rate through the spillway is achieved 5. large spillway capacity should he provided. Inflow flood hydrograph The inflow flood hydrograph should be selected according to the degree of protection that ought to be provided to the dam. 2. the water can be stored only upto the crest level. Possible damage. hydraulics of spillway. the water can be stored upto the top of the gates. whereas in the case of an ungated spillway. and consequences of its failure. the maximum water level and the maximum spillway discharge can be determined by flood routing. For a gate controlled spillway. a high dam storing a large volume of water and located upstream of a town should have a much degree of protection as compared to that in the case of a small dam storing a small volume of water and on whose downstream the area is uninhabited. and the spillway capacity For determining the best combination of the storage capacity and the spillway capacity to accommodate the selected inflow design flood. Obviously. Various combinations of the spillway capacity and the dam height (or storage capacity). Gates in Spillway If the spillway is gated. for the . the spillway capacity can be correspondingly reduced. Factors affecting the required spillway capacity. its discharge capacity can be modified. 1. 4. 3. if the capacity is exceeded. It will depend upon the type and height of the dam. After a spillway of a particular type and dimensions has been selected.3 By flood routing. 1. it is necessary to consider all pertinent factors of hydrology. The following factors affect the spillway capacity.
Control structure The control structure (also called control) is the most important component of the spillway. curved. vertical or an inclined position and may be sharp-edged. 1. Generally. Terminal structure (energy dissipator) 5. It controls the outflow from the reservoir. An experienced designer. in a shaft (or morning glory) spillway. spillway layouts. However in some cases. however. The control structure is designed such that it does not permit the outflow from the reservoir when the water level is lower than a predetermined level but permits the outflow as soon as the water level rises above that level. The weir may be sharp-crested. semi-circular or circular. U-shaped. spillway estimates and dam estimates. board-crested or ogee-shaped. It would require a number of flood routings. The combination which gives the most economical spillway type and the optimum relation of the spillway capacity to the height of the dam. Exit channel However. orifices used as control may have different shapes.4 assumed spillway types are selected and flood routing is done. the control structure is located at the upstream end of the spillway structure. the control structure is an overflow crest of a weir. . 1. However. In plan. the downstream tunnel controls the outflow at higher heads. Likewise. The entrance channel draws water from the reservoir and carries it to the control structure. In most of the spillways. will be able to select only those combinations for study which show definite advantages either in cost or in adaptability. is selected. the control structure may be at the downstream end of the spillway structure. They may be placed in a horizontal. For example. The control structure usually consists of either an orifice or a weir.4 Component Parts of a Spillway A spillway generally has the following component parts 1. Control structure 3. The process is repeated with alternative types of spillways. entrance and exit channels may not be required for some spillways. the overflow crest may be straight. Discharge channel (or waterway) 4. Entrance channel 2. Cost estimates are made for different combinations. Entrance channels are not required for spillways which draw water directly from the reservoir. The straight. Entrance channel Entrance channels are required in those types of spillways in which the control structure is away from the reservoir. Even then. round-edged or bellmounted. ogee-shaped crests are mostly commonly used in spillways. the study is never complete because many other spillway arrangements could have been considered. the process is quite tedious. 2.
a closed conduit placed through or under a dam. It is. On the other hand. the static energy is converted into the kinetic energy. or a tunnel excavated through an abutment. depending upon the type of spillway. 3. the spillway and other appurtenant structures. Main (or service) spillway 2. It is usually the downstream face of an overflow darn for the spillway constructed as an overflow spillway in the body of the dam. in the case of spillways placed through abutments. Terminal structure (energy dissipator) When the water flows from the reservoir over the spillway. However. It may also damage the dam. as explained below. Generally. gates are usually provided on the crest of the control structure. A. a ski-jump bucket. However. Thus the discharge channel conveys the water safely from the control structure to the river downstream. The discharge channel may have a variety of cross-sections. Exit channel In some types of spillways. It may cause serious scour at the downstream end. depending upon the geologic and topographic characteristics of the site and the hydraulic requirements. 1. or some other suitable energy dissipating device is provided for the dissipation of excess energy. Terminal structures (or energy dissipators) are provided at the downstream end of the discharge channel to dissipate the excess energy. This results in very high velocity of flow at the downstream end of the spillway. therefore. saddles or ridges. 4. Discharge channel (or waterway) The outflow released through the control structure is usually conveyed to the terminal structure through a discharge channel or waterway. It may be in the form of an open channel.5 In order to regulate the flow of water from the reservoir. necessary that the high energy of flow must be dissipated before the flow is returned to the river downstream. the exit channels are provided to convey the spillway discharge from the terminal structure to the river downstream. 5. a hydraulic jump basin. The conveyance structure may have different forms. Emergency spillway B. Auxiliary spillway 3. the overflowing water from the spillway may be delivered directly to the river downstream without a terminal structure. a roller bucket. Classification based on purpose 1. the exit channel is usually required. Uncontrolled (or ungated) spillway . Controlled (or gated) spillway 2.5 Classification of Spillways The spillways can be classified into different types based on the various criteria. if the stream bed consists of an erosion-resistant strong rock. Classification based on control 1. It is also called a conveyance structure. an exit channel is not required for the spillways which discharge water directly into the river downstream.
the main spillway is usually designed to pass floods which are likely to occur more frequently. Chute (or open channel or trough) spillway 4. where the site conditions are favourable. Side-channel spillway 5. in general terms. Main (or service) spillway A main (or service) spillway is the spillway designed to pass a prefixed or the design flood. As already mentioned. an auxiliary spillway is usually constructed in conjunction with a main spillway. The auxiliary spillway therefore. In such a case.1 Classification based on purpose 1. Shaft (or morning glory) spillway 6. Q = Qm (1. 2. Therefore. it is the only spillway. Siphon spillway 7. An auxiliary spillway cannot be provided alone without the main spillway. comes into operation only after the flood for which the main spillway is designed.2) The site conditions favourable for the adoption of an auxiliary spillway are as follows: (i) When there is a saddle or depression along the rim of the reservoir which leads to a natural drainage . Conduit (or tunnel) spillway 8. the auxiliary spillway comes into operation and the total flood is passed by both the spillways. The crest of the auxiliary spillway is kept higher than that of the main spillway. Auxiliary spillway In some dams. Qm is the capacity of the main spillway and Qa is the capacity of the auxiliary spillway.5.1) where Q is the design flood. When the floods exceed the designed capacity of the main spillway. the spillway means the main spillway. Cascade spillway 1. Q = Qm + Qa (1. is kept less than that required for the design flood Thus the total spillway capacity is equal to the sum of the capacities of the main and auxiliary spillways. is exceeded. Classification based on prominent feature 1. Therefore. the capacity of the main spil1way when an auxiliary spillway is also provided. In that case. Overflow or Ogee spillway 3. the capacity of the main spillway is kept less than that required for the design flood. This spillway is necessary for all dams and in most of the dams. If no auxiliary spillway is provided.6 C. Free overfall (or straight drop) spillway 2.
The emergency spillway is generally in the form of a fuse plug or a breaching section which is washed out as soon as the water level in the reservoir reaches a predetermined elevation. Thus an encroachment on the minimum free board is usually permitted for the design of an emergency spillway. It comes into operation only during an emergency which may arise at any time during the life of the dam. 3. also called fuse plug dike. but as soon as it is overtopped. An auxiliary spillway may be of any type. An auxiliary spillway operates when the flood is less than the design flood but it is more than the capacity of the main spillway. Sometimes. whereas an emergency spillway operates only when the design flood is exceeded. Some of the conditions which may lead to emergency are as follows: (i) (ii) When the actual flood exceeds the design flood. (iii) When there is a malfunctioning of spillway gates. but the emergency spillway is usually a fuse plug. The breaching section is sometimes called fuse plug spillway. (iv) When there is damage or failure of some part of the main spillway. (v) When a high flood occurs before the previous flood has been evacuated by the main spillway. it gives way and the flood water passes over it. When there is an enforced shutdown of the outlets. Because an emergency spillway is not required to function under normal reservoir operations. which is a simple earth embankment. but control gates are seldom provided on the crest of an auxiliary spillway. Thus an emergency spillway is an additional safety valve of the dam. An auxiliary spillway is designed like a main spillway. the following differences between the auxiliary and emergency spillways should be noted. Emergency spillway An emergency spillway is sometimes provided in addition to the main spillway. (i) An auxiliary spillway is designed to discharge a portion of design flood. is provided The fuse plug allows the water surface to rise above the crest of the auxiliary spillway. The emergency may arise when such conditions occur that have not been anticipated and considered in the design of the main spillway. a flashboard or any other such device is also sometimes used.7 (ii) When there is a gently-sloping abutment where an excavated channel can be carried sufficiently beyond the dam so that there is no possibility of the erosion of the dam or its appurtenant works. (ii) . Because a fuse plug is also sometimes provided as an auxiliary spillway. Instead of a fuse plug. only a fuse plug. An emergency spillway is usually provided in a saddle or a depression along the reservoir rim or by excavating a channel through an abutment or a ridge. its crest is placed at or slightly above the design maximum water level in the reservoir.
1. ‘As soon as the design flood is exceeded.R. depending upon the purpose served. as in the case of a sharp-crested weir. or it may be supported along the narrow section of the crest. as already mentioned above. Controlled (or gated) spillway A controlled spillway is one which is provided with the gates over the crest to control the outflow from the reservoir.2 (a)]. the discharge in the river downstream cannot be controlled to prevent flooding.1 Free Overfall Spillway A free overfall spillway (or a straight drop spillway) is a type of spillway in which the control structure consists of a low-height.R. a much longer spillway crest is required for an uncontrolled spillway as compared to that in a controlled spillway because the head over the crest is smaller in the former. It is always safe to provide an emergency spillway. The overflowing water may discharge as a free nappe.3. It may be noted that in a controlled spillway the water can be released from the reservoir even when the water level is below the full reservoir level. In the controlled spillway. Moreover. 1. Uncontrolled (or ungated) spillway In an uncontrolled spillway.L. However. Besides there is no problem related to the maintenance and repair of gates. to pass a certain design discharge. 1. The outflow from the reservoir can be varied by lifting the gates to different elevations. However. In addition. either an auxiliary spillway or an emergency spillway may also be provided. 1. it works as an emergency spillway. The full reservoir Level (F. the gates are not provided over the crest to control the outflow from the reservoir. Further.) is at the crest level of the spillway.5.5. . the water flowing over the crest drops as a free jet clear of the downstream face of the spillway. Thus the water can be stored up to the top level of the gates.3 Classification based on the pertinent feature There are 8 different types of spillways based on the pertinent feature.) of the reservoir is usually kept at the top level of the gates.8 (iii) An auxiliary spillway may also be designed to work as an emergency spillway when the design flood is exceeded. the useful storage in the case of uncontrolled spillway is less. in both cases. Therefore.5. Thus the main advantage of an uncontrolled spillway is that it does not require the gates and the operator and lifting power to operate the gates. the spillways for most of the dams are controlled spillways. In actual practice.L. the main spillway is always provided. 2. narrow-crested weir and the downstream face is vertical or nearly vertical so that the water falls freely more or less vertical [Fig.2 Classification based on Control 1. It works as an auxiliary spillway when the flood exceeds the capacity of the main spillway but it is less than the design flood. The water escapes automatically when the water level rises above the crest level. the full reservoir level (F.
It may cause damage to the structure. The design of a free overfall spillway is similar to that of a vertical drop weir A free overfall spillway is not suitable when the foundation is weak and yielding. The free overfall spillways are not suitable when the drops are high.Shaped (or Overflow) Spillway An ogee-shaped (or overflow) spillway is the most commonly used spillway.5. This type of spillway is also used as a separate structure for low earth dams. These are usually limited to a maximum drop of 6 m. a long flat apron would be required to contain the hydraulic jump. Fig. a hydraulic jump may form after the jet falls from the crest. which may cause cracking or displacement of the apron and even its failure by piping or undermining. 1. In all cases. Moreover. an auxiliary low dam is constructed downstream of the spillway to form a pool above the river bed [Fig.2(b)].1.2 (c)]. In order to protect the stream bed from scouring. If the stream bed does not consist of strong sound rock. It is widely used with gravity dams. an artificial pool is usually constructed by excavating a basin in the bed and then covering it with a concrete apron. A free overfall spillway is commonly used for a low arch dam whose downstream face is almost vertical. measured from the head pool (reservoir) to the tail water. Alternatively. However.2 Ogee . An ogee-shaped spillway is an improvement upon the free overfall spillway. The . which can be used for the dissipation of energy. The impact forces also cause vibrations.3. the nappe is properly ventilated to prevent pulsating and fluctuating jets. If the tail water depth is adequate. discussed in the preceding section.2 1. arch dams and buttress dams. the falling jet will scour the stream bed and form a deep plunge pool. the crest of the spillway is extended in the form of an overhanging lip for directing the discharge away from the downstream face [Fig 1.9 Sometimes. the floor blocks and an end sill may also be required for the establishment of the jump. because the apron at the stream bed is subjected to large impact forces at the point of impingement of the falling jet. Several earth and rockfill dams are also provided with this type of spillway as a separate structure.
the coefficient of discharge is reduced. the water flowing over the crest of the spillway drops vertically as a free jet clear from the downstream face whereas in the case of an ogee-shaped spillway. This may cause vibration. An ogee-shaped spillway has a control weir of ogee-shaped. The upper surface of the spillway is properly shaped to form the crest. the coefficient of discharge of the spillway is increased. However. As the spillway surface supports the sheet of flowing water which creates a backwater effect. the overflowing water tends to break contact with the spillway surface and a zone of separation is formed.3(b)]. pitting of the spillway surface and a number of other problems. in which a negative or suction pressure occurs. Fig. the water overflowing over the crest of the spillway remains in contact with the surface of the spillway and a positive hydrostatic pressure is exerted by the flowing water because the nappe tends to be depressed. which is like the elongated English letter S [Fig. 1. However. for this shape. .10 essential difference between the free overfall spillway and the ogee-shaped spillway is that in the case of a free overfall spillway. On the other hand.3 Thus ideal conditions for an ogee-shaped spillway occur when the head is equal to the design head for which the spillway has been shaped. the water flowing over the crest of the spillway always remains in contact with the surface of the spillway as it glides over it Moreover. 1. The shape of the crest of the ogee spillway is generally made to conform closely to the profile of the lower surface of nappe (sheet of water) of a ventilated jet issuing from a sharp-crested weir when the head over the highest point of nappe is equal to the design head (Fig. At the design head. The nappe-shaped profile is an ideal profile because at the design head. no negative pressure will develop on the spillway surface at the design head. it attains nearly the maximum efficiency without any determental effect.3(a)]. if the head is less than the design head. the water flowing over the crest is guided smoothly over the crest and is made to glide over the downstream face of the spillway. l. when the head is greater than the design head.
the shapes are known as the W. (2) height of the spillway above the stream bed or the bed of the entrance channel and (3) the inclination of the upstream face of the spillway.1.W E.E. 1.S. 1.S.). The U. 3:3 respectively.1.S. and K and n are constants.S.4 The values of K and n for the vertical upstream face and three different inclinations are given in Table 1. Downstream profile following general equation: The d/s profile of the spillway can be represented by the n x n = KH d −1 y (1.873 n 1.] .R.939 1. Slope of U/s face Vertical 1:3 (H:V) 2:3 (H:V) 3:3 (H:V) K 2.936 1.B.11 Shape of the crest of the overflow spillway The shape of the ogee-shaped spillway depends upon a number of factors such as (1) head over the crest. standard spillway shapes. Because the shapes were developed at U.S. Waterways Experiment Station at Vicksberg (U.000 1. Hd is the design head. 1.4 shows the profile when the upstream face is vertical. Table 1. The U.1 S.836 1. with the origin at the highest point 0 of the crest.S.850 1. data.3) where x and y are the coordinates of the point on the spillway surface. 4.S. which depend upon the inclination of the upstream face of the spillway. 3. conducted extensive experiments to obtain the profile of the overflow spillways with the upstream face either vertical or inclined at various angles.810 1.B.776 [Note The slopes are also designated on 3 on 1. Fig. 2:3. Fig.3 on 2 and 3 on 3 instead of 1:3. Army Crops of Engineers developed several standard shapes of the crests of overflow spillways on the basis of U. excluding the head due to the velocity of approach. No. 2.R.
6 .5 for different values of the inclination β.5 For intermediate slopes. where β is the angle which the upstream face makes with the vertical. Eq.1. Fig. the values of K and n may be obtained from the plot given in Fig. 1. The curved profile of the crest section is continued till it meets tangentially the straight sloping surface of the downstream face of the overflow dam (Fig. 1.3 is applicable only for the positive values of x and y. The slope of the d/s face of the overflow dam usually varies in the range of 07:l to 0. 1.12 Fig. The location of this point of tangency depends upon the slope of the downstream face of the overflow dam.8:1 At the end of the sloping surface of the spillway. called bucket. as discussed later.6). It may be noted that x is taken as positive towards the downstream and y is taken as positive in the downwards direction. which is determined from the stability requirements of the overflow section. 1. a curved circular surface. is provided to create a smooth transition of flow from the spillway surface to the river downstream of the outlet channel. The bucket is also useful for the dissipation of energy and prevention of scour. and can be used to obtain the crest shape downstream from the origin of the coordinates.
Thus R = P/4 (1.270 H d )1.724( x + 0.270 Hd. The velocity of flow V may be approximately determined from the relation. 18.104.22.168 The details of the upstream profile are shown in Fig. with usual notations. Ha is the head due to velocity of approach.1. for which the value of y is equal to 0126 Hd when the u/s face is vertical.4 H d + 4.52) (1.4315( H d ) 0.4) (1. Generally. R = (10) a where a = (V + 6.7) ( H d ) 0. y= 0. Upstream profile of the crest (a) Vertical upstream face The upstream profile of the crest should be tangential to the vertical face and should have zero slope at the crest axis to ensure that there is no discontinuity along the surface of flow.6 H d + 19.a) in which V is the velocity of flow at the toe of spillway (m/s).625 (1.6) where P is the height of spillway crest above the bed. It may be noted that the values of x are negative according to the chosen axes of coordinates. a radius of about one-fourth of the spillway height is found to be satisfactory. 2. Fig.88) /(3.5 neglects the losses over the spillway.85 + 0.5) where Z is the total fall from the upstream water level to the floor level at the d/s toe. and Hd is the design head (m).126 H d − 0. The upstream profile should conform to the following equation. y is the depth of flow at toe and g is the acceleration due to gravity. V = 2 g ( Z + H a − y) (1.4.270 H d ) 0.13 The radius R of the bucket can be approximately obtained from the relation.375 ( x + 0. The maximum absolute value of x is 0. Eq.7 .
14 The values of (y/Hd) for different values of (x/ Hd ) can be obtained from Table 1.0889 0.160 -0.0158 0.0037 0. 2:3 and 3:3.0275 0.0550 0.200 -0.080 -0.100 -0.230 -0. Fig. offset and risers can be provided on the upstream face by removing some portion of concrete.0150 0.0437 0.0701 0.0108 0.1016 0.0004 0.0067 0. the values may be interpolated.8 (a)].0104 0.0016 0.0000 0.0004 0. Table 1.0412 0.0650 0.0000 0.0556 0.0016 0.0036 0.0016 0.25 Hd [Fig.0330 0.0386 0.0004 0.0153 0.0480 0.1260 3.220 -0.0787 0. For intermediate slopes.0291 0.0313 0.0425 0.0339 0. and thus economy can be effected The maximum permitted projection from the crest line is 0.0000 0. 1.260 -0.180 -0.170 -0.0296 0.020 -0.0036 0.0399 0.0066 0.0038 0.270 Slope 1:3 0.2 for slopes of 1:3.190 -0.315 Hd and the vertical depth of the maximum bulging is 0.120 -0.0065 0.0068 0.0000 0.000 -0.0494 0.0450 Vertical 0.8 . 1.0554 Slope 3:3 0.210 -0.040 -0. Offsets and risers on upstream face If structural requirements permit.240 -0.0156 0.0624 0.0354 0.060 -0.0800 Slope 2:3 0.0376 0.0106 0.250 -0.2 Values of y/Hd for the u/s profile x/Hd 0.0004 0.2 (b) Sloping upstream face The coordinates of the upstream profile in the case of sloping upstream face can be determined from Table l.0016 0.0283 0.0103 0.0365 0.
e. However. For M/N ratio between 0. . the ratio of the vertical depth M to design head Hd should not be in the range 0. In other words. it is found that it extends beyond the downstream face of the non-overflow section [Fig. for which special anchoring bolts have to be provided.S.50 to avoid extremely unstable conditions.3 percent. the pressure on the crest will be positive (i.0 kN / m2).e. Moreover. be exceeded by 25 percent. 1. The ratio M/N should not be less than 0. 1. 4. (iii) It causes a decreases in capability for automatic control. the negative pressure should be avoided.R. the flow conditions are extremely unstable. the pressure on the crest will be negative (i. the vertical depth M of the projection (called riser) should be equal to 0. If the actual head is less than the design head. Orifice Flow In a gated spillway. permits a negative pressure of 4. The design head is generally chosen to give the maximum practical hydraulic efficiency.5 Hd [Fig. Model tests have shown that the design head may.0 and 0. In that case. all over the structure. However. A small negative pressure is sometimes permitted considering the rareness of its occurrence and very short duration during which it occurs. however . 6. Pressure over spillway surface The profile shapes discussed above are for one value of the design head (Hd). The vibrations also cause cracks in the mortar of stone lining of the masonry crest.15 Hd when the actual head exceeds the design head by 33.0 to 0. it can have a zero value. in keeping with the operational requirements. because it has the following ill effects. (i) (ii) It increases the overturning moment on the crest. stability and economy.B. without any harmful cavitation (IS: 6934-1973). the sub-atmospheric pressure at part gate openings can be reduced if the gate sill is placed slightly downstream of the crest. for heads greater than the design head. with their upstream faces coinciding. (iv) It causes vibrations which eventually extend.50. less than the atmospheric pressure) and it may lead to cavitation. Corbel When the profile of the crest of an ogee spillway overflow section is plotted along with the profile of the non-overflow section of the gravity dam.15 In the case of a vertical-faced overhang.7(b)]. It increases the force required for lifting the gates. U.9 (a)].50. Subatmospheric pressures develop on the crest immediately below the gate if the crest profile is steeper than the one conforming to the trajectory of the orifice flow. the trajectory becomes steeper and conforms more nearly to the free-overflow lower nappe profile of the weir flow. orifice flow occurs at part gate openings. When the crest is shaped to the nappe profile of the weir flow. above atmospheric). 5. However. As far as possible.3m of water (about 42. model tests have shown that even when the gate is located at the crest axis. the negative pressure is less than 0. the spil1way section is thicker than the non-overflow section of the gravity dam.
if no negative pressure occurs on the crest. The construction of the spillway is carried out as in the case of a non-overflow section upto the height of corbel. because that will interfere with their operation. .9 1.5. (i) (ii) Height of spillway crest above the stream bed Ratio of actual total head to the design total head. It may be noted that a corbel cannot be provided in a dam in which the gates are installed on the upstream face to control the flow to the outlets.9(b). after reaching that height. a smooth curve forming the corbel is provided. 1. He = Hd + Ha (Note Sometimes.Coefficient of discharge (Cd) An ogee spillway has a relatively high value of the coefficient of discharge (Cd) because of its shape. Thus a saving can be effected by providing a corbel on the upstream face of the spillway section. The projection so formed is called corbel. Le is the effective length and He is the actual effective head including the head due to the velocity of approach.16 The concrete required for the overflow section can be saved to some extent by shifting the spillway profile in the upstream direction until the downstream curve becomes tangential to the downstream face of the non-overflow and removing the concrete in the portion shown hatched in Fig. However.e.3. i. The maximum value of Cd is about 2.20. Fig. Cd is the coefficient of discharge. the coefficient Cd is also. given below: Q = C d Le H e 3/ 2 (1.1. However.8) where Q is discharge (cumecs). written as C] 1. the value of Cd is not constant. and also upon the following factors.3 Discharge Computation for an Ogee Spillway The discharge over an ogee spillway is computed from the basic equation of flow over weirs. It depends upon the shape of the ogee profile.
. including the head due to the velocity of approach. 1.11 shows the variation of actual discharge coefficient Cd’. It may be noted that there is a marked increase in the value of Cd when the height of spillway increases upto about twice of the design total head HD. there is not much increase in the value of Cd. Thus HD ≈ Hd Fig.are briefly discussed below: (i) Height of spillway above stream bed The height P of spillway above the stream bed affects the discharge coefficient because the velocity of approach depends upon this height. and (He /HD).17 (iii) Slope of the upstream face of spillway (iv) Extent of the downstream submergence of crest (v) Downstream apron All these factors .33 Hd. Model tests of spillways have also shown that the effect of velocity of approach on the coefficient of discharge is negligible when the height (P) is equal to or greater than 1. as abscissa. With further increase in the height of spillway. the velocity of approach deceases but the coefficient of discharge Cd increases.10 (ii) Ratio of actual total head (He) to the design total head (HD) Fig 1. Such spillways are known as high overflow spillways. where Hd is the design head excluding the head due the velocity of approach. 1. and it remains almost constant as 2. the velocity of approach is sometimes neglected. Fig.20. The plot is applicable to high overflow spillways. With an increase in the height P. In high overflow spillways. with P≥ 1. It is plotted between (Cd’/ Cd). as ordinate.10 shows the variation of Cd with the ratio (P/HD) where HD is the design total head. Thus HD = Hd + Ha where Ha is the head due to the velocity of approach.33 Hd. Similar curves are available for low overflow spillways.
12 shows the variation of (Cd’/ Cd) with the ratio (P/HD) for three different slopes of the upstream face. 1. (iii) Slope of the upstream face of spillway Fig. For small ratios of (P/HD). 1. the value of (Cd’/ Cd) increases. the actual coefficient Cd’ is slightly more than the coefficient Cd for the vertical face. the maximum head should not be more than 1 25 times the design head) to avoid the possibility of cavitation. The ratio (Cd’/ Cd) is less than unity for (He /HD) less than unity but greater than unity for higher values of (He /HD). as the ratio (P/HD) increases. However.e. Thus if the spillway is designed for a lower design head. a high value of coefficient of discharge Cd will be obtained for most of the range of heads actually occurring in operation. Fig. the design head should not be less than about 80 percent of the maximum head (i.11 It may be observed that with an increase in the value of (He /Hd). 1. However.18 Fig. the ratio (Cd’ / Cd) decreases.12 .
In this expression d is the tail water depth. 1. and hd is the depth of d/s water level below u/s TEL. 1. Thus hd + d = P + HD Fig. 1. It may be noted that the effect of submergence is negligible for smaller degree of submergence. the coefficient of discharge Cd is lower. where h is the depth of water over the crest on the downstream and Hd that on the upstream. 1. the d/s floor apron has little effect on the coefficient of discharge.14 .13 (v) Downstream apron Fig. It is about 5% for the degree of submergence of 60%.19 (iv) Extent of downstream submergence The actual coefficient of discharge Cd’ is decreased due to downstream submergence.13 shows the variation of Cd’/ Cd. Fig. When the value of (hd + d)/ HD exceeds about 1. but for lower value.70. with the degree of submergence h/Hd.14 shows the effect of downstream apron on the coefficient of discharge. Fig.
5 HD = radius = 0.3 TABLE 1. 0. such as (i) shape and location of the pier nose.01 0. (ii) the angle between the upstream approach wall and the axis of flow. For the flow at design head.02 equal to about 0. including the head due to velocity of approach. which is equal to the sum of the clear spans of the gate bays between piers. Effective length of crest given by The effective length of crest of an overflow spillway is (1. (ii) thickness of pier.00 .9) Le = L'−2( NK p + K a ) H e where Le is the effective length of crest. such as (i) shape of abutment.10 of pier thickness 2.15 HD Rounded abutment where radius = 0. K is the pier contraction coefficient and Kp is the abutment contraction coefficient.3 S. N is the number of piers. 0. the average values of the coefficient Ka are given in table 1.20 2. with head wall at 90º to the direction of flow Rounded abutment. with head wall at 90ºto the direction of flow. Square-nosed piers.No Pier shape Coeffience (Kp) 1. Coefficient (Ka) 0. He is the actual total head of flow on crest. (iii) the velocity of approach. (iii)approach velocity and (iv) ratio of the actual head to design head. (iv) the ratio of actual total head on crest He to the design head HD. when 0.No 1. Rounded-nose piers Pointed -nose pier 0.10 3. (a) Pier contraction Coefficient The value of the pier contraction coefficient Kp depends upon several factors.5 HD and head wall is placed at not more than 45ºto the direction of flow. L’ is the net (clear) length of crest. the average values of Kp are given in Table 1. For the flow at the design head. S.00 (b) Abutment contraction coefficient The value of the abutment contraction coefficient Ka depends upon a number of factors. with corners rounded on a radius 0. Abutment shape Square abutment. 3.20 2. Higher value of Ka should be used for spillways involving extreme angularity of approach flow.4.
8 is the discharge formula for an ungated overflow spillway or for a gated overflow spillway at full gate opening. above the bottom and top of the opening. where d is the height of opening. . 1. The discharge for a gated spillway at partial gate opening is given by the low-head orifice formula (or large orifice formula). CD is the coefficient of discharge of the orifice. Fig 1. and Le is the effective length of crest. due to velocity of approach. The coefficient of discharge CD will have different values for different gate and crest arrangements. respectively fig.15).15 gives the value of CD for different values of (d/H1).10) Fig. Q= 2 3/2 3/2 CD 2 g L e H 1 − H 2 3 ( ) (1. including the head. It is also influenced by the approach conditions and the downstream conditions.21 Discharge formula at partial gate opening Eq 1. (1.15 Where H1 and H2 are the total heads.
16 ACTUAL VELOCITY OF FLOW IN M / SEC VELOCITY AND AIR ENTRAINED WATER DEPTH ON SPILLWAY FACE FOR DIFFERENT DISCHARGES Fig 1.17 ACTUAL VELOCITY AND SOLID WATER DEPTH ON SPILLWAY FACE FOR DIFFERENT DISCHARGES .22 Fig 1.
33) of upper water surface profile Fig 1. since air entrainment occurs in the flow giving the phenomenon of white water. which can be used in the design of height of side training walls. 1. The profile determined by rigid calculation is not the true profile of flow.S Army W.17.18 Fig.5.16 and 1.E.0 & 1. 1. The pressure on the training wall is taken as the component of weight of water normal to the surface of flow. The U.23 Design of Side Walls The profile of flow on spillway surface determines the height of sidewalls required to retain the flow on the spillway.5 for different values of H / Hd (0. The flow profiles with and without air entrainment are given in fig 1.18 .S coordinates of upper nappe are given in the table 1. To the solid stream profile could thus be added the effect of air entrainment which would increase the water depth.
647 -0.521 0.729 1.490 -0.411 -0.2 0.821 -0.269 H/Hd x/Hd -1.300 -0.33 -1./Hd 0.076 -0.50 -0.088 0.755 -0.0 -1.151 -0.2 0.121 0.425 -0.972 0.586 -0.569 -0.445 0.950 -0.075 -0.465 Along Piers H / Hd x / Hd -1.705 1.6 0.6 1.915 -0.821 -0.6 0.389 -0.000 -0.235 -1.950 -0.103 -0.472 -0.320 0.4 1.286 0.200 -0.8 0.389 0.015 -0.172 0.933 -0.294 0.071 -1.243 0.33 -1.2 -1.244 -1.563 0.00 y / Hd -0.482 -0.067 0.912 -0.675 0.549 -0.431 -0.6 -0.060 -0.944 -0.383 -0.893 -0.4 -0.705 0.208 0.482 -1.0 0.425 -0.2 -0.941 -0.4 0.313 0.4 -1.215 -0.735 -0.102 0.8 1.122 -1.857 1.855 -0.480 -0.539 -0.185 -0.185 -0.840 -0.6 -0.531 0.2 0.165 -1.2 1.209 -1.925 -0.940 -0.8 -1.075 -0.545 -0.480 -0.779 -0.438 .725 -0.913 -0.194 -1.257 1.258 0.8 -0.6 -1.490 -0.285 -0.465 -0.681 -0.210 -0.24 Table 1.2 0.2 1.215 -1.50 1.384 0.4 0.0 1.0 -1.6 0.564 -0.8 -0.2 -0.4 0.8 0.860 1.33 H.221 -1.4 1.0 1.015 0.371 -0.00 y/Hd x/Hd y/Hd -0.0 -0.0 0.821 -0.00 1.177 1.977 1.440 -0.521 0.930 -0.8 1.8 1.689 -0.932 -0.240 0.4 0.0 -0.805 -0.075 0.495 -0.50 1.8 -0.145 0.865 -0.457 -0.0 -0.060 -0.011 -0.202 0.492 -0.265 -0.475 -0.110 -0.220 0.4 -0.929 -0.356 -0.890 -0.6 -0.218 -1.470 0.055 0.651 -0.266 0.5 Co-ordinate of Water Surface Profile Without piers Centre line of span 0.230 -1.460 -0.278 1.220 -0.002 0.925 1.700 0.462 1.6 1.
43 = 80.02 + 0. Therefore. As this greater than 1. effective length. As (P/HD) is greater than 2. and HD * Hd = 15. (P/HD) = (100/15. (hd + d) /HD = 115. and. Effect of height of spillway In this case.74 m (a) . (He/HD) ratio is 1. there is no effect on Cd. Solution L' = clear waterway = 15 x 6 = 90 m Negllecting the end contractions and assuming the value of Cd as 2.43/15. Therefore. d + hd = 100. Effect of downstream apron In this case.0.20 x 90 x He3/2 = 22.214.171.124.1 Design an ogee spillway with the following data: (i) Height of spillway crest above river bed = 100 m (ii) Design discharge = 12. Effect of upstream slope The upstream face of the spillway is assumed to be vertical.43 m. Hence.25 Example 1.2) x 15.20.20 in Eq.48.00 + 15.48. it is affected by the various factors. Thus there is no effect of different factors on the assumed value of Cd = 2. the effect on Cd is negligible. as discussed above. there is no effect on Cd.000 cumecs (iii) Number of spans =6 (iv) Clear distance between piers = 15 m (v) Thickness of pier =3m Slope of d/s face of the overflow section = 0.43 = 7.43) = 6. there is no effect on Cd.20.0 – 2 (5 x 0. However. Effect of end construction Let us assume Kp = 0.43 m. Effect of actual head If the design head is taken equal to the actual head. Le = L' – 2(N Kp + Ka) HD Le = 90.02 and Ka = 0.20. therefore.43 m The maximum value of Cd is 2. 1.8:1 Assume any other data if required. we have Q or or 1200 He = Cd le He3/2 = 2.43 = 115. Thus the velocity of approach is small.
897 6 1. From Eq.00 and n = 1.85 = 0. 1. K Therefore = 2.141 10 3. 12000 = 2. Thus Hd ≅ HD.165 3 0.895 y y = 0.74 x (He)3/2 or He = 16.20 x 80.80 m Therefore.8 16. Le = 90 – 2(5 x 0.85 dx … (d) 0. The coordinates y for different values of x are obtained from Eq. Downstream profile From Eq.98 m/s A (90 + 5x3) × (100 + 16.59 m Substituting this value of He in Eq.349 4 0.70)0.02 + 0. From Eq. (b).594 5 0.719 18 9.20) x 16.091 Upstream profile The upstream profile is determined from Eq. (c) and (d).80 m from the origin.05 m This is very small and therefore neglected.850.70) Head due to velocity of approach = (0. or dy = 1.85 dy 1.85 × 0.70 m.26 Now from Eq.20 x 80.0457 (x)1. x1.0845 x0. (a). the tangent point of the profile is at a distance of 23.98)2/19.483 x y 16 7.0457 ( x) 0.62 = 0.600 20 11.85 = 1.80 … (b) … (c) For the d/s face of the overflow section.663 20 13.4. or Q = Cd Le He3/2 12000 = 2.00 x (16.25 x = 23.8 xn = K Hdn-1 y Velocity of approach = 12000 Q = = 0.59 = 80.912 23. 1.0845 ( x ) 0.235 12 4. Now for the vertical upstream face.68 m Let us take design head (HD) of 16.533 14 6. .046 2 0.85 = 2.05 m Therefore.257 8 2.05 x He3/2 or He = 16.25 dx 0. (b) as follows: x y 0 0 1 0.85 y = 21.00 = = 1.
724 (x + 0. the values of y/Hd for different values of x/Hd can be obtained from Table 1. Sometimes.6419 -3.509)0.4. A chute spillway may be constructed on any type of foundation provided it is strong enough to bear the load.00 1.50 0.85 (H d ) For Hd = 16. It can be conveniently provided independently in a saddle at a low cost. depending upon the natural level of the saddle. However.509 m and y/Hd = 0. A control structure may or may not be provided for this type of spillway.625 0. 14. an ogee-shaped weir is usually built to achieve a high discharge coefficient.50 0.3100 -4.270 H d )1.70 m.00 0.126 H d − 0. For earth dams and rockfill dams. a separate spillway is required when the valley is narrow and an overflow spillway cannot be provided at the dam site.1042 m x y -0.0133 -1.3.126 or y = 2.50 0. 1.19 (a)].1429 -2. Eq.00 0. even for a gravity dam.7 can be simplified as y = 0.50 0.5. .06614 (x + 4.3 Chute Spillway A chute spillway (or trough spillway or open channel spillway) consists of a steepsloped open channel called a chute or trough.85 + 2.1042 Alternatively.625 The values of the coordinates y are determined below for different values of x up to the maximum value of x/Hd = -0.2631 -2.2402 (x + 4. The weir is generally of low height and with upstream face inclined [Fig. 1. The chute spillway is generally most suitable for such conditions.0609 -1.27 or x = .1042 – 1.509)1.4266 -3.19 (b)].70 m. Sometimes.9242 -4.85 y= + 0. 1. which carries the water passing over the crest of spillway to the river downstream [Fig.2 for Hd = 16. it is also provided along one abutment when a separate site does not exist. a separate spillway is generally constructed in a flank or a saddle away from the dam if a suitable site exists.270H d ) 0.27 0. excavation is done in the saddle upto the full reservoir level to form a flatcrested weir.00 0. if the natural ground level of the saddle is lower than the full reservoir level.4315(H d ) 0.509 2.375 (x + 0. If the natural ground level of the saddle is higher than the full reservoir level.
20(b)]. 1. nor wide side-flanks to accommodate a chute spillway. Sometimes it consists of a flat concrete pavement laid on an earthen embankment or the natural ground surface. 1.4 Side Channel Spillway In the side channel spillway. the crest of the control weir is placed along the side of the discharge channel. heavy cutting would be required. In such cases. A side channel spillway is also usually required in a narrow valley where there is neither a suitable saddle. Thus the flow after passing over the crest is carried in a discharge channel running parallel to the crest.5.3. it turns approximately at right angle and then continues in the discharge channel [Fig. . Therefore.20(a)] The side channel spillway is usually constructed in a narrow canyon where sufficient space is not available for an overflow spillway. Water flows over the crest into the narrow trough of the discharge channel opposite the weir. The crest of a side channel spillway is usually an ogee-shaped section made of concrete [Fig. the cost of an overflow spillway or a chute spillway would be prohibitive. if a crest of length required for flow to occur perpendicular to the crest is provided.19 1. The crest is approximately parallel to the side channel at the entrance.28 Fig 1.
However. However. 1. Frequently. The transition between the shaft and the horizontal conduit should be smooth to avoid cavitation.20 1. a flared inlet. is generally used.29 Fig. If the topography of the site is also such that a chute spillway cannot be constructed.21). the vertical shafts of large projects are invariably of reinforced concrete and the horizontal conduit is usually a tunnel in rock. concrete or even clay tile. When the water level rises above the crest level.2.5 Shaft Spillway A shaft (or morning glory) spillway consists of a large vertical funnel. the diversion tunnel used during the construction of the dam is planned so that it can be used as a horizontal conduit for the shaft spillway after the construction. which conveys it past the dam. It is generally considered undesirable to construct a spillway just adjacent to an earth dam. Small shaft spillways may be constructed entirely of metal pipe. . Therefore. For low dams. a shaft spillway may be considered as an alternative to a side channel spillway.5. A shaft spillway is used at the sites where the conditions are not favorable for an overflow spillway or a chute spillway. called morning glory. The other end of the vertical shaft is connected to a horizontal (or nearly horizontal) conduit or tunnel. an overflow spillway is ruled out if there is not an adequate space. 1. for high dams. it starts overflowing the crest and drops from the rim of the funnel into the vertical shaft and then flows in the horizontal conduit. no special inlet design is usually necessary. The shaft is sometimes driven into rock instead of constructing it as a reinforced concrete shaft. which extends through or round the dam and carries the water to the river downstream (Fig. where the shaft height is small. with its top surface at the crest level of the spillway and its lower end connected to a vertical (or nearly vertical) shaft.
Saddle siphon spillway 2.3. A shaft spillway is generally more economical than a side channel spillway where a diversion tunnel. radial piers are provided to guide the water radially. Fig. it has to be excavated down to the required crest level and a flat-crested spillway is constructed. a standard-crested spillway has to be constructed in concrete. Saddle siphon spillway is commonly used in practice. . is already available for the shaft spillway. There are basically two types of siphon spillways. which is used for diversion of river water during construction.5. Because a shaft spillway is surrounded by water on all sides.6 Siphon Spillways A siphon spillways operates on the principle of siphonic action.30 On the crest of the shaft spillway. a bridge is also provided to connect it to the dam or a hill. Ideal site A shaft spillway is ideally suited for a site where a rock spur projects into the reservoir a little distance upstream of the dam.21 1. above the spur is higher than the full reservoir level. 1. 1. Volute siphon spillway 1. If the top of the spur is lower than the full reservoir level. as discussed below. These piers also prevent spiral flow and are used a supports for a bridge to go around the spillway crest. Saddle siphon spillway A saddle siphon spillway (also called saddle siphon) is a closed conduit of the shape of an inverted U-tube with unequal legs. Saddle siphon spillways are usually of two types: (a) Hood type and (b) Tilted outlet type.
1. The top of the body wall forms the crest of the spillway and is kept at the full reservoir level (F. called hood. the siphon duct is formed within the body of the dam. 1. (b) Titled outlet type siphon spillway Fig. For depriming of the spillway.31 Fig. the draught of the water falling over the crest is sufficient to cause priming. This type of spillway is also called the hood spillway. therefore.22 (a). Fig. 1. In this type of spillway. In this case. over an ogeeshaped body wall made of concrete. a deprimer is provided as shown. called tilted-outlet type.R. no separate priming device is required. The siphon duct is formed by an air tight reinforced concrete cover. 1. It is required for sealing the air entry from the exit end without which priming is not possible. The lower limb of the siphon is vertical with a tilted outlet. 1.22 (a) Hood siphon spillway The various component parts of the hood saddle siphon spillway are shown in Fig.23 . The space between the crown and the crest is known as throat.22 (b) shows a hood siphon with its outlet submerged. Fig.23 shows another type of saddle siphon spillway. The top of the hood is called crown. and.L) of the reservoir. The outlet is tilted upwards so as to develop water seal at the bend.
or a conduit constructed in an open cut and then covered. The drum is supported on a number of pillars. The volutes are the curved vanes like the blades of a centrifugal pump or a turbine [Fig. the negative pressure may develop due to siphonic action. The inner sloping surface of the funnel is provided with a number of volutes. which leads the water to the downstream channel (Fig. The conduit should be designed to flow partly full.32 2.L).7 Conduit (or Tunnel) Spillway A conduit (or tunnel) spillway consists of a closed conduit to carry the flood discharge to the downstream channel. The volute siphon spillway consists of a vertical shaft (or barrel). it is connected to a horizontal or nearly horizontal outlet conduit through a right-angled bend. Fig 1. These air-vent pipes serve as deprimers. A cylindrical drum is constructed around the upper portion of the vertical shaft.3. 1. The closed conduit may take the form of a vertical or inclined shaft. a horizontal tunnel. Fig 1.5. The drum is open at the sides near the bottom so that water can enter into it.24). Sometimes.24 (b)]. which has a funnel shape at its top. 1. A dome is constructed over the drum. The area of the flow is usually limited to 75% of the total cross-sectional area of the conduit. Volute Siphon Spillway The volute siphon spillway (or volute siphon) is a special type of siphon spillway which makes use of volutes (curved vanes) for priming. Such a spillway is suitable for dam sites in narrow canyons with steep abutments.26 It is constructed in the abutment or under the dam. On the top of the dome.24 1. One end of the airvent pipe is connected to the interior of the dome at its crown and the other end is kept slightly higher than the full reservoir level. The top or lip of the funnel is kept at the full reservoir level (F. . a small air-vent pipe (deprimer) of reinforced concrete is formed. At the bottom end. because if it runs full. a deprimer dome is constructed over the main dome for this purpose. This type of spillway was designed by Ganesh Iyer in India and hence it is also called Ganesh Iyer siphon.R.
5. It is ideally suited for very high dams in which the energy cannot be dissipated by a hydraulic jump or a bucket. already excavated quarry benches on d/s may be utilized for the formation of cascades.26 1.3. 1. Fig.27).27 . 1.8 Cascade Spillway A cascade spillway consists of a cascade of falls. with a stilling basin at each fall (Fig. In the case of a high rockfill dams.33 Fig 1.
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