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READING MATERIAL 3D Theory was developed by Dr.William James Reddin to explain the origins and manifestations of Managerial and Organizational Effectiveness1; the theory explains how a manager and an organization are effective. Effectiveness is: the degree to which a manager (or organization) gets the results expected of the person in that position. Managerial effectiveness is defined in terms of the product and not input. It is what the manager achieves, not what the manager does. The essence of 3D Theory consists in two basic elements in managerial conduct that are: The task at hand - Task Orientation Relationships with other people - Relationship Orientation TASK ORIENTATION (TO): This is the degree to which a manager directs his own efforts and those of their subordinates, broken down into the following actions: starting, organizing, planning, controlling and directing. RELATIONSHIPS ORIENTATION (RO): The degree to which a manager forms relationships with people in the workplace, broken down into the following activities: listening, trusting, concern for the feelings of others and motivating. The use of a combination of these two orientations produces four basic behavioral styles, or four different types of influence.
4 RELATED RO SEPARATED DEDICATED INTEGRATED
In this diagram, TO is the x-axis, on a range from 0 to 4, while the RO is on the y-axis with the same scale. A value of 0 on both axes would mean not oriented to tasks or to relationships; 4 is the highest score obtainable, so scores less than 2 are below average for managers and scores above 2 are above average. Neither of these basic styles is more effective than another; any of them can be effective in certain situations. Effectiveness is derived from acting in accordance with the requirements of the situation; that is, to be effective you have to be more oriented to reality than to “should do” models. This way, each basic style can be less effective or more effective,
Dr. WJ Reddin, Managerial Effectiveness, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970
depending on the situation.thus bringing about the eight different managerial styles that are used appropriately or inappropriately. BASIC STYLE Integrated + TO +RO Dedicated + TO – RO Developer – TO + RO Separated TO RO LESS EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL STYLE Compromiser Autocratic Missionary Deserter MORE EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL STYLE Executive Benevolent Autocrat Developer Bureaucrat DEVELOPER EXECUTIVE BUREAUCRAT DEVELOPER INTEGRATED BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT MORE EFFECTIVE SEPARATED DEDICATED 4 EFFECTIVE 2 MISSIONARY COMPROMISER DESERTER AUTOCRAT LESS EFFECTIVE 0 .
Emphasis on system. harmonizes guides and advises Handling of professionals. Main weakness Corrects Writes Little in any direction Past Organization Has a procedural system Who follows the rules? Intelligence Clarifies. Identifies with: 6. then we provide a space for each basic style along with the indicators and characteristics of the more and less effective managerial styles. The Basic Style is given by the scores obtained in TO and RO. Judges subordinates 8. training coordination Not routine Cooperation Disregards Advocates Becomes dependant and depressed Praise Rejection Lack of direction People lose interest Need for organization and technology Sentimentality DEDICATED Dominates Verbal orders Downwards. Time perspective 5. You can refer to them as you learn to differentiate between them. accounting. Committee activity 10. Method of interaction 2. and so the third dimension is EFFECTIVENESS. evaluates and directs Direction of production and sale Little personal contact Performance Punish Suppresses Dominates and exploits Reward Punishment Lack of information Loses position Subordinates’ expectations Fights/argues unnecessarily INTEGRATED Joins Meetings In both directions Future Colleagues Integrates the sociotechnical system Who wants to be part of the team? Teamwork Sets standards. The Basic Style Orientation is given by the quadrant within the Basic Style obtained with the score. Negative source of control 18 Characteristic problem of subordinates 19. Managerial effectiveness is measured by the degree to which a manager achieves the position’s objectives. Method of communication 3. Reaction to conflict 15. from the subordinates Indifferent Subordinates Supports the social system Who can understand people? Inspired affection Supports. you will find a list of the characteristics of the basic styles. Positive source of control 17. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BASIC STYLES SEPARATED 1. 7.Oriented to employee 13. Under-values 21. checks and motivates Supervision of interacting managers Great deal of routine Commitment Learn Uses Avoids making decisions Ideals Compromiser Lack of independence Loss of self-esteem Need for independent action Doesn’t use participation properly . statistics and design Not routine Security More controls Avoids Withdraws and quotes rules Logical Argument Lack of recognition Loss of authority Need brings about innovation Slave to the rules RELATED Accepts Conversation Upwards.5 in TO and of 1. Punishments used 20. as it consists of responding appropriately to the requirements of a situation. Communication direction 4. Judges boss 9. For example: A score of 2. One of the contributions 3D Theory makes is to give this term a clear definition. Does not work well in: 12. Reaction to tension 16. Works well in: 11.Effectiveness cannot be explained through style differences. drives and channels Administration. to the subordinates Immediate Superior and technology Follows the technological system Who produces? Power Initiates. Reaction to mistakes 14.5 in RO gives us a Basic Oriented Style DEDICATED / RELATED (D/R) D/R On the following pages.
who uses low orientation to tasks and to relationships in a situation in which such behavior is appropriate and is therefore more effective. MORE EFFECTIVE BUREAUCRAT: Is a SEPARATED manager. Often found in Finance. Irrationality Rejection by others Conflict Loss of power Low productivity Lack of participation Dissatisfaction. Thinks things work better when subordinated understand and carry out the activities mentioned in their job descriptions. and systems. Plans with fine attention to detail Introduces change formally and follows any set procedure to the letter Prefers to communicate with others in writing Responds to disagreements and conflict by referring to the rules and procedures. modest. procedures. patient Calm. INDICATORS Follows orders. shuns responsibility and commitment Gives few useful opinions or suggestions Lacks creativity. passive and negative. fair. Human Resources. abandons Avoids being seen as complicated. discreet The SEPARATED manager is oriented towards procedures. . Insecurities about others Emotionality. dates. Appears to be basically interested in the rules and procedures per se. research and development and in control departments. uncommunicative CHARACTERISTICS Doesn’t show much interest in having good relations. equitable CHARACTERISTICS Thinks formal meetings are the perfect way to produce new ideas. and as someone who wants to control the situation and uses these to do so. change and innovation are often over-emphasized Could give more useful information to others Not terribly concerned by mistakes and generally does little to correct or reduce them. narrow-minded Puts obstacles against others. non-cooperative. accounting. or in his work Thinks creativity. Personal insecurities 23. rules and procedures Reliable. logical. aware. with an eye for detail Rational. facts Looks for established principles Exact. and therefore less effective. precise correct. careful. Doesn’t always show interest in his subordinates. Perceived as uninvolved. INDICATORS Works according to what the rules say. methods. orderly Prefers things in writing. worthy of trust Keeps a system and the company going Efficient. LESS EFFECTIVE DESERTER: Is essentially a SEPARATED manager and uses low orientation to tasks and relationships in situations in which such behavior is inappropriate. originality. tranquil. self-controlled Impartial. makes things more difficult Resists change. softness and dependent Deviates from the system.22. data processing. conservative. FEATURES OF THE BASIC MANAGERIAL STYLES SEPARATED– DESERTER – BUROCRAT BASIC THE SEPARATED MANAGER: Low orientation to both task and relationships INDICATORS Cautious. minimal productivity. perfectionist Constant.
In order to be accepted. The RELATED manager is more sensitive to the demands of the human being than to technical demands. and in others. instructs Understand others. about others and about groups.orientation. Seen as being mainly interested in harmony and in being appreciated. Prepares all affected by change by talking with them in good time If conflict arises. CHARACTERISTICS Treats subordinates with consideration. INDICATORS People come first Emphasizes personal development Informal. Identifies with his/her subordinates and through them satisfies his/her own needs. in which such behavior is appropriate and therefore more effective. controls Keeps communication channels open. friendly. according to their needs. docile Creates an atmosphere of security The RELATED manager is basically oriented to others. passive. nicely Lets subordinates set their own objectives. Seen as someone who tends to trust people implicitly and is concerned about individually developing those who work for him. When assigned planning responsibilities. nice. good listener Develops talent in others. Thinks that if an error is made. is cooperative Others trust him. it should be corrected in a way that no one will be bothered. dependant Facilitates things Avoids initiating action. goes unnoticed Long conversations Considerate. MORE EFFECTIVE DEVELOPER: is a RELATED manager with high orientation to relationships and low task-orientation. does not direct. and accepts them even if somewhat unsatisfactory Tolerates deviation when putting plans into action even though it could cause discontent Communicates with others in such a way as to stay on good terms with them on other matters At the first sign of conflict. will avoid taking any sort of unpleasant decision. tries to calm the situation. . Effective managers with a RELATED basic style can be found in Human Resources. involves others. warm Looks to be accepted. CHARACTERISTICS Has excellent relationships with subordinates. research. calm. provides support Works well with others. standards. INDICATORS INDICATORS LESS EFFECTIVE MISSIONARY: Is a RELATED manager with high orientation to relationships and low task-orientation in a situation in which such behavior is inappropriate and therefore is less effective. Uses friendship and understanding to influence others. Looks for good new ideas and motivates others to be as creative as they can. training. always helps those involved to find grounds for agreement Thinks most mistakes occur for a good reason and that it is always better to look for the reason than to focus on the error itself. Is generally aware of his/her own attitudes and presuppositions about him/herself. . Avoids conflict Pleasant. and sometimes directing large administrative offices. Pays a lot of attention to other people’s opinions.FEATURES OF THE BASIC MANAGERIAL STYLES RELATED – MISSIONARY – DEVELOPER BASIC THE RELATED MANAGER: High relationshiporientation and low task. Not concerned with results. characterized by trust and mutual respect.
costs and time Is conscious of costs. aggressive. Sets high standards for him/herself and others and ensures they are met. who knows what s/he wants and knows how to get it without causing resentment. pushy. acts without consulting anyone Feared. he is unpleasant and is only interested in getting the immediate task completed. unpopular CHARACTERISTICS Directs his subordinates’ work and avoids deviations from the plans Sees planning as a one-man task Thinks that a good way to introduce change is to announce it and let people apply it Closely watches plans being implemented More interested in day-to-day than long term productivity Keeps production going through subtle threats INDICATORS Decisive. suppresses conflict Wants immediate action and results Communicated downwards only.FEATURES OF THE BASIC MANAGERIAL STYLES DEDICATED – AUTOCRAT – BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT BASIC The DEDICATED MANAGER: Highly task oriented. dedicated to his/her work Evaluates quantities. low relationship orientation INDICATORS Decisive. shows s/he has initiative Energetic worker Finishes things. . ambitious Uses rewards. independent. responsibilities and standards Secure. Seen as someone who is results oriented. Is seen to be someone who mistrusts others. threatens Makes all the decisions Demands obedience. profits and sales Gets results CHARACTERISTICS Tells his/her subordinates exactly what is expected of them Comes up with and proposes many good ideas Shows s/he values efficiency and productivity Watches the implementation of his subordinates plans and gives direct guidance when requested Thinks a strong team needs a strong leader who knows what s/he’s doing. self-confident Active. initiator Sets individual tasks. LESS EFFECTIVE AUTOCRAT: The DEDICATED manager uses high task orientation and low relationship orientation in a situation where such behavior is inappropriate and therefore is less effective. quality. punishments. controls The task comes first INDICATORS Criticizes. MORE EFFECTIVE BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT: The DEDICATED manager uses high task orientation and low relationship orientation in a situation where such behavior is appropriate and therefore is more effective.
ambiguous. MORE EFFECTIVE EXECUTIVE: The INTEGRATED manager who is using high task orientation and high relationship orientation in a situation where such behavior is appropriate and therefore is more effective. but often is not capable of putting it into effect. mistrusts him/herself CHARACTERISTICS When dealing with subordinates. and that are agreed on by all directly involved. together with others.FEATURES OF THE BASIC MANAGERIAL STYLES INTEGRATED – COMPROMISER – EXECUTIVE BASIC The INTEGRATED manager: Highly task oriented with high relationship orientation INDICATORS Derives authority from the objectives. suffers. INDICATORS Uses too much participation Yielding. CHARACTERISTICS Sees top management as just another team that should cooperate effectively with the teams further down the hierarchy. rather than optimizing production in the long term. Seen as someone who changes a great deal. is a poor decision maker and who lets the pressures of the situation bear too much influence on him/her. Likes the idea of teamwork. to the extent they are not always a good guide. Makes an effort in planning. but does not always follow them all up. weak Avoids decision-making. Occasionally comes up with good ideas. amorphous decisions Emphasizes the task and the relationships at the wrong time Idealist. Supports and actively promotes the team approach with his people. but the plans do not always work. Communicates possible changes in good time to all who will be affected. ideals. though makes acceptable. Plans represent the best way of thinking of all involved. goals and policies Integrates the individual into the organization Wants participation and a small difference in power Prefers shared responsibilities and objectives Takes interest in motivational techniques LESS EFFECTIVE COMPROMISER: An INTEGRATED manager using high task orientation and high relationship orientation in a situation that requires a high orientation in only one or in none of those areas is therefore less effective. While his objectives are usually clearly defined. . but one generally speaking. they are too soft. Consistently obtains higher productivity from his subordinates Sets clear objectives in a timely manner. INDICATORS Uses teamwork for decision-making Uses participation properly Encourages commitment to the objectives Stimulates better performance Coordinates others at work. Seen as a team manager and as a powerful motivating force who sets high standards and treats everyone somewhat differently. tries to combine task orientation with relationship orientation. and as someone who avoids or minimizes pressures and immediate problems.