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By: NOR AZUANEE BINTI MUKHTAR UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA Introduction:
There are various theories of language learning has been introduced in order to describe how language is acquired. The Behaviorist, Innatist and Interactionist theories are three theories which we are going to discuss in this assignment. We will see the main principles, the strength and weaknesses as well as the pedagogical implications of these theories. On the second part of this assignment will be my reflection base on a simple studies I did on a student from one of my class; a standard 5 girl.
PART A: LEARNING THEORIES.
The theory of behaviorism is derived from a psychological theory founded by J.B Watson. The followers of this theory are Bloomfield, Skinner and several others.
The main principle of the theory was mainly on analyzing human behaviors in observable stimulus respond within interaction. Behaviorists belief, in language learning, children obtain the language through varied babblings and mutterings which they try to imitate the words which they heard from the adults. And as the babbling and any kind of efforts done by the children are rewarded, this reward will reinforce further articulation of babblings and mutterings. As the children grow, as they reach the age of 4-6, the babblings and mutterings will develop into appropriate language to be apply in social context. And this language will internalized and develop into implicit speech.
According to Bloomfield (1933), language learning is perceived as a formation of habits. The process of learning is the same as learning other skills. The theory was derived from the notion of stimulus and response. The behaviorist sees that learners are exposed to numerous stimuli in the environment and the contexts they are in. They will response to the stimuli. Through repeated reinforcement, the habits will form.
MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1
And according to Mitchells and Myles (1998), the process of leaning the first language is simple. We only need to learn a set of new habits and respond to the stimuli within the context. But when learning the second language, with the first language is already acquired, the process of replacing the habits into a new one will take place. The problem of interference will occur where the first language will either helping or inhabiting the process of learning, depending on the similarity of the language structure between L1 and L2.
Behaviorists stress and emphasized on the role of reward (as a positive reinforcement) as well as punishment (as a negative reinforcement) in motivating behavior. They defined the term ‘motivation’ as ‘the anticipation on reinforcement’. The ‘stimulus-response-reinforcement’ chain can be envisaged as the illustration:
Response Negative reinforcement
Strength and weaknesses:
According to Ellis (1984), behaviorist development was developing in America and Western Europe around 1960s in which accepted that the language development was a product of stimulus-respond. The stimulus-respond then develops in the process of imitation, repetition and reinforcement (Harmer, 2001; Lightbown and Spada, 1999; Richards and Rogers, 2001). So, the second language development at that time played around this acceptance. But the truth is, there were hardly any empirical studies of these in the language development in the classroom. Behaviorist was generally extrapolating the general language learning theory base on the experiment done onto human in the science laboratory. This lack of proves was actually one of a factor which led to the next idea in language learning led by Chomsky in 1959; as one of the pioneer in developing the Innatism.
This shows an evident that animals were unable to learn as behaviorist taught they would. I view behaviorism as a simple theory and it is simple to understand. Vroon and Draaisma (1985) did a study on a dog to see the effectiveness of instrumental conditioning. it was truly a wasted act. At some point.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 I would say that behaviorists discount mental power of human beings and they also ignore individual differences in learning. Boulding (1984) urged for more experiments on human to be done to validate the findings of the theory. By using animals to describe human complex relation with the environment is merely an attempt done by Skinner to generalize the theory. It maintain the focus on observable human behavior in learning. Chomsky (1957) criticized the theory by giving an example of an ability to create a sentence which cannot be explained through stimulus response relationship. and yes. We all know that. Animal can only acquire behavior which relates to a specific species instinct and to teach them with other behavior is almost impossible. If it was asked to offer its hind paw. children learn language with a tremendous rate. To similarized human ability to learn and to make a general statement of between learning language with other skills is not appropriate. It is based on a few basic principles. The enormous speed with the help of their previous ability to understand the language make the theory of behaviorist seems inadequate. behavioral changes due to the influence and control of the environment. how to teach complex concepts. The experiments were questioned by most scientists and theorists due to the nature of human which surely complex and very much different with the animals. The introduction of the ‘conditioning and operant theory’ is a practical solution and already proven its effectiveness in modifying behaviors among children with 3 . Let us see the positive side of the theory. We must know that. They do make grammatical errors but it is not severely made until we cannot understand the sentence. The dog was taught to offer its forepaw and the skill is only on offering the forepaw. yet it could explain the acquisition of language. how to stop a child’s tantrums. there were numbers of experiment done in order to proof Pavlonian ‘conditioning and operant conditioning theory’ and all the experiments were done by studying and experimenting on animals and their behaviors.
Secondly. example like autism children. the ability to learn is important. we must understand the relationship between behavior and its consequences. iii. According to Tumic (1993). we can see there are differences within the L1 and L2 language structures. not just it is important as a tool for survival within an environment. We see that 'practice make perfect' in the behaviorist theory where repetitions and immitating processes of the language learning structuralized. but also as a tool to blend in with the society. In order to enable this.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 learning disabilities. I view behaviorist as a ‘blocking wall’ towards creativity skills of students and teachers. a set of behavior created by us and its consequences through operant conditioning. Too much time consumed. according to Mitchell and Myles (1998). Pedagogical implications As a teacher at primary level. where French language students were engage in drillings exercises in order for them to produce correctly due to the complexity of the language itself. example as to help students to understand the set of grammatical rules. The possibility in predicting behavior is the main key in controlling behavior and at the same time to avoid unnecessary reactions. The systematic behavior therapies do give benefits in teaching these children. It is useful in shaping childrens’ behaviors especially in guiding children to react within society so that they will be accepted socially. the relationship will result as ‘the learning process is fail’. ‘time’ is a major factor. The fact of behaviorism is still happening in school is undeniable though we keep on claiming that we have been practicing communicative way of teaching since long time ago. We can see that behaviorism tends to predict behavior with certain circumstances. Examples between the French and English structure. 4 . teachers and students. obviously. Well. Maybe this is due to our local assessment style which consider as a burden to both sides. it is also being practiced in our local context where teachers are practicing drillings. To connect the relationship. The idea of reward and punishment can be view as positive.
And behaviorist style of teaching does not open student’s mind to see from outside the box. I would say that. Well. Maybe it is seen as a successful approach in the yesteryears school environments. Chomsky claimed all children have the innate ability of 5 . In this mastery learning. Here the principles of reinforcement are used to maintain students’ manners and disciplines. i. every student must master every unit and skills taught before start going to the new skill. Students must master the grammar rules before they can start to write essay. but some still in favour of behaviorism’s reinforcement style. Next. it is possible but the duration of training and teaching will be either very long or simply not working at all. obviously. Noam Chomsky proposed a totally different view in language learning theory which challenged the behaviourism. it is impossible to start with written language. an American linguist. in introducing language to children. The theory is only playing around its function on spoken language which the main medium is oral: speech is language because generally. Though communicative approaches are being introduced. ____________________________________________________________________________ Innatism. It is in the strategy of mastery learning which based on cumulative nature in learning. the strength of the theory is at the speaking level. Main principles In 1959.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 What I am trying to say here is. Teachers must observed students ability to understand and make sure that they received an adequate amount of instruction. Behaviorism has been applied in the study of psychology in education quite some time. So. the use of operant conditioning can be called as a ‘near sighted’. We can observe this from the discipline unit in schools. we are still applying this strategy especially at the exam level especially in teaching students writing. we can see behaviorism is applied in the aspect of behavior modifications. to change their undesired attitudes to the good attitudes. It seems like the learning pr ocess only involves the ‘cause and effect’ relationship’. But at writing level. We cannot put too long time just to teach students a single skill.
Children naturally possess an innate 'language/grammar template' or universal grammar that allows them to choose grammatical rules of the language spoken around them. children will wider their ability in hypothesis and later will be able to form an ‘initial grammar’ of the language. Through checking and rechecking the hypotheses. 1994) The hypotheses will only be proven by checking on the children’s’ language production. When discussing the innate mechanism in language learning. Linguistic competence will make the children able to select the right grammatical sentences and refute the wrong ones. The language acquisition is depends on the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). The production of grammar will undergo the modifications and will resemble the adults’ grammar through their developm ent of linguistic competence.com) The language that the child exposed to LAD Hypothesis Checking and rechecking Generation of grammatical correct sentences Initial grammar Modification This device contains the main rules for all possible languages. They will gradually construct the grammar of their own native language. For example. The function of LAD can be demonstrated as the illustration below: (Source: www://eslking. Mitchell and Myles (1998) have underlined four possibilities: 6 . so a child says "eated". Chomsky called this set of common rules as Universal Grammar (UG). This rule suggests the children are able construct grammar through a process called hypothesis test. But eventually children will revise their hypothesis to the past tense of irregular verbs of ‘ate’ during their critical period (8 to 10 years old) which set biologically where language is acquired effortlessly (Brown.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 language structure detector and they are all have the ability to produce language. the past tense of verbs is formed by adding –ed.
fluent communication. 2. we learn through a conscious process of studying the form and rule of language. and second language have to be learnt by other way. the mechanism cease to be function. The mechanism continue to operate during language learning. The mechanisms are no longer in function but the first language provides a template of natural language and how it works as it can be copied in some way when learning second language. ii. We will acquire as we are exposed to samples of the second language which we understand. some module are available and others not. iv. The acquisition—learning hypothesis There are two ways for adult second language learners to develop knowledge of a second language which is through acquisition and learning. Learning cannot turn into acquisition. This is because the UG views itself as modular.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 i. He stated that only acquired language is available for natural. On the other hand. The monitor hypothesis 7 . Learning language’s mechanism will distinctively remain available. 1996) Krashen’s ‘monitor model’ Krashen underlines the different domains in language learning and acquisition into five hypotheses: 1. Krashen views acquisition as a ‘more important process’. with unconscious attention to language form. This is the same with children acquire their first language. and create the main aspects of language learning (either first language learning or second language learning) After the process of acquisition of the child’s first language (during the early stage). There is evidence that many speakers are quite fluent without ever having learned the rules. The first point stated above (point i) was used and popularized by Stefen Krashen (1970s) and later triggers the development of Chomsky ‘Universal Grammar’ (Cook and Newson. The understanding is the same as our children acquire Bahasa Malaysia when they are infants. iii. but not in total control.
If the input contains forms and structures are a step higher than learner‘s current level of competence in the language (i + 1‘). The affective filter hypothesis The filter is just an imaginary boundary which avoids learners from acquiring language from the available input. 8 . Weaknesses in Krashen’s hypothesis: There are numbers of researchers in language theory have identify various weaknesses in Krashen. attitudes. Mitchell and Myles (1998) claim that Input Hypothesis cannot be tested.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 He argues that the acquired system acts to initiate the learners’ utterances and is responsible for fluency and intuitive judgments about correctness. 5.s hypotheses. the filter limits what is noticed and what is acquired. comprehension and acquisition will occur. Krashen observes that the natural order rules have been learned in classes. The natural order hypothesis This hypothesis is based on the observation that. like first language learners. 4. Krashen‘s try to convince that language which is produced quickly and apparently spontaneously must have been acquired rather than learned. it acts only as a monitor in making minor changes and refining what the acquired system has produced. The input hypothesis Krashen beliefs in acquiring language by exposure to comprehensible input. 3. needs. second language learners are also acquiring the features of the target language in predictable sequences. Harmer (2001) argues that once a learner produces language it is almost impossible to classify whether the language is learnt or acquired. . And for The learned system. His original evidence for this hypothesis came from morpheme studies. in which language was checked for the accuracy of certain grammatical morphemes. and emotional conditions. both said that it is difficult to find evidence of monitor use. ‘Affect’ refers as motives. While for Lightbown and Spada (1999).
The nature is important than nurture and the experience will be used to activate the LAD. error analysis is very important. We can observe that innatist is focusing on the first language acquisition by viewing that human have the knowledge that is processed language innately. learning second language is different from learning foreign language. which mistakes and errors should not be considered as wrong. whereas the fact that learning languages is also included learning second and foreign languages. And some of them do believe that acquisition may be available for second language acquisition but at a critical age as in teenagers. Krashen’s Monitor Theory has been criticized for its lack of proof and testability. Lightbown and Spada. Brown (2000) agrees that learning cannot become acquisition. But still. a development in learning system. But according to Ellis (1985). the theory itself is against its principle. it happens in an extreme time frame of the first language cultural context and poor environmental of language acquisition. 1999). Innatistism suggested that the ability to learn language in children is there since they were born. and context on how 9 . But still innatist is holding to the notion of universality in language learning. But some theorist have doubt that UG (Universal Grammar) is available for second language acquisition. 2001. But this is not sufficient to influence the cognition and language which have effect on each other's developments. The theory provides a sufficient amount of inputs on acquiring language but still this theory is not sufficient with evidence. At some point. Innatist views language learning as a result from the hypothesis. It has been clearly differentiated that acquisition is related to first language. ii. Second language learning occurs in a target language surrounding which provides the learners with inputs within meaningful context. Strength and weaknesses.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 For Cook (2001) highlights that Krashen’s model explains that learnt language is never an acquired knowledge. however. As Cooter & Reutzel (2004) stated that time in language learning varies greatly within cultures. But for foreign language learning. this does not detract from its potential beneficial qualities or its appeal (Harmer.
They need to be given a sufficient amount of inputs for them to process of what they hear or see as well as to notice the contexts in which the samples of the language are used. they will start using their mother tongue. We can view that the intention of Innatism as below: 10 . Inputs that learners received in the learning process are a very important in the language acquisition. the input slightly beyond the level of the learner's comprehensibility (the i +1). Pedagogical implications. demonstrate an extremely reliance on the mother tongue and the minimal use of extensive listening practice in the target language. But. iii. The input should be meaningful and interesting to the learners and it does not necessarily have to be grammatically sequenced. and feedback from other language users will provide some affects on language acquisition. assumed that the success in the acquisition process requires a comprehensible input. teachers in school will have the tendency in correcting and fine-tuning these young learners who does not perform the language correctly due to the learning syllabus. Some teachers do not use story telling because from their point of view there are too many new words in stories where children would need to learn those words before they could understand the story. Kreshen’s theory. the behaviorist method is unavoidable. And when it comes to pronunciation of words. In other words. Most teachers will isolate words with sentences and ask children to repeat after them. Long (1983) supports the meaningful interaction between the learners due to the importance in preparing learners especially children in the early stages to express themselves through the simplest possible ways.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 much and what language is learned. And teachers may ends up in paying attention to the accuracy. Teachers in primary school. especially who is teaching students with low proficiency in language. it is focused more on function and not really on forms. Some teachers use the story-telling to teach young learners with language but when they reach towards certain levels where the children do not understand.
b) Learning is most likely to occur when information is made meaningful to students. spoken utterances without being urged to do so. If the teachers use the target language to express agreement. d) Cognitive processes become automatic with repeated use. important to focus the input on the immediate situations since the children operate in the ‘time and context’. It is. i. These should be meaningful and understandable to children. The children will need a sufficient amount of 11 . be easier for them to read the context. however. or short stories in English while children are primarily focused on activities like colouring. there is a great chance that the childlearner will do the same. 1997). integrate them with drama and actions. using posters with the most repeated phrase. e) Metacognitive skills can be developed through instruction.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 a) Students are active processors of information. We knew that children at the early age notice very well the behaviour of adults and copy the reactions. surprise and request. Examples like the use of stories. For the third theory. dialogues. c) How students learn may be more important than what they learn.1985) and Comprehensible output Hypothesis (swain. f) The most enduring motivation for learning is internal motivation. the interactionist. the Interactional hypothesis (Long. we will be introduced to 2 significant terms within the theory. repeatedly playing songs. therefore. Main principles. It is necessary to get children to directly participate in the environment full of inputs in the target language. or cutting out pictures. ________________________________________________________________________________ Interactionist. disagreement. g) There are vast differences in students´ information-processing abilities. The interactional Hypothesis is results of interaction between children with adults in which the children are already equipped with the innate abilities to use the language and at the same time they are grow within the linguistic context or environment.
The checking-up is important so that we are able to notice the linguistic problems before they start to get fossilized and later will cause communication breakdown. repetition and language simplifications are used by the advanced speakers to support learners and enable them to function within the proximal development. Theorist like Vygotsky. This method of learning is basically focus on form If Krashen believes in one way comprehensible input in SLA. This is to check whether the learners are able to meet the objectives of learning. According to Lighbrown and Spada (1999). applies socio-cultural theory in human mental processing by stating that learners will gain their proficiency when they interact with more advance speakers. interactionist is trying to explain upon innatist notion of comprehensible input by explaining the importance of comprehensible input and output in enhancing the effect of meaning. The medium of interactions are the learners. Interactionism’s objective is to help learners to develop their competence to perform language in a real life. when a learner is given opportunity to express themselves in a meaningful activity they will ‘negotiate for meaning’. 12 . While the comprehensible Output Hypothesis explains on the necessity of sufficient comprehensible input to enable language to develop.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 comprehensible input or modified input to assist them towards the next level where interactional modifications will takes place in the process of negotiating the meaning in the communication. It is a Humanistic and psychological approach which emphasize on the primacy of effective factors in learning language Interactionist argues that the modification of speech is important and a key component in language acquisition. the advanced speakers or language users and the object used in the interaction. in order to express and clarify their opinions. The learners must be pushed to produce comprehensible output. interactionist believes in two-way communication. The theorist believes that adult modified speech is crucial in ensuring the learners to address and notice the right and wrong in the use of language. Basically. Scaffolding structures like modeling.
MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 The main reason for learners to support interactionist is may be because of the idea of utterances which make sense if teachers are aware of the concept. learners also need to use their skill to compare critically the input to become output. And by simply absorb inputs without concern on the output at certain point does not make any sense because as second language learners. It can be viewed as the interactions according to the need of the learners which the learners of the L2 need to understand and at the end able to produce with accuracy accordingly. We can also percept this as the development process as the learners are trying to process the input that they get and having to apply the background language proficiency that they already have. but. So now. Another process is the message production (output) which the focus on form and function comes together. with the current scheme of KSSR is now being introduced. The second process is the ability of the learners to rearrange the data as actual as they can get. To able to achieve accuracy in language learning through interactionist theory. ii. The term ‘accurate’ as we all know. learners need to comprehend the output for it is the dominant focus of the interactionist. Krashen 1981. During the process. And language learning through interaction can be observed within diverse perspectives. it does not merely have to have sufficient input. This process of action directs the learners to focus on form as they are trying to focus on understanding the meaning. the need to be corrected since our environments does not actually support the learning process of the second language. They need to reproduce the language according to its functions and meaning. The question of ‘what do the learners of the L2 need in learning the language?’. there will be stages of process to be applied. 13 . ‘what will they able to do with the language?’ I did mentioned above that learners need to understand and the need to reproduce the language accurately. This includes ‘comprehension of meaning’ as required stage (Long 1983. it is a must for the learners to apply the grammatical rules and functions. The importance to make sure that learners are able to comprehend with the language rather than just knowing the grammar is a primary concern in childhood language learning. I see the approach is towards the application of the interactionist theory. 1983). Strength and weaknesses As a teacher.
we can see that the interactionist agree with Krashen idea of comprehensible input but with additional focus on how to make the input comprehensible. to achieve the communicative environment there must be a sufficient pair work activities with sufficient authentic input. The two terms. The L2 knowledge which he does have. in the interactionist theory. The outcome. Ellis (1994) called it as ‘pushdown’ which instead of to go on with the conversation. same goes to the ‘modified input’ (learner’s ability to process input) The learners will process the input and will start ‘noticing’ their negotiation during interaction which involved ‘modified output’. learners are allowed to modify the ‘interaction’ by deleting the problematic areas in the interaction process. Last but not least they must also able to write the output. which is the connection between the producer and the receptor. Interactionists also believe in the issue which arises within communication.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 So now we can see that. there is a slight addition to the Kreshen’s which as much important the comprehensible input is. The focus is not just receiving the input but the level of reception is also need to be considered. ‘context’. Similar to the Kreshen’s idea on the input hypothesis. The discrepancy between what he knows about the L2 2. And learners must also be able to reproduce the language accurately with the meaningful communication through practicing oral communication or communicate. With this. So the next movement in the theory of input hypothesis will includes the 14 . I have been reading Brown’s. learners’ focus will be on: 1. ‘Teaching by Principles‟ which he stated: “At the heart of current theories of communicative competence is the essentially interactive nature of communication”. Now. ‘negotiate’ and ‘communicate’ are two environments which occur in the classroom conditions. And according to Brown (2001). And during the interactional modification. the input and the output play the same important role in language learning. ‘simplified input’ and of course. in order to maintain the comprehensible interaction. it is stopped due to the ‘over focus’ on the accuracy. is the process of negotiating the meaning for them to be able to communicate. The difference is that. ‘interaction’ must be flow togather. come the term „modification input‟ which at this term of practice.
The interactions between learners and teachers will also helps teachers in knowing and noticing the students’ development in the learning process. Most output is the negotiations during the communication and this negotiation will lead to the opportunity of fun and lively interaction within classroom. 2000) which involve highly on the social interaction. Brown (2000) has listed various interactions within interactive class: a) Sufficient amount of pair or group work b) Receiving a significant amount of authentic language inputs in a real environments c) Practice language in more meaningful communications d) Performing a real activities in a real contexts e) Practice and apply language in a real communication setting One of the influential methods in creating classroom interaction is questioning technique in which language learners do not have a great number of tools for initiating and maintaining language. iii. 15 . encouraging them to formulate or answer questions can provide a space for continued interaction. interactionist promotes an interactive way of communication. Pedagogical implications: Basically. So.’ modified output’ which all them are depending on the level of input received.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 ‘negative and positive feedbacks’. And lastly. ‘learners capabilities’ and of course. They will have problems to differentiate and separate part of the meaning during the negotiation and interactions. referential questions make more interaction between learners than display questions. Then the learners will start to realized on several flaws within the theory as it is more on the belief of the language learning and acquisition is a social process (Lantolf. maybe we can view the interactionist theory of language learning as a hybrid between the input hypothesis and ‘social interaction’s components’ to become ‘the interactionist theory’. Teachers must also have the skill in questioning the students because types of questions also affect the classroom interaction. For example. And the type of interaction introduced to these L2 learners is a single interaction which restricted the negotiation interactions. this theory does not see the differences and the capabilities between the learners. the output.
16 . we can see that cooperative learning can be opposed to individual learners and create competitive learning environment. the theories are based on how adult learn or percept the language learning. PART B : REFLECTION FROM A STUDIES DONE ON A STANDARD 5 STUDENT ON LEARNING ENGLISH. Teachers need to play the major role to control the class interactions so that students will not refer back to their mother tongue. I am focusing on the student’s independent learning experience. I am clarifying my method as qualitative and interpretive since the data given by the student is subjective. As Larsen-Freeman (1991) stated that. And the nature of learning itself is dynamic. But here. and solve the miscommunication problem without using their mother language. Working together maximizes opportunities for student-student interaction with meaningful input and output in a supportive environment. Ellis (1994) was also describe the theories provided in language learning could be theoretically facilitate the second language learners but at certain point. to research the Second language learning and acquisition is a really challenging task since it is dealing with the complexity of SLA which involved the human sophisticated activities. The term nowadays are known as student-centered approach. Modification helps the learners to continue the interaction without interrupting it. For this part. The data collected through interview but in a social interaction setting. This approach requires learners to work in groups to achieve a common goal.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 Modification approach can also be implemented and it is widely used as negotiation of meaning. As mentioned previously by Brown on various interactions within classroom. Due to this. we are to see identify a selected student’s own perception on his learning the second language. English. so the perception will change from time to time. Negotiation of meaning here means restructuring interaction that occurs when a communication problem arises. we found that teachers thought that modifications techniques as tiring and again end up using the mother tongue.
And since then. learning grammar and making sentences will automatically lowering their interest to the language. In Aqilah’s settings. she already have the inputs which have been drills during her previous classes. she is one of my students which I have been teaching for 2 year now and I was unaware of her potential until recently. By saying 17 . I can see that. but still she unable to come out with expected result or at least able to pass her exams. her grades are improved. And if English is our main language it would not be any problem. She is very weak in reading. Nurul Aqilah. the output is either the ability of students to produce via interactions within classroom or via examinations. we need to have output. from my personal point of view. parents and superiors do not belief on something they unable to witness on papers. And in our culture of leaning. But I motivate her and the outcome was she was at the 5th place in the competition. So I choose to practice behaviorist methods which more on drillings (reinforcements). The reality of our local academic setting does not allow this to happen. she already sat for 2 exams. cannot be fully adapted in the local settings. The Krashen’s belief in comprehensible output. Aqilah never able to pass the English papers since she was in standard 4. To engage students like Aqilah with outside learning activities is one way to solve and fixed the interest. But after being exposed to the story telling competition in July 2012. For your information. The reason was.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 I have chosen a student from standard 5. But to view whether the learning process is achieving the objectives. So here it is obvious that vocabulary is the main reason. I found it is quite fascinating to see and observe her learning English. I can see her interest in learning. And because of the low level of understanding the vocabulary. what makes her unable to score and find it hard with the language? The main answer will be ‘unable to understand the words’. I do not really practice it. does not really working on some students. When I asked her about English lesson. Though I have been trained to use interactive method to teach English in school. like what I already did by involving her with the story telling competition. And our educational system is exam oriented. but due to the large number of students per class and a very limited time of interactions between me and students which is only 4 hours per week. the behaviorist approach which is more on stimulus-response-reinforcement.
to practice students just by supplying inputs to them is inappropriate since English is a second language used. My conclusion. interactions as well as exposure. as a teacher I would view the learning theories as a medium and guide but not mandatorily for me to stick and be stern only in particular theories. Most of the time. The adaptation base on students’ ability and interest is important because students need to have interest and some theory if it is constantly being practice without putting students into consideration will kill their interest. I need to reinforce the language first to them so they will be able to comprehend with the activities in the next lesson. And along the way of the teaching and learning process. I am saying that. I will need to check and make sure wether they really able to frab the concept. our children will have interest in learning language through motivation. 18 . We cannot block students at this age to learn and enquired whatever inputs whichever they want. It is suitable for the first language which students are already develop since they were born. which is the combination of the language learning theories discussed.MPB1313 SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ASSIGNMENT 1 this. I perceived. for students with low proficiency like Aqilah. To have drillings all the time would have been not suitable because language learning is a creative process.
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