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GE Power Systems

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control

Multicustomer Training Loveland, Colorado

2002

All rights reserved by the General Electric Company. No copies permitted without the prior written consent of the General Electric Company. The text and the classroom instruction offered with it are designed to acquaint students with generally accepted good practice for the operation or maintenance of equipment and/or systems. They do not purport to be complete nor are they intended to be specific for the products of any manufacturer, including those of the General Electric Company; and the Company will not accept any liability whatsoever for the work undertaken on the basis of the text or classroom instruction. The manufacturers operating and maintenance specifications are the only reliable guide in any specific instance; and where they are not complete, the manufacturer should be consulted. 2002 General Electric Company

GE Power Systems

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control Multicustomer Training Loveland, Colorado


2002
Tab 1 Fundamentals of SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Control Tab 2 Introduction to SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Control System Tab 3 Windows NT Introduction Tab 4 System Manual for SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control Volume 1 Tab 5 System Manual for SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control Volume 2 Tab 6 Control System Toolbox for Configuring a Mark VI Controller Tab 7 Turbine Library Standard Block Help Library Turbine Help Library Tab 8 Unit Controller 2000/VME Operation and Maintenance Tab 9 Control System Toolbox Trending Tab 10 I/O Report (Example) Tab 11 Panel Layout Drawings (Example) Tab 12 Network Layout (Example) Tab 13 Mark VI I/O Definition Tab 14 Mark VI Protection Configuration
SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control Multicustomer Training Loveland, Colorado

Fund_Mk_VI mk_VI_intro R1 GER 4193A 95_NT_INTRO_2 GEH 6421D GEH 6421D GEH 6403F GEH 6409 TBLIB GEH 6371 GEH 6408C io_rpt_samp panel_layout_ex 352B4435C MKVI_IO2 Prot_A3
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GE Power Systems Tab 15 Alarm Troubleshooting Tab 16 CIMPLICITY HMI Base System Users Manual Tab 17 CIMPLICITY CimEdit Operation Manual Tab 18 Reference Drawings Device Summary Servovalve Overview Lubrication Oil ppg Schematic Trip Oil ppg Schematic Fuel Gas ppg Schematic Cooling and Sealing Air ppg Schematic Tab 19 Signal Data Base (SDB) Browser Tab 20 Control Specifications Tab 21 Documentation ANSI Device Nomenclature Acronyms Signal List

alm_trbl_mk6 GFK 1180K GFK 1396F 363A5932G MOOG2 114E5966F 115E2525 115E2577 355B5850 GEI 100506 586A2603 A00029B acronym_class.pdf signal_name_class.pdf

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control Multicustomer Training Loveland, Colorado



GE Power Systems

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM


SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Control contains a number of control, protection and sequencing systems designed for reliable and safe operation of the gas turbine. It is the objective of this chapter to describe how the gas turbine control requirements are met, using simplified block diagrams and oneline diagrams of the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI control, protection, and sequencing systems. A generator drive gas turbine is used as the reference. celeration, speed, temperature, shutdown, and manual control functions illustrated in Figure 1. Sensors monitor turbine speed, exhaust temperature, compressor discharge pressure, and other parameters to determine the operating conditions of the unit. When it is necessary to alter the turbine operating conditions because of changes in load or ambient conditions, the control modulates the flow of fuel to the gas turbine. For example, if the exhaust temperature tends to exceed its allowable value for a given operating condition, the temperature control system reduces the fuel supplied to the turbine and thereby limits the exhaust temperature.

CONTROL SYSTEM
Basic Design
Control of the gas turbine is done by the startup, acTO CRT DISPLAY

FUEL TEMPERATURE

TO CRT DISPLAY FSR SPEED MINIMUM VALUE SELECT LOGIC FUEL SYSTEM

ACCELERATION RATE TO CRT DISPLAY START UP SHUT DOWN MANUAL

TO TURBINE

id0043

Figure 1 Simplified Control Schematic

Operating conditions of the turbine are sensed and utilized as feedback signals to the SPEEDTRONIC control system. There are three major control loops startup, speed, and temperature which may be in control during turbine operation. The output of these control loops is connected to a minimum value gate circuit as shown in Figure 1. The secondary control
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modes of acceleration, manual FSR, and shutdown operate in a similar manner. Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) is the command signal for fuel flow. The minimum value select gate connects the output signals of the six control modes to the FSR controller; the lowest FSR output of the six
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FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

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LOGIC CQTC

FSRSU

<R><S><T> START-UP CONTROL

FSR LOGIC TNH TNHAR TNH TNHAR FSRMIN

FSRACC

<R><S><T> ACCELERATION CONTROL

LOGIC FSRC

FSRMAN

<R><S><T> MANUAL FSR

FSRSU FSRACC FSRMAN FSRSD FSRN FSRT

FSR

MIN GATE

FSR

LOGIC TNHCOR CQTC FSRMIN FSRC FSR FSRMIN

FSRSD

<R><S><T> SHUTDOWN CONTROL

SPEED CONTROL <R><S><T> TTUR VTUR 77NH PR/D

LOGIC TNH FSRN

LOGIC

TNR

TNR

LOGIC

TNRI

TNRI

ISOCHRONOUS ONLY

TEMPERATURE CONTROL LOGIC TBAI VAIC A/D FSR TBTC VTCC TTXD A/D TTXD TTRX <R><S><T> TTRX LOGIC TTXM <R><S><T> MEDIAN FSR TTXM <R><S><T> FSRT

96CD

id0038V

Figure 2 Block Diagram Control Schematic

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

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control loops is allowed to pass through the gate to the fuel control system as the controlling FSR. The controlling FSR will establish the fuel input to the turbine at the rate required by the system which is in control. Only one control loop will be in control at any particular time and the control loop which is controlling FSR will be displayed on the <HMI>. Figure 2 shows a more detailed schematic of the control loops. This can be referenced during the explanation of each loop to show the interfacing. The following speed detectors and speed relays are typically used: L14HR ZeroSpeed (approx. 0% speed) L14HM speed) Minimum Speed (approx. 16%

L14HA Accelerating Speed (approx. 50% speed) L14HS speed) Operating Speed (approx. 95%

Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control


Startup control brings the gas turbine from zero speed up to operating speed safely by providing proper fuel to establish flame, accelerate the turbine, and to do it in such a manner as to minimize the low cycle fatigue of the hot gas path parts during the sequence. This involves proper sequencing of command signals to the accessories, starting device and fuel control system. Since a safe and successful startup depends on proper functioning of the gas turbine equipment, it is important to verify the state of selected devices in the sequence. Much of the control logic circuitry is associated not only with actuating control devices, but enabling protective circuits and obtaining permissive conditions before proceeding. The gas turbine uses a static start system whereby the generator serves as a starting motor. A turning gear is used for rotor breakaway. General values for control settings are given in this description to help in the understanding of the operating system. Actual values for control settings are given in the Control Specifications for a particular machine. Speed Detectors An important part of the startup/shutdown sequence control of the gas turbine is proper speed sensing. Turbine speed is measured by magnetic pickups and will be discussed under speed control.
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The zerospeed detector, L14HR, provides the signal when the turbine shaft starts or stops rotating. When the shaft speed is below 14HR, or at zero speed, L14HR picksup (fail safe) and the permissive logic initiates turning gear or slowroll operation during the automatic startup sequence of the turbine. The minimum speed detector L14HM indicates that the turbine has reached the minimum firing speed and initiates the purge cycle prior to the introduction of fuel and ignition. The dropout of the L14HM minimum speed relay provides several permissive functions in the restarting of the gas turbine after shutdown. The accelerating speed relay L14HA pickup indicates when the turbine has reached approximately 50 percent speed; this indicates that turbine startup is progressing and keys certain protective features. The highspeed sensor L14HS pickup indicates when the turbine is at speed and that the accelerating sequence is almost complete. This signal provides the logic for various control sequences such as stopping auxiliary lube oil pumps and starting turbine shell/exhaust frame blowers. Should the turbine and generator slow during an underfrequency situation, L14HS will drop out at the underfrequency speed setting. After L14HS drops out the generator breaker will trip open and the Turbine Speed Reference (TNR) will be reset to 100.3%. As the turbine accelerates, L14HS will again pick up; the turbine will then require another start signal before the generator will attempt to auto synchronize to the system again.
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GE Power Systems
The actual settings of the speed relays are listed in the Control Specification and are programmed in the <RST> processors as EEPROM control constants. OR LOWER allows manual adjustment of FSR setting between FSRMIN and FSRMAX. While the turbine is at rest, electronic checks are made of the fuel system stop and control valves, the accessories, and the voltage supplies. At this time, SHUTDOWN STATUS will be displayed on the <HMI>. Activating the Master Operation Switch (L43) from OFF to an operating mode will activate the ready circuit. If all protective circuits and trip latches are reset, the STARTUP STATUS and READY TO START messages will be displayed, indicating that the turbine will accept a start signal. Clicking on the START Master Control Switch (L1S) and EXECUTE will introduce the start signal to the logic sequence. The start signal energizes the Master Control and Protection circuit (the L4 circuit) and starts the necessary auxiliary equipment. The L4 circuit permits pressurization of the trip oil system. With the L4 circuit permissive and starting clutch automatically engaged, the starting device starts turning. Startup status message STARTING will be displayed on the <HMI>. See point A on the Typical Startup Curve Figure 3.
SPEED % 100

STARTUP CONTROL
The startup control operates as an open loop control using preset levels of the fuel command signal FSR. The levels are: ZERO, FIRE, WARM UP, ACCELERATE and MAX. The Control Specifications provide proper settings calculated for the fuel anticipated at the site. The FSR levels are set as Control Constants in the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI startup control. Startup control FSR signals operate through the minimum value gate to ensure that other control functions can limit FSR as required. The fuel command signals are generated by the SPEEDTRONIC control startup software. In addition to the three active startup levels, the software sets maximum and minimum FSR and provides for manual control of FSR. Clicking on the targets for MAN FSR CONTROL and FSR GAG RAISE

80 ACCELERATE IGNITION & CROSSFIRE 60 START AUXILIARIES & DIESEL WARMUP PURGE COAST DOWN WARMUP 1 MIN IGV DEGREES Tx F/10

40

20 C 0 A

FSR %

APPROXIMATE TIME MINUTES

id0093

Figure 3 Mark VI Start-up Curve

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

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The starting clutch is a positive tooth type overrunning clutch which is selfengagifng in the breakaway mode and overruns whenever the turbine rotor exceeds the turning gear speed. When the turbine breaks away the turning gear will rotate the turbine rotor from 5 to 7 rpm. As the static starter begins its sequence, and accelerates the rotor the starting clutch will automatically disengage the turning gear from the turbine rotor. The turbine speed relay L14HM indicates that the turbine is turning at the speed required for proper purging and ignition in the combustors. Gas fired units that have exhaust configurations which can trap gas leakage (i.e., boilers) have a purge timer, L2TV, which is initiated with the L14HM signal. The purge time is set to allow three to four changes of air through the unit to ensure that any combustible mixture has been purged from the system. The starting means will hold speed until L2TV has completed its cycle. Units which do not have extensive exhaust systems may not have a purge timer, but rely on the starting cycle and natural draft to purge the system. The L14HM signal or completion of the purge cycle (L2TVX) enables fuel flow, ignition, sets firing level FSR, and initiates the firing timer L2F. See point B on Figure 3. When the flame detector output signals indicate flame has been established in the combustors (L28FD), the warmup timer L2W starts and the fuel command signal is reduced to the WARMUP FSR level. The warmup time is provided to minimize the thermal stresses of the hot gas path parts during the initial part of the startup. If flame is not established by the time the L2F timer times out, typically 60 seconds, fuel flow is halted. The unit can be given another start signal, but firing will be delayed by the L2TV timer to avoid fuel accumulation in successive attempts. This sequence occurs even on units not requiring initial L2TV purge. At the completion of the warmup period (L2WX), the startup control ramps FSR at a predetermined rate to the setting for ACCELERATE LIMIT. The startup cycle has been designed to moderate the highest firing temperature produced during accelFund_Mk_VI

eration. This is done by programming a slow rise in FSR. See point C on Figure 3. As fuel is increased, the turbine begins the acceleration phase of startup. The clutch is held in as long as the turning gear provides torque to the gas turbine. When the turbine overruns the turning gear, the clutch will disengage, shutting down the turning gear. Speed relay L14HA indicates the turbine is accelerating. The startup phase ends when the unit attains full speednoload (see point D on Figure 3). FSR is then controlled by the speed loop and the auxiliary systems are automatically shut down. The startup control software establishes the maximum allowable levels of FSR signals during start up. As stated before, other control circuits are able to reduce and modulate FSR to perform their control functions. In the acceleration phase of the startup, FSR control usually passes to acceleration control, which monitors the rate of rotor acceleration. It is possible, but not normal, to reach the temperature control limit. The <HMI> display will show which parameter is limiting or controlling FSR. Fired Shutdown A normal shutdown is initiated by clicking on the STOP target (L1STOP) and EXECUTE; this will produce the L94X signal. If the generator breaker is closed when the stop signal is initiated, the Turbine Speed Reference (TNR) counts down to reduce load at the normal loading rate until the reverse power relay operates to open the generator breaker; TNR then continues to count down to reduce speed. When the STOP signal is given, shutdown Fuel Stroke Reference FSRSD is set equal to FSR. When the generator breaker opens, FSRSD ramps from existing FSR down to a value equal to FSRMIN, the minimum fuel required to keep the turbine fired. FSRSD latches onto FSRMIN and decreases with corrected speed. When turbine speed drops below a defined threshold (Control Constant K60RB) FSRSD ramps to a blowout of one flame detector. The sequencing logic remembers which flame detectors were functional when the breaker opened. When any of the functional flame detectors
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GE Power Systems
senses a loss of flame, FSRMIN/FSRSD decreases at a higher rate until flameout occurs, after which fuel flow is stopped. Fired shut down is an improvement over the former fuel shut off at L14HS drop out. By maintaining flame down to a lower speed there is significant reduction in the strain developed on the hot gas path parts at the time of fuel shut off.

Speed/Load Reference
The speed control software will change FSR in proportion to the difference between the actual turbine generator speed (TNH) and the calledfor speed reference (TNR). The calledforspeed, TNR, determines the load of the turbine. The range for generator drive turbines is normally from 95% (min.) to 107% (max.) speed. The startup speed reference is 100.3% and is preset when a START signal is given.
TNR MAX. 107 HIGH SPEED STOP

SPEED CONTROL
The Speed Control System controls the speed and load of the gas turbine generator in response to the actual turbine speed signal and the calledfor speed reference. While on speed control the control mode message SPEED CTRLwill be displayed.

104

SPEED REFERENCE % (TNR)

Speed Signal
Three magnetic sensors are used to measure the speed of the turbine. These magnetic pickup sensors (77NH1,2,3) are high output devices consisting of a permanent magnet surrounded by a hermetically sealed case. The pickups are mounted in a ring around a 60toothed wheel on the gas turbine compressor rotor. With the 60tooth wheel, the frequency of the voltage output in Hertz is exactly equal to the speed of the turbine in revolutions per minute. The voltage output is affected by the clearance between the teeth of the wheel and the tip of the magnetic pickup. Clearance between the outside diameter of the toothed wheel and the tip of the magnetic pickup should be kept within the limits specified in the Control Specifications (approx. 0.05 inch or 1.27 mm). If the clearance is not maintained within the specified limits, the pulse signal can be distorted. Turbine speed control would then operate in response to the incorrect speed feedback signal. The signal from the magnetic pickups is brought into the Mark VI panel, one mag pickup to each controller <RST>, where it is monitored by the speed control software.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
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FSNL 100 FULL SPEED NO LOAD FSR RATED FSR

MINIMUM FSR

95 TNR MIN.

LOW SPEED STOP

FUEL STROKE REFERENCE (LOAD) (FSR) id0044

Figure 4 Droop Control Curve

The turbine follows to 100.3% TNH for synchronization. At this point the operator can raise or lower TNR, in turn raising or lowering TNH, via the 70R4CS switch on the generator control panel or by clicking on the targets on the <HMI>, if required. Refer to Figure 4. Once the generator breaker is closed onto the power grid, the speed is held constant by the grid frequency. Fuel flow in excess of that necessary to maintain full speed no load will result in increased power produced by the generator. Thus the speed control loop becomes a load control loop and the speed reference is a convenient control
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MAX FSR

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of the desired amount of load to be applied to the turbinegenerator unit. Droop speed control is a proportional control, changing FSR in proportion to the difference between actual turbine speed and the speed reference. Any change in actual speed (grid frequency) will cause a proportional change in unit load. This proportionality is adjustable to the desired regulation or Droop. The speed vs. FSR relationship is shown on Figure 4. If the entire grid system tends to be overloaded, grid frequency (or speed) will decrease and cause an FSR increase in proportion to the droop setting. If all units have the same droop, all will share a load increase equally. Load sharing and system stability are the main advantages of this method of speed control. Normally 4% droop is selected and the setpoint is calibrated such that 104% setpoint will generate a speed reference which will produce an FSR resulting in base load at design ambient temperature. When operating on droop control, the fullspeed noload FSR setting calls for a fuel flow which is sufficient to maintain full speed with no generator load. By closing the generator breaker and raising TNR via raise/lower, the error between speed and reference is increased. This error is multiplied by a
<RST> SPEED CONTROL FSNL TNR SPEED REFERENCE + TNH SPEED DROOP ERROR SIGNAL + + FSRN

<RST> SPEED CHANGER LOAD SET POINT

MAX. LIMIT L83SD RATE L70R RAISE L70L LOWER L83PRES PRESET LOGIC PRESET OPERATING L83TNROP MIN. SELECT LOGIC START-UP OR SHUTDOWN
id0040

MEDIAN SELECT

TNR SPEED REFERENCE

MIN.

Figure 5 Speed Control Schematic


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FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
gain constant dependent on the desired droop setting and added to the FSNL FSR setting to produce the required FSR to take more load and thus assist in holding the system frequency. Refer to Figures 4 and 5. The minimum FSR limit (FSRMIN) in the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI system prevents the speed control circuits from driving the FSR below the value which would cause flameout during a transient condition. For example, with a sudden rejection of load on the turbine, the speed control system loop would want to drive the FSR signal to zero, but the minimum FSR setting establishes the minimum fuel level that prevents a flameout. Temperature and/or startup control can drive FSR to zero and are not influenced by FSRMIN.

Synchronizing
Automatic synchronizing is accomplished using synchronizing algorithms programmed into <RST> and <VPRO> software. Bus and generator voltage signals are input to the <VPRO> core which contains isolation transformers, and are then paralleled to <RST>. <RST> software drives the synch check and synch permissive relays, while <VPRO> provides the actual breaker close command. See Figure 6.
<XYZ> AUTO SYNCH

<RST> AUTO SYNCH PERMISSIVE CALCULATED PHASE WITHIN LIMITS GEN VOLTS REF AND

A A>B B

CALCULATED SLIP WITHIN LIMITS AND L83AS AUTO SYNCH PERMISSIVE

CALCULATED ACCELERATION

L25 BREAKER CLOSE

LINE VOLTS REF

A A>B B

CALCULATED BREAKER LEAD TIME

id0048V

Figure 6 Synchronizing Control Schematic

There are three basic synchronizing modes. These may be selected from external contacts, i.e., generator panel selector switch, or from the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI <HMI>. 1. OFF Breaker will not be closed by SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI control 2. MANUAL Operator initiated breaker closure when permissive synch check relay 25X is satisfied 3. AUTO System will automatically match voltage and speed and then close the breaker at the appropriate time to hit top dead center on the synchroscope
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
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For synchronizing, the unit is brought to 100.3% speed to keep the generator faster than the grid, assuring load pickup upon breaker closure. If the system frequency has varied enough to cause an unacceptable slip frequency (difference between generator frequency and grid frequency), the speed matching circuit adjusts TNR to maintain turbine speed 0.20% to 0.40% faster than the grid to assure the correct slip frequency and permit synchronizing. For added protection a synchronizing check relay is provided in the generator panel. It is used in series with both the auto synchronizing relay and the manual breaker close switch to prevent large out ofphase breaker closures.
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ACCELERATION CONTROL
Acceleration control compares the present value of the speed signal with the value at the last sample time. The difference between these two numbers is a measure of the acceleration. If the actual acceleration is greater than the acceleration reference, FSRACC is reduced, which will reduce FSR, and consequently the fuel to the gas turbine. During startup the acceleration reference is a function of turbine speed; acceleration control usually takes over from speed control shortly after the warmup period and brings the unit to speed. At Complete Sequence, which is normally 14HS pickup, the acceleration reference is a Control Constant, normally 1% speed/second. After the unit has reached 100% TNH, acceleration control usually serves only to contain the units speed if the generator breaker should open while under load.

ISOTHERMAL EXHASUT TEMPERATURE (Tx)

turbine occurs in the flame zone of the combustion chambers. The combustion gas in that zone is diluted by cooling air and flows into the turbine section through the first stage nozzle. The temperature of that gas as it exits the first stage nozzle is known as the firing temperature of the gas turbine; it is this temperature that must be limited by the control system. From thermodynamic relationships, gas turbine cycle performance calculations, and known site conditions, firing temperature can be determined as a function of exhaust temperature and the pressure ratio across the turbine; the latter is determined from the measured compressor discharge pressure (CPD). The temperature control system is designed to measure and control turbine exhaust temperature rather than firing temperature because it is impractical to measure temperatures directly in the combustion chambers or at the turbine inlet. This indirect control of turbine firing temperature is made practical by utilizing known gas turbine aero and thermodynamic characteristics and using those to bias the exhaust temperature signal, since the exhaust temperature alone is not a true indication of firing temperature. Firing temperature can also be approximated as a function of exhaust temperature and fuel flow (FSR) and as a function of exhaust temperature and generator output (DWATT). Either FSR or megawatt exhaust temperature control curves are used as backup to the primary CPDbiased temperature control curve. These relationships are shown on Figures 7 and 8. The lines of constant firing temperature are used in the control system to limit gas turbine operating temperatures, while the constant exhaust temperature limit protects the exhaust system during start up.

COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE PRESSURE (CPD)

id0045

Figure 7 Exhaust Temperature vs. Compressor Discharge Pressure

Exhaust Temperature Control Hardware

TEMPERATURE CONTROL
The Temperature Control System will limit fuel flow to the gas turbine to maintain internal operating temperatures within design limitations of turbine hot gas path parts. The highest temperature in the gas
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ChromelAlumel exhaust temperature thermocouples are used and, typically 27 in number. These thermocouples circumferentially inside the exhaust diffuser. They have individual radiation shields that allow the radial outward diffuser flow to pass over
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GE Power Systems
tive exhaust temperature value, compares this value with the setpoint, and then generates a fuel command signal to the analog control system to limit exhaust temperature.
ISOTHERMAL EXHASUT TEMPERATURE (Tx)

Temperature Control Command Program


The temperature control command program compares the exhaust temperature control setpoint with the measured gas turbine exhaust temperature as obtained from the thermocouples mounted in the exhaust plenum; these thermocouples are scanned and cold junction corrected by programs described later. These signals are accessed by <RST>. The temperature control command program in <RST> (Figure 9) reads the exhaust thermocouple temperature values and sorts them from the highest to the lowest. This array (TTXD2) is used in the combustion monitor program as well as in the Temperature Control Program. In the Temperature Control Program all exhaust thermocouple inputs are monitored and if any are reading too low as compared to a constant, they will be rejected. The highest and lowest values are then rejected and the remaining values are averaged, that average being the TTXM signal. If a Controller should fail, this program will ignore the readings from the failed Controller. The TTXM signal will be based on the remaining Controllers thermocouples and an alarm will be generated. The TTXM value is used as the feedback for the exhaust temperature comparator because the value is not affected by extremes that may be the result of faulty instrumentation. The temperaturecontrol command program in <RST> compares the exhaust temperature control setpoint (calculated in the temperaturecontrolbias program and stored in the computer memory) TTRXB to the TTXM value to determine the temperature error. The software program converts the temperature error to a fuel stroke reference signal, FSRT.

FUEL STROKE REFERENCE (FSR) id0046

Figure 8 Exhaust Temperature vs. Fuel Control Command Signal

these 1/16 diameter (1.6mm) stainless steel sheathed thermocouples at high velocity, minimizing the cooling effect of the longer time constant, cooler plenum walls. The signals from these individual, ungrounded detectors are sent to the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI control panel through shielded thermocouple cables and are divided amongst controllers <RST>.

Exhaust Temperature Control Software


The software contains a series of application programs written to perform the exhaust temperature control and monitoring functions such as digital and analog input scan. A major function is the exhaust temperature control, which consists of the following programs: 1. Temperature control command 2. Temperature control bias calculations 3. Temperature reference selection The temperature control software determines the cold junction compensated thermocouple readings, selects the temperature control setpoint, calculates the control setpoint value, calculates the representaFUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
10

Temperature Control Bias Program


Gas turbine firing temperature is determined by the measured parameters of exhaust temperature and
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GE Power Systems

<RST> . TTXD2 SORT HIGHEST TO LOWEST TO COMBUSTION MONITOR

TTXDR TTXDS TTXDT

QUANTITY OF TCs USED

REJECT LOW TCs

REJECT HIGH AND LOW

AVERAGE REMAINING

TTXM

<RST> TEMPERATURE CONTROL REFERENCE FSRMIN CPD FSRMAX SLOPE MIN SELECT TTXM TTRXB

<RST> TEMPERATURE CONTROL

CORNER

SLOPE

MEDIAN SELECT +

FSRT

FSR GAIN CORNER FSR ISOTHERMAL

id0032V

Figure 9 Temperature Control Schematic

compressor discharge pressure (CPD) or exhaust temperature and fuel consumption (proportional to FSR). In the computer, firing temperature is limited by a linearized function of exhaust temperature and CPD backed up by a linearized function of exhaust temperature and FSR (See Figure 8). The temperature control bias program (Figure 10) calculates the exhaust temperature control setpoint TTRXB based on the CPD data stored in computer memory and constants from the selected temperaturereference table. The program calculates another setpoint based on FSR and constants from another temperature reference table. Figure 11 is a graphical illustration of the control setpoints. The constants TTKn_C (CPD bias corner) and TTKn_S (CPD bias slope) are used with the CPD data to determine the CPD bias exhaust temFund_Mk_VI

DIGITAL INPUT DATA

COMPUTER MEMORY

SELECTED TEMPERATURE REFERENCE TABLE

TEMPERATURE CONTROL BIAS PROGRAM

COMPUTER MEMORY

CONSTANT STORAGE
id0023

Figure 10 Temperature Control Bias

perature setpoint. The constants TTKn_K (FSR bias corner) and TTKn_M (FSR bias slope) are used with the FSR data to determine the FSR bias exhaust temperature setpoint. The values for these constants are
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FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
given in the Control SpecificationsControl System Settings drawing. The temperaturecontrolbias program also selects the isothermal setpoint TTKn_I. The program selects the minimum of the three setpoints, CPD bias, FSR bias, or isothermal for the final exhaust temperature control reference. During normal operation with gas or light distillate fuels, this selection results in a CPD bias control with an isothermal limit, as shown by the heavy lines on Figure 11. The CPD bias setpoint is compared with the FSR bias setpoint by the program and an alarm occurs when the CPD setpoint is higher. For units operating with heavy fuel, FSR bias control will be selected to minimize the effect of turbine nozzle plugging on firing temperature. The FSR bias setpoint will then be compared with the CPD bias setpoint and an alarm will occur when the FSR setpoint exceeds the CPD setpoint. A ramp function is provided in the program to limit the rate at which the setpoint can change. The maximum and minimum change in ramp rates (slope) are programmed in constants TTKRXR1 and TTKRXR2. Consult the Control Sequence Program (CSP) and the Control Specifications drawing for the block diagram illustration of this function and the value of the constants. Typical rate change limit is 1.5F per second. The output of the ramp function is the exhaust temperature control setpoint which is stored in the computer memory.

Temperature Reference Select Program


The exhaust temperature control function selects control setpoints to allow gas turbine operation at various firing temperatures. The temperaturereferenceselect program (Figure 12) determines the operational level for control setpoints based on digital input information representing temperature control requirements. Three digital input signals are decoded to select one set of constants which define the control setpoints necessary to meet those requirements. A typical digital signal is BASE SELECT, selected by clicking on the appropriate target on the operator interface <HMI>.

FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM


The gas turbine fuel control system will change fuel flow to the combustors in response to the fuel stroke reference signal (FSR). FSR actually consists of two separate signals added together, FSR1 being the calledfor liquid fuel flow and FSR2 being the calledfor gas fuel flow; normally, FSR1 + FSR2 = FSR. Standard fuel systems are designed for operation with liquid fuel and/or gas fuel. This chapter will describe a dual fuel system. It starts with the servo drive system, where the setpoint is compared with the feedback signal and converted to a valve position. It will describe liquid, gas and dual fuel operation and how the FSR from the control systems previously described is conditioned and sent as a set point to the servo system.

EXHAUST TEMPERATURE

TTKn_I TTKn_C

TTKn_K

ISOTHERMAL

DIGITAL INPUT DATA

TEMPERATURE REFERENCE SELECT

SELECTED TEMPERATURE REFERENCE TABLE

CPD FSR

CONSTANT STORAGE
id0054 id0106

Figure 11 Exhaust Temperature Control Setpoints

Figure 12 Temperature Reference Select Program

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GE Power Systems Servo Drive System


The heart of the fuel system is a three coil electro hydraulic servovalve (servo) as shown in Figure 13. The servovalve is the interface between the electrical and mechanical systems and controls the direction and rate of motion of a hydraulic actuator based on the input current to the servo.
3-COIL TORQUE MOTOR TORQUE MOTOR ARMATURE N N

TORQUE MOTOR

actuator. If the hydraulic actuator has spring return, hydraulic oil will be ported to one side of the cylinder and the other to drain. A feedback signal provided by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT, Figure 13) will tell the control whether or not it is in the required position. The LVDT outputs an AC voltage which is proportional to the position of the core of the LVDT. This core in turn is connected to the valve whose position is being controlled; as the valve moves, the feedback voltage changes. The LVDT requires an exciter voltage which is provided by the VSVO card. Figure 14 shows the major components of the servo positioning loops. The digital (microprocessor signal) to analog conversion is done on the VSVO card; this represents calledfor fuel flow. The calledfor fuel flow signal is then compared to a feedback representing actual fuel flow. The difference is amplified on the VSVO card and sent through the TSVO card to the servo. This output to the servos is monitored and there will be an alarm on loss of any one of the three signals from <RST>.

JET TUBE FORCE FEEDBACK SPRING S S

FAIL SAFE BIAS SPRING

P 1

R 2

SPOOL VALVE DRAIN 1350 PSI

HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR

TO <RST>

LVDT

ABEX Servovalve
Figure 13 Electrohydraulic Servovalve

The servovalve contains three electrically isolated coils on the torque motor. Each coil is connected to one of the three Controllers <RST>. This provides redundancy should one of the Controllers or coils fail. There is a nullbias spring which positions the servo so that the actuator will go to the fail safe position should ALL power and/or control signals be lost. If the hydraulic actuator is a doubleaction piston, the control signal positions the servovalve so that it ports highpressure oil to either side of the hydraulic

Fund_Mk_VI

PS

FILTER

Liquid Fuel Control


The liquid fuel system consists of fuel handling components and electrical control components. Some of the fuel handling components are: primary fuel oil filter, fuel oil stop valve, three fuel pumps, fuel bypass valve, fuel pump pressure relief valve, flow divider, combined selector valve/pressure gauge assembly, false start drain valve, fuel lines, and fuel nozzles. The electrical control components are: liquid fuel pressure switch (upstream) 63FL2, fuel oil stop valve limit switch 33FL, liquid fuel pump bypass valve servovalve 65FP, flow divider magnetic speed pickups 77FD1, 2, 3 and SPEEDTRONIC control cards TSVO and VSVO. A diagram of the system showing major components is shown in Figure 15. The fuel bypass valve is a hydraulically actuated valve with a linear flow characteristic. Located

id0029

13

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM


14
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POSTION FEEDBACK <R> TSVO VSVO REF TSVO 3.2KHZ D/A EXCITATION

LVDT

Figure 14 Servo Positioning Loops

FUEL

<S> VSVO REF D/A 3.2KHZ TORQUE MOTOR HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR SERVO VALVE

<T> VSVO REF D/A 3.2KHZ

HIGH PRESSURE OIL EXCITATION

GE Power Systems

POSTION FEEDBACK LVDT

id0026

GE Power Systems
between the inlet (low pressure) and discharge (high pressure) sides of the fuel pump, this valve bypasses excess fuel delivered by the fuel pump back to the fuel pump inlet, delivering to the flow divider the
<RST> FSR1 FQROUT TNH L4 L20FLX VSVO PR/A FQ1 <RST> <RST> TSVO

fuel necessary to meet the control system fuel demand. It is positioned by servo valve 65FP, which receives its signal from the controllers.

BY-PASS VALVE ASM. P R 65FP DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GUAGE FLOW DIVIDER 77FD-1 COMBUSTION CHAMBER OFV FUEL STOP VALVE OF FUEL PUMP (QTY 3) TYPICAL FUEL NOZZLES

40

63FL-2

OH HYDRAULIC SUPPLY

VR4 AD

33FL OLTCONTROL OIL FALSE START DRAIN VALVE CHAMBER OFD 77FD-2 TO DRAIN 77FD-3 id0031V

Figure 15 Liquid Fuel Control Schematic

The flow divider divides the single stream of fuel from the pump into several streams, one for each combustor. It consists of a number of matched high volumetric efficiency positive displacement gear pumps, again one per combustor. The flow divider is driven by the small pressure differential between the inlet and outlet. The gear pumps are mechanically connected so that they all run at the same speed, making the discharge flow from each pump equal. Fuel flow is represented by the output from the flow divider magnetic pickups (77FD1, 2 & 3). These are noncontacting magnetic pickups, giving a pulse signal frequency proportional to flow divider speed, which is proportional to the fuel flow delivered to the combustion chambers. The TSVO card receives the pulse rate signals from 77FD1, 2, and 3 and outputs an analog signal which is proportional to the pulse rate input. The
Fund_Mk_VI

VSVO card modulates servovalve 65FP based on inputs of turbine speed, FSR1 (calledfor liquid fuel flow), and flow divider speed (FQ1). Fuel Oil Control Software When the turbine is run on liquid fuel oil, the control system checks the permissives L4 and L20FLX and does not allow FSR1 to close the bypass valve unless they are true (closing the bypass valve sends fuel to the combustors). The L4 permissive comes from the Master Protective System (to be discussed later) and L20FLX becomes true after the turbine vent timer times out. These signals control the opening and closing of the fuel oil stop valve. The FSR signal from the controlling system goes through the fuel splitter where the liquid fuel requirement becomes FSR1. The FSR1 signal is multiplied by TNH, so fuel flow becomes a function of
15

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
speed an important feature, particularly while the unit is starting. This enables the system to have better resolution at the lower, more critical speeds where air flow is very low. This produces the FQROUT signal, which is the digital liquid fuel flow command. At full speed TNH does not change, therefore FQROUT is directly proportional to FSR. FQROUT then goes to the VSVO card where it is changed to an analog signal to be compared to the feedback signal from the flow divider. As the fuel flows into the turbine, speed sensors 77FD1, 2, and 3 send a signal to the TSVO card, which in turn outputs the fuel flow rate signal (FQ1) to the VSVO card. When the fuel flow rate is equal to the called for rate (FQ1 = FSR1), the servovalve 65FP is moved to the null position and the bypass valve remains stationary until some input to the system changes. If the feedback is in error with FQROUT, the operational amplifier on the VSVO card will change the signal to servovalve 65FP to drive the bypass valve in a direction to decrease the error. The flow divider feedback signal is also used for system checks. This analog signal is converted to digital counts and is used in the controllers software to compare to certain limits as well as to display fuel flow on the <HMI>. The checks made are as follows: L60FFLH:Excessive fuel flow on startup L3LFLT1:Loss of LVDT position feedback L3LFBSQ:Bypass valve is not fully open when the stop valve is closed. L3LFBSC:Servo current is detected when the stop valve is closed. L3LFT:Loss of flow divider feedback If L60FFLH is true for a specified time period (nominally 2 seconds), the unit will trip; if L3LFLT1 through L3LFT are true, these faults will trip the unit during startup and require manual reset.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
16

Gas Fuel Control


The dry low NOx II (DLN2) control system regulates the distribution of gas fuel to a multinozzle combustor arrangement. The fuel flow distribution to each fuel nozzle assembly is a function of combustion reference temperature (TTRF1) and IGV temperature control mode. By a combination of fuel staging and shifting of combustion modes from diffusion at ignition through premix at higher loads, low nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions are achieved. Fuel gas is controlled by the gas stop/speed ratio valve (SRV), the primary, secondary and quaternary gas control valves (GCV) , and the premix splitter valve (PMSV). The premix splitter valve controls the split between secondary and tertiary gas flow. All valves are servo controlled by signals from the SPEEDTRONIC control panel (Figure 16). It is the gas control valve which controls the desired gas fuel flow in response to the command signal FSR. To enable it to do this in a predictable manner, the speed ratio valve is designed to maintain a predetermined pressure (P2) at the inlet of the gas control valve as a function of gas turbine speed. There are three main DLN2 combustion modes: Primary, LeanLean, and Premix. Primary mode exists from light off to 81% corrected speed, fuel flow to primary nozzles only. Lean Lean is from 81% corrected speed to a preselected combustion reference temperature, with fuel to the primary and tertiary nozzles. In Premix operation fuel is directed to secondary, tertiary and quaternary nozzles. Minimum load for this operation is set by combustion reference temperature and IGV position. The fuel gas control system consists primarily of the following components: gas strainer, gas supply pressure switch 63FG, stop/speed ratio valve assembly, fuel gas pressure transducer(s) 96FG, gas fuel vent solenoid valve 20VG, control valve assembly, LVDTs 96GC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 96SR1, 2, 96 PS1, 2, electrohydraulic servovalves 90SR, 65GC and 65PS, dump valve(s) VH5, three pressure gauges, gas manifold with pigtails to respecFund_Mk_VI

GE Power Systems
tive fuel nozzles, and SPEEDTRONIC control cards TBQB and TCQC. The components are shown schematically in Figure 17. A functional explanation is graphs. contained in subsequent para-

DLN2 GAS FUEL SYSTEM


SGCV

T
PMSV

SRV PGCV

S P

SINGLE BURNING ZONE 5 BURNERS

QGCV
GAS SKID SRV SPEED/RATIO VALVE

*
Q
TURBINE COMPARTMENT T TERTIARY MANIFOLD, 1 NOZ. PREMIX ONLY S SECONDARY MANIFOLD, 4 NOZ. PREMIX INJ. P PRIMARY MANIFOLD, 4 NOZ. DIFFUSION INJ. Q QUAT MANIFOLD, CASING. PREMIX ONLY

PGCV GAS CONTROL, PRIMARY SGCV GAS CONTROL, SECONDARY QGCV GAS CONTROL, QUATERNARY PMSV PREMIX SPLITTER VALVE

PURGE AIR (PCD AIR SUPPLY)

Figure 16 DLN2 Gas Fuel System

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17

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems

FPRG POS2

VSVO TSVO

POS1

VSVO GAS CONTROL VALVE SERVO

TSVO GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION FEEDBACK

SPEED RATIO VALVE CONTROL

FSR2

FPG

TBAI VAIC

96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C TRANSDUCERS VENT 20VG

TSVO

COMBUSTION CHAMBER 63FG-3 STOP/ RATIO VALVE GAS CONTROL VALVE

GAS P2

Electrical Connection Hydraulic Piping Gas Piping


VH5-1 DUMP RELAY TRIP LVDTS 96SR-1,2 LVDTS 96GC-1,2

GAS MANIFOLD

90SR SERVO

65GC SERVO

HYDRAULIC SUPPLY

id0059V

Figure 17 Gas Fuel Control System

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

18

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GE Power Systems
Gas Control Valves The position of the gas control valve plug is intended to be proportional to FSR2 which represents called for gas fuel flow. Actuation of the springloaded gas control valve is by a hydraulic cylinder controlled by an electrohydraulic servovalve. When the turbine is to run on gas fuel the permissives L4, L20FGX and L2TVX (turbine purge complete) must be true, similar to the liquid system. This allows the Gas Control Valve to open. The stroke of the valve will be proportional to FSR. FSR goes through the fuel splitter (to be discussed in the dual fuel section) where the gas fuel requirement becomes FSR2, which is then conditioned for offset and gain. This signal, FSROUT, goes to the VSVO card where it is converted to an analog signal and
<RST> OFFSET GAIN FSR2 L4 L3GCV FSROUT ANALOG I/O
+ +

then output to the servo valve through the TSVO card. The gas control valve stem position is sensed by the output of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and fed back through the TSVO card to an operational amplifier on the VSVO card where it is compared to the FSROUT input signal at a summing junction. There are two LVDTs providing feedback ; two of the three controllers are dedicated to one LVDT each, while the third selects the highest feedback through a highselect diode gate. If the feedback is in error with FSROUT, the operational amplifier on the VSVO card will change the signal to the hydraulic servovalve to drive the gas control valve in a direction to decrease the error. In this way the desired relationship between position and FSR2 is maintained and the control valve correctly meters the gas fuel. See Figure 18.

<RST> HIGH SELECT TBQC

GAS CONTROL VALVE GAS P2

GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION LOOP CALIBRATION POSITION LVDT

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION GAS PIPING HYDRAULIC PIPING

SERVO VALVE

Figure 18 Gas Control Valve Control Schematic


Fund_Mk_VI


19

LVDTS 96GC-1, -2

FSR
id0027V

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems

<RST> TNH <RST> GAIN VSVO


+

OFFSET L4 L3GRV

FPRG

D A FPG

HIGH POS2 SELECT

96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C SPEED RATIO VALVE GAS 96SR-1,2 LVDTS VAIC

OPERATING CYLINDER PISTON TRIP OIL

LEGEND ELECTRICAL CONNECTION GAS PIPING HYDRAULIC PIPING DIGITAL P2 or PRESSURE CONTROL VOLTAGE TNH Speed Ratio Valve Pressure Calibration
id0058V

HYDRAULIC OIL

Figure 19 Stop/Speed Ratio Valve Control Schematic

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM


DUMP RELAY SERVO VALVE

TBAI

TSVO

20

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GE Power Systems
The plug in the gas control valve is contoured to provide the proper flow area in relation to valve stroke. The gas control valve uses a skirted valve disc and venturi seat to obtain adequate pressure recovery. High pressure recovery occurs at overall valve pressure ratios substantially less than the critical pressure ratio. The net result is that flow through the control valve is independent of valve pressure drop. Gas flow then is a function of valve inlet pressure P2 and valve area only. As before, an open or a short circuit in one of the servo coils or in the signal to one coil does not cause a trip. Each GCV has two LVDTs and can run correctly on one. Stop/Speed Ratio Valve The speed ratio/stop valve is a dual function valve. It serves as a pressure regulating valve to hold a desired fuel gas pressure ahead of the gas control valve and it also serves as a stop valve. As a stop valve it is an integral part of the protection system. Any emergency trip or normal shutdown will move the valve to its closed position shutting off gas fuel flow to the turbine. This is done either by dumping hydraulic oil from the Stop/Speed Ratio Valve VH5 hydraulic trip relay or driving the position control closed electrically. The stop/speed ratio valve has two control loops. There is a position loop similar to that for the gas control valve and there is a pressure control loop. See Figure 19. Fuel gas pressure P2 at the inlet to the gas control valve is controlled by the pressure loop as a function of turbine speed. This is done by proportioning it to turbine speed signal TNH, with an offset and gain, which then becomes Gas Fuel Pressure Reference FPRG. FPRG then goes to the VSVO card to be converted to an analog signal. P2 pressure is measured by 96FG which outputs a voltage proportional to P2 pressure. This P2 signal (FPG) is compared to the FPRG and the error signal (if any) is in turn compared with the 96SR LVDT feedback to reposition the valve as in the GCV loop.
Fund_Mk_VI

The stop/speed ratio valve provides a positive stop to fuel gas flow when required by a normal shut down, emergency trip, or a norun condition. Hydraulic trip dump valve VH5 is located between the electrohydraulic servovalve 90SR and the hydraulic actuating cylinder. This dump valve is operated by the low pressure control oil trip system. If permissives L4 and L3GRV are true the trip oil (OLT) is at normal pressure and the dump valve is maintained in a position that allows servovalve 90SR to control the cylinder position. When the trip oil pressure is low (as in the case of normal or emergency shutdown), the dump valve spring shifts a spool valve to a position which dumps the high pressure hydraulic oil (OH) in the speed ratio/stop valve actuating cylinder to the lube oil reservoir. The closing spring atop the valve plug instantly shuts the valve, thereby shutting off fuel flow to the combustors. In addition to being displayed, the feedback signals and the control signals of both valves are compared to normal operating limits, and if they go outside of these limits there will be an alarm. The following are typical alarms: L60FSGH: Excessive fuel flow on startup L3GRVFB: Loss of LVDT feedback on the SRV L3GRVO: SRV open prior to permissive to open L3GRVSC: Servo current to SRV detected prior to permissive to open L3GCVFB: Loss of LVDT feedback on the GCV L3GCVO: GCV open prior to permissive to open L3GCVSC: Servo current to GCV detected prior to permissive to open L3GFIVP: Intervalve (P2) pressure low The servovalves are furnished with a mechanical null offset bias to cause the gas control valve or speed ratio valve to go to the zero stroke position (fail safe condition) should the servovalve signals or power be lost. During a trip or norun condition, a positive voltage bias is placed on the servo coils holding them in the valve closed position.
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FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems Premix Splitter Valve


The Premix splitter valve (PMSV) regulates the split of secondary/tertiary gas fuel flow between the secondary and tertiary gas fuel manifolds. The valve is referenced to the secondary fuel passages, i.e. 0% valve stroke corresponds to 0% secondary fuel flow. Unlike the SRV and GCVs the flow through the splitter valve is not linear with valve position.The control system linearizes the fuel split setpoint and the resulting valve position command FSRXPOUT is used as the position reference.
<RST> FUEL SPLITTER A=B A=B MAX. LIMIT MIN. LIMIT L83FZ PERMISSIVES RAMP RATE L83FG GAS SELECT L83FL LIQUID SELECT FSR FSR1 LIQUID REF. FSR2 GAS REF. MEDIAN SELECT L84TG TOTAL GAS L84TL TOTAL LIQUID

Dual Fuel Control


Turbines that are designed to operate on both liquid and gaseous fuel are equipped with controls to provide the following features: 1.Transfer from one fuel to the other on command. 2. Allow time for filling the lines with the type of fuel to which turbine operation is being transferred. 3. Operation of liquid fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on gas fuel. 4. Operation of gas fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on liquid fuel. The software diagram for the fuel splitter is shown in Figure 20. Fuel Splitter As stated before FSR is divided into two signals, FSR1 and FSR2, to provide dual fuel operation. See Figure 20. FSR is multiplied by the liquid fuel fraction FX1 to produce the FSR1 signal. FSR1 is then subtracted from the FSR signal resulting in FSR2, the control signal for the secondary fuel.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
22

id0034

Figure 20 Fuel Splitter Schematic

Fuel Transfer Liquid to Gas If the unit is running on liquid fuel (FSR1) and the GAS target on the <HMI> screen is selected the following sequence of events will take place, providing the transfer and fuel gas permissives are true (refer to Figure 21): FSR1 will remain at its initial value, but FSR2 will step to a value slightly greater than zero, usually 0.5%. This will open the gas control valve slightly to bleed down the intervalve volume. This is done in case a high pressure has been entrained. The presence of a higher pressure than that required by the speed/ratio controller would cause slow response in initiating gas flow. After a typical time delay of thirty seconds to bleed down the P2 pressure and fill the gas supply line, the software program ramps the fuel commands, FSR2 to increase and FSR1 to decrease, at a programmed rate through the median select gate. This is complete in thirty seconds. When the transfer is complete logic signal L84TG (Total Gas) will deenergize the liquid fuel forwarding pump, close the fuel oil stop valve by deenergizing the liquid fuel dump valve 20FL, and initiate the purge sequence.
Fund_Mk_VI

GE Power Systems
Fuel Transfer Gas to Liquid
Transfer from Full Gas to Full Distillate
FSR2 UNITS

FSR1 PURGE SELECT DISTILLATE TIME

Transfer from Full Distillate to Full Gas


FSR1 UNITS

Transfer from gas to liquid is essentially the same sequence as previously described, except that gas and liquid fuel command signals are interchanged. For instance, at the beginning of a transfer, FSR2 remains at its initial value, but FSR1 steps to a value slightly greater than zero. This will command a small liquid fuel flow. If there has been any fuel leakage out past the check valves, this will fill the liquid fuel piping and avoid any delay in delivery at the beginning of the FSR1 increase. The rest of the sequence is the same as liquidto gas, except that there is usually no purging sequence. Gas Fuel Purge Primary gas fuel purge is required during premix steady state and liquid fuel operation. This system involves a double block and bleed arrangement, wherby two purge valves (VA131, 2) are shut when primary gas is flowing and intervalve vent solenoid (20VG2) is open to bleed any leakage across the valves. The purge valves are air operated through solenoid valves 20PG1, 2. When there is no primary gas flow, the purge valves open and allow compressor discharge air to flow through the primary fuel nozzle passages. Secondary purge is required for the secondary and tertiary nozzles when secondary and tertiary fuel flow is reduced to zero and when operating on liquid fuel. This is a block and bleed arrangement similar to the primary purge with two purge valves (VA133, 4), intervalve vent solenoid (20VG3), and solenoid valves 20PG3, 4.

FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS TIME

Transfer from Full Distillate to Mixture


FSR1 UNITS

FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS SELECT MIX id0033 TIME

Figure 21 Fuel Transfer

Liquid Fuel Purge To prevent coking of the liquid fuel nozzles while operating on gas fuel, some atomizing air is diverted through the liquid fuel nozzles. The following sequence of events occurs when transfer from liquid to gas is complete. Air from the atomizing air system flows through a cooler (HX41), through the fuel oil purge valve (VA193) and through check valve VCK2 to each fuel nozzle. The fuel oil purge valve is controlled by the position of a solenoid valve 20PL2 . When this valve is energized , actuating air pressure opens the purge oil check valve, allowing air flow to the fuel oil nozzle purge check valves.

MODULATED INLET GUIDE VANE SYSTEM


The Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) modulate during the acceleration of the gas turbine to rated speed, loading and unloading of the generator, and deceleration of the gas turbine. This IGV modulation maintains proper flows and pressures, and thus stresses, in the
23

Fund_Mk_VI

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
compressor, maintains a minimum pressure drop across the fuel nozzles, and, when used in a combined cycle application, maintains high exhaust temperatures at low loads.

<RST> CSRGV

<RST> VSVO

CSRGV

IGV REF

D/A HIGH SELECT

CSRGVOUT

TSVO

CLOSE HM3-1 HYD. SUPPLY IN FH6 OUT 1

OPEN

90TV-1 2 1 A 96TV-1,2

OLT-1 TRIP OIL C1

VH3-1 D C2 ORIFICES (2) OD

id0030

Figure 23 Modulating Inlet Guide Vane Control Schematic

Guide Vane Actuation

Operation
During startup, the inlet guide vanes are held fully closed, a nominal 27 degree angle, from zero to 83.5% corrected speed. Turbine speed is corrected to reflect air conditions at 27 C (80 F); this compensates for changes in air density as ambient conditions change. At ambient temperatures greater than 80 F, corrected speed TNHCOR is less than actual speed TNH; at ambients less than 27 C (80 F), TNHCOR is greater than TNH. After attaining a speed of approximately 83.5%, the guide vanes will
24
Fund_Mk_VI

The modulated inlet guide vane actuating system is comprised of the following components: servovalve 90TV, LVDT position sensors 96TV1 and 96TV2, and, in some instances, solenoid valve 20TV and hydraulic dump valve VH3. Control of 90TV will port hydraulic pressure to operate the variable inlet guide vane actuator. If used, 20TV and VH3 can prevent hydraulic oil pressure from flowing to 90TV. See Figure 23.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
modulate open at about 6.7 degrees per percent increase in corrected speed. When the guide vanes reach the minimum full speed angle, nominally 54, they stop opening; this is usually at approximately 91% TNH. By not allowing the guide vanes to close to an angle less than the minimum full speed angle at 100% TNH, a minimum pressure drop is maintained across the fuel nozzles, thereby lessening combustion system resonance. Solenoid valve 20CB is usually opened when the generator breaker is closed; this in turn closes the compressor bleed valves. As the unit is loaded and exhaust temperature increases, the inlet guide vanes will go to the full open position when the exhaust temperature reaches one of two points, depending on the operation mode selected. For simple cycle operation, the IGVs move to the full open position at a preselected exhaust temperature, usually 371 C (700 F). For combined cycle operation, the IGVs begin to move to the full open position as exhaust temperature approaches the temperature control reference temperature; normally, the IGVs begin to open when exhaust temperature is within 17 C (30 F) of the temperature control reference. During a normal shutdown, as the exhaust temperature decreases the IGVs move to the minimum full speed angle; as the turbine decelerates from 100% TNH, the inlet guide vanes are modulated to the fully closed position. When the generator breaker opens, the compressor bleed valves will be opened. In the event of a turbine trip, the compressor bleed valves are opened and the inlet guide vanes go to the fully closed position. The inlet guide vanes remain fully closed as the turbine continues to coast down. For underspeed operation, if TNHCOR decreases below approximately 91%, the inlet guide vanes modulate closed at 6.7 degrees per percent decrease in corrected speed. In most cases, if the actual speed decreases below 95% TNH, the generator breaker will open and the turbine speed setpoint will be reset to 100.3%. The IGVs will then go to the minimum full speed angle. See Figure 24.
Fund_Mk_VI

FULL OPEN (MAX ANGLE)

IGV ANGLE DEGREES (CSRGV)

SIMPLE CYCLE (CSKGVSSR)

COMBINED CYCLE (TTRX)

MINIMUM FULL SPEED ANGLE ROTATING STALL REGION

STARTUP PROGRAM REGION OF NEGATIVE 5TH STAGE EXTRACTION PRESSURE

FULL CLOSED (MIN ANGLE)

100 CORRECTED SPEED% (TNHCOR) 0 FSNL

LOAD% EXHAUST TEMPERATURE

100 BASE LOAD id0037

Figure 24 Variable Inlet Guide Vane Schedule

PROTECTION SYSTEMS
The gas turbine protection system is comprised of a number of subsystems, several of which operate during each normal startup and shutdown. The other systems and components function strictly during emergency and abnormal operating conditions. The most common kind of failure on a gas turbine is the failure of a sensor or sensor wiring; the protection systems are set up to detect and alarm such a failure. If the condition is serious enough to disable the protection completely, the turbine will be tripped. Protective systems respond to the simple trip signals such as pressure switches used for low lube oil pressure, high gas compressor discharge pressure, or similar indications. They also respond to more complex parameters such as overspeed, overtemperature, high vibration, combustion monitor, and loss of flame. To do this, some of these protection systems and their components operate through the master control and protection circuit in the SPEEDTRONIC control system, while other totally mechanical systems operate directly on the components of the turbine. In each case there are two essentially independent paths for stopping fuel flow, making use of both the fuel control valve (FCV) and the fuel stop valve (FSV). Each protective system is designed independent of the control system to avoid the possi25

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
bility of a control system failure disabling the protective devices. See Figure 25.

PRIMARY OVERSPEED

MASTER PROTECTION CIRCUIT <RST>

GCV SERVOVALVE

GAS FUEL CONTROL VALVE

OVERTEMP SRV SERVOVALVE GAS FUEL SPEED RATIO/ STOP VALVE

VIBRATION

COMBUSTION MONITOR RELAY VOTING MODULE 20FG

LOSS of FLAME

SECONDARY OVERSPEED

MASTER PROTECTION CIRCUIT <XYZ>

BYPASS VALVE SERVOVALVE

FUEL PUMP

RELAY VOTING MODULE

20FL

LIQUID FUEL STOP VALVE id0036V

Figure 25 Protective Systems Schematic

Trip Oil
A hydraulic trip system called Trip Oil is the primary protection interface between the turbine control and protection system and the components on the turbine which admit, or shutoff, fuel. The system contains devices which are electrically operated by SPEEDTRONIC control signals as well as some totally mechanical devices. Besides the tripping functions, trip oil also provides a hydraulic signal to the fuel stop valves for normal startup and shutdown sequences. On gas turbines equipped for dual fuel (gas and oil) operation the system is used to selectively isolate the fuel system not required. Significant components of the Hydraulic Trip Circuit are described below.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
26

Inlet Orifice An orifice is located in the line running from the bearing header supply to the trip oil system. This orifice is sized to limit the flow of oil from the lube oil system into the trip oil system. It must ensure adequate capacity for all tripping devices, yet prevent reduction of lube oil flow to the gas turbine and other equipment when the trip system is in the tripped state. Dump Valve Each individual fuel branch in the trip oil system has a solenoid dump valve (20FL for liquid, 20FG for gas). This device is a solenoidoperated springreturn spool valve which will relieve trip oil pressure only in the branch that it controls. These valves are normally energizedtorun, deenergizedtotrip. This philosophy protects the turbine during all norFund_Mk_VI

GE Power Systems
mal situations as well as that time when loss of dc power occurs.

PROTECTIVE SIGNALS

MASTER PROTECTION L4 CIRCUITS

LIQUID FUEL LIQUID FUEL STOP VALVE 20FG 20FL

ORIFICE AND CHECK VALVE NETWORK 63HL

INLET ORIFICE GAS FUEL GAS FUEL SPEED RATIO/ STOP VALVE

WIRING PIPING

63HG

GAS FUEL DUMP RELAY VALVE OH id0056

Figure 26 Trip Oil Schematic Dual Fuel

Check Valve & Orifice Network At the inlet of each individual fuel branch is a check valve and orifice network which limits flow out of that branch. This network limits flow into each branch, thus allowing individual fuel control without total system pressure decay. However, when one of the trip devices located in the main artery of the system, e.g., the overspeed trip, is actuated, the check valve will open and result in decay of all trip pressures. Pressure Switches Each individual fuel branch contains pressure switches (63HL1,2,3 for liquid, 63HG1,2,3 for gas) which will ensure tripping of the turbine if the trip oil pressure becomes too low for reliable operation while operating on that fuel. Operation The tripping devices which cause unit shutdown or selective fuel system shutdown do so by dumping the low pressure trip oil (OLT). See Figure 26. An inFund_Mk_VI

dividual fuel stop valve may be selectively closed by dumping the flow of trip oil going to it. Solenoid valve 20FL can cause the trip valve on the liquid fuel stop valve to go to the trip state, which permits closure of the liquid fuel stop valve by its spring return mechanism. Solenoid valve 20FG can cause the trip valve on the gas fuel speed ratio/stop valve to go to the trip state, permitting its springreturned closure. The orifice in the check valve and orifice network permits independent dumping of each fuel branch of the trip oil system without affecting the other branch. Tripping all devices other than the individual dump valves will result in dumping the total trip oil system, which will shut the unit down. During startup or fuel transfer, the SPEEDTRONIC control system will close the appropriate dump valve to activate the desired fuel system(s). Both dump valves will be closed only during fuel transfer or mixed fuel operation. The dump valves are deenergized on a 2out of3 voted trip signal from the relay module. This helps prevent trips caused by faulty sensors or the failure of one controller.
27

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
The signal to the fuel system servovalves will also be a close command should a trip occur. This is done by clamping FSR to zero. Should one controller fail, the FSR from that controller will be zero. The output of the other two controllers is sufficient to continue to control the servovalve. By pushing the Emergency Trip Button, 5E P/B, the P28 vdc power supply is cut off to the relays controlling solenoid valves 20FL and 20FG, thus deenergizing the dump valves.
<RST> <XYZ> HIGH PRESSURE OVERSPEED TRIP TNH HP SPEED TRIP SETPOINT TNKHOS TNKHOST LH3HOST L86MR1 TEST TEST PERMISSIVE MASTER RESET SAMPLING RATE = 0.25 SEC id0060 RESET A A>B B TO MASTER PROTECTION AND ALARM MESSAGE

L12H SET AND LATCH

Figure 27 Electronic Overspeed Trip

Overspeed Protection
The SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI overspeed system is designed to protect the gas turbine against possible damage caused by overspeeding the turbine rotor. Under normal operation, the speed of the rotor is controlled by speed control. The overspeed system would not be called on except after the failure of other systems. The overspeed protection system consists of a primary and secondary electronic overspeed system. The primary electronic overspeed protection system resides in the <RST> controllers. The secondary electronic overspeed protection system resides in the <XYZ> controllers (in <VPRO>). Both systems consist of magnetic pickups to sense turbine speed, speed detection software, and associated logic circuits and are set to trip the unit at 110% rated speed. Electronic Overspeed Protection System The electronic overspeed protection function is performed in both <RST> and <XYZ> as shown in Figure 27. The turbine speed signal (TNH) derived from the magnetic pickup sensors (77NH1,2, and 3) is compared to an overspeed setpoint (TNKHOS). When TNH exceeds the setpoint, the overspeed trip signal (L12H) is transmitted to the master protective circuit to trip the turbine and the OVERSPEED TRIP message will be displayed on the <HMI>. This trip will latch and must be reset by the master reset signal L86MR.
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
28

Overtemperature Protection
The overtemperature system protects the gas turbine against possible damage caused by overfiring. It is a backup system, operating only after the failure of the temperature control system.
TTKOT1 TRIP

EXH TEMP TTRX TRIP MARGIN TTKOT2 ALARM MARGIN TTKOT3 CPD/FSR id0053

Figure 29 Overtemperature Protection

Under normal operating conditions, the exhaust temperature control system acts to control fuel flow when the firing temperature limit is reached. In certain failure modes however, exhaust temperature and fuel flow can exceed control limits. Under such circumstances the overtemperature protection system provides an overtemperature alarm about 14 C (25 F) above the temperature control reference. To avoid further temperature increase, it starts unloading the gas turbine. If the temperature should increase further to a point about 22 C (40 F) above the temperature control reference, the gas turbine is tripped. For the actual alarm and trip overtemperaFund_Mk_VI

GE Power Systems
ture setpoints refer to the Control Specifications. See Figure 29. Overtemperature trip and alarm setpoints are determined from the temperature control setpoints derived by the Exhaust Temperature Control software. See Figure 30.
<RST> OVERTEMPERATURE TRIP AND ALARM TTXM ALARM A A>B B L30TXA ALARM TO ALARM MESSAGE AND SPEED SETPOINT LOWER

will be tripped through the master protection circuit. The trip function will be latched in and the master reset signal L86MR1 must be true to reset and unlatch the trip.

Flame Detection and Protection System


The SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI flame detectors perform two functions, one in the sequencing system and the other in the protective system. During a normal startup the flame detectors indicate when a flame has been established in the combustion chambers and allow the startup sequence to continue. Most units have four flame detectors, some have two, and a very few have eight. Generally speaking, if half of the flame detectors indicate flame and half (or less) indicate noflame, there will be an alarm but the unit will continue to run. If more than half indicate lossofflame, the unit will trip on LOSS OF FLAME. This avoids possible accumulation of an explosive mixture in the turbine and any exhaust heat recovery equipment which may be installed. The flame detector system used with the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI system detects flame by sensing ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Such radiation results from the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and is more reliably detected than visible light, which varies in color and intensity. The flame sensor is a copper cathode detector designed to detect the presence of ultraviolet radiation. The SPEEDTRONIC control will furnish +24Vdc to drive the ultraviolet detector tube. In the presence of ultraviolet radiation, the gas in the detector tube ionizes and conducts current. The strength of the current feedback (4 20 mA) to the panel is a proportional indication of the strength of the ultraviolet radiation present. If the feedback current exceeds a threshold value the SPEEDTRONIC generates a logic signal to indicate FLAME DETECTED by the sensor. The flame detector system is similar to other protective systems, in that it is selfmonitoring. For example, when the gas turbine is below L14HM all channels must indicate NO FLAME. If this condition is not met, the condition is annunciated as a
29

TTKOT3

TTRXB

A A>B B OR A A>B B

TTKOT2

TTKOT1 L86MR1

TRIP ISOTHERMAL

SET AND LATCH RESET

L86TXT TRIP

TO MASTER PROTECTION AND ALARM MESSAGE

SAMPLING RATE: 0.25 SEC.

id0055

Figure 30 Overtemperature Trip and Alarm

Overtemperature Protection Software


Overtemperature Alarm (L30TXA) The representative value of the exhaust temperature thermocouples (TTXM) is compared with alarm and trip temperature setpoints. The EXHAUST TEMPERATURE HIGH alarm message will be displayed when the exhaust temperature (TTXM) exceeds the temperature control reference (TTRXB) plus the alarm margin (TTKOT3) programmed as a Control Constant in the software. The alarm will automatically reset if the temperature decreases below the setpoint. Overtemperature Trip (L86TXT) An overtemperature trip will occur if the exhaust temperature (TTXM) exceeds the temperature control reference (TTRXB) plus the trip margin (TTKOT2), or if it exceeds the isothermal trip setpoint (TTKOT1). The overtemperature trip will latch, the EXHAUST OVERTEMPERATURE TRIP message will be displayed, and the turbine
Fund_Mk_VI

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
FLAME DETECTOR TROUBLE alarm and the turbine cannot be started. After firing speed has been reached and fuel introduced to the machine, if at least half the flame detectors see flame the starting sequence is allowed to proceed. A failure of one detector will be annunciated as FLAME DETECTOR TROUBLE when complete sequence is reached and the turbine will continue to run. More than half the flame detectors must indicate NO FLAME in order to trip the turbine. Note that a shortcircuited or opencircuited detector tube will result in a NO FLAME signal.

SPEEDTRONIC Mk VI Flame Detection Turbine Protection Logic

28FD UV Scanner 28FD UV Scanner 28FD UV Scanner 28FD UV Scanner

Analog I/O TBAI VAIC

Flame Detection Logic

<HMI> Display

Turbine Control Logic

NOTE: Excitation for the sensors and signal processing is performed by SPEEDTRONIC Mk VI circuits

Figure 31 SPEEDTRONIC Mk VI Flame Detection

ido115

Vibration Protection
The vibration protection system of a gas turbine unit is composed of several independent vibration channels. Each channel detects excessive vibration by means of a seismic pickup mounted on a bearing housing or similar location of the gas turbine and the driven load. If a predetermined vibration level is exFUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
30

ceeded, the vibration protection system trips the turbine and annunciates to indicate the cause of the trip. Each channel includes one vibration pickup (velocity type) and a SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI amplifier circuit. The vibration detectors generate a relatively low voltage by the relative motion of a permanent magnet suspended in a coil and therefore no excitation is necessary. A twistedpair shielded cable is
Fund_Mk_VI

GE Power Systems
used to connect the detector to the analog input/output module. The pickup signal from the analog I/O module is inputted to the computer software where it is compared with the alarm and trip levels programmed as Control Constants. See Figure 32. When the vibration amplitude reaches the programmed trip set point, the channel will trigger a trip signal, the circuit will latch, and a HIGH VIBRATION TRIP message will be displayed. Removal of the latched trip condition can be accomplished only by depressing the master reset button (L86MR1) when vibration is not excessive.
<RST> L39TEST 39V OR A A<B FAULT B VF FAULT L39VF

Combustion Monitoring
The primary function of the combustion monitor is to reduce the likelihood of extensive damage to the gas turbine if the combustion system deteriorates. The monitor does this by examining the exhaust temperature thermocouples and compressor discharge temperature thermocouples. From changes that may occur in the pattern of the thermocouple readings, warning and protective signals are generated by the combustion monitor software to alarm and/or trip the gas turbine. This means of detecting abnormalities in the combustion system is effective only when there is incomplete mixing as the gases pass through the turbine; an uneven turbine inlet pattern will cause an uneven exhaust pattern. The uneven inlet pattern could be caused by loss of fuel or flame in a combustor, a rupture in a transition piece, or some other combustion malfunction. The usefulness and reliability of the combustion monitor depends on the condition of the exhaust thermocouples. It is important that each of the thermocouples is in good working condition. Combustion Monitoring Software

A A>B ALARM B

VA

ALARM L39VA

A A>B TRIP B

VT

AND

TRIP L39VT

SET AND LATCH RESET

TRIP

AUTO OR MANUAL RESET L86AMR

id0057

Figure 32 Vibration Protection

When the VIBRATION TRANSDUCER FAULT message is displayed and machine operation is not interrupted, either an open or shorted condition may be the cause. This message indicates that maintenance or replacement action is required. With the <HMI> display, it is possible to monitor vibration levels of each channel while the turbine is running without interrupting operation.

The controllers contain a series of programs written to perform the monitoring tasks (See Combustion Monitoring Schematic Figure 33). The main monitor program is written to analyze the thermocouple readings and make appropriate decisions. Several different algorithms have been developed for this depending on the turbine model series and the type of thermocouples used. The significant program constants used with each algorithm are specified in the Control Specification for each unit.

Fund_Mk_VI

31

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
<RST> CTDA MAX TTKSPL1 TTKSPL2 TTXM MEDIAN SELECT CALCULATE ALLOWABLE SPREAD MEDIAN SELECT TTXSPL COMBUSTION MONITOR ALGORITHM

MIN

MAX

TTKSPL5

MIN

TTKSPL7

CONSTANTS

A A>B TTXD2 CALCULATE ACTUAL SPREADS B A A>B B A A<B B A A<B B

L60SP1

L60SP2

L60SP3

L60SP4

id0049

Figure 33 Combustion Monitoring Function Algorithm (Schematic)

The most advanced algorithm, which is standard for gas turbines with redundant sensors, makes use of the temperature spread and adjacency tests to differentiate between actual combustion problems and thermocouple failures. The behavior is summarized by the Venn diagram (Figure 34) where:

a. SPREAD #1 (S1): The difference between the highest and the lowest thermocouple reading b. SPREAD #2 (S2): The difference between the highest and the 2nd lowest thermocouple reading c. SPREAD #3 (S3): The difference between the highest and the 3rd lowest thermocouple reading The allowable spread will be between the limits TTKSPL7 and TTKSPL6, usually 17 C 30 F) and 53 C (125 F). The values of the combustion monitor program constants are listed in the Control Specifications. The various controller processor outputs to the <HMI> cause alarm message displays as well as appropriate control action. The combustion monitor outputs are: Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm (L30SPTA) If any thermocouple value causes the largest spread to exceed a constant (usually 5 times the allowable
32
Fund_Mk_VI

VENN DIAGRAM

ALSO TRIP IF:

S2 S allow S
TRIP IF S1 & S2 OR S2 & S3 ARE ADJACENT

S1 allow

uK

COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE TYPICAL K1 = 1.0 K2 = 5.0 K3 = 0.8

TRIP IF S1 & S2 ARE ADJACENT

K3
MONITOR ALARM TC ALARM

S1 K2 S allow id0050

K1

Figure 34 Exhaust Temperature Spread Limits

Sallow is the Allowable Spread, based on average exhaust temperature and compressor discharge temperature. S1, S2 and S3 are defined as follows:
FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems
spread), a thermocouple alarm (L30SPTA) is produced. If this condition persists for four seconds, the alarm message EXHAUST THERMOCOUPLE TROUBLE will be displayed and will remain on until acknowledged and reset. This usually indicates a failed thermocouple, i.e., open circuit. Combustion Trouble Alarm (L30SPA) A combustion alarm can occur if a thermocouple value causes the largest spread to exceed a constant (usually the allowable spread). If this condition persists for three seconds, the alarm message COMBUSTION TROUBLE will be displayed and will remain on until it is acknowledged and reset. High Exhaust Temperature Spread Trip (L30SPT) A high exhaust temperature spread trip can occur if: COMBUSTION TROUBLE alarm exists, the second largest spread exceeds a constant (usually 0.8 times the allowable spread), and the lowest and second lowest outputs are from adjacent thermocouples EXHAUST THERMOCOUPLE TROUBLE alarm exists, the second largest spread exceeds a constant (usually 0.8 times the allowable spread), and the second and third lowest outputs are from adjacent thermocouples the third largest spread exceeds a constant (usually the allowable spread) for a period of five minutes If any of the trip conditions exist for 9 seconds, the trip will latch and HIGH EXHAUST TEMPERATURE SPREAD TRIP message will be displayed. The turbine will be tripped through the master protective circuit. The alarm and trip signals will be displayed until they are acknowledged and reset. Monitor Enable (L83SPM) The protective function of the monitor is enabled when the turbine is above 14HS and a shutdown signal has not been given. The purpose of the enable signal (L83SPM) is to prevent false action during normal startup and shutdown transient conditions. When the monitor is not enabled, no new protective actions are taken. The combustion monitor will also be disabled during a high rate of change of FSR. This prevents false alarms and trips during large fuel and load transients. The two main sources of alarm and trip signals being generated by the combustion monitor are failed thermocouples and combustion system problems. Other causes include poor fuel distribution due to plugged or worn fuel nozzles and combustor flameout due, for instance, to water injection. The tests for combustion alarm and trip action have been designed to minimize false actions due to failed thermocouples. Should a controller fail, the thermocouples from the failed controller will be ignored (similar to temperature control) so as not to give a false trip.

Fund_Mk_VI

33

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

GE Power Systems Training


General Electric Company One River Road Schenectady, NY 12345



GE Industrial Control Systems

Mark VI Introduction

System Overview

GE Power Systems

Mark VI Availability
1997,8 Ran Gas & Steam Turbines in GE Plants Prototypes Retrofit Customer Gas & Steam Turbines Initial Commercial Units H, 7FA, Medium ST, IST, LMs New Unit Applications 2001 7EA, LST, FPT Expanding Applications

1999

2000

Phased Product Introduction

GE Industrial Control Systems

Control Control Architecture Architecture

Electronics & Packaging Mark VI Configuration Remote I/O Mark VI Versus Mark V Comparison Mark VI ICS Architecture & Communications

GE Industrial Control Systems

Mark VI Circuit Cards

! ! ! !

VME Cards & Backplane I/O Cards Rated For 85 deg C Processor Card Rated For 60 deg C Designed For Direct Interface To Sensors

GE Power Systems

Control Module
VME Rack: 21 Slots Power Supply

Cables to Termination Boards

21 Slot VME Rack 13 Slot VME Rack

J101

J102

J103

J104

J105

J106

J107

J108

J109

J110

J111

J112

J113

J114

J115

J116

J117

J118

J119

J120

J121

Communication between cards on VME backplane

J201

J202

J203

J204

J205

J206

J207

J208

J209

J210

J211

J212

J213

J214

J215

J216

J217

J218

J219

J220

J221

Communication between cards and J300 & J400 connectors on VME backplane

J301

J302

J303

J304

J305

J306

J307

J308

J309

J310

J311

J312

J313

J314

J315

J316

J317

J318

J319

J320

J321

Interface to I/O Termination Modules

J402

J403

J404

J405

J406

J407

J408

J409

J410

J411

J412

J413

J414

J415

J416

J417

J418

J419

J420

J421

Test points for power supplies and commons

TP1 = P15 TP2 = ACOM TP# = N15 TP4A = P28AA

TP4B = P28BB TP4C = P28CC TP4D = P28DD TP4E = P28EE


Revision Number

TP5 = PCOM TP6 = N28 TP7 = DCOM TP8 = SCOM


Engineer Technician Drawn By Issue Date Title

February 23, 1998 SSTSLAY.VSD Page 3


Revision Date Revised By Requisition Shop Order No.

GENERAL ELECTRIC
Industrial Control Systems Salem, Virginia

VME Card Rack Construction


Sheet No.

WE Barker

336A5278
Continued on sheet

02E

02D

GE Industrial Control Systems

Termination Boards
! ! ! ! !

Barrier Type Termination Boards Pluggable Terminal Blocks Shield Bar Attached To TB Latching D Type Connectors ID Message In Each Connector - Serial Number - Revision Number - Connection Location

To Other GE Control Systems

Operator / Maintenance Interface Communications To DCS 1. RS232 Modbus Slave/Master 2. Ethernet Modbus Slave 3. Ethernet TCP-IP

Unit Data Highway Ethernet


CIMPLICITY R Display System Windows NT TM Operating System

Primary I/O Interface 1. Control 2. Protection 3. Monitoring

Backup Protection 1. Emergency Overspeed 2. Synch Check Protection <P> Protection Module P.S. CPU I/O

Mark VI - Simplex Architecture


Ethernet

<R> Control Module

P S

Termination Boards

GE Power Systems

Control Architecture
Operator / Maintenance Station Expansion Modules Control Modules

NT: Client / Server Capability CIMPLICITYR GUI

IONet - Ethernet

IONet - Ethernet Unit Data Highway Ethernet Peer-to-Peer Communications

IONet - Ethernet

To Other GE Control Systems

Operator / Maintenance Interface Communications To DCS 1. RS232 Modbus Slave/Master 2. Ethernet Modbus Slave 3. Ethernet TCP-IP

Unit Data Highway Ethernet


CIMPLICITY R Display System Windows NT TM Operating System

Primary Controllers 1. Control 2. Protection 3. Monitoring <R> Control Module

Backup Protection 1. Emergency Overspeed 2. Synch Check Protection <P> Protection Module

Ethernet

Mark VI - TMR Architecture


Redundant Unit Data Highway (if required)

P S

P.S. CPU I/O

Ethernet - IONET

Software Voting

<S> Control Module P.S. CPU I/O

P S

<T> Control Module P.S. CPU I/O

P S

GE Power Systems

Control Architecture - Separate Processors


Operator / Maintenance Station Remote Processors Controller Modules Expansion Modules Interface Modules

NT: Client / Server Capability CIMPLICITYR GUI IONet - Ethernet

IONet - Ethernet

IONet - Ethernet

To Other GE Control Systems

Operator / Maintenance Interface Communications To DCS 1. RS232 Modbus Slave/Master 2. Ethernet Slave 3. Ethernet TCP-IP GSM

Unit Data Highway Ethernet


CIMPLICITYR Display System Windows NTTM Operating System

Primary Processors 1. Application Software 2. Software Voting 3. HMI Communications <R> Control Module

Primary I/O Interface 1. Control 2. Protection 3. Monitoring <R> Interface Module

Backup Protection 1. Emergency Overspeed 2. Synch Check Protection <P> Protection Module

Ethernet

Mark VI - TMR Architecture (Remote I/O)

P C S P U

P S

P.S. CPU I/O

Redundant Unit Data Highway (if required) <S> Control Module


P C S P U

Software Voting

<S> Interface Module P.S. CPU I/O

P S

<T> Control Module


P C S P U

<T> Interface Module P.S. CPU I/O

P S

VCMI 1

UCVB 2 3 4 5 6 I/O Data On Backplane

V O T E

Application Software

I/O From Other Modules

Voting Data

VCMI 1

UCVB 2 3

I/O Data On Backplane


V O T E

Application Software

I/O From Other Modules VCMI 1 UCVB 2 3

I/O Data On Backplane


V O T E

Application Software

I/O From Other Modules

GE Power Systems

Example of Voting Contact Inputs


Contact TB Internal "Fanned" Connectors I/O Card <R> VCCC TBCI IONet <S> VCCC VCMI UCV_ Application Software UCV_ Application Software VCMI UCV_ Application Software Vote 2/3 "Each" Contact Vote 2/3 "Field" Contacts

IONet <T> * Redundant field contacts terminate on separate TB's. Example: 63QT1, 63QT2, 63QA VCCC VCMI

GE Power Systems

Example of Voting Servo Channels


Valve Stroke Reference <R> UCV_ No Voting Of Servo Outputs Valve Regulators

VCMI

VSVO TSVO 3 Coil Servo Valve


Coil 1

Hydraulic Cylinder

IONet <S> UCV_ VCMI VSVO


LVDTs

Coil 2

IONet <T>

Coil 3 3.2kHz, 7 Vrms Excitation

UCV_

VCMI

VSVO
LVDT Feedback

GE Power Systems

Example of Voting Servo Channels (Separate TBs for No Single Point Failures)
Valve Stroke Reference <R> UCV_ No Voting Of Servo Outputs Valve Regulators TSVO

VCMI

VSVO 3 Coil Servo Valve

Hydraulic Cylinder

IONet <S> UCV_ VCMI VSVO


Coil 1 LVDTs

Coil 2

IONet <T> UCV_ VCMI VSVO

Coil 3

3.2kHz, 7 Vrms Excitation

LVDT Feedback

GE Power Systems

Backup Protection Module


VPRO Card X
x x RUN FAIL STAT 8 X 4 Y T 2 Z R 1 C S E R x x x x RUN FAIL STAT 8 X 4 Y T 2 Z R 1 C S E R P5 COM P28A P28B E T H R P A R A L x P O W E R x x

VPRO Card Y
x x x

VPRO Card Z
x I O N E T RUN FAIL STAT X 8 Y 4 T 2 Z R 1 C S E R x x x

Functions
- Emergency Overspeed - Backup Synch Check Triple Redundant - Isolated from Backplane - Separate PS, CPU, I/O - On-line Repair 10ms Execution Monitoring from 2 RPM Communications - 3 Ethernet Links - Cross-Trippng - Permissives - Diagnostics on Network

IONet R IONet S IONet T

I O N E T

I O N E T

Ground

J 5

J 6

J 5

J 6

To TPRO To TPRO
x

J 3
F VPRO x

J 4
N

J 3
F VPRO x

J 4
N x

P5 COM P28A P28B E T H R P A R A L P O W E R x x

J 5

J 6

J 3
F VPRO x

J 4
N x

P5 COM P28A P28B E T H R P A R A L x P O W E R x

To TREG To TREG

Power In 125 Vdc

GE Power Systems

Industrial Steam Turbine Control Cabinet (Simplex)

! ! ! ! !

NEMA 1 Convection Cooled Front Access Top / Bottom Cable Entrance Separate High & Low Level Channels Various Cabinet Arrangements Available

GE Power Systems

Industrial Steam Turbine Control

GE Power Systems

Typical TMR Cabinet Lineup (H, 7FA, D11, LST)


Rittal Cabinets E-coat Primed Pebble Gray RAL 7032 NEMA 1 Convection Cooled Top/Bottom Cable Entrance Front Access Depth = 600mm Height = 2,324mm

Mark VI Termination Cabinet

Mark VI Control Cabinet

Mark VI Termination Cabinet

1,600mm

1,000mm

1,600mm

Terminations Card Racks Signal Conditioning

Terminations Signal Conditioning

GE Power Systems

7EA Skid With Generator Controls


Rittal Cabinets E-coat Primed Pebble Gray NEMA 1 Convection
Cooled Top/Bottom Cables Front Access Depth = 600mm Height = 2,324mm

EX2000 Brushless Regulator

Mark VI Control Cabinet

Mark VI Termination Cabinet

Generator Protection Cabinet

1,000mm

1,000mm

1,600mm

1,600mm

GE Power Systems

Protection Module 3 Independent Sections

Center Cabinet
3 Control Modules

GE Power Systems

New Unit 7FA GT D11 ST Cabinet

GE Power Systems

Codes / Environment / Information

Codes and Standards - CE Mark: EMC 89/336/EEC amended 93/68/EEC (Now Certified) - EPRI: TR 102323-R1 emi/rfi & surge - Lots of Others

Environment
- 0 to 45 C Continuos, 0 to 50 C (Maintenance Periods) - PCs, Monitors, Printers, etc. 0 to 40 C - 5 to 95% Non-condensing - Others

Information Sources
- GER-4193 Mark VI Turbine Control (Power Leader Conference) Mark VI Product Description (GE-IS Intranet) - GEH-6421 Mark VI System Manual (Excellent Reference) - GEH-6403 Control System Toolbox

GE Power Systems

Effects of Ambient Temperature


1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 30 35 40 45 50 15 deg C MTBF >40%

Normalized MTBF

T (degrees C)

GE Industrial Control Systems

Typical System Architecture


Operator Console
CIMPLICITY Viewer CIMPLICITY Viewer CIMPLICITY Viewer NT NT NT

Engr'g Workstation B/N Mach Mgmnt SW GERS PEMS GEMIS Toolbox


Toolbox Laptops

Engineering Services
Toolbox Laptops

NT

NT

Color Laser Red. Xcvr.

Laser printer

Plant Data Highway - Ethernet Plant Data Highway - Ethernet

Historian
CIMPLICITY Server CIMPLICITY Server NT

OSM
NT

NT

Red. Xcvr.

Red. Xcvr. Unit Data Highway - EGD Unit Data Highway - EGD

Red. Xcvr.

Red. Xcvr.

Red. Xcvr. Mark VI


P Supply VCMC UCVB

Fanuc 90/70 Mark VI


UCVB P Supply VCMC P Supply

* Or Mark VI
GBC

RCM

GBC

BTM

Proc

Red. Xcvr.

Red. Xcvr.

Red. Xcvr.

P Supply P Supply

UCVB UCVB P Supply P Supply

VCMC VCMC

VCMC

UCVB UCVB

P Supply

RCM

GBC

GBC

BTM

Proc

Bentley Nevada

VCMC

UC2000

UC2000

Control Module

Gas Turbine & HRSG Controls


Prox Inputs I/O Net

Control Module

Steam Turbine Control

Unit Auxiliaries

I/O Net
Genius Block Genius Block

AC

Mark VI

DC2000 DC2000 DC2000


Innovation

Generator/ Transformer Protection

Mark VI

Mark VI

Genius Block

Genius Block

Exciter

LCI
Remote I/O

Remote I/O Remote I/O

GE Power Systems Typical 7FA & D11 ST Network


Plant Data Highway - Ethernet

IRIG-B Time Synch DCS Protocols Ethernet TCP-IP GSM Ethernet TCP-IP Modbus RS232/485 Modbus

Local Operator Station

Local Operator Station

Engineer's Station

Gas Turbine #1
Unit Data Highway - Ethernet

Gas Turbine #2
Network Time Protocol NTP

Steam Turbine

Gas Turbine Control Mark VI

Generator Excitation EX2000

Gas Turbine Control Mark VI

Generator Excitation EX2000

Static Starter

Steam Turbine Control Mark VI

Generator Excitation EX2000

GE Power Systems
IP Steam Exhaust To Stack HRSG Hot Reheat Steam Cold Reheat Steam

Typical H Network
T

HP Steam

LP Steam

Comb.

C Gas Turbine

HP Steam Turbine Steam Turbine & Bypass

IP/LP

Generator

Air

GT & Cooling Steam

HRSG & Steam Cycle Mech. Aux.

Static Starter

Generator Excitation/Prot.

Mark VI

Mark VI

Mark VI

LCI

EX2001

Router Unit Data Highway To Other Units Maintenance Workstation Unit HMI Server (Gateway) Plant Data Highway Unit HMI Server (Gateway)

GE Power Systems

Large Reheat Steam Turbine Network


Plant Data Highway

Unit Data Highway

Mark VI

Mark VI

EX2000

RST

RFPT

RFPT

GEN

GE Industrial Control Systems

Typical Software Execution Rates


1 ms Contact Inputs (Sequence Of Events) ! 5 ms Servo Loops ! 10 ms Read Inputs ! 40 ms Complete System Execution (Frame) Rate
!

40ms Complete Frame Rate Read Inputs Vote Data Execute Application Software Output Data

GE Power Systems

Communications

IONet (Internal to Mark VI)

10Base-5 max seg. ==500m / /1,640 - Ethernet (Coax, 10 Base 2) ADL Protocol 10Base-5 max seg. 500m 1,640 10Base-2 max seg. ==185m / /607 - Rates: Ethernet = 10 MB, Voting = 40/20ms 10Base-2 max seg. 185m 607 10Base-T max seg. ==100m / /328 - Time Synch = 50-100 micro-sec 10Base-T max seg. 100m 328 10Base-FL max seg. ==2km / /1.2 miles Unit Data Highway (Mark VI/ EX2000/LCI) 10Base-FL max seg. 2km 1.2 miles FOIRL ==1km / /0.6 miles - Ethernet (UTP Cat 5 or Fiber) EGD Protocol FOIRL 1km 0.6 miles - Peer-To-Peer Communications - Rates: Ethernet = 10 MB (Std.) / 100 MB, 40ms - Time Synch = 1ms Time Coherence NTP Protocol Plant Data Highway - Ethernet TCP-IP Protocol - Rates: Ethernet = 10 MB (Std.) / 100 MB, 40ms External Communication Links - RS232 Modbus Master / Slave From HMI - Ethernet TCP-IP Modbus Slave From HMI - Ethernet TCP-IP GSM From HMI - Other Links Supported By CIMPLICITYTM Software - Wide Area Network (WAN): not usually inGE scope - Remote Access: modem for diagnostics from factory - Time Synch: IRIG-B (GPS Receiver not usually in GE scope)

GE Power Systems

Mark V Versus Mark VI Unique Backplane / Architecture VME Backplane / Architecture Not Expandable Expandable Not Upgradeable Upgradeable Box Type Terminal Blocks Barrier Type Terminal Blocks
- Not Pluggable Compact Enclosure Integer Data Arcnet Network - Network Interface: <C> Module - 2nd Network Interface: <D> Module - Backup Display Needed - No Peer-to-Peer Communications Operator / Maintenance Interface - Unique Operating System - Unique Graphic User Interface - Unique Maintenance Tools - Compatibility: Mark V Only - Pluggable Large Enclosure; Easier Maintenance Floating Point Data Ethernet Network - Network Interface: Main Processor Card - 2nd Network Interface: 2nd Processor Card - Backup Display Not Required - Peer-to-Peer Communications Operator / Maintenance Interface - Windows NT Operating System - Cimplicity Graphic User Interface - Enhanced Maintenance Tools - Compatibility: Mark IV, V, VI

GE Industrial Control Systems

Mark VI vs Mark V (Hardware)

VME Architecture Remote I/O Pluggable, barrier type TBs (increased size) No <C> Module
- Ethernet or Genius from <R><S><T> to Operator Interface - No backup operator interface - RS232 Modbus from VME rack to DCS <P> Module supplied for EOS, Synch Check, OT Protection - Auto Synch & Synch Check swapped <R><S><T> & <P> Gas Turbine only - Flame moved from <P> to <R><S><T> - Exhaust OT protection moved from <R><S><T> to <P> Medium & Large Steam only - PLU & EVA moved from <PLU> to <R><S><T>

GE Industrial Control Systems

Mark VI vs Mark V Comparison


Backup Interface

RS232 Modbus to DCS RS422

VME <R> Controller VME <S> Controller VME <T> Controller

Genius Bus to Flat Panel Interface & Remote I/O

TMR Only

Turbine I/O Primary Control & Protection

Discrete Wires

<P> Protection X Y Z <C> Common I/O Arcnet Ethernet

Used Only If No Mech OS Bolt

Turbine I/O Special Protection

Turbine I/O Monitoring

Remote Computer CimplicityR & Windows NTR

GE Industrial Control Systems

Human Machine Human Machine Interface (HMI) Interface (HMI)

Operator Interface UC2000 Software Maintenance Tools Application Software Historian

GE Industrial Control Systems

Flat Panel - Operator Interface


Unit #1A Speed MW Var PF IP HPX LPX V1 Pos V2 Pos V3 Pos
!

Main Display XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX rpm MW Mvar PF psi psi psi % % % Vib 1X Vib 1Y Vib 2X Vib 2Y Vib 3X Vib 3Y Axial 1 Axial 2 Eccent XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX mils mils mils mils mils mils mils mils mils

05-Sept-1997 10:14:57 IP Limit XXXX IP Control XXXX HP Extrac XXXX LP Extrac XXXX EP Control XXXX Econ Mode XXXX Gen Breaker XXXX TL Breaker XXXX Droop/Isoch XXXX Turning Gear XXXX mils mils mils mils mils mils mils mils mils mils

05-Sept-1997 8:30:14 Control Monitor

1 * L39V1X Turbine Vibration High - Prox. 1X Tests Off-line Alarms More Menu Return Display

Tests On-line

GE Industrial Control Systems

Operator / Maintenance Interface


! ! ! ! ! !

! !

CimplicityTM Graphics Windows NTTM Op Sys. Client / Server Redundant Servers Remote Access Platforms - PC - Laptop Trending Logging - Alarms (40ms) - Diagnostics (40ms) - SOE (1ms) Communication Links - RS232 Modbus - Ethernet Modbus - Ethernet TCP-IP Maintenance Tools

GE Industrial Control Systems

Operator / Maintenance Interface


! ! ! ! ! !

! !

CimplicityTM Graphics Windows NTTM Op Sys. Client / Server Redundant Servers Remote Access Platforms - PC - Laptop Trending Logging - Alarms (40ms) - Diagnostics (40ms) - SOE (1ms) Communication Links - RS232 Modbus - Ethernet Modbus - Ethernet TCP-IP Maintenance Tools

GE Industrial Control Systems

Operator / Maintenance Interface


! ! ! ! ! !

! !

CimplicityTM Graphics Windows NTTM Op Sys. Client / Server Redundant Servers Remote Access Platforms - PC - Laptop Trending Logging - Alarms (40ms) - Diagnostics (40ms) - SOE (1ms) Communication Links - RS232 Modbus - Ethernet Modbus - Ethernet TCP-IP Maintenance Tools

GE Industrial Control Systems

Operator / Maintenance Interface


! ! ! ! ! !

! !

CimplicityTM Graphics Windows NTTM Op Sys. Client / Server Redundant Servers Remote Access Platforms - PC - Laptop Trending Logging - Alarms (40ms) - Diagnostics (40ms) - SOE (1ms) Communication Links - RS232 Modbus - Ethernet Modbus - Ethernet TCP-IP Maintenance Tools

GE Industrial Control Systems

Multiple Languages

! ! ! ! !

Operator Displays Alarm Messages Event Messages Help Files Non-English Windows NTTM Documentation

GE Industrial Control Systems

UC2000 - Maintenance Software Tools


! ! ! !

! ! ! Relay Ladder Diagram Editor for Boolean Functions !

! !

Programmable Floating Point Math Blocks Editors For: - Application Software - I/O Assignments - Tuning Constants Password Protection Diagnostics Access Trending Forcing - Logic Data - Analog Data Help Files 95 & NT Compatible

GE Power Systems

Software Maintenance Tools - In Japanese Tool Bars Menus

! ! !

Download Procedures

Help Files Documentation Selectable With English

GE Power Systems

Maintenance Tools

! ! ! !

Display Multiple Racks Add / Delete Racks Add / Delete Cards Add / Delete TBs

GE Power Systems

Its NOT Just CimplicityTM


Signals Devices Resources

RTU (Remote Terminal Unit)


MODBUS Slave

GE FANUC - CIMPLICITY HMI v4.01 SP 2 Alarm Queue Manager


Service Request Transfer Protocol (SRTP) DEVCOM

SDB Exchange
(Links to SCAPI System Configuration API)

Point Database

Point Manager

DCS (Distributed Control System)


MODBUS Master

SDB
(System DataBase GE Salem)
EGD & "R" of SRTP

SDB Util
(import)

Screens
v03.05.04C

M6B
Put = Post Mark VI Runtime Configuration File (Salem)

Manually extract list of points for which controller must supply data. ICN global memory section

to Ethernet Requisition Engineer ICN EGD DEVCOM

CIMB
CIMPLICITY Bridge (FANUC/ Salem)

SDB Service
Get = Bind

NTP
EGD

External Alarm Manager interface

GSM GEDS Standard Messaging MODBUS

v2.5

MODBUS point data (Serial or Ethernet)

Toolbox
GE Salem Configuration Utility

SOE
Sequence of Events data

TCI

Turbine Control Interface v1.5

Q
DDBuild2
Utility to build Data Dictionary (Salem)

DD
Data Dictionary

alarm.da t

EGD - Ethernet Global Data ADL - Asynchronous Drive Language SDI - System Data Interface
MarkVI_HMI_Topology_1.vsd contact: Michael Good Last Revised: Oct 12, 1999

ICN Service EGD

Process Alarm data (Salem - built by Hand)

Alarm System (Process alarms)

MODBUS Slave

Q
ACK LOCK RESET Ethernet Mark VI Controller

GE Industrial Control Systems

I/O I/O Architecture Architecture

General Purpose I/O Direct Interface To Sensors & Actuators Turbine Specific I/O Interface Power Requirements

GE Industrial Control Systems

General Purpose I/O

Contact Inputs (48 / VME card)


- 125vdc (standard), 24vdc (option) - Optical Isolation - 1ms time tag (Sequence Of Events) Relay Outputs (24 / VME card) - Plug-in, Magnetic Relays - Dry, Form C Contacts & Solenoid Interface (Fused) Analog I/O (20/4 / VME card) - Inputs: 4-20ma, 0-1ma, +/-5vdc, +/-10vdc - Outputs: 4-20ma, 0-200ma Thermocouple Inputs (24 / VME card) - Grounded or Ungrounded, Software Linearization RTD Inputs (16 / VME card) - Grounded or Ungrounded, Software Linearization

GE Industrial Control Systems

Direct Interface
No Vendor Instrumentation Mark VI Turbine Load

Eliminates Failure Points Reduces Maintenance Fewer Spare Parts Better Diagnostics

GE Industrial Control Systems

Turbine Specific I/O (Direct Interface)

Servo Channels For Control Valves (4 / VME card)


- Bi-polar Outputs: +/-10, 20, 40, 80, 120ma - LVDT or LVDR Feedback, Software Regulation - (2) Pulse Rate Inputs /VME Card: Flow Divider or LP Speed Speed Inputs (4 /VME card) - Passive Magnetic Pickups - Can Detect 2 rpm Turning Gear Speed - Separate EOS Module (Triple Redundant) Vibration Inputs - (16) Vibration Inputs /VME card): Seismic, Prox, Accel.,Velomiter - (8) Position - (2) Keyphasors - Direct Plug Connection to Bently Nevada 3500 Monitor - Buffered BNC Outputs to Bently Nevada Analysis Equipment - Option For B-N DM2000 Embedded In Mark VI HMI

GE Industrial Control Systems

Turbine Specific I/O (Direct Interface)

Flame Inputs (8 / VME card)


- 335vdc Excitation Provided By Mark VI - Low Light Intensity Diagnostics Shaft Voltage / Current Monitor Automatic Synchronizing - (2) Single Phase PTs (Speed Matching & Voltage Matching) - Separate Synch Check Protection (Triple Redundant) Generator Card - (2) 3 Phase PT Inputs - (3) 1 Phase CT Inputs - Power Load Unbalance & Early Valve Actuation - (4) Analog Inputs: 4-20ma, +/-5vdc, +/-10vdc - (12) Relay Outputs

Input Diagnostics
Termination Board J#1

<R> or <S> or <T> Control Module Input Card System (Software) Limit Checking - 2 Hi / Lo Limits J3/4 A/D Process Input Config_en_O(n) f( ) Config_en_L(n) Enable A=>B or A=<B Latch AND System Limit Check Process Input in Engineering Units Processor Card IS200UCV_

Sensor

Noise Suppression

Scaling Config_lmt(n) Hi / Lo Select

System Alarm Disable Sensor


Noise Suppression

OR

Config_latch(n) Latch Alarm AND

AND Sensor
Noise Suppression

Reset Alarm Latch

To Other System Alarms

Diagnostic (Hardware) Limit Checking - 2 Hi / Lo Limits Sensor


Noise Suppression

Filtered Signal Hi / Lo Limits

A=>B or A=<B

Latch OR Diagnostic Alarm Limit Check

Sensor

Noise Suppression

AND To Other Diagnostic Alarms Sensor


Noise Suppression

Reset Diagnostic Alarm Latch

From Other Diagnostic Alarms "System" Alarm Disable

OR

Composite Diagnostic Alarm For Input Card

Revision Number

Engineer Technician Drawn By

Issue Date

Title

December 1, 1997

TEMP.VSD Page 5

Revision Date Revised By

Requisition Shop Order No.

GENERAL ELECTRIC
Industrial Control Systems Salem, Virginia

Input Limit Checking


Sheet No.

WE Barker

336A5278
Continued on sheet

04D

04C

GE Industrial Control Systems

Control Valve Interface


Actuating Cylinder Mark VI Controllers
<R> <S> <T>

3 Coil Servo Valve


Coil 1 Coil 2 Coil 3

Dual LVDT Feedback

GE Industrial Control Systems

Control Valve Interface


Actuating Cylinder Servo Valve
Coil 1 Coil 2

Mark VI Controller

Dual LVDT Feedback

GE Industrial Control Systems

Speed Control & Overspeed Protection


Primary Speed Pickups
<R>

<S>
<T>

Mark VI Controllers

Emergency Speed Pickups

<P> Protection Module


X

Y
Z Relay

Contact Voting

Fast Sampling Min. Threshold Det. dN/dt Diagnostics Cross-tripping Communications


Trip Solenoids

GE Industrial Control Systems

Flame Detection
Mark VI <R >
<S> <T>

UV Scanners

Flame Diagnostics

Low Light Intensity Diagnostics

GE Industrial Control Systems

Shaft Voltage & Current Monitor


Voltage Brush Mark VI Mark VI Mark V Monitor Monitor Monitor & & & Diagnostics Diagnostics Diagnostics Current Brush Shunt Case

Shaft

GE Industrial Control Systems

Synchronizing
<R>

<S>

Speed Matching Speed Matching Voltage Matching Voltage Matching Phase / /Slip Windows Phase Slip Windows Breaker Closure Time Breaker Closure Time Diagnostics Diagnostics Synch Check Protection Synch Check Protection Manual Synch From HMI Manual Synch From HMI

<T>

Primary Phase / Slip Windows

<P> Protection Module


X

Breaker Coil
Y
Z

R,S,T

Manual
Perm. X,Y,Z

Generator Bus Line Bus

Bus Backup Phase/Slip Windows

GE Industrial Control Systems

Power
Power Distribution Module
#1 AC SUPPLY

100 - 145 vdc 108 - 132 vac 216 - 264 vac 47 - 63 Hz 108 - 132 vac 216 - 264 vac 47 - 63 Hz

To Mark V Controllers

#2 AC SUPPLY

Ground Detection Undervoltage Detection

GE Industrial Control Systems

Command Hierarchy
TBCI VCRC VCMI Command Permissive Per Point Genius Block Command Permissive Per Point HMI Logic Command Communication Link HMI Logic Command From HMI Command Logic Command Unit Data Highway Per Point Permissive

UCVB Processor

Raise

Lower Permissive
Numerical Entry

Link Level

GE Power Systems

Historian Architecture
I/O Mark VI
Ethernet

I/O PLC
Ethernet

I/O
3rd Party Devices Modbus

Turbine Control Exception Database Alarms&Events

Data Dictionary

PI Archives

Server Side Client Side

Web Browser
Alarm & Event Report Cross Plot Event Scanner

PIProcessBook
Graphical Interface Historical Trends Real Time Trends

PIDataLink
Reports: Excel, Access, SQL, Minitab, etc.

GE Power Systems

Historian

Windows NT, PITM System by OSI Software Inc. Data Retains Local Time Tags - 1ms SOE, All Contact Inputs - 40ms All Alarms 20,000 Total Point Tags @ 1 Hz Configurable Data Compression 4 MB per Day per Unit (500 points) Varies With Stability Of Process & Deadbands PI Data Link: Reports PI Process Book: Process Data (Trends) PI - PI Exchange: Additional PI Archives Tools - Alarm and Event Reports - Historical Cross-Plots - Event Scanner - Process Data (Trends) - Reports

GE Power Systems

Stage Test Facility

! ! !

Two Operator Consoles System Stage Test Customer Demonstrations Customer Training

System Integration Test

g
SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System
Walter Barker Michael Cronin GE Power Systems Schenectady, NY

GER-4193A

GE Power Systems

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Triple Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I/O Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 General Purpose I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Application Specific I/O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Operator Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Software Maintenance Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Communication Link Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Printed Wire Board Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CE Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CE Low Voltage Directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Gas Contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Dust Contaminants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Seismic Universal Building Code (UBC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

GE Power Systems GER-4193A (10/00)


I I

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


Introduction
The SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI turbine control is the current state-of-the-art control for GE turbines that have a heritage of more than 30 years of successful operation. It is designed as a complete integrated control, protection, and monitoring system for generator and mechanical drive applications of gas and steam turbines. It is also an ideal platform for integrating all power island and balance-of-plant controls. Hardware and software are designed with close coordination between GEs turbine design engineering and controls engineering to insure that your control system provides the optimum turbine performance and you receive a true system solution. With Mark VI, you receive the benefits of GEs unmatched experience with an advanced turbine control platform. (See Figure 1.)

Architecture
The heart of the control system is the Control Module, which is available in either a 13- or 21slot standard VME card rack. Inputs are received by the Control Module through termination boards with either barrier or box-type terminal blocks and passive signal conditioning. Each I/O card contains a TMS320C32 DSP processor to digitally filter the data before conversion to 32 bit IEEE-854 floating point format. The data is then placed in dual port memory that is accessible by the on-board C32 DSP on one side and the VME bus on the other. In addition to the I/O cards, the Control Module contains an internal communication card, a main processor card, and sometimes a flash disk card. Each card takes one slot except for the main processor that takes two slots. Cards are manufactured with surface-mounted technology and conformal coated per IPC-CC830. I/O data is transmitted on the VME backplane between the I/O cards and the VCMI card located in slot 1. The VCMI is used for internal communications between: I I/O cards that are contained within its card rack I I/O cards that may be contained in expansion I/O racks called Interface Modules

Over 30 years experience Complete control, protection, and monitoring Can be used in variety of applications Designed by GE turbine and controls engineering

I I/O in backup <P> Protection Modules I I/O in other Control Modules used in triple redundant control configurations I The main processor card The main processor card executes the bulk of the application software at 10, 20, or 40 ms depending on the requirements of the application. Since most applications require that spe1

Figure 1. Benefits of Speedtronic Mark VI GE Power Systems GER-4193A (10/00)


I I

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


cific parts of the control run at faster rates (i.e. servo loops, pyrometers, etc.), the distributed processor system between the main processor and the dedicated I/O processors is very important for optimum system performance. A QNX operating system is used for real-time applications with multi-tasking, priority-driven preemptive scheduling, and fast-context switching. Communication of data between the Control Module and other modules within the Mark VI control system is performed on IONet. The VCMI card in the Control Module is the IONet bus master communicating on an Ethernet 10Base2 network to slave stations. A unique poling type protocol (Asynchronous Drives Language) is used to make the IONet more deterministic than traditional Ethernet LANs. An optional Genius Bus interface can be provided on the main processor card in Mark VI Simplex controls for communication with the GE Fanuc family of remote I/O blocks. These blocks can be selected with the same software configuration tools that select Mark VI I/O cards, and the data is resident in the same database. The Control Module is used for control, protection, and monitoring functions, but some applications require backup protection. For example, backup emergency overspeed protection is always provided for turbines that do not have a mechanical overspeed bolt, and backup synch check protection is commonly provided for generator drives. In these applications, the IONet is extended to a Backup Protection Module that is available in Simplex and triple redundant forms. The triple redundant version contains three independent sections (power supply, processor, I/O) that can be replaced while the turbine is running. IONet is used to access diagnostic data or for cross-tripping between the Control Module and the Protection Module, but it is not required for tripping.

Triple Redundancy
Mark VI control systems are available in Simplex and Triple Redundant forms for small applications and large integrated systems with control ranging from a single module to many distributed modules. The name Triple Module Redundant (TMR) is derived from the basic architecture with three completely separate and independent Control Modules, power supplies, and IONets. Mark VI is the third generation of triple redundant control systems that were pioneered by GE in 1983. System throughput enables operation of up to nine, 21-slot VME racks of I/O cards at 40 ms including voting the data. Inputs are voted in software in a scheme called Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT). The VCMI card in each Control Module receives inputs from the Control Module back-plane and other modules via its own IONet. Data from the VCMI cards in each of the three Control Modules is then exchanged and voted prior to transmitting the data to the main processor cards for execution of the application software. Output voting is extended to the turbine with three coil servos for control valves and 2 out of 3 relays for critical outputs such as hydraulic trip solenoids. Other forms of output voting are available, including a median select of 4-20ma outputs for process control and 0200ma outputs for positioners. Sensor interface for TMR controls can be either single, dual, triple redundant, or combinations of redundancy levels. The TMR architecture supports riding through a single point failure in the electronics and repair of the defective card or module while the process is running. Adding sensor redundancy increases the fault tolerance

GE Power Systems GER-4193A (10/00)


I I

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


of the overall system. Another TMR feature is the ability to distinguish between field sensor faults and internal electronics faults. Diagnostics continuously monitor the 3 sets of input electronics and alarms any discrepancies between them as an internal fault versus a sensor fault. In addition, all three main processors continue to execute the correct voted input data. (See Figure 2.)
To Other GE ToOtherGE Control Systems ControlSystems Operator Maintenance Operator/Maintenance Interface Interface
CommunicationsToDCS 1. RS232 Modbus Slave/Master 1.RS232ModbusSlave/Master Ethernet TCP-IPModbusSlave 2.EthernetTCP-IP Modbus Slave 3.EthernetTCP-IPGSM 3. Ethernet TCP-IPGSM

has one, fixed, box-type terminal block. It can accept one 3.0 mm2 (#12AWG) wire or two 2.0 mm2 (#14AWG) wires with 300 volt insulation. I/O devices on the equipment can be mounted up to 300 meters (984 feet) from the termination boards, and the termination boards must be within 15 m (49.2) from their corresponding I/O cards. Normally, the termination boards are mounted in vertical columns in termination cabinets with pre-assigned cable lengths and routing to minimize exposure to emi-rfi for noise sensitive signals such as speed inputs and servo loops.

Communications to DCS

Unit Data Highway UnitDataHighway Ethernet Ethernet


CIMPLICITY RDisplaySystem CIMPLICITY Display System WindowsNT TM OperatingSystem Windows NT Operating System

Primary Controllers
PrimaryControllers 1. Control 1. Control 2. Protection 2. Protection 3. Monitoring 3. Monitoring

BackupProtection 1. Emergency Overspeed 1.EmergencyOverspeed 2. Synch Check Protection 2.SynchCheckProtection

Backup Protection

General Purpose I/O


Discrete I/O. A VCRC card provides 48 digital inputs and 24 digital outputs. The I/O is divided between 2 Termination Boards for the contact inputs and another 2 for the relay outputs. (See Table 1.) Analog I/O. A VAIC card provides 20 analog inputs and 4 analog outputs. The I/O is divided between 2 Termination Boards. A VAOC is dedicated to 16 analog outputs and interfaces with 1 barrier-type Termination Board or 2 box-type Termination Boards. (See Table 2.) Temperature Monitoring. A VTCC card provides interface to 24 thermocouples, and a VRTD card provides interface for 16 RTDs. The input cards interface with 1 barrier-type
TB TBCI Type Barrier Box Barrier Barrier I/O 24 CI 24 CI 24 CI 12 CO Characteristics 70-145Vdc, optical isolation, 1ms SOE 2.5ma/point except last 3 input are 10ma / point 18-32Vdc, optical isolation, 1ms SOE 2.5ma/point except last 3 input are 10ma/point 70-145Vdc, 200-250Vdc, 90-132Vrms, 190-264Vrms (47-63Hz), optical isolation 1ms SOE, 3ma / point Plug-in, magnetic relays, dry, form C contacts 6 circuits with fused 3.2A, suppressed solenoid outputs Form H1B: diagnostics for coil current Form H1C: diagnostics for contact voltage Voltage Resistive Inductive 24Vdc 3.0A 3.0 amps L/R = 7 ms, no suppr. 3.0 amps L/R = 100 ms, with suppr 125Vdc 0.6A 0.2 amps L/R = 7 ms, no suppr. 0.6 amps L/R = 100 ms, with suppr 120/240Vac 6/3A 2.0 amps pf = 0.4 Same as TRLY, but no solenoid circuits

Ethernet Ethernet

<R> <R> ControlModule Control Module

<P> <P> ProtectionModule Protection Module P.S. P.S. CPU CPU I/O I/O

P S

RedundantUnit Data Highway DataHighway (Required) (ifrequired)

Redundant Unit
Ethernet - IONet Ethernet - IONet

Software Voting SoftwareVoting

<S> <S> ControlModule Control Module


Y

P S

P.S. P.S. CPU CPU I/O I/O

Ethernet --IONet Ethernet IONet

<T> <T> ControlModule Control Module


Z

P S

P.S. P.S. CPU CPU I/O I/O

Ethernet - IONet Ethernet - IONet

Figure 2. Mark VI TMR control configuration

I/O Interface
There are two types of termination boards. One type has two 24-point, barrier-type terminal blocks that can be unplugged for field maintenance. These are available for Simplex and TMR controls. They can accept two 3.0 mm2 (#12AWG) wires with 300 volt insulation. Another type of termination board used on Simplex controls is mounted on a DIN rail and

DTCI TICI TRLY

DRLY

Box

12 CO

Table 1. Discrete I/O 3

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


reduced by eliminating peripheral instrumentation. The VTUR card is designed to integrate several of the unique sensor interfaces used in turbine control systems on a single card. In some applications, it works in conjunction with the I/O interface in the Backup Protection Module described below. Speed (Pulse Rate) Inputs. Four-speed inputs from passive magnetic sensors are monitored by the VTUR card. Another two-speed (pulse rate) inputs can be monitored by the servo card VSVO which can interface with either passive or active speed sensors. Pulse rate inputs on the VSVO are commonly used for flow-divider feedback in servo loops. The frequency range is 214k Hz with sufficient sensitivity at 2 Hz to detect zero speed from a 60-toothed wheel. Two additional passive speed sensors can be monitored by each of the three sections of the Backup Protection Module used for emergency overspeed protection on turbines that do not have a mechanical overspeed bolt. IONet is used to communicate diagnostic and process data between the Backup Protection Module and the Control Module(s) including cross-tripping capability; however, both modules will initiate system trips independent of the IONet. (See Table 4 and Table 5.) Synchronizing. The synchronizing system consists of automatic synchronizing, manual synchronizing, and backup synch check protection. Two single-phase PT inputs are provided
VTUR I/O Terminations from Control Module TB TTUR Type Barrier I/O 4 Pulse rate 2 PTs Synch relays 2 SVM 3 Trip solenoids 8 Flame inputs 4 Pulse Rate 12 Relays Characteristics Passive magnetic speed sensors (2-14k Hz) Single phase PTs for synchronizing Auto/Manual synchronizing interface Shaft voltage / current monitor (-) side of interface to hydraulic trip solenoids UV flame scanner inputs (Honeywell) Passive magnetic speed sensors (2-14k Hz) Form C contacts previously described Transition board between VTUR & DRLY

Analog I/O TB TBAI Type Barrier I/O 10 AI 2 AO Characteristics (8) 4-20ma (250 ohms) or +/-5,10Vdc inputs (2) 4-20ma (250 ohms) or +/-1ma (500 ohms) inputs Current limited +24Vdc provided per input (2) +24V, 0.2A current limited power sources (1) 4-20ma output (500 ohms) (1) 4-20ma (500 ohms) or 0-200ma (50 ohms) output (16) 4-20ma outputs (500 ohms) (8) 4-20ma (250 ohms) or +/-5,10Vdc inputs (2) 4-20ma (250 ohms) or +/-1ma (500 ohms) inputs Current limited +24Vdc available per input (1) 4-20ma output (500 ohms) (1) 4-20ma (500 ohms) or 0-200ma (50 ohms) output (8) 4-20ma outputs (500 ohms)

TBAO DTAI

Barrier Box

16 AO 10 AI 2 AO

DTAO

Box

8 AO

Table 2. Analog I/O Termination Board or 2 box-type Termination Boards. Capacity for monitoring 9 additional thermocouples is provided in the Backup Protection Module. (See Table 3.)
Temperature Monitoring TB TBTC DTTC TRTD Type Barrier Box Barrier I/O 24 TC 12 TC 16 RTD Characteristics Types: E, J, K, T, grounded or ungrounded H1A fanned (paralleled) inputs, H1B dedicated inputs Types: E, J, K, T, grounded or ungrounded 3 points/RTD, grounded or ungrounded 10 ohm copper, 100/200 ohm platinum, 120 ohm nick H1A fanned (paralleled) inputs, H1B dedicated inputs RTDs, 3 points/RTD, grounded or ungrounded 10 ohm copper, 100/200 ohm platinum, 120 ohm nick

DTAI

Box

8 RTD

Table 3. Temperature Monitoring

Application Specific I/O


In addition to general purpose I/O, the Mark VI has a large variety of cards that are designed for direct interface to unique sensors and actuators. This reduces or eliminates a substantial amount of interposing instrumentation in many applications. As a result, many potential single-point failures are eliminated in the most critical area for improved running reliability and reduced long-term maintenance. Direct interface to the sensors and actuators also enables the diagnostics to directly interrogate the devices on the equipment for maximum effectiveness. This data is used to analyze device and system performance. A subtle benefit of this design is that spare-parts inventories are

TRPG* TRPS* TRPL* DTUR DRLY DTRT

Barrier

Box Box

Table 4. VTUR I/O terminations from Control Module

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


Flame Detection. The existence of flame either can be calculated from turbine parameters that are already being monitored or from a direct interface to Reuter Stokes or Honeywell-type flame detectors. These detectors monitor the flame in the combustion chamber by detecting UV radiation emitted by the flame. The Reuter Stokes detectors produce a 4-20ma input. For Honeywell flame scanners, the Mark VI supplies the 335Vdc excitation and the VTUR / TRPG monitors the pulses of current being generated. This determines if carbon buildup or other contaminates on the scanner window are causing reduced light detection. Trip System. On turbines that do not have a mechanical overspeed bolt, the control can issue a trip command either from the main processor card to the VTUR card in the Control Module(s) or from the Backup Protection Module. Hydraulic trip solenoids are wired with the negative side of the 24Vdc/125Vdc circuit connected to the TRPG, which is driven from the VTUR in the Control Module(s) and the positive side connected to the TREG which is driven from the VPRO in each section of the Backup Protection Module. A typical system trip initiated in the Control Module(s) will cause the analog control to drive the servo valve actuators closed, which stops fuel or steam flow and de-energizes (or energizes) the hydraulic trip solenoids from the VTUR and TRPG. If crosstripping is used or an overspeed condition is detected, then the VTUR/TRPG will trip one side of the solenoids and the VPTRO/TREG will trip the other side of the solenoid(s). Servo Valve Interface. A VSVO card provides 4 servo channels with selectable current drivers, feedback from LVDTs, LVDRs, or ratio metric LVDTs, and pulse-rate inputs from flow divider feedback used on some liquid fuel systems. In TMR applications, 3 coil servos are commonly

VPRO I/O Terminations from Backup Protection Module TB TPRO Type Barrier I/O 9 Pulse rate 2 PTs 3 Analog inputs 9 TC inputs 3 Trip solenoids 8 Trip contact in Characteristics Passive magnetic speed sensors (2-14k Hz) Single phase PTs for backup synch check (1) 4-20ma (250 ohm) or +/-5,10Vdc inputs (2) 4-20ma (250 ohm) Thermocouples, grounded or ungrounded (+) side of interface to hydraulic trip solenoids 1 E-stop (24Vdc) & 7 Manual trips (125Vdc)

TREG* TRES* TREL*

Barrier

Table 5. VPRO I/O terminations from Backup Protection Module on the TTUR Termination Board to monitor the generator and line busses via the VTUR card. Turbine speed is matched to the line frequency, and the generator and line voltages are matched prior to giving a command to close the breaker via the TTUR. An external synch check relay is connected in series with the internal K25P synch permissive relay and the K25 auto synch relay via the TTUR. Feedback of the actual breaker closing time is provided by a 52G/a contact from the generator breaker (not an auxiliary relay) to update the database. An internal K25A synch check relay is provided on the TTUR; however, the backup phase / slip calculation for this relay is performed in the Backup Protection Module or via an external backup synch check relay. Manual synchronizing is available from an operator station on the network or from a synchroscope. Shaft Voltage and Current Monitor. Voltage can build up across the oil film of bearings until a discharge occurs. Repeated discharge and arcing can cause a pitted and roughened bearing surface that will eventually fail through accelerated mechanical wear. The VTUR / TTUR can continuously monitor the shaft-to- ground voltage and current, and alarm at excessive levels. Test circuits are provided to check the alarm functions and the continuity of wiring to the brush assembly that is mounted between the turbine and the generator.

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


used to extend the voting of analog outs to the servo coils. Two coil servos can also be used. One, two, or three LVDT/Rs feedback sensors can be used per servo channel with a high select, low select, or median select made in software. At least 2 LVDT/Rs are recommended for TMR applications because each sensor requires an AC excitation source. (See Table 6 and Table 7.)
TB TSVO Type Barrier I/O 2 chnls. Characteristics (2) Servo current sources (6) LVDT/LVDR feedback 0 to 7.0 Vrms (4) Excitation sources 7 Vrms, 3.2k Hz (2) Pulse rate inputs (2-14k Hz) *only 2 per VSVO (2) Servo current sources (6) LVDT/LVDR feedback 0 to 7.0 Vrms (2) Excitation sources 7 Vrms, 3.2k Hz (2) Pulse rate inputs (2-14k Hz) *only 2 per VSVO

mination board can be provided with active isolation amplifiers to buffer the sensor signals from BNC connectors. These connectors can be used to access real-time data by remote vibration analysis equipment. In addition, a direct plug connection is available from the termination board to a Bently Nevada 3500 monitor. The 16 vibration inputs, 8 DC position inputs, and 2 Keyphasor inputs on the VVIB are divided between 2 TVIB termination boards for 3,000 rpm and 3,600 rpm applications. Faster shaft speeds may require faster sampling rates on the VVIB processor, resulting in reduced vibration inputs from 16-to-8. (See Table 8.)
VVIB I/O Terminations from Control Module TB TVIB Type Barrier I/O 8 Vibr. Characteristics Seismic, Proximitor, Velomitor, accelerometer charge amplifier DC inputs Keyphasor Current limited 24Vdc provided per probe

DSVO

Box

2 chnls.

Table 6. VSVO I/O terminations from Control Module


Nominal Servo Valve Ratings Coil Type #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 Nominal Current +/- 10 ma +/- 20 ma +/- 40 ma +/- 40 ma +/- 80 ma +/- 120 ma +/- 120 ma Coil Resistance 1,000 ohms 125 ohms 62 ohms 89 ohms 22 ohms 40 ohms 75 ohms Mark VI Control Simplex & TMR Simplex Simplex TMR TMR Simplex TMR

4 Pos. 1 KP

Table 8. VVIB I/O terminations from Control Module Three phase PT and CT monitoring. The VGEN card serves a dual role as an interface for 3 phase PTs and 1 phase CTs as well as a specialized control for Power-Load Unbalance and Early-Valve Actuation on large reheat steam turbines. The I/O interface is split between the TGEN Termination Board for the PT and CT inputs and the TRLY Termination Board for relay outputs to the fast acting solenoids. 420ma inputs are also provided on the TGEN for monitoring pressure transducers. If an EX2000 Generator Excitation System is controlling the generator, then 3 phase PT and CT data is communicated to the Mark VI on the network rather than using the VGEN card. (See Table 9.) Optical Pyrometer Inputs. The VPYR card moni-

Table 7. Nominal servo valve ratings Vibration / Proximitor Inputs. The VVIB card provides a direct interface to seismic (velocity), Proximitor, Velomitor, and accelerometer (via charge amplifier) probes. In addition, DC position inputs are available for axial measurements and Keyphasor inputs are provided. Displays show the 1X and unfiltered vibration levels and the 1X vibration phase angle. -24vdc is supplied from the control to each Proximitor with current limiting per point. An optional ter-

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


I A backup operator interface to the plant DCS operator interface I A gateway for communication links to other control systems I A permanent or temporary maintenance station I An engineers workstation

TB TGEN

Type Barrier

I/O 2 PTs 3 CTs 4 AI

TRLY

Barrier

12 CO

Characteristics 3 Phase PTs, 115Vrms 5-66 Hz, 3 wire, open delta 1 Phase CTs, 0-5A (10A over range) 5-66 Hz 4-20ma (250 ohms) or +/-5,10Vdc inputs Current limited +24Vdc/input Plug-in magnetic relays previously described

Table 9. VGEN I/O terminations from Control Module tors two LAND infrared pyrometers to create a temperature profile of rotating turbine blades. Separate, current limited +24Vdc and 24Vdc sources are provided for each Pyrometer that returns four 4-20ma inputs. Two Keyphasors are used for the shaft reference. The VPYR and matching TPYR support 5,100 rpm shaft speeds and can be configured to monitor up to 92 buckets with 30 samples per bucket. (See Table 10.)
TB TPYR Type Barrier I/O 2 Pyrometers Characteristics (8) 4-20ma (100 ohms) (2) Current limited +24Vdc sources (2) Current limited -24Vdc sources (2) Keyphasor inputs

Figure 3. Operator interface graphics: 7FA Mark VI All control and protection is resident in the Mark VI control, which allows the HMI to be a non-essential component of the control system. It can be reinitialized or replaced with the process running with no impact on the control system. The HMI communicates with the main processor card in the Control Module via the Ethernet based Unit Data Highway (UDH). All analog and digital data in the Mark VI is accessible for HMI screens including the high resolution time tags for alarms and events. System (process) alarms and diagnostics alarms for fault conditions are time tagged at frame rate (10/20/40 ms) in the Mark VI control and transmitted to the HMI alarm management system. System events are time tagged at frame rate, and Sequence of Events (SOE) for contact inputs are time tagged at 1ms on the contact input card in the Control Module. Alarms can 7

Table 10. VPYR I/O terminations from Control Module

Operator Interface
The operator interface is commonly referred to as the Human Machine Interface (HMI). It is a PC with a Microsoft Windows NT operating system supporting client/server capability, a CIMPLICITY graphics display system, a Control System Toolbox for maintenance, and a software interface for the Mark VI and other control systems on the network. (See Figure 3.) It can be applied as: I The primary operator interface for one or multiple units GE Power Systems GER-4193A (10/00)
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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


be sorted according to ID, Resource, Device, Time, and Priority. Operators can add comments to alarm messages or link specific alarm messages to supporting graphics. Data is displayed in either English or Metric engineering units with a one-second refresh rate and a maximum of one second to repaint a typical display graphic. Operator commands can be issued by either incrementing / decrementing a setpoint or entering a numerical value for the new setpoint. Responses to these commands can be observed on the screen one second from the time the command was issued. Security for HMI users is important to restrict access to certain maintenance functions such as editors and tuning capability, and to limit certain operations. A system called User Accounts is provided to limit access or use of particular HMI features. This is done through the Windows NT User Manager administration program that supports five user account levels. made with password protection (5 levels) and downloaded to the Control Module while the process is running. All application software is stored in the Control Module in non-volatile flash memory. Application software is executed sequentially and represented in its dynamic state in a ladder diagram format. Maintenance personnel can add, delete, or change analog loops, sequencing logic, tuning constants, etc. Data points can be selected and dragged on the screen from one block to another to simplify editing. Other features include logic forcing, analog forcing, and trending at frame rate. Application software documentation is created directly from the source code and printed at the site. This includes the primary elementary diagram, I/O assignments, the settings of tuning constants, etc. The software maintenance tools (Control System Toolbox) are available in the HMI and as a separate software package for virtually any Windows 95 or NT based PC. The same tools are used for EX2000 Generator Excitation Systems, and Static Starters. (See Figure 4 and Figure 5.)

Software Maintenance Tools


The Mark VI is a fully programmable control system. Application software is created from inhouse software automation tools which select proven GE control and protection algorithms and integrate them with the I/O, sequencing, and displays for each application. A library of software is provided with general-purpose blocks, math blocks, macros, and application specific blocks. It uses 32-bit floating point data (IEEE-854) in a QNX operating system with real-time applications, multitasking, prioritydriven preemptive scheduling, and fast context switching. Software frame rates of 10, 20, and 40 ms are supported. This is the elapsed time that it takes to read inputs, condition the inputs, execute the application software, and send outputs. Changes to the application software can be

Communications
Communications are provided for internal data transfer within a single Mark VI control; communications between Mark VI controls and peer GE control systems; and external communications to remote systems such as a plant distributed control system (DCS). The Unit Data Highway (UDH) is an Ethernetbased LAN with peer-to-peer communication between Mark VI controls, EX2000 Generator Excitation Controls, Static Starters, the GE Fanuc family of PLC based controls, HMIs, and Historians. The network uses Ethernet Global Data (EGD) which is a message-based protocol with support for sharing information with mul-

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


control. All trips between units are hardwired even if the UDH is redundant. The UDH communication driver is located on the Main Processor Card in the Mark VI. This is the same card that executes the turbine application software; therefore, there are no potential communication failure points between the main turbine processor and other controls or monitoring systems on the UDH. In TMR systems, there are three separate processor cards executing identical application software from identical databases. Two of the UDH drivers are normally connected to one switch, and the other UDH driver is connected to the other switch in a star configuration. Network topologies conform to Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standards. The GE networks are a Class C Private Internet according to RFC 1918: Address Allocation for Private Internets February 1996. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following IP address space 192.168.1.1: 192.168.255.255 (192.168/ 16 prefix). Communication links from the Mark VI to remote computers can be implemented from either an optional RS232 Modbus port on the main processor card in Simplex systems, or from a variety of communication drivers from the HMI. When the HMI is used for the communication interface, an Ethernet card in the HMI provides an interface to the UDH, and a second Ethernet card provides an interface to the remote computer. All operator commands that can be issued from an HMI can be issued from a remote computer through the HMI(s) to the Mark VI(s), and the remote computer can monitor any application software data in the Mark VI(s). Approximately 500 data points per control are of interest to a plant control system; however, about 1,200

Figure 4. Software maintenance tools card configuration

Relay Ladder Diagram Editor for Boolean Functions

Figure 5. Software maintenance tools editors tiple nodes based on the UDP/IP standard (RFC 768). Data can be transmitted Unicast, Multicast or Broadcast to peer control systems. Data (4K) can be shared with up to 10 nodes at 25Hz (40ms). A variety of other proprietary protocols are used with EGD to optimize communication performance on the UDH. 40 ms is fast enough to close control loops on the UDH; however, control loops are normally closed within each unit control. Variations of this exist, such as transmitting setpoints between turbine controls and generator controls for voltage matching and var/power-factor

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


points are commonly accessed through the communication links to support programming screen attributes such as changing the color of a valve when it opens. I Additional master communication drivers are available from the HMI.

Time Synchronization
Time synchronization is available to synchronize all controls and HMIs on the UDH to a Global Time Source (GTS). Typical GTSs are Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receivers such as the StarTime GPS Clock or other timeprocessing hardware. The preferred time sources are Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) or GPS; however, the time synchronization option also supports a GTS using local time as its base time reference. The GTS supplies a time-link network to one or more HMIs with a time/frequency processor board. When the HMI receives the time signal, it is sent to the Mark VI(s) using Network Time Protocol (NTP) which synchronizes the units to within +/-1ms time coherence. Time sources that are supported include IRIG-A, IRIG-B, 2137, NASA36, and local signals.

Communication Link Options


Communication link options include: I An RS-232 port with Modbus Slave RTU or ASCII communications from the Main Processor Card. (Simplex: full capability. TMR: monitor data only no commands) I An RS-232 port with Modbus Master / Slave RTU protocol is available from the HMI. I An RS-232/485 converter (halfduplex) can be supplied to convert the RS-232 link for a multi-drop network. I Modbus protocol can be supplied on an Ethernet physical layer with TCP-IP for faster communication rates from the HMI. I Ethernet TCP-IP can be supplied with a GSM application layer to support the transmission of the local highresolution time tags in the control to a DCS from the HMI. This link offers spontaneous transmission of alarms and events, and common request messages that can be sent to the HMI including control commands and alarm queue commands. Typical commands include momentary logical commands and analog setpoint target commands. Alarm queue commands consist of silence (plant alarm horn) and reset commands as well as alarm dump requests that cause the entire alarm queue to be transmitted from the Mark VI to the DCS. GE Power Systems GER-4193A (10/00)
I I

Diagnostics
Each circuit card in the Control Module contains system (software) limit checking, high/low (hardware) limit checking, and comprehensive diagnostics for abnormal hardware conditions. System limit checking consists of 2 limits for every analog input signal, which can be set in engineering units for high/high, high/low, or low/low with the I/O Configurator. In addition, each input limit can be set for latching/nonlatching and enable/disable. Logic outputs from system limit checking are generated per frame and are available in the database (signal space) for use in control sequencing and alarm messages. High/low (hardware) limit checking is provided on each analog input with typically 2 occurrences required before initiating an alarm. These limits are not configurable, and they are 10

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


selected to be outside the normal control requirements range but inside the linear hardware operational range (before the hardware reaches saturation). Diagnostic messages for hardware limit checks and all other hardware diagnostics for the card can be accessed with the software maintenance tools (Control System Toolbox). A composite logic output is provided in the data base for each card, and another logic output is provided to indicate a high/low (hardware) limit fault of any analog input or the associated communications for that signal. The alarm management system collects and time stamps the diagnostic alarm messages at frame rate in the Control Module and displays the alarms on the HMI. Communication links to a plant DCS can contain both the software (system) diagnostics and composite hardware diagnostics with varying degrees of capability depending on the protocols ability to transmit the local time tags. Separate manual reset commands are required for hardware and system (software) diagnostic alarms assuming that the alarms were originally designated as latching alarms, and no alarms will reset if the original cause of the alarm is still present. Hardware diagnostic alarms are displayed on the yellow status LED on the card front. Each card front includes 3 LEDs and a reset at the top of the card along with serial and parallel ports. The LEDs include: RUN: Green; FAIL: Red; STATUS: Yellow. Each circuit card and termination board in the system contains a serial number, board type, and hardware revision that can be displayed; 37 pin D type connector cables are used to interface between the Termination Boards and the J3 and J4 connectors on the bottom of the Control Module. Each connector comes with latching fasteners and a unique label identifying the correct termination point. One wire in each connector is dedicated to transmitting an identification message with a bar-code serial number, board type, hardware revision, and a connection location to the corresponding I/O card in the Control Module.

Power
In many applications, the control cabinet is powered from a 125Vdc battery system and short circuit protected external to the control. Both sides of the floating 125Vdc bus are continuously monitored with respect to ground, and a diagnostic alarm is initiated if a ground is detected on either side of the 125Vdc source. When a 120/240vac source is used, a power converter isolates the source with an isolation transformer and rectifies it to 125Vdc. A diode high select circuit chooses the highest of the 125Vdc busses to distribute to the Power Distribution Module. A second 120/240vac source can be provided for redundancy. Diagnostics produce an under-voltage alarm if either of the AC sources drop below the undervoltage setting. For gas turbine applications, a separate 120/240vac source is required for the ignition transformers with short circuit protection of 20A or less. The resultant internal 125Vdc is fuse-isolated in the Mark VI power distribution module and fed to the internal power supplies for the Control Modules, any expansion modules, and the termination boards for its field contact inputs and field solenoids. Additional 3.2A fuse protection is provided on the termination board TRLY for each solenoid. Separate 120Vac feeds are provided from the motor control center for any AC solenoids and ignition transformers on gas turbines. (See Table 11.)

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


IEC 6100-4-4: 1995 Electrical Fast Transient Susceptibility IEC 6100-4-5: 1995 Surge Immunity IEC 61000-4-6: 1995 Conducted RF Immunity IEC 61000-4-11: 1994 Voltage Variation, Dips, and Interruptions ANSI/IEEE C37.90.1 Surge

Steady State Voltage 125Vdc (100 to 144Vdc) 120vac (108 to 132vac) 240vac (200 to 264vac)

Freq.

Load 10.0 A dc

Comments Ripple <= 10V p-p Note 1 Harmonic distortion < 5% Note 2 Harmonic distortion < 5 % Note 3

47 - 63Hz

10.0 A rms

47 - 63 Hz

5.0 A rms

Table 11. Power requirements

CE - Low Voltage Directive


EN 61010-1 Electrical Equipment, Industrial Machines IEC 529 Intrusion Protection Codes/NEMA 1/IP 20 Reference the Mark VI Systems Manual GEH6421, Chapter 5 for additional codes and standards.

Codes and Standards


ISO 9001 in accordance with Tick IT by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance Limited. ISO 90003 Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards, Part 3: Guidelines for the Application of ISO 9001 to Development Supply and Maintenance of Software.

Environment
The control is designed for operation in an airconditioned equipment room with convection cooling. Special cabinets can be provided for operation in other types of environments.

Safety Standards
UL 508A Safety Standard Industrial Control Equip. CSA 22.2 No. 14 Industrial Control Equipment

Printed Wire Board Assemblies


UL 796 Printed Circuit Boards UL recognized PWB manufacturer, UL file number E110691 ANSI IPC guidelines ANSI IPC/EIA guidelines

Temperature:
Operating Storage 0 to +45C +32 to +113F -40 to +70C -40 to +158F

CE - Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)


EN 50081-2 Generic Emissions Standards EN 50082-2:1994 Generic Immunity Industrial Environment EN 55011 Radiated and Conducted Emissions IEC 61000-4-2:1995 Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility IEC 6100-4-3: 1997 Radiated RF Immunity

The control can be operated at 50C during maintenance periods to repair air-conditioning systems. It is recommended that the electronics be operated in a controlled environment to maximize the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF) on the components. Purchased commercial control room equipment such as PCs, monitors, and printers are typically capable of operating in a control room ambient of 0 to +40C with convection cooling.

Humidity
5% to 95% non-condensing Exceeds EN50178: 1994 12

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


Elevation
Exceeds EN50178: 1994 Communication Links From HMI: RS232 Modbus Master/Slave, Ethernet Modbus Slave, Ethernet TCP-IP GSM HMI SPEEDTRONIC Application Manual Chapter 7 (GEH-6126), Ethernet TCP-IP GEDS Standard Message Format (GSM) (GEI-100165) I Operator/Maintenance Interface HMI HMI for Controls SPEEDTRONIC Turbine

Gas Contaminants
EN50178: 1994 Section A.6.1.4 Table A.2 (m)

Dust Contaminants
Exceeds IEC 529: 1989-11 (IP-20)

Seismic Universal Building Code (UBC)


Section 2312 Zone 4

Documentation
The following documentation is available for Mark VI Turbine Controls. A subset of this documentation will be delivered with each control depending on the functional requirements of each system.

Application Manual (GEH-6126) Cim Edit Operation Manual (GFK-1396) User Manual (GFK-1180) Cimplicity HMI For Trending Operators Manual (GFK-1260) I Turbine Historian System Guide (GEH-6421) I Standard Blockware Library (SBLIB) I Turbine Blockware Library (TURBLIB) Windows NT

Manuals
I System Manual for SPEEDTRONICTM Mark VI Turbine Control (GEH-6421) I Control System Toolbox, for Configuring a Mark VI Controller (GEH-6403) Configuring the Trend Recorder (GEH6408) System Data Base for System Toolbox (GEI-100189) System Data Base Browser (GEI-100271) Data Historian (used for trip history) (GEI-100278) I Communications To Remote Computers / Plant DCS RS232 Modbus Slave From Control Module Modbus Communications Implementation UCOC2000 - I/O Drivers, Chapter 2

Drawings
I Equipment Outline Drawing AutoCAD R14 I Equipment Layout Drawing AutoCAD R14 I I/O Termination List (Excel Spreadsheet) I Network one-line diagram (if applicable) I Application Software Diagram (printout from source code) I Data List For Communication Link To DCS

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13

SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Turbine Control System


List of Figures
Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Benefits of Speedtronic Mark VI Mark VI TMR control configuration Operator interface graphics: 7FA Mark VI Software maintenance tools card configuration Software maintenance tools editors

List of Tables
Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9. Table 10: Table 11: Discrete I/O Analog I/O Temperature Monitoring VTUR I/O terminations from Control Module VPRO I/O terminations from Backup Protection Module VSVO I/O terminations from Control Module Nominal servo valve ratings VVIB I/O terminations from Control Module VGEN I/O terminations from Control Module VPYR I/O terminations from Control Module Power requirements

GE Power Systems GER-4193A (10/00)


I I

14



Introduction to Windows 95 / NT 4.0

95/NT Overview & Features


32 bit operating system 32 bit applications Excel 7.0 PowerPoint 7.0 Word 7.0 Access 7.0 More efficient memory use Security (NT) New, improved user interface Folders, not Directories Shared information Right clicking Graceful handling of program errors (w/ all 32-bit apps) Up to 256-character filenames

Differences
Technical Area Recommended Hardware Standards Software Compatibility Windows 95 486 w/ 16MB Supports most Windows and MS-DOS applications. Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Pentium w/ 32MB No support for applications which breach Windows NT security (any application which directly accesses hardware) Supports approx. 3,000 devices Less Comprehensive detection code and static device driver support

Hardware and Device Compatibility Installation & Deployment

Supports more than 4,000 devices Comprehensive detection code and dynamic device configuration support accurately recognizes, configures, and supports hardware Built-in APM support for laptops and Plug and Play for both mobile and desktop systems Robust: Preemptive multitasking for 32-bit applications. Slightly greater performance on 16 MB systems Better: Vastly improved over Windows 3.11 and Windows for Workgroups 3.11 Improved: Support for server-based validated logon.

Power Management and Plug and Play

Built-in APM

Performance

High Performance: Preemptive multitasking for all applications. Significantly greater performance on 32 MB systems Industrial Strength: All applications run in protected memory space Industrial Strength: Complete protection down to the file level (w/ NTFS)

Reliability/Stability

Security

User Interface
Desktop Right Click Menu

Start Button

Taskbar

Status Tray

Shortcuts
Shortcuts in a folder

Shortcuts on the Desktop

Windows Screen Elements


Title Bar Control Menu Menu Bar Maximize/Restore Minimize Scroll Bar Scroll Arrow Status Bar Close

Tiling Windows
Right click here

Windows Explorer

Send To
Right Click on a file to access the Send To options. You can send to many different things - printers, applications, directories, servers, etc..

Adding to the Send To

Adding to the Send To

Adding to the Send To

Adding to the Send To

Sharing a Drive or Folder

VERY IMPORTANT:
Sharing folders is a potential security risk. Shared information defaults to The World (in 95) or to Everyone (in NT) (everyone on the network), which is not generally what you want to do. Be very careful to limit the rights on shared information to suit your specific purposes.

Accessing Shared Information

Changing Passwords
NT Servers
NT (Ctrl-Alt-Del) - Choose Change Password. 95 - Open the control panel and and open Passwords.
Enter your old password. Press Tab, NOT Enter. Enter your new password. Enter your new password a second time to verify your typed it correctly. Choose OK.

Norton AntiVirus
AntiVirus Autoprotect Norton Program Scheduler

Shutdown

Tasks & Keystrokes


Cut (Ctrl-X) Moves the selected object to the clipboard Copy (Ctrl-C) Copies the selected object to the clipboard. Paste (Ctrl-V) Pastes clipboard contents to the current cursor location. X C V
Ctrl

Undo (Ctrl-Z) Reverses changes made to the document. Redo (Ctrl-Y) Reverts back from Undo

Tasks & Keystrokes


Help (F1) Starts the current applications help. Print (Ctrl-P) Opens the print window. Save As (F12) Opens the Save As dialogue box. Select All (Ctrl-A) Selects entire current document.

Tasks & Keystrokes


Fast Task Switching (Alt-Tab) Toggles thru open applications. Document Switching (Ctrl-Tab) Toggles thru open documents.

Start (Ctrl-Esc) or (Windows Key) Opens Start Button Menu.

The Windows key is between the Alt and Ctrl.


Not all computers have this key.

Tasks & Keystrokes


95 Task Manager (Ctrl-Alt Del) End task causing error
condition.

NT Security (Ctrl-Alt-Del) NT Security options.


Lock Workstation Logoff Shutdown Change Password Task Manager

Tasks & Keystrokes


Screen Capture (Print Screen) Captures entire screen to clipboard. Window Capture (Alt-Print Screen) Captures current window to clipboard. These features are great for instructional/documentation purposes and also for problem solving and reporting. If you get an error message, capture it and email it a technical support specialist.

Tasks & Keystrokes


Cancel (Esc) Performs cancel option on active window. Close (Alt-F4) Exit the current application, or exit Windows (from Desktop). Prompts to save any unsaved document(s). Refresh (F5) Updates the current screen. Especially useful in Explorer.

Tasks & Keystrokes


Copy File (Ctrl-DRAG w/ mouse) Copy file to a new destination. Move File (Shift -DRAG w/ mouse) Move file to a new destination. Select Non-contiguous Files (Ctrl-Left mouse button) Selects multiple files. Select Contiguous Files (Shift-Left mouse button) Click on first & last files.
You can combine the above two for complete freedom of selection.

Tasks & Keystrokes


Windows Keyboards
Explorer (Windows-E) Opens Explorer. Run (Windows-R) Opens the run programs box Find (Windows-F) Opens the Find box Minimize all (Windows-M) Minimizes all open windows Unminimize all (Windows-Shft-M) Unminimizes all open windows

NT Administration - User Manager

Local PC Users listed here

Groups help associate users with privileges

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
User Manager

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Services

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Services

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Services

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Services

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Services

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Services
STOP START

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Task Manager
Right click

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Task Manager
Applications Tab

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Task Manager
Processes Tab

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Task Manager
Performance Tab

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Event Viewer

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Event Viewer

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Event Viewer

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Event Viewer

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Event Viewer

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Event Viewer

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Version Tab

NT version and Service Pack

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
System Tab BIOS date

Processor and Speed

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Display Tab Display adapter

Files used by driver

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Drives Tab Displays all drives

Can sort by Drive type or by Drive Letter

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Drives Tab

Double click displays Drive Properties

Displays Drive information

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Memory Tab RAM Memory

Hard Drive space use for temporary storage

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Network Tab

Access different aspects of Network information

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Environment Tab

Access both System and Local variables

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Resources Tab

Access different resource types

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Windows NT Diagnostics
Services Tab

Access both Services and Devices

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Performance Monitor

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Performance Monitor

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Performance Monitor

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Performance Monitor

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Performance Monitor

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Environment - Path

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Environment - Path

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Environment - Path

Click once here

Power Systems University

USING WINDOWS NT 4
Environment - Path

Now read or change value here

;d:\tci\exec



GEH-6421D, Volume I
(Supersedes GEH-6421C, Volume I)

GE Industrial Systems

SPEEDTRONIC

TM

Mark VI Turbine Control


System Guide, Volume I (1 of 2)

Publication: Issued:

GEH-6421D, Volume I (Supersedes GEH-6421C, Volume I) 2002-02-13

SPEEDTRONIC

TM

Mark VI Turbine Control


System Guide, Volume I (1 of 2)

2002 General Electric Company, USA. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. GE provides the following document and the information included therein as is and without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including but not limited to any implied statutory warranty of merchantability or fitness for particular purpose. These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment, nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met during installation, operation, and maintenance. The information is supplied for informational purposes only, and GE makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the information included herein. Changes, modifications and/or improvements to equipment and specifications are made periodically and these changes may or may not be reflected herein. It is understood that GE may make changes, modifications, or improvements to the equipment referenced herein or to the document itself at any time. This document is intended for trained personnel familiar with the GE products referenced herein. GE may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not provide any license whatsoever to any of these patents. All license inquiries should be directed to the address below. If further information is desired, or if particular problems arise that are not covered sufficiently for the purchasers purpose, the matter should be referred to: GE Industrial Systems Post Sales Service 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA Phone: + 1 888 GE4 SERV (888 434 7378, United States) + 1 540 378 3280 (International) Fax: + 1 540 387 8606 (All) (+ indicates the international access code required when calling from outside the USA) This document contains proprietary information of General Electric Company, USA and is furnished to its customer solely to assist that customer in the installation, testing, operation, and/or maintenance of the equipment described. This document shall not be reproduced in whole or in part nor shall its contents be disclosed to any third party without the written approval of GE Industrial Systems.

ARCNET is a registered trademark of Datapoint Corporation. CIMPLICITY and Series 90 are trademarks, and Genius is a registered trademark, of GE Fanuc Automation North America, Inc. Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation. IBM and PC are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Intel and Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. Modbus is a registered trademark of Modicon. PI-ProcessBook, PI-Data Archive, and PI-DataLink are registered trademarks of OSI Software Inc. Proximitor, Velomitor, and KeyPhasor are registered trademarks of Bently Nevada. QNX is a registered trademark of QNX Software Systems, LTD. SPEEDTRONIC is a trademark of General Electric Company, USA. Windows and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

g
Your Name

To:

Reader Comments
General Electric Company

GE Industrial Systems Documentation Design, Rm. 291 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA Fax: 1-540-387-8651 (GE Internal DC 8-278-8651)

We welcome comments and suggestions to make this publication more useful.


Todays Date Job Site GE Requisition No. Your Job Function / How You Use This Publication Publication No. Publication Issue/Revision Date If needed, how can we contact you? Fax No. Phone No. E-mail Address

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Documentation Design, Rm. 291 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA

...........................................................................................Fold here first .........................................................................................................

Safety Symbol Legend

Indicates a procedure, condition, or statement that, if not strictly observed, could result in personal injury or death.

Indicates a procedure, condition, or statement that, if not strictly observed, could result in damage to or destruction of equipment.

Indicates a procedure, condition, or statement that should be strictly followed in order to optimize these applications.

Note Indicates an essential or important procedure, condition, or statement.

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Safety Symbol Legend a

This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment. To minimize hazard of electrical shock or burn, approved grounding practices and procedures must be strictly followed.

To prevent personal injury or equipment damage caused by equipment malfunction, only adequately trained personnel should modify any programmable machine.

The example and setup screens in this manual do not reflect the actual application configurations. Be sure to follow the correct setup procedures for your application.

Note Component and equipment reliabilities have improved dramatically over the past several years. However, component and equipment failures can still occur. Electrical and environmental conditions beyond the scope of the original design can be contributing factors. Since failure modes cannot always be predicted or may depend on the application and the environment, best practices should be followed when dealing with I/O that is critical to process operation or personnel safety. Make sure that potential I/O failures are considered and appropriate lockouts or permissives are incorporated into the application. This is especially true when dealing with processes that require human interaction.

b Safety Symbol Legend

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Safety Symbol Legend

Symbol

Publication

Description

IEC 417, No. 5031 IEC 417, No. 5032 IEC 417, No. 5033
3

Direct Current Alternating Current Both direct and alternating Three-phase alternating

IEC 617-2, No. 02-02-06 IEC 417, No. 5017

Earth (CCOM signal ground) Terminal

IEC 417, No. 5019

Protective Conductor Terminal (Chassis Safety Ground) Protective Conductor Terminal (Chassis Safety Ground)

PE
IEC 417, No. 5020 IEC 417, No. 5021 IEC 417, No. 5007 IEC 417, No. 5008 IEC 417, No. 5172

Frame or Chassis Terminal Equipotentiality On (Supply) Off (Supply) Equipment protected throughout Double Insulation or Reinforced Insulation (equivalent to Class II of 536)

ISO 3864, No. B.3.6 Caution, risk of electric shock ISO 3864, No. B.3.1 Caution

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Safety Symbol Legend c

Drawing Symbols
Locations
O R D 1 P OS E EX 2 Supplied by Others Remotely Mounted Door Mounted Mounted on Door 1, 2, and so on Panel Mounted Mounted in Main Operator Station Equipment Exists in place EX2000 Exciter Generator Control Panel Turbine Control
SS LCI ISO G

Purchaser's Equipment Bus Aux Compt Device Generator Compt Device Generator Terminal Enclosure Packaged Electrical Cont. CTR (PEEC) PEECC MCC Static Starter Load Commutated Inverter Isolation Transformer Generator Excitation Compartment

Devices
J1

Cable Plug Connector Jumper Relay Coil Solenoid Coil Flame Detector Current Limiter (Polyfuse)

Case Ground Ground Bus Signal Ground Contact Actually Shown Elsewhere Customer Connection Voltage Limiter (MOV)

Conventions
Twisted Pair Wire 1. For wire runs internal to the controller, twisted pairs are adequate. 2. For wire runs external to the controller (and internal to the controller when longer than 20 feet), shielded twisted pair is required. 3. All shield drain wires should be terminated on one end only, that end being the shield ground points immediately adjacent to the termination boards. The other end should be cut off and the wire taped to prevent grounding. 4. None of the shield drain wires should ever be routed through any controller terminal board-mounted ferrite cores.

Twisted Shielded Pair Wire

Shielded Pair Wire

Low Level Signal Wiring Practices Required Delta Wye


L H P

Low Level Wiring High Level Wiring Power Wiring

d Safety Symbol Legend

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Contents
Chapter 1 Overview 1-1
Introduction ..............................................................................................................1-1 System Guide Outline...............................................................................................1-3 Related Documents...................................................................................................1-4 How to Get Help.......................................................................................................1-5 Acronyms and Abbreviations ...................................................................................1-6

Chapter 2

System Architecture

2-1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................2-1 System Components .................................................................................................2-2 Control Cabinet .................................................................................................2-2 I/O Cabinet ........................................................................................................2-2 Unit Data Highway (UDH) ...............................................................................2-2 Human Machine Interface (HMI)......................................................................2-3 Computer Operator Interface (COI) ..................................................................2-4 Link to Distributed Control System (DCS) .......................................................2-5 Plant Data Highway (PDH) ...............................................................................2-5 Operator Console...............................................................................................2-5 EX2000 Exciter .................................................................................................2-5 Generator Protection .........................................................................................2-5 LCI Static Starter...............................................................................................2-6 Control Module .................................................................................................2-6 Interface Module ...............................................................................................2-8 Controller ..........................................................................................................2-9 VCMI Communication Board .........................................................................2-10 IONet ...............................................................................................................2-11 I/O Boards .......................................................................................................2-12 Terminal Boards..............................................................................................2-14 Power Sources .................................................................................................2-15 Turbine Protection Module .............................................................................2-16 Operating Systems...........................................................................................2-17 Levels of Redundancy ............................................................................................2-18 Control and Protection Features .............................................................................2-19 Triple Modular Redundancy............................................................................2-19 TMR Architecture ...........................................................................................2-20 TMR Operation ...............................................................................................2-22 Designated Controller......................................................................................2-22 Output Processing............................................................................................2-23 Input Processing ..............................................................................................2-25 State Exchange ................................................................................................2-28 Median Value Analog Voting .........................................................................2-28 Two Out of Three Logic Voter........................................................................2-28 Disagreement Detector ....................................................................................2-29

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Contents i

Peer I/O ...........................................................................................................2-29 Command Action ............................................................................................2-29 Rate of Response .............................................................................................2-29 Failure Handling..............................................................................................2-30 Turbine Protection ..................................................................................................2-32 Reliability and Availability ....................................................................................2-34 Online Repair for TMR Systems .....................................................................2-34 Reliability ........................................................................................................2-34 Third Party Connectivity ........................................................................................2-36

Chapter 3

Networks

3-1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................3-1 Network Overview ...................................................................................................3-2 Enterprise Layer ................................................................................................3-2 Supervisory Layer .............................................................................................3-2 Control Layer ....................................................................................................3-3 Controller Input/Output.....................................................................................3-4 Data Highways .........................................................................................................3-5 Plant Data Highway...........................................................................................3-5 Unit Data Highway............................................................................................3-6 Data Highway Ethernet Switches......................................................................3-8 Selecting IP Addresses ....................................................................................3-11 IONet......................................................................................................................3-12 IONet - Communications Interface .................................................................3-13 I/O Data Collection .........................................................................................3-13 Ethernet Global Data (EGD) ..................................................................................3-14 EGD Features ..................................................................................................3-15 Modbus Communications.......................................................................................3-18 Ethernet Modbus Slave...........................................................................................3-19 Ethernet Modbus Features...............................................................................3-20 Serial Modbus Slave...............................................................................................3-21 Serial Modbus Features ...................................................................................3-21 Modbus Configuration ....................................................................................3-21 Hardware Configuration..................................................................................3-22 Serial Port Parameters .....................................................................................3-24 Ethernet GSM.........................................................................................................3-25 PROFIBUS Communications.................................................................................3-27 Features ...........................................................................................................3-28 Configuration ..................................................................................................3-28 I/O and Diagnostics .........................................................................................3-29 Fiber-Optic Cables..................................................................................................3-30 Cable Contruction............................................................................................3-30 Cable Ratings ..................................................................................................3-31 Fiber-optic Converter ......................................................................................3-32 Connectors.......................................................................................................3-32 System Considerations ....................................................................................3-33 Installation.......................................................................................................3-33 Component Sources.........................................................................................3-34 Time Synchronization ............................................................................................3-35 Redundant Time Sources.................................................................................3-35 Selection of Time Sources...............................................................................3-36

ii Contents

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Chapter 4

Codes and Standards

4-1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................4-1 Safety Standards .......................................................................................................4-1 Electrical...................................................................................................................4-2 Printed Circuit Board Assemblies .....................................................................4-2 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) .............................................................4-2 Low Voltage Directive ......................................................................................4-2 Supply Voltage..................................................................................................4-2 Environmental ..........................................................................................................4-4 Temperature Ranges..........................................................................................4-4 Humidity............................................................................................................4-4 Elevation............................................................................................................4-4 Contaminants.....................................................................................................4-4 Vibration ...........................................................................................................4-5 Packaging .................................................................................................................4-5 UL Class 1 Division 2 Listed Boards .......................................................................4-6

Chapter 5

Installation

5-1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................5-1 Installation Support ..................................................................................................5-3 Early Planning ...................................................................................................5-3 GE Installation Documents................................................................................5-3 Technical Advisory Options..............................................................................5-3 Equipment Receiving, Handling, and Storage..........................................................5-5 Receiving and Handling ....................................................................................5-5 Storage...............................................................................................................5-5 Operating Environment .....................................................................................5-6 Weights and Dimensions ..........................................................................................5-8 Cabinets.............................................................................................................5-8 Control Console (Example).............................................................................5-12 Power Requirements...............................................................................................5-13 Installation Support Drawings ................................................................................5-14 Grounding...............................................................................................................5-19 Equipment Grounding .....................................................................................5-19 Building Grounding System ............................................................................5-20 Signal Reference Structure (SRS) ...................................................................5-20 Cable Separation and Routing ................................................................................5-26 Signal/Power Level Definitions ......................................................................5-26 Cableway Spacing Guidelines.........................................................................5-28 Cable Routing Guidelines ...............................................................................5-31 Cable Specifications ...............................................................................................5-32 Wire Sizes .......................................................................................................5-32 Low Voltage Shielded Cable...........................................................................5-33 Connecting the System ...........................................................................................5-36 I/O Wiring .......................................................................................................5-38 Terminal Block Features .................................................................................5-39 Power System..................................................................................................5-39 Installing Ethernet ...........................................................................................5-39 Startup Checks........................................................................................................5-41 Board Inspections ............................................................................................5-41 Wiring and Circuit Checks ..............................................................................5-44 Startup ....................................................................................................................5-45 Topology and Application Code Download ....................................................5-46 I/O Wiring and Checkout ................................................................................5-46

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Contents iii

Maintenance ...........................................................................................................5-47 Modules and Boards........................................................................................5-47 Component Replacement........................................................................................5-48 Replacing a Controller.....................................................................................5-48 Replacing a VCMI...........................................................................................5-48 Replacing an I/O Board in an Interface Module..............................................5-49 Replacing a Terminal Board............................................................................5-49 Cable Replacement..........................................................................................5-50

Chapter 6

Tools

6-1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................6-1 Toolbox ....................................................................................................................6-2 Configuring the Application..............................................................................6-3 CIMPLICITY HMI ..................................................................................................6-4 Basic Description ..............................................................................................6-4 Product Features ................................................................................................6-5 Computer Operator Interface (COI) .........................................................................6-7 Interface Features ..............................................................................................6-7 Historian ...................................................................................................................6-8 System Configuration........................................................................................6-8 Data Flow ..........................................................................................................6-9 Historian Optional Tools .................................................................................6-10

Chapter 7

Applications

7-1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................7-1 Servo Regulator Descriptions...................................................................................7-2 LVDT Auto Calibration ....................................................................................7-9 Generator Synchronization .....................................................................................7-11 Hardware .........................................................................................................7-11 Application Code.............................................................................................7-13 Algorithm Descriptions ...................................................................................7-13 Configuration ..................................................................................................7-17 VTUR Diagnostics for the Auto Synch Function............................................7-20 VPRO Diagnostics for the Auto Synch Function ............................................7-20 Hardware Verification Procedure....................................................................7-20 Synchronization Simulation ............................................................................7-21 Overspeed Protection Logic ...................................................................................7-22 Power Load Unbalance...........................................................................................7-46 Early Valve Actuation ............................................................................................7-49 Fast Overspeed Trip in VTUR................................................................................7-51 Compressor Stall Detection ....................................................................................7-54 Vibration Sampling Speed and Accuracy...............................................................7-58 Ground Fault Detection Sensitivity ........................................................................7-60

iv Contents

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Chapter 8

Troubleshooting and Diagnostics

8-1

Introduction ..............................................................................................................8-1 Overview ..................................................................................................................8-2 Process Alarms .........................................................................................................8-3 Process (and Hold) Alarm Data Flow................................................................8-3 Diagnostic Alarms ....................................................................................................8-5 Voter Disagreement Diagnostics.......................................................................8-6 I/O Board Alarms ..............................................................................................8-7 Controller Runtime Errors...............................................................................8-33 Totalizers................................................................................................................8-35 Troubleshooting......................................................................................................8-36 I/O Board LEDs ..............................................................................................8-36 Controller Failures...........................................................................................8-38 Power Distribution Module Failure.................................................................8-38

Glossary of Terms Index

G-1 I-1

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Contents v

Chapter 1

Overview

Introduction
This document describes the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI turbine control system. Mark VI is used for the control and protection of steam and gas turbines in electrical generation and process plant applications. This chapter provides an overview of the turbine control system. It is organized as follows:
Section Page

System Guide Outline...............................................................................................1-3 Related Documents...................................................................................................1-4 How to Get Help.......................................................................................................1-5 Acronyms and Abbreviations ...................................................................................1-6

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 1 Overview 1-1

The main functions of the Mark VI turbine control system are as follows: To obtain the highest reliability, Mark VI uses a TMR architecture with sophisticated signal voting techniques. Speed control during turbine startup Automatic generator synchronization Turbine load control during normal operation on the grid Protection against turbine overspeed on loss of load

The Mark VI system is available as a simplex control or a triple modular redundant (TMR) control with single or multiple racks, and local or remote I/O. The I/O interface is designed for direct interface to the sensors and actuators on the turbine, to eliminate the need for interposing instrumentation, and to avoid the reliability and maintenance issues associated with that instrumentation. Figure 1-1 shows a typical Mark VI control system for a steam turbine with the important inputs and control outputs.

RS-232C PC Interface
Comm Controller VCMI UCVX

Mark VI I/O Board Rack


VSVO VTUR VAIC VCCC or VCRC VVIB VRTD VTCC VGEN

Laptop

Ethernet Data Highway

(48) Contact Inputs. 1 ms SOE

(2) 3-Phase Gen/Line Voltage, (1) 3-Phase Gen. Current

(24) Relays

Proximitors: (16) Vibration, (8) Position, (2) KP

(16) RTDs

(24) Thermocouples

Actuator Actuator Inlet Pressure Trip


Generator

Speed Extraction Pressure Exhaust Pressure Shaft Voltage & Current Monitor Automatic Synchronizing

Vibration, Thrust, Eccentricity Temperature (RTDs) Temperature (Thermocouples) Generator 3-Phase PTs & CT
Figure 1-1. Typical Turbine Control System

1-2 Chapter 1 Overview

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

System Guide Outline


The Mark VI System Guide (Volumes I and II) is organized as follows: Volume I: Chapter 1 Overview Chapter 1 outlines the Mark VI system and the contents of the other chapters in this document. System Architecture Chapter 2 describes the main system components, the networks, and details of the TMR architecture. Networks Chapter 3 describes communication networks, the data highways, and links to other control systems. Codes and Standards Chapter 4 describes the codes, standards, and environmental guidelines used for the design of all printed circuit boards, modules, cores, panels, and cabinet line-ups in the Mark VI. Installation Chapter 3 provides instructions for system installation, wiring, grounding, checkout, and startup. Tools Chapter 6 summarizes the functions of the GE Control System Toolbox (toolbox), CIMPLICITY HMI, and the Historian. Applications Chapter 7 describes several applications including protection logic, synchronization, and details of the servo regulators. Troubleshooting and Diagnostics Chapter 8 describes how process and diagnostic alarms are generated and displayed for the operator and service engineer. It includes a listing of the board diagnostics and an introduction to system troubleshooting. I/O Descriptions Chapter 9 describes the I/O boards, terminal boards, controller, communication boards, and power supplies. It also includes descriptions of the compact DIN-rail mounted terminal boards used in smaller turbine control systems.

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Volume II: Chapter 9

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Related Documents
For additional information, refer to the following documents: GEH-6403 Control System Toolbox for a Mark VI Controller (for details of configuring and downloading the control system) GEH-6422 Turbine Historian System Guide (for details of configuring and using the Historian) GEH-6408 Control System Toolbox for Configuring the Trend Recorder (for details of configuring the toolbox trend displays) GEI-100534, Control Operator Interface (COI) for Mark VI and EX2100 Systems GEI-100535, Modbus Communications GEI-100536, Profibus Communications GEI-100189, System Database (SDB) Server User's Guide GEI-100271, System Database (SDB) Browser

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How to Get Help


If help is needed beyond the instructions provided in the system documentation, contact GE as follows: "+" indicates the international access code required when calling from outside of the USA. GE Industrial Systems Post Sales Service 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, VA 24153-6492 USA Phone: + 1 888 GE4 SERV (888 434 7378, United States) + 1 540 378 3280 (International) Fax: + 1 540 387 8606 (All)

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Acronyms and Abbreviations


CT DCS EGD HMI HRSG KP MTBF MTTR NEC NFPA PDH PT RTD SIFT SOE TMR UDH Current transformer, senses the current in a cable Distributed Control System, for the balance of plant and auxiliary equipment Ethernet Global Data, a control network and communication protocol Human-Machine Interface, usually a PC with CIMPLICITY software Heat Recovery Steam Generator, used with gas turbine plants KeyPhasor, a shaft position sensor for rotational position sensing Mean Time Between Failures, a measure of reliability Mean Time To Repair, used with MTBF to calculate system availability National Electrical Code National Fire Protection Association Plant Data Highway, links HMIs to servers and viewers Potential Transformer, senses the voltage in a cable Resistance Temperature Device, senses temperature in the process Software Implemented Fault Tolerance, employs "2 out of 3" voting Sequence of Events, a record of high-speed contact closures Triple modular redundant, uses three sets of controllers and I/O Unit Data Highway, links the controllers to the HMI servers

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Chapter 2

System Architecture

Introduction
This chapter defines the architecture of the Mark VI turbine control system, including the system components, the three communication networks, and the various levels of redundancy that are possible. It also discusses system reliability and availability, and third party connectivity to plant distributed control systems. This chapter is organized as follows:
Section Page

System Components .................................................................................................2-2 Levels of Redundancy ............................................................................................2-18 Control and Protection Features .............................................................................2-19 Turbine Protection ..................................................................................................2-32 Reliability and Availability ....................................................................................2-34 Third Party Connectivity ........................................................................................2-36

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System Components
This section summarizes the main subsystems that make up the Mark VI system. These include the cabinets, networks, operator interfaces, controllers, I/O boards, terminal boards, and the protection module.

Control Cabinet
Local or remote I/O is possible. The control cabinet contains either a single (simplex) Mark VI control module or three TMR control modules. These are linked to their remote I/O by a single or triple high speed I/O network called IONet, and are linked to the UDH by their controller Ethernet port. The control cabinet requires 120/240 V ac and/or 125 V dc power. This is converted to 125 V dc to supply the modules. The NEMA 1 control cabinet housing the controller is rated for operation in a 45 C ambient temperature.

I/O Cabinet
The I/O cabinet contains either single or triple interface modules. These are linked to the controllers by IONet, and to the terminal boards by dedicated cables. The terminal boards are in the I/O cabinet close to the interface modules. The NEMA 1 cabinet housing the I/O is rated for operation in a 50 C ambient temperature. Power requirements are 120/240 V ac and/or 125 V dc power. The controllers can also be located in the I/O cabinet if the ambient temperature is less than 45 C.

Unit Data Highway (UDH)


The UDH network supports the Ethernet Global Data (EGD) protocol for communication with other Mark VIs, HRSG, Exciter, Static Starter, and Balance of Plant (BOP) control. The UDH connects the Mark VI control panels with the HMI or HMI/Data Server. The network media is UTP or fiber-optic Ethernet. Redundant cable operation is optional and, if supplied, unit operation continues even if one cable is faulted. Dual cable networks still comprise one logical network. Similar to the plant data highway (PDH), the UDH can have redundant, separately powered network switches, and fiber optic communication. UDH data is replicated to all three controllers. This data is read by the Master communication controller board (VCMI) and transmitted to the other controllers. Only the designated processor transmits UDH data (refer to the section, Designated Controller).

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Optional Control Console

To Optional Customer Network (Enterprise Layer)

CIMPLICITY Viewer

Router Viewer Viewer

Field Support
P LANT D ATA H IGHWAY P LANT D ATA H IGHWAY

Engineering Work Station

LaserJet Printer

LaserJet Printer

CIMPLICITY Servers
U NIT D ATA H IGHWAY U NIT D ATA H IGHWAY hardwire LCI
AC

EX2000
AC

GPP

Mark VI

Bently Nevada
From Buffered Outputs

Mark VI

Innovation

GE Fanuc 90-70 PLCs Hot Backup

90-70 PLC

GE Fanuc 90-70 PLCs Hot Backup

90-70 PLC

LCI EXStatic 2000 Generator/ Gas Starter Exciter Transformer Turbine


Protection IONet
Mark VI Mark VI

Control

Steam Turbine Control


Mark VI

HRSG/ Auxiliaries Genius Bus


Genius Genius Genius

Balance of Plant Genius Bus


Genius Genius Genius

IONet

Mark VI

Remote Mark VI I/O

Remote Mark VI I/O

Genius Field I/O

Genius Field I/O

Figure 2-1. Typical Mark VI Integrated Control System

Human Machine Interface (HMI)


Typical HMIs are PCs running Windows NT, with communication drivers for the data highways, and CIMPLICITY operator display software. The operator initiates commands from the real-time graphic displays, and can view real-time turbine data and alarms on the CIMPLICITY graphic displays. Detailed I/O diagnostics and system configuration are available using the Control System Toolbox (toolbox) software on a viewer or separate PC. An HMI can be configured as a server or viewer, and can contain tools and utility programs. HMIs are linked to one data highway, or a redundant switch can be used to link the HMI to both data highways for greater reliability. The HMI can be mounted in an optional control console, or on a tabletop.

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Servers
Redundant data servers are optional, and if supplied, communication with the viewers continues even if one server fails. CIMPLICITY servers collect data on the UDH and use the PDH to communicate with viewers. If two servers are used, one acts as the primary server and passes synchronized data to the backup server in a configuration called host redundancy.

Computer Operator Interface (COI)


The Computer Operator Interface (COI) consists of a set of product and application specific operator displays running on a small panel pc (10.4 or 12.1 inch touch screen) hosting Embedded Windows NT. Embedded Windows NT uses only the components of the operating system required for a specific application. This results in all the power and development advantages of Windows NT in a much smaller footprint. Development, installation or modification of requisition content requires the GE Control System Toolbox. For details, refer to GEH-6403, Control System Toolbox For Mark VI Controller. The COI can be installed in many different configurations, depending on the product line and specific requisition requirements. For example, it can be installed in the panel door for Mark VI applications or in a control room desk for EX2100 applications. The only cabling requirements are for power and for the Ethernet connection to the UDH. Network communication is via the integrated auto-sensing 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection. Expansion possibilities for the pc are limited, although it does support connection of external devices through FDD, IDE, and USB connections. The networking of the COI to the Mark VI is requisition or customer defined. The COI can be directly connected to the Mark VI or EX2100, or it can be connected through an EGD Ethernet switch. A redundant topology is available when the controller is ordered with a second Ethernet port.

Interface Features
Numeric data displays are driven by EGD pages transmitted by the controller. The refresh rate depends both on the rate at which the controller transmits the pages, and the rate at which the COI refreshes the fields. Both are set at configuration time in the toolbox. The COI uses a touch screen, and no keyboard or mouse is provided. The color of pushbuttons are feedbacks and represent state conditions. To change the state or condition, press the button. The color of the button will change if the command is accepted and the change implemented by the controller. Numeric inputs on the COI touch screen are made by touching a numeric field that supports input. A numeric keypad then displays, and the desired number can be entered. For complete information, refer to GEI-100434, Computer Operator Interface (COI) for Mark VI or EX2100 Systems. An Alarm Window is provided and an alarm is selected by touching it. Then Ack, Silence, Lock, or Unlock the alarm by pressing the corresponding button. Multiple alarms can be selected by dragging through the alarm list. Pressing the button then applies to all selected alarms.

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Link to Distributed Control System (DCS)


External communication links are available to communicate with the plant distributed control system. A serial communication link, using Modbus protocol (RTU binary), can be supplied from an HMI. This allows the the DCS operator access to real time turbine data, and provides for discrete and analog commands to be passed to the turbine control. In addition, an Ethernet link from the HMI supports periodic data messages at rates consistent with operator response, plus sequence of events (SOE) messages with data time tagged at a one millisecond resolution.

Plant Data Highway (PDH)


The optional PDH connects the CIMPLICITY HMI/Data Server with remote operator stations, printers, historians, and other customer PCs. It does not connect with the Mark VI directly. The media is UTP or fiber-optic Ethernet running at 10/100 Mbps, using the TCP/IP protocol. Redundant cables are required by some systems, but these form part of one single logical network. The hardware consists of two redundant Ethernet switches with optional fiber-optic outputs for longer distances, such as to the central control room. On small systems, the PDH and the Unit Data Highway (UDH) may physically be the same network, as long as there is no peer-to-peer control on the UDH.

Operator Console
The turbine control console is a modular design, which can be expanded from two monitors, with space for one operator, to four monitors, with space for three operators. Printers can be tabletop mounted, or on pedestals under the counter. The full size console is 5507.04 mm (18 ft 0 13/16 in) long, and 2233.6 mm (7 ft 3 15/16 in) wide. The center section, with space for two monitors and a phone/printer bay, is a small console 1828.8 mm (6 ft) wide.

EX2000 Exciter
The EX2000 digital static exciter supplies dc power to the field of the synchronous generator. By means of the field current the exciter controls the generator ac terminal voltage and/or the reactive volt-amperes. The exciter is supplied in NEMA 1 freestanding, floor mounted indoor type metal cabinets. The cabinet lineup consists of several cabinets bolted together. Cable entry can be through the top or bottom. The cabinet and contained equipment are designed for operation in an ambient temperature of 0 to 50 C.

Generator Protection
The generator protection system is mounted in a single, indoor, free standing cabinet, designed for an operating temperature range of 20 to +40 C. The enclosure is NEMA 1, and weighs 2500 lbs. The Generator Panel interfaces to the Mark VI with hardwired I/O, and has an optional Modbus interface to the HMI.

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LCI Static Starter


The LCI Static Starter system is used to start a gas turbine by running the generator as a starting motor. The static starter system is integrated into the Mark VI control system along with the EX2000 digital excitation system. The Mark VI control supplies the run, torque, and speed setpoint signals to the LCI, which operates in a closed loop control mode to supply variable frequency power to the generator stator. The EX2000 is controlled by the LCI to regulate the field current during startup. The control cabinet contains an Innovation Series controller in a VME (Versa Module Eurocard) control rack. The controller provides the Ethernet link to the UDH and the HMI, and communication ports for field control I/O and Modbus. The field control I/O are used for temperature inputs and diagnostic variables. The LCI cabinet is a ventilated NEMA 1 free standing enclosure made of 12-gauge sheet steel on a rigid steel frame designed for indoor mounting. The total enclosure weight is 7400 lbs., and the operating temperature range is 0 to 50 C.

Control Module
The 13-slot rack can accommodate all the boards for control of a small turbine. The control module is available as an integrated control and I/O module, or as a stand-alone control module only. The integrated control and I/O rack can be either a 21-slot or 13-slot VME size. The back plane has P1 and P2 connectors for the VME boards. The P1 connectors communicate data across the back plane, and the P2 connectors communicate data between the board and 37-pin J3 and J4 connectors located directly beneath each board. Cables run from the J3 and J4 connectors to the terminal boards. There can be one control module (simplex) or three (TMR), and each of these configurations supports remote I/O over IONet. The simplex control modules can be configured to support up to three independent parallel IONet systems for higher I/O throughput. Multiple communication boards may be used in a control module to increase the IONet throughput. Figure 2-2 shows a 21-slot rack with a three-IONet VCMI communication board, and a UCVE controller. The UCVE must go in slot 2. The remaining slots are filled with I/O boards. The two sizes of I/O rack and the I/O processor boards are shielded to control EMI/RFI emissions. This shielding also protects the processor boards against interference from external sources.

Do not plug the UCVE controller into any rack that has J302 and J402 connectors.

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Controller UCVE (slot 2)

Fan

I/O Processor Boards

VME Chassis, 21 slots UDH Port

Power Supply

VCMI Communication Board, with One or Three IONet Ports


x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Note: This rack is for the UCVE controller, connectors J302 and J402 are not present. UCVB and UCVD controllers can be used in this rack.

Connectors for Cables to Terminal Boards (J3 & J4)

Figure 2-2. Control Module with Control, Communication, and I/O Boards

The stand-alone controller module is a VME rack, with the controller board UCVX, communications board VCMI, and interface board VDSK, as shown in Figure 2-3. This version is for remote I/O systems. The rack is powered by an integrated power supply. VDSK supplies 24 V dc to the cooling fan mounted under the rack, and monitors the Power Distribution Module (PDM) through the 37-pin connector on the front. The VDSK board is ribbon cabled in the back to the VCMI to transmit the PDM diagnostics.

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VCMI Communication Board with Three IONet Ports (VCMI with One IONet is for Simplex systems)
x x

Controller UCVX

Interface Board VDSK

VME Rack
POWER SUPPLY

Power Supply

Cooling Fan behind Panel

Fan 24 Vdc Power

Figure 2-3. Rack with Controller, VCMI, and VDSK (No I/O Boards)

Interface Module
The interface module houses the I/O boards remote from the control module. The rack, shown in Figure 2-4, is similar to the control module VME rack, but without the controller, interface board VDSK, and cooling fan. Each I/O board occupies one or two slots in the module and has a backplane connection to a pair of 37-pin D connectors mounted on an apron beneath the VME rack. Cables run from the 37-pin connectors to the terminal boards. Most I/O boards can be removed, with power removed, and replaced without disconnecting any signal or power cable. Communication with the module is via a VCMI with a single IONet port, located in the left-hand slot. The module backplane contains a plug wired to slot 1, which is read by the communication board to obtain the identity of the module on IONet.

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VME Chassis, 21 slots VCMI Communication Board with one IONet Port

I/O Processor Boards

Power Supply

IONet Link to Control Module

Note: Slot 2 cannot be used for an I/O processor board; it is reserved for a controller board

J3 & J4 Connectors for Cables to Terminal Boards

Figure 2-4. Interface Module with VCMI and I/O Boards

Controller
The UCVE controller is a single-slot VME board, housing a high-speed processor, DRAM, flash memory, cache, an Ethernet port, and two serial RS-232C ports. It must always be inserted in slot 2 of an I/O rack designed to accommmodate it. These racks can be identified by the fact that there are no J3 and J4 connectors under slot 2. The controller provides communication with the UDH through the Ethernet port, and supports a low-level diagnostic monitor on the COM1 serial port. The base software includes appropriate portions of the existing Turbine Block Library of control functions for the steam, gas, and Land-Marine aero-derivative (LM) products. The controller can run its program at up to 100 Hz, (10 ms frame rate), depending on the size of the system configuration. External data is transferred to/from the controller over the VME bus by the VCMI communication board. In a simplex system, the data consists of the process I/O from the I/O boards, and in a TMR system, it consists of voted I/O. The various controllers are generically referred to as UCVX in the figures. Two other controller versions are available, UCVB and UCVD, which are no longer delivered with new systems, refer to Chapter 9, I/O Descriptions (GEH-6421, Vol. II, Mark VI System Guide).

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Mark VI Controller UCVE


x

Status LEDs
STATUS

Monitor Port for GE use


S V G A M / K C O M
1:2

VMEbus SYSFAIL Flash Activity Power Status

Keyboard/mouse port for GE use COM1 RS-232C Port for Initial Controller Setup; COM2 RS-232C Port for Serial communication

Ethernet Status LEDs Active


RST P C M I P M E Z Z A N I N E UCVE H2A
x

Ethernet Port for Unit Data Highway Communication

L A N

Link Notice: To connect batteries, user to set jumper E8 to pins 7-8 ("IN") and jumper E10 to ("IN")

Figure 2-5. UCVE Controller Front Panel

VCMI Communication Board


The VCMI board in the control and interface module communicates internally to the I/O boards in its rack, and to the other VCMI cards through IONet. There are two versions, one with one Ethernet IONet port for simplex systems, and the other with three Ethernet ports for TMR systems. Simplex systems have one control module connected to one or more interface modules using a single cable. The VCMI with three separate IONet ports is used in TMR systems for communication with the three I/O channels Rn, Sn, and Tn, and with the two other control modules. This is shown in Figure 2-6. Software Implemented Fault Tolerant (SIFT) voting is implemented in the VCMI board. Input data from each of the IONet connections is voted in each of the R, S, and T VCMI boards. The results are passed to the control signal database in the controllers (labeled UCVX in the diagram) through the backplane VME bus.

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VCMI Board with Three IONet Ports

Control Module R0 V C M I U C V X I/O Boards IONet - T to other Control, Interface, & Protection Modules IONet - S to other Control, Interface, & Protection Modules

IONet - R Interface Module R1 VCMI Board with One IONet Port V C M I I/O Boards

IONet to other Interface Modules & Protection Module


Figure 2-6. VCMI Boards providing I/O Communication and I/O Voting

In TMR mode, the VCMI voter in the control module is always the Master of the IONet and also provides the IONet clock. Time synch messages from the time source on the UDH are sent to the controllers and then to the VCMIs. All input data from a single rack is sent in one or more IONet packets (approximately 1500 bytes per packet maximum). The VCMI in the control module broadcasts all data for all remote racks in one packet, and each VCMI in the remote rack extracts the appropriate data from the packet.

IONet
The IONet connection on the VCMI is a BNC for 10Base2 Ethernet. The interface circuit is high impedance allowing T tap connections with 50-ohm terminal at the first and last node. The cabling distances are restricted to 185 meters per segment with up to eight nodes, using RG-58C/U or equivalent cable. The Link Layer protocol is IEEE 802.3 standard Ethernet. The application layer protocol uses Asynchronous Device Language (ADL) messaging with special adaptations for the input/output handling and the state exchanges. IONet supports control operation at up to 100 times per second. The VCMI board acts as IONet Master and polls the remote interface module for data. The VCMI Master broadcasts a command to all slave stations on a single IONet causing them to respond with their message in a consecutive manner. To avoid collisions on the media, each station is told how long to delay before attempting to transmit. Utilizing this Master/slave mechanism, and running at 10 Mb/s, the IONet is capable of transmitting a 1000 byte packet every millisecond (8 MHz bit rate).

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In a multiple module or multiple panel system, powering down one module of a channel does not disrupt IONet communication between other modules within that channel. If one IONet stops communicating then the I/O boards, in that channel, time out and the outputs go to a safe state. This state does not affect TMR system operation. If two IONets stop then the I/O boards in both channels go to a safe state and a turbine trip occurs.

I/O Boards
Most I/O boards are single width VME boards of similar design and front panel, using the same digital signal processor (TMS320C32). The central processing unit (CPU) is a high-speed processor designed for digital filtering and for working with data in IEEE 32-bit floating point format. The task scheduler operates at a one ms and five ms rate to support high-speed analog and discrete inputs. The I/O boards synchronize their input scan to complete a cycle before being read by the VCMI board. Contact inputs in the VCCC and VCRC are time stamped to 1 ms to provide a sequence of events (SOE) monitor. Each I/O board contains the required sensor characteristic library, for example thermocouple and RTD linearizations. Bad sensor data and alarm signal levels, both high and low, are detected and alarmed. The I/O configuration in the toolbox can be downloaded over the network to change the program online. This means that I/O boards can accept tune-up commands and data while running. Servo loops can be performed in the Servo board at 200 times per second. Certain I/O boards such as the servo and turbine board contain special control functions in firmware. This allows loops such as the valve position control to run locally instead of in the controller. Using the I/O boards in this way provides fast response for a number of time critical functions. Each I/O board sends an identification message (ID packet) to the VCMI when requested. The packet contains the hardware catalog number of the I/O board, the hardware revision, the board barcode serial number, the firmware catalog number, and the firmware version. Also each I/O board identifies the connected terminal boards via the ID wire in the 37-pin cable. This allows each connector on each terminal board to have a separate identity.

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Table 2-1. I/O Boards I/O Processor Board VAIC VAOC VCCC and VCRC VGEN Terminal Board TBAI (2) TBAO TBCI (2) TRLY (2) TGEN TRLY VPRO (3) TPRO I/O Signal Types No. per I/O Processor Board 20 4 16 48 12 12 4 2 3 12 3 2 3 3 Type of Terminal Board TMR, SMX TMR, SMX TMR, SMX TMR, SMX TMR, SMX for FAS (PLU) TMR Emergency Protect (VCCC is two slots) Comments

Analog inputs, 01mA, 420 mA, voltage Analog outputs, 420 mA, 0200 mA Analog outputs, 420 mA Contact inputs Solenoids Dry contact relays Analog inputs, 420 mA Potential transformers Current transformers Relay outputs (optional) Pulse rate Potential transformers Thermocouples Analog inputs, 420 mA

TREG (2) TREL TRES VPYR VRTD VSVO TPYR TRTD, TSVO (2)

Solenoid drivers
Trip contact inputs Emergency stop

6
7 2 3 7 3 7 2 2 16 4 12 8 2 2 24 4 2 2 1 8 3 3 2 3 2 16 8 2

TMR
TMR TMR, SMX TMR, SMX TMR, SMX, TMR, SMX

Gas turbine
Hardwire,Trip ,Clamp Large steam Small/medium steam

solenoid drivers
Trip contact inputs

Solenoid drivers
Trip contact inputs Pyrometers (4 analog inputs each) KeyPhasor shaft position sensors Resistance Temperature Devices (RTD) Servo outputs to valve hydraulic servo LVDT inputs from valve LVDT excitation Pulse rate inputs for flow monitoring Pulse rate excitation Thermocouples Pulse rate magnetic pickups Potential transformers, gen. and bus Shaft current and voltage monitor Breaker interface Flame detectors (Geiger Mueller) Solenoid drivers Solenoid drivers Emergency stop Solenoid drivers Emergency stop Shaft vibration probes (Bently Nevada) Shaft proximity probes (Displacement) Shaft proximity reference (KeyPhasor)

3 wire Trip, Clamp, Input

VTCC VTUR

TBTC TTUR

TMR, SMX TMR, SMX

TRPG TRPL TRPS VVIB TVIB (2)

TMR, SMX TMR TMR, SMX TMR, SMX

Gas turbine Large steam Small/med. steam Buffered using BNC

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Terminal Boards
The terminal board provides the customer wiring connection point, and fans out the signals to three separate 37-pin D connectors for cables to the R, S, and T I/O boards, refer to Figure 2-7. Each type of I/O board has its own special terminal board, some with a different combination of connectors. For example, one version of the thermocouple board does not fanout and has only two connectors for cabling to one I/O board. The other version does fan out and has six connectors for R, S, and T. Since the fanout circuit is a potential single point failure, the terminal board contains a minimum of active circuitry limited primarily to filters and protective devices. Power for the outputs usually comes from the I/O board, but for some relay and solenoid outputs, separate power plugs are mounted on the terminal board.
TBAI Terminal Board
x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Customer Wiring

x x x x x x x x x x x x

JT1

37-pin "D" shell type connectors with latching fasteners

JS1

Cable to VME Rack T

Shield Bar
x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

JR1

Cable to VME Rack S

Customer Wiring BarrierType Terminal Blocks can be unplugged from board for maintenance

Cable to VME Rack R

Figure 2-7. Typical Terminal Board with Cabling to I/O Boards in VME Rack

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DIN-rail Mounted Terminal Boards


Smaller DIN-rail mounted terminal boards are available for simplex applications. These low cost, small size simplex control systems are designed for small gas and steam turbines. IONet is not used since the D-type terminal boards cable directly into the control chassis to interface with the I/O boards. The types of DIN-rail boards are shown in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2. DINRail Mounted Terminal Boards DIN Euro Size Terminal Board DTTC DRTD DTAI Number of Points 12 8 10 2 DTAO DTCI DRLY DTRT DTUR DSVO 8 24 12 ------4 2 6 2 DVIB 8 4 1 Description of I/O Associated I/O Processor Board VTCC VRTD VAIC

Thermocouple temperature inputs with one cold junction reference RTD temperature inputs Analog current or voltage inputs with on-board 24 V dc power supply Analog current outputs, with choice of 20 mA or 200 mA Analog current outputs, 020 mA Contact Inputs with external 24 V dc excitation Form-C relay outputs, dry contacts, customer powered Transition board between VTUR and DRLY for solenoid trip functions Magnetic (passive) pulse rate pickups for speed and fuel flow measurement Servo-valve outputs with choice of coil currents from 10 mA to 120 mA LVDT valve position sensors with on-board excitation Active pulse rate probes for flow measurement, with 24 V dc excitation provided Vibration, Position, or Seismic, or Accelerometer, or Velomiter Position prox probes KeyPhasor (reference)

VAOC VCRC (or VCCC) VCRC (or VCCC) VTUR VTUR VSVO

VVIB

Power Sources
A reliable source of power is provided to the rack power supplies from either a battery, or from multiple power converters, or from a combination of both. The multiple power sources are connected as high select in the Power Distribution Module (PDM) to provide the required redundancy. A balancing resistor network creates a floating dc bus using a single ground connection. From the 125 V dc, the resistor bridge produces +62.5 V dc (referred to as P125) and 62.5 V dc (referred to as N125) to supply the system racks and terminal boards. The PDM has ground fault detection and can tolerate a single ground fault without losing any performance and without blowing fuses.

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Turbine Protection Module


The Turbine Protection Module (VPRO) and associated terminal boards (TPRO and TREG) provide an independent emergency overspeed protection for turbines that do not have a mechanical overspeed bolt. The protection module is separate from the turbine control and consists of triple redundant VPRO boards, each with their own on-board power supply, as shown in Figure 2-8. VPRO controls the trip solenoids through relay voting circuits on the TREG, TREL, and TRES boards.
VPRO R8
x x I O N E T RUN FAIL STAT 8 X 4 Y T 2 Z R 1 C S E R x x x I O N E T x RUN FAIL STAT 8 X 4 Y T 2 Z R 1 C S E R P5 COM P28A P28B E T H R P A R A L x P O W E R x x

VPRO S8
x x x I O N E T x

VPRO T8
x x x

IONet R
IONet S IONet T

RUN FAIL STAT X 8 Y 4 T 2 Z R 1 C S E R

Ground

J 5

J 6

J 5

J 6

To TPRO To TPRO
x

J 3
F VPRO x

J 4
N

J 3
F VPRO x

J 4
N x

P5 COM P28A P28B E T H R P A R A L P O W E R x x

J 5

J 6

J 3
F VPRO x

J 4
N x

P5 COM P28A P28B E T H R P A R A L x P O W E R x

To TREG To TREG

125 Vdc
Figure 2-8. Turbine Protection Module with Cabling Connections.

Power In

The TPRO terminal board provides independent speed pickups to each VPRO, which processes them at high speed. This high speed reduces the maximum time delay to calculate a trip and signal the ETR relay driver to 20 ms. In addition to calculating speed, VPRO calculates acceleration which is another input to the overspeed logic. TPRO fans out generator and line voltage inputs to each VPRO where an independent generator synchronization check is made. Until VPRO closes the K25A permissive relay, generator synchronization cannot occur. For gas turbine applications, inputs from temperature sensors are brought into the module for exhaust overtemperature protection. The VPRO boards do not communicate over the VME backplane. Failures on TREG are detected by VPRO and fed back to the control system over IONet. Each VPRO has an IONet communication port equivalent to that of the VCMI.

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Operating Systems
All operator stations, communication servers, and engineering workstations use the Microsoft Windows NT operating system. The HMIs and servers run CIMPLICITY software, and the engineer's workstation runs toolbox software for system configuration. The Mark VI I/O system, because of its TMR requirements, uses a proprietary executive system designed for this special application. This executive is the basis for the operating system in the VCMI and all of the I/O boards. The controller uses the QNX operating system from QNX Software Systems Ltd. This is a real time POSIX compliant operating system ideally suited to high speed automation applications such as turbine control and protection.

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Levels of Redundancy
The need for higher system reliability has led vendors to develop different systems of increasing redundancy (see Figure 2-9). Simplex systems are the simplest systems having only one chain, and are therefore the least expensive. Reliability is average. TMR systems have a very high reliability, and since the voting software is simple, the amount of software required is reasonable. Input sensors can be triplicated if required.
Simplex System Input Redundancy Type Output Simplex Reliability (MTBF) Average

Controller

Triple Redundant System Triple Input Very High

Controller
Vote

(TMR)

Input

Controller
Vote

Vote

Output

Input

Controller

Figure 2-9. Single and Triple Redundant Systems

Simplex systems in a typical power plant are used for applications requiring normal reliability, such as control of auxiliaries and balance of plant (BOP). A single PLC with local and remote I/O might be used in this application. In a typical Mark VI, many of the I/O are non-critical and are installed and configured as simplex. These simplex I/O boards can be mixed with TMR boards in the same interface module. Triple Modular Redundant (TMR) control systems, such as Mark VI, are used for the demanding turbine control and protection application. Here the highest reliability ensures the minimum plant downtime due to control problems, since the turbine can continue running even with a failed controller or I/O channel. With continuous I/O and state variable voting, a failure is always masked. Failures are detected and annunciated, and can be repaired online. This means the turbine protection system can be relied on to be fully operational, if a turbine problem occurs.

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Control and Protection Features


This section describes the fault tolerant features of the TMR part of the Mark VI. The Mark VI system can operate in two different configurations: Simplex configuration is for non-redundant applications where system operation after a single failure is not a requirement. TMR configuration is for applications where single failures do not cause a shutdown of the control process.

Triple Modular Redundancy


A TMR system is a special case of N-modular redundancy where N=3. It is based on redundant modules with input and output voting. Input signal voting is performed by software using an approach known as Software Implemented Fault Tolerant (SIFT). Output voting is performed by hardware circuits that are an integral part of the output terminal boards. The voting of inputs and outputs provides a high degree of fault masking. When three signals are voted, the failure of any one signal is masked by the other two good signals. This is because the voting process selects the median of the three analog inputs. In the case of discrete inputs, the voting selects the two that agree. In fact, the fault masking in a TMR system hides the fault so well that special fault detection functions are included as part of the voting software. Before voting, all input values are compared to detect any large differences. This value comparison generates a system diagnostic alarm. In addition to fault masking, there are many other features designed to prevent fault propagation or to provide fault isolation. A distributed architecture with dc isolation provides a high degree of hardware isolation. Restrictions on memory access using dual-port memories prevent accidental data destruction by adjacent processors. Isolated power sources prevent a domino effect if a faulty module overloads its power supply.

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TMR Architecture
As shown in Figure 2-10, the TMR control architecture has three duplicate hardware controller modules labeled R, S, and T. A high-speed network connects each control module with its associated set of I/O modules, resulting in three independent I/O networks. Each network is also extended to connect to separate ports on each of the other controllers. Each of the three controllers has a VCMI with three independent I/O communication ports to allow each controller to receive data from all of the I/O modules on all three I/O networks. The three protection modules are also on the I/O networks.
VCMI Board with Three IONet Ports Control Module R0 V U C C I/O M V Boards I X Control Module S0 V U C C I/O M V Boards I X Control Module T0 V U C C I/O M V Boards I X IONet - R IONet - S IONet - T TMR System with Local & Remote I/O, Terminal Boards not shown

VCMI Board with One IONet Port

Interface Module R1 V C I/O M Boards I

Interface Module S1 V C I/O M Boards I

Interface Module T1 V C I/O M Boards I

IONet Supports Multiple Remote I/O Racks

VPRO VPRO VPRO R8 S8 T8

Protection Module

Figure 2-10. TMR Architecture with Local & Remote I/O, and Protection Module

Each of the three controllers is loaded with the same software image, so that there are three copies of the control program running in parallel. External computers, such as the HMI operator stations, acquire data from only the designated controller. The designated controller is determined by a simple algorithm (described later). A separate protection module provides for very reliable trip operation. The VPRO is an independent TMR subsystem complete with its own controllers and integral power supplies. Separate independent sensor inputs and voted trip relay outputs are used. Figure 2-11 displays a possible layout of equipment in the cabinets.

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Redundant Unit Data Highway

Control Cabinet
Serial

Termination Cabinet
<R n > Interface Module Power Supply Termination Boards

V Power DC C U Supply / M C DC I V H X 2

V D S K

<R> Control Module

IONET <R> Ethernet 10Base2 Thin Coax

V DC I I I C I I I / 21 SLOT / / / M / / / I O O O VME RACK O O O DC H 1

Serial Power DC V U Supply / C C DC M


I V H X 2 V D S K IONET <S> Ethernet 10Base2 Thin Coax

Power <S n> Interface Module Supply


V I I I C I I I / / / M / / / 21 SLOT I O O O VME RACK O O O H 1 DC / DC

<S> Control Module

Serial Power DC V U Supply / C C M


DC I V H X 2 V D S K IONET <T> Ethernet 10Base2 Thin Coax

Power <T n> Interface Module Supply


V I I I C I I I / / / 21 SLOT M / / / I O O O VME RACK O O O H 1 DC / DC

<T> Control Module

Input Power Converter Input Power Converter Input Power Converter

+125Vdc <R> Internal <S> Buss


to Power

Protection Modules
IONET Interface to other I/O Cabinet Lineups (Optional) Input Power Converter Input Power Converter Input Power Converter Input Power Cond.

<T> Power

Supplies

V V V P P P R R R O O O <R8> <S8><T8>

<R> <S> +125Vdc <T> Internal Power Busses to <R8> Power Supplies <S8> & Termination <T8> Cards
Contact Input Excitatn. To Termination Solenoid Power Cards

T R I P

45 Degree C Ambient

50 Degree C Ambient Customer Sensor Cables

Customer Supplied Power Input(s)

Figure 2-11. Typical Cabinet Layout of Mark VI Triple modular redundant System

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TMR Operation
Voting systems require that the input data be voted, and the voted result be available for use on the next calculation pass. The sequential operations for each pass are input, vote, calculate, and output. The time interval that is allotted to these operations is referred to as the frame. The frame is set to a fixed value for a given application so that the control program operates at a uniform rate. For SIFT systems, a significant portion of the fault tolerance is implemented in software. The advantage to this approach is software does not degrade over time. The SIFT design requires little more than three identical controllers with some provision of transferring data between them. All of the data exchange, voting, and output selection may be performed by software. The exception to the all software approach is the modification to the hardware output circuitry for hardware voting. With each controller using the same software, the mode control software in each controller is synchronizing with, and responding to, an identical copy of itself that is operating in each of the other controllers. The three programs acting together are referred to as the distributed executive and coordinate all operations of the controllers including the sequential operations mentioned above. There are several different synchronization requirements. Frame synchronization enables all controllers and associated I/O modules to process the data at the same time for a given frame. The frame synchronization error is determined at the start of frame (SOF) and the controllers are required to adjust their internal timing so that all three controllers reach SOF of the same frame at the same time. The acceptable error in time of SOF is typically several microseconds in the 10 to 25 Hz control systems that are encountered. Large errors in SOF timing will affect overall response time of the control since the voter will cause a delay until at least two controllers have computed the new values. The constraining requirement for synchronization comes from the need to measure contact SOE times with an accuratcy of 1ms.

Designated Controller
Although three controllers R, S, and T contain identical hardware and software, some of the functions performed are individually unique. A single designated controller is chosen to perform the following functions: Supply initialization data to the other two controllers at boot-up Keep the Master time clock Generate the control data for the panel if one of the other controllers fails.

For purposes of deciding which controller is to be the designated controller, each VCMI nominates itself based on a weighting scheme using the following algorithm: 1* (if previously designated controller) + 2* (number of stable I/O nets) + 3* (if UDH traffic visible) The nominating values are voted among the VCMIs and the majority value is used. If there is a tie, or no majority, the priority is R, then S, and then T. If a controller, which was designated, is powered down and repowered, the designated controller will move and not come back if all controllers are equal. This ensures that a toggling designated controller is not automatically reselected.

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UDH Communicator
Controller communications takes place across the Unit Data Highway (UDH). A UDH communicator is a controller selected to provide the panel data to that network. This data includes both control signals (EGD) and alarms. Each controller has an independent, physical connection to the UDH. In the event that the UDH fractures and a controller becomes isolated from its companion controllers, it assumes the role of UDH communicator for that network fragment. While for one panel there can be only one designated controller, there may be multiple UDH communicators. The designated controller is always a UDH communicator. When a controller does not receive external EGD data from its UDH connection, it may request that the data be forwarded across the IONet from another UDH communicator. One or more communicators may supply the data and the requesting controller uses the last data set received. Only the EGD data used in sequencing by the controllers is forwarded in this manner.

Output Processing
The system outputs are the portion of the calculated data that have to be transferred to the external hardware interfaces and then to the various actuators controlling the process. Most of the outputs from the TMR system are voted in the output hardware, but the system can output individual signals in a simplex system. Output voting is performed as close to the final control element as possible. Normally, outputs from the TMR system are calculated independently by the three voting controllers and each controller sends the output to its associated I/O hardware (for example, R controller sends to R I/O). The three independent outputs are then combined into a single output by a voting mechanism. Different signal types require different methods of establishing the voted value. The signal outputs from the three controllers fall into three groups: Signals exist in only one I/O channel and are driven as single ended nonredundant outputs Signals exist in all three controllers and output separately to an external voting mechanism Signals exist in all three controllers but are merged into a signal by the output hardware

For normal relay outputs, the three signals feed a voting relay driver, which operates a single relay per signal. For more critical protective signals, the three signals drive three independent relays with the relay contacts connected in the typical six-contact voting configuration. Figure 2-12 illustrates the two types of output boards.

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Terminal Board, Relay Outputs I/O Board Channel R I/O Board Channel S I/O Board Channel T Voted Relay Driver
V

Coil

Relay Output

Terminal Board, High Reliability Relay Outputs I/O Board Channel R I/O Board Channel S I/O Board Channel T Relay KR Coil Driver Relay Driver Relay Driver KS KT Coil KT KR Coil KR KS KS KT

Relay Output

Figure 2-12. Relay Output Circuits for Protection

For servo outputs as in Figure 2-13, the three independent current signals drive a three-coil servo actuator, which adds them by magnetic flux summation. Failure of a servo driver is sensed and a deactivating relay contact is opened.
I/O Boards Channel R Servo Driver D/A Output Terminal Board Coils on Servo Valve

Servo Driver Channel S D/A

Channel T

Servo Driver D/A Hydraulic Servo Valve

Figure 2-13. TMR Circuit to Combine Three Analog Currents into a Single Output

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Figure 2-14 shows 420 mA signals combined through a 2/3 current sharing circuit that allows the three signals to be voted to one. This unique circuit ensures the total output current is the voted value of the three currents. Failure of a 420 mA output is sensed and a deactivating relay contact is opened.
I/O Boards 4-20 mA Driver Channel R D/A Output Terminal Board Current Feedback Output Load

4-20 mA Driver Channel S D/A

Channel T

4-20 mA Driver D/A

Figure 2-14. TMR Circuits for Voted 420 mA Outputs

Input Processing
All inputs are available to all three controllers but there are several ways that the input data is handled. For those input signals that exist in only one I/O module, the value is used by all three controllers as common input without voting as shown in Figure 2-15. Signals that appear in all three I/O channels may be voted to create a single input value. The triple inputs may come from three independent sensors or may be created from a single sensor by hardware fanning at the terminal board.
I/O Rack Field Wiring Termin. Bd. I/O Board VCMI Direct Input Signal Condition
Alarm Limit

Control Rack IONet Exchange VCMI No Vote Controller Control System Data Base

Sensor

SC

Figure 2-15. Single Input to Three Controllers, Not Voted

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A single input can be brought to the three controllers without any voting as shown in Figure 2-15. This is used for non-critical, generic I/O, such as monitoring 420 mA inputs, contacts, thermocouples, and RTDs. One sensor can be fanned to three I/O boards as above for medium integrity applications as shown in Figure 2-16. This is used for sensors with medium to high reliability. Three such circuits are needed for three sensors. Typical inputs are 420 mA inputs, contacts , thermocouples, and RTDs.
I/O Rack Field Wiring Termin. Bd. I/O Board VCMI IONet Control Rack VCMI Controller

Sensors

Fanned Input

Signal Prevote Condition

Exchange

Voter

Control System Data Base Voted (A)

SC R SC S SC T

R Voter S Voter T Voter

Voted (A)

Voted (A)

Figure 2-16. One Sensor with Fanned Input & Software Voting

Three independent sensors can be brought into the controllers without voting to provide the individual sensor values to the application. Median values can be selected in the controller if required. This configuration, shown in Figure 2-17, is used for special applications only.
I/O Rack Field Wiring Termin. Bd. I/O Board VCMI Common Input Signal Condition
Alarm Limit

Control Rack IONet VCMI No Vote Controller Median Select Block


A B C A B C A B C

Sensors

Control System Data Base Median (A,B,C)


A B C

SC R SC S SC T

MSB R MSB S MSB T

Median (A,B,C)
A B C

Median (A,B,C)
A B C

Figure 2-17. Three Independent Sensors with Common Input, Not Voted

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Figure 2-18 shows three sensors, each one fanned and then SIFT voted. This provides a high reliability system for current and contact inputs, and temperature sensors.
I/O Rack Field Wiring Termin. Bd. I/O Board VCMI Fanned Input Signal Prevote Condition Alarm Limit IONet Exchange Controller Rack VCMI Controller Control System Data Base Voted "A" Control Voted "B" Block Voted "C" Voted "A" Control Voted "B" Block Voted "C" Voted "A" Control Voted "B" Block Voted "C"

Sensors

Voter

SC R SC S SC T

R Voter S Voter T Voter

Same

Same

Figure 2-18. Three Sensors, Each One Fanned and Voted, for Medium to High Reliability Applications

Speed inputs to high reliability applications are brought in as dedicated inputs and then SIFT voted. Figure 2-19 shows this configuration. Inputs such as speed control and overspeed are not fanned so there is a complete separation of inputs with no hardware cross-coupling which could propagate a failure. RTDs, thermocouples, contact inputs, and 420 mA signals can also be configured this way.
I/O Rack Field Wiring Termin. Bd. I/O Board VCMI Dedicated Signal Prevote Condition Input
Alarm Limit

Control Rack IONet Exchange VCMI Voter Controller Control System Data Base Voted (A,B,C)

Sensors

SC R SC S SC T

R Voter S Voter T Voter

Voted (A,B,C)

Voted (A,B,C)

Figure 2-19. Three Sensors with Dedicated Inputs, Software Voted for High Reliability Applications

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State Exchange
Voting all of the calculated values in the TMR system is unnecessary and not practical. The actual requirement is to vote the state of the controller database between calculation frames. Calculated values such as timers, counters, and integrators are dependent on the value from the previous calculation frame. Logic signals such as bistable relays, momentary logic with seal-in, cross-linked relay circuits, and feedbacks have a memory retention characteristic. A small section of the database values is voted each frame.

Median Value Analog Voting


The analog signals are converted to floating point format by the I/O interface boards. The voting operation occurs in each of the three controller modules (R, S, and T). Each module receives a copy of the data from the other two channels. For each voted data point, the module has three values including its own. The median value voter selects the middle value of the three as the voter output. This is the most likely of the three values to be closest to the true value. Figure 2-20 shows some examples. The disagreement detector (see the section, Disagreement Detector) checks the signal deviations and sets a diagnostic if they exceed a preconfigured limit, thereby identifying failed input sensors or channels.
Median Value Voting Examples Sensor Inputs Sensor Median Input Selected Value Value 981 Sensor Median Input Selected Value Value 910 Sensor Median Input Selected Value Value 1020

Sensor 1 Sensor 2 Sensor 3


Configured TMR Deviation = 30

985

981

985

978

985

985

978

978

978

No TMR Diagnostic

TMR Diagnostic on Input 1

TMR Diagnostic on Input 1

Figure 2-20. Median Value Voting Examples with Normal & Bad Inputs

Two Out of Three Logic Voter


Each of the controllers has three copies of the data as described above for the analog voter. The logical values are stored in the controller database in a format that requires a byte per logical value. Voting is a simple logic process, which inputs the three values and finds the two values that agree. The logical data has an auxiliary function called forcing which allows the operator to force the logical state to be either true or false and have it remain in that state until unforced. The logical data is packed in the input tables and the state exchange tables to reduce the bandwidth requirements. The input cycle involves receive, vote, unpack, and transfer to the controller database. The transfer to the database must leave the forced values as they are.

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Disagreement Detector
Failure of one of the three voted input circuits has no effect on the controlled process since the fault is masked by SIFT. Without a disagreement detector, a failure could go unnoticed until occurrence of a second failure. A disagreement detector is provided to continuously scan the prevote data sets and produce an alarm bit if a disagreement is detected between the three values in a voted data set. The comparisons are made between the voted value and each of the three prevote values. The delta for each value is compared with a user programmable limit value. The limit can be set as required to avoid nuisance alarms but give indication that one of the prevote values has moved out of normal range. Each controller is required to compare only its prevote value with the voted value, for example, R compares only the R prevote value with the voted value. Note Early versions of the Mark VI may not have the Disagreement Detector implemented.

Peer I/O
In addition to the data from the I/O modules, there is a class of data that comes from other controllers in other cabinets that are connected through a common data network. For the Mark VI controller the common network is the UDH. For integrated systems, this common network provides a data path between multiple turbine controllers and possibly the controls for the generator, the exciter, or the HRSG/boiler. Selected signals from the controller database may be mapped into a page of peer outputs that are broadcast periodically on the UDH to provide external panels a status update. For the TMR system this action is performed by the UDH communicator using the data from its internal voted database. Several pages of peer inputs may be received by the TMR panel as the other control panels on the UDH are broadcasting their status pages. The designated controller/primary communicator may have the responsibility for receiving the pages and replicating the content for the other controllers in the voting trio. The operation is similar to the input of common input data from a single I/O module, but in this case the data is broadcast on the I/O network by the designated controller.

Command Action
All of the commands to the TMR control need special processing to cause the three voting controllers to perform the same action at the same time. Since the source is a standard computer connected to the UDH and sending messages over a single network, there is very little benefit for voting the commands in each controller. The situation is complicated by commands being sent from one of several redundant computers at the operator position (s). In Mark VI, the designated controller normally receives all commands, and the response of the voting trio is synchronized by issuing the commands to all three controllers at the same frame time.

Rate of Response
Mark VI can run selected control programs at the rate of 100 times per second, (10 ms frame rate) for simplex systems, and 25 times per second (40 ms frame rate) for TMR systems. This is the fastest rate for the TMR system. The timing diagram is shown in Figure 2-21. In this example, bringing the data from the interface modules to the control module and voting it takes three ms, running the control program takes four ms, and sending the data back to the interface modules takes three ms.

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Start of Frame (SOF)

One Frame Time (10 ms)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SOF

Control Module CPU Control Module Voting Control Module Comm I/O Module Comm State Vote

Background

Compute Control Sequence & Blocks

Background

Fast R1

Vote

Fast R2

Prevote Compare

Fast R1

Fast R2

Out

State Xchg.

Input Input
Fast Fast Background
Receive

Gather Send Send


Scale Calc Set Output

Scatter Background
Scan Input Scale Calc Write
Data

I/O Module Board Read Data

Just in Time to Start

Figure 2-21. TMR System Timing Diagram for System with Remote I/O

Failure Handling
The general operating principle on failures is that corrective or default action takes place in both directions away from the fault. This means that, in the control hierarchy extending from the terminal screws up through I/O boards, backplanes, networks and main CPUs, when a fault occurs, there is a reaction at the I/O processor and also at the main controller if still operating. When faults are detected, health bits are reset in a hierarchical fashion. If a signal goes bad, the health bit is set false at the control module level. If a board goes bad, all signals associated with that board, whether input or output, have their health bits set false. A similar situation exists for the I/O rack. In addition, there are preconfigured default failure values defined for all input and output signals so that normal application code may cope with failures without excessive healthy bit referencing. Healthy bits in TMR systems are voted if the corresponding signal is TMR. Loss of Control Module in Simplex System - If a control module fails in a simplex system, the output boards go to their configured default output state after a timeout. The loss of the controller board propagates down through the IONet so that the output board knows what to do. This is accomplished by shutting down the IONet. Loss of Control Module in TMR System - If a control module fails in a TMR system, the TMR outputs and simplex outputs on that channel timeout to their configured default output state. TMR control continues using the other two control modules.

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Loss of I/O VCMI in TMR System - If the VCMI in an interface module in a TMR system fails, the outputs timeout to their configured default output state. The inputs are set to their configured default state so that resultant outputs, such as UDH, may be set correctly. Inputs and output healthy bits are reset. A failure of the VCMI in Rack 0 is viewed as equivalent to a failure of the control module itself. Loss of I/O VCMI in Simplex System - If the VCMI in an interface module in a simplex system fails, the outputs and inputs are handled the same as a TMR system. Loss of I/O Board in Simplex System If an I/O board in a simplex system fails, hardware on the outputs from the I/O boards set the outputs to a low power default value given typical applications. Input boards have their input values set to the preconfigured default value in the Master VCMI board. Loss of Simplex I/O Board in TMR System - If the failed simplex I/O board is in a TMR system, the inputs and outputs are handled as if they were in a simplex system. Loss of TMR I/O Board in TMR System - If a TMR I/O board fails in a TMR system, inputs and outputs are handled as described previously. TMR SIFT and hardware output voting keep the process running. Loss of IONet in Simplex System - If the IONet fails in a simplex system, the output boards in the I/O racks timeout and set the preconfigured default output values. The Master VCMI board defaults the inputs so that UDH outputs can be correctly set. Loss of IONet in TMR System - If the IONet fails in a simplex system, outputs follow the same sequence as for a Loss of Control Module in simplex. Inputs follow the same sequence as for Loss of I/O VCMI in TMR.

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Turbine Protection
Turbine overspeed protection is available in three levels, control, primary, and emergency. Control protection comes through closed loop speed control using the fuel/steam valves. Primary overspeed protection is provided by the controller. The TTUR terminal board and VTUR I/O board bring in a shaft speed signal to each controller where they are median selected. If the controller determines a trip condition, the controller sends the trip signal to the TRPG terminal board through the VTUR I/O board. The three VTUR outputs are 2/3 voted in three-relay voting circuits (one for each trip solenoid) and power is removed from the solenoids. Figure 2-22 shows the primary and emergency levels of protection.
Software Voting High Speed Shaft R

TTUR
Terminal Board

Controller R & VTUR Controller S & VTUR Controller T & VTUR

TRPG Terminal Board Hardware Voting (Relays)


Primary Protection

High Speed Shaft S

High Speed Shaft

Magnetic Speed Pickups (3 used)

Trip Solenoids (Up to three)

High Speed Shaft R8

TPRO
Terminal Board

VPRO R8 VPRO S8

High Speed Shaft S8

TREG Terminal Board Hardware Voting (Relays)


Emergency Protection

High Speed Shaft T8

Magnetic Speed Pickups (3 used)

VPRO T8
Trip Signal to Servo Terminal Board TSVO

Figure 2-22. Primary and Emergency Overspeed Protection

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Either the controllers or the protection system can independently trip the turbine.

Emergency overspeed protection is provided by the independent triple redundant VPRO protection system shown in Figure 2-22. This uses three shaft speed signals from magnetic pickups, one for each protection module. These are brought into TPRO, a terminal board dedicated to the protection system. Each VPRO independently determines when to trip, and the signals are passed to the TREG terminal board. TREG operates in a similar way to TRPG, voting the three trip signals in relay circuits and removing power from the trip solenoids. This system contains no software voting, making the three VPRO modules completely independent. The only link between VPRO and the other parts of the control system is the IONet cable, which transmits status information. Additional protection for simplex systems is provided by the protection module through the Servo Terminal Board, TSVO. Plug J1 on TREG is wired to plug JD1 on TSVO, and if this is energized, relay K1 disconnects the servo output current and applies a bias to force the control valve closed.

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Reliability and Availability


System reliability and availability can be calculated using the component failure rates. These numbers are important for deciding when to use simplex circuits versus TMR circuits. TMR systems have the advantage of online repair discussed in the section, Online Repair for TMR Systems.

Online Repair for TMR Systems


The high availability of the TMR system is a result of being able to do repair online. It is possible to shut down single modules for repair and leave the voting trio in full voting mode operation, which effectively masks the absence of the signals from the powered down module. However, there are some restrictions and special cases that require extra attention. Many signals are reduced to a single customer wire at the terminal boards so removal of the terminal board requires that the wires be disconnected momentarily. Each type of terminal board must be evaluated for the application and the signal type involved. Voltages in excess of 50 V are present in some customer wiring. Terminal boards that have only signals from one controller channel may be replaced at any time if the faulty signals are being masked by the voter. For other terminal boards such as the relay outputs, the individual relays may be replaced without disconnecting the terminal board. For those singular signals that are driven from only one I/O board, there is no redundancy or masking. These are typically used for non-critical functions such as pump drives, where loss of the control output simply causes the pump to run continuously. Application designers must avoid using such singular signals in critical circuits. The TMR system is designed such that any of the three controllers may send outputs to the singular signals, keeping the function operational even if the normal sending controller fails. Note Power down only the module (rack) that has the fault. Failure to observe this rule may cause an unexpected shutdown of the process (each module has its own power disconnect or switch). The modules are labeled such that the diagnostic messages identify the faulty module. Repair the faulty modules as soon as possible. Although the TMR system will survive certain multiple faults without a forced outage, a lurking fault problem may exist after the first unrepaired failure occurs. Multiple faults within the same module cause no concern for online repair since all faults will be masked by the other voters. However, once a second unrelated fault occurs in the same module set, then either of the faulty modules of the set that is powered down will introduce a dual fault in the same three signal set which may cause a process shutdown.

Reliability
Reliability is represented by the Mean Time Between Forced Outages (MTBFO). In a simplex system, failure of the controller or I/O communication may cause a forced outage. Failure of a critical I/O module will cause a forced outage, but there are noncritical I/O modules, which can fail and be changed out without a shutdown. The MTBFO is calculated using published failure rates for components.

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Availability is the percentage of time the system is operating, taking into account the time to repair a failure. Availability is calculated as follows: MTBFO x 100% MTBFO + MTTR where: MTTR is the Mean Time To Repair the system failure causing the forced outage, and MTBFO is the Mean Time Between Forced Outages With a TMR system there can be failures without a forced outage because the system can be repaired while it continues to run. The MTBFO calculation is complex since essentially it is calculating the probability of a second (critical) failure in another channel during the time the first failure is being repaired. The time to repair is an important input to the calculation. The availability of a well designed TMR system with timely online repair is effectively 100%. Possible forced outages may still occur if a second failure of a critical circuit comes before the repair can be completed. Other possible forced outages may occur if the repairman erroneously powers down the wrong module.
Note To avoid possible forced outages from powering down the wrong module,

check the diagnostics for identification of the modules which contain the failure. System reliability has been determined by calculating the Failures In Time (FIT) (failures per 109 hours) based on the Bellcore TR-332 Reliability Prediction Procedure for Electronic Equipment. The Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) can be calculated from the FIT. The Mean Time Between Forced Outage (MTBFO) of the control system is a function of which boards are being used to control and protect the turbine. The complete system MTBFO depends on the size of the system, number of simplex boards, and the amount of sensor triplication.

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Third Party Connectivity


The Mark VI can be linked to the plant Distributed Control System (DCS) in three different ways as follows. The Mark VI can be operated from the plant control room. Modbus link from the HMI Server RS-232C port to the DCS A high speed 10 Mbaud Ethernet link using the Modbus over TCP/IP protocol A high speed 10 Mbaud Ethernet link using the TCP/IP protocol with an application layer called GEDS Standard Messages (GSM)

GSM supports turbine control commands, Mark VI data and alarms, the alarm silence function, logical events, and contact input sequence of events records with 1 ms resolution. Figure 2-23 shows the three options. Modbus is widely used to link to DCSs, but Ethernet GSM has the advantage of speed, distance, and functionality.

To DCS
Serial Modbus UCVE Controller
x

To DCS
Ethernet Modbus

To DCS
Ethernet GSM

PLANT DATA HIGHWAY

HMI Server Node


L A N

To Plant Data Highway (PDH) Ethernet


UCVE

Ethernet

Ethernet
UNIT DATA HIGHWAY

Figure 2-23. Optional Communication Links to Third Party Distributed Control System

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Chapter 3

Networks

Introduction
This chapter defines the various communication networks in the Mark VI system. These networks provide communication with the operator interfaces, servers, controllers, and I/O. Communication with the plant distributed control system is included, together with information on fiber-optic cables, and the time synchronization function. The chapter is organized as follows:
Section Page

Network Overview ...................................................................................................3-2 Data Highways .........................................................................................................3-5 IONet......................................................................................................................3-12 Ethernet Global Data (EGD) ..................................................................................3-14 Modbus Communications.......................................................................................3-18 Ethernet Modbus Slave...........................................................................................3-19 Serial Modbus Slave...............................................................................................3-21 Ethernet GSM.........................................................................................................3-25 PROFIBUS Communications.................................................................................3-27 Fiber-Optic Cables..................................................................................................3-30 Time Synchronization ............................................................................................3-35

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Network Overview
Ethernet is used for all Mark VI data highways and the I/O network. The Mark VI system is based on a hierarchy of networks used to interconnect the individual nodes. These networks separate the different communication traffic into layers according to their individual functions. This hierarchy extends from the I/O and controllers, which provide real-time control of the turbine and its associated equipment, through the operator interface systems, and up to facility wide monitoring or distributed control systems (DCS). Each layer uses standard components and protocols to simplify integration between different platforms and improve overall reliability and maintenance. The layers are designated as the Enterprise, Supervisory, Control, and I/O, as described in the following sections, and shown in Figure 3-1.

Enterprise Layer
The Enterprise layer serves as an interface from the turbine control into a facility wide or group control layer. These higher layers are provided by the DCS vendor or the customer. The network technology used in this layer is generally determined by the customer and may include either Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area network (WAN) technologies, depending on the size of the facility. The Enterprise layer is generally separated from other control layers through a router, which isolates the traffic on both sides of the interface. Where unit control equipment is required to communicate with a facility wide or DCS system, GE uses either a Modbus interface or a TCP/IP protocol known as GE Standard Messaging (GSM).

Supervisory Layer
The Supervisory layer provides operator interface capabilities such as to coordinate HMI viewer and server nodes, and other functions like data collection (Historian), remote monitoring, and vibration analysis. This layer uses Ethernet in a shared dual network configuration, which provides redundant Ethernet switches and cables to prevent complete network failure if a single component fails. The network is known as the Plant Data Highway (PDH).

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To Optional Customer Network

Enterprise Layer

HMI Viewer

HMI Viewer

HMI Viewer

Router Field Support


PLANT DATA H IGHWAY PLANT DATA H IGHWAY

Supervisory Layer

HMI Servers

Control Layer
U NIT D ATA H IGHWAY U NIT DATA H IGHWAY Gas Turbine Control TMR Steam Turbine Control Generator Protection

BOP

Exciter

Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI

Mark VI

Gen. Protect

90-70 PLC

EXCITER

IONet

IONet

Genius Bus

I/O Boards

I/O Boards

I/O Boards

Figure 3-1. Turbine Control as Part of Integrated Control System

Control Layer
The Control layer provides continuous operation of the power generation equipment. The controllers on this layer are highly coordinated to support continuous operation without interruption. This synchronization operates the control network at a fundamental rate called the frame rate. During each frame, all controllers on the network transmit their internal state to all other nodes. Ethernet Global Data (EGD) provides data exchange between nodes at a nominal frame rate of 25 Hz. Redundancy is important on the Control layer to ensure that a failure of any single component does not cause a turbine trip. This is accomplished with a shared dual network configuration known as the Unit Data Highway (UDH). Various levels of redundancy for the connected equipment are supported by the Supervisory and Control layers. Four redundancy levels are shown in Figure 3-2.

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Controller Input/Output
Communication between the I/O boards and the Mark VI controllers is based on Ethernet. The network is either a simplex or TMR system. This redundancy provides very high reliability and superior communications diagnostics.
Printer Printer Type 1 Redundancy Non-critical nodes such as printers can be connected without using additional communication devices.
Network Switch B Network Switch A

Redundant Switch
Network Switch B Network Switch A

Type 2 Redundancy Nodes that are only available in Simplex configuration, such as an HMI, can be connected with a redundant switch. The switch automatically senses a failed network component and fails-over to a secondary link.

Controller

Controller Type 3 Redundancy Nodes such as duplex or TMR controllers are tightly coupled so that each node can send the same information. By connecting each controller to alternate networks, data is still available if a controller or network fails.

Network Switch B Network Switch A

Redundant Switch

Redundant Switch

Network Switch B Network Switch A

Type 4 Redundancy This type provides redundant controllers and redundant network links for the highest reliability. This is useful if the active controller network interface cannot sense a failed network condition.

Figure 3-2. Redundant Networks for Different Applications

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Data Highways
Plant Data Highway
The PDH is the plant level supervisory network. The PDH connects the HMI Server with remote viewers, printers, historians, and external interfaces. Usually there is no direct connection to the Mark VI controllers, which communicate over the UDH. Use of Ethernet with the TCP/IP protocol over the PDH provides an open system for third party interfaces. Figure 3-3 shows the equipment connections to the PDH.
HMI View Node HMI View Node Laser printer

Laser printer

Redundant Switch

Redundant Switch

PLANT DATA HIGHWAY - SWITCH B PLANT DATA HIGHWAY - SWITCH A

HMI Server Node

HMI Server Node

From UDH

From UDH

Figure 3-3. Redundant Plant Data Highway Communication with Operator Stations

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Table 3-1. PDH Network Features PDH Feature Type of Network Speed Media and Distance Description Ethernet CSMA/CD in a single or redundant star configuration. 10 Mb/s data rate (100 Mb/s optional). Ethernet 10BaseT (or 100BaseTX) for switch to controller/device connections. The cable is 22 to 26 AWG with unshielded twisted pair, category 5 EIA/TIA 568 A/B. Distance is up to 100 meters. Ethernet 100BaseFX with fiber-optic cable for network backbone; distances of 2 km. Up to 1024 nodes supported. Any Ethernet compatible protocol, typically TCP/IP based. Use GE Standard Messaging (GSM) or Modbus over Ethernet for external communications. 32-bit Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) appended to each Ethernet packet plus additional checks in protocol used. Various third party interfaces are available; GSM and Modbus are the most common.

Number of Nodes Protocols

Message Integrity External Interfaces

Fiber-optic cable provides the best signal quality, completely free of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). Large point-to-point distances are possible, and since the cable does not carry electrical charges, ground potential problems are eliminated. The PDH network hardware is listed in Table 3-2.
Table 3-2. PDH Network Hardware PDH Network Hardware UTP Cable Fiber Cable Description Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable, four pair, Category 5 EIA/TIA 568 A/B or better, including RJ-45 connectors. Optical fiber cable, Ethernet 100BaseFX type, 62.5/125 micron, dual window, graded index profile, multimode glass-onglass construction, thermoplastic jacket, including SC connectors. Fast Ethernet switches (2), Cisco Catalyst 2900 is an example. Fault Tolerant media converter, Lancast 2711 "redundant twister" is an example.

Ethernet Switches Redundant Switches

Unit Data Highway


The UDH is an Ethernet-based network that provides direct or broadcast peer-to-peer communications between controllers and an operator/maintenance interface. It uses Ethernet Global Data (EGD) which is a message-based protocol for sharing information with multiple nodes based on the UDP/IP standard. UDH network hardware is similar to the PDH hardware described previously. Figure 3-4 shows redundant UDH networks with connections to the controllers and HMI servers.

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Table 3-3. UDH Network Features UDH Feature Type of Network Speed Media and Distance Description Ethernet CSMA/CD using Ethernet Global Data (EGD) protocol; in single or redundant network configuration 10 Mb/s data rate (100 Mb/s optional) Ethernet 10BaseT (or 100BaseTX) for switch to controller/device connections. The cable is 22 to 26 AWG unshielded twisted pair (standard telephone wire); category 5 EIA/TIA 568 A/B. Distance is up to 100 meters. The UCVB requires 10Base2 cable. Ethernet 100BaseFX with fiber-optic cable optional for network backbone; distance is two km. With 10 nodes, system provides a 25 Hz data rate. For other configurations contact the factory. Mark VI Controllers; will also support Innovation Series Controllers, PLCs, operator interfaces, and engineering work stations EGD protocol based on the UDP/IP standard (RFC 768) SRTP (Serial Request Transfer Protocol) protocol 32-bit CRC appended to each Ethernet packet plus integrity checks built into UDP and EGD Network Time Protocol (NTP), accuracy 1 ms. Timecode signals supported: IRIG-A, IRIG-B, NASA-36, 2137 Global Position System (GPS), also periodic pulse option.

Number of Nodes Type of Nodes Supported Protocol Message Integrity Time Sync. Methods External Time Sync. Options

To Plant Data Highway

HMI Server Node

HMI Server Node

Control Network
UNIT DATA HIGHWAY - SWITCH B UNIT DATA HIGHWAY - SWITCH A

Mark VI GAS TURBINE


UCVx VCMI I/O DISK I/O UCVX VCMI

Mark VI STEAM TURBINE


UCVX VCMI I/O I/O DISK CPU

90-70 PLC HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GEN.


RCM

EX7 EX7 CPU

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UCVX VCMI

Figure 3-4. UDH Showing Connections to Simplex, Duplex, and TMR Controllers

I/O I/O I/O DISK

RCM

Simplex

TMR

Redundant Switch

Chapter 3 Networks 3-7

Data Highway Ethernet Switches


The UDH and PDH networks use Fast Ethernet switches. The system modules are cabled into the switches to create a star type network architecture. Redundancy is obtained by using two switches with an interconnecting cable. Mark VI networks use stateof-the art commercially available communication equipment. A typical Ethernet switch is shown in Figure 3-5. The Ethernet cables plug into two multi-port 10BaseT adapters on the front of the unit. The adapters have RJ45 ports for unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. Fiber-optic cables plug into the ports in the lower half of the front panel using SC type connectors. The unit forwards 64-byte data packets through the 10 Mb/s ports providing a throughput of 148,800 packets per second for each port. Data rates through the 100BaseFX fiber-optic ports is 10 or 100 Mb/s. Redundant switches are used to provide redundant, duplex communication links to controllers and HMIs (see Figure 3-6). Primary and Secondary designate the two redundant Ethernet links. If the Primary link fails, the converter automatically switches the traffic on Main over to the Secondary link without interruption to network operation. At 10 Mb/s, using the minimum data packet size, the maximum data loss during fail-over transition is 2-3 packets.
10BaseT/10BaseTX expansion slots

Switches are configured by GE for the Mark VI; preconfigured switches should be purchased from GE.

3.5 (88 mm) 1 2 3

10 BaseT

10 BaseT

10

11

12

10/100BaseFX (Fiber Optic) ports; protect with plastic plug if not used

Fans (3)

JRJ-45 Connector

Back View 17.5 (445 mm)

DC Input

Power

Figure 3-5. Typical Fast Ethernet Switch with Fiber-Optic Ports

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5.75 (146 mm)

1.5 (38.1 mm)

Length of Switch is 4.5 (114.3 mm)


SW 10BASE-T SECONDARY PRIMARY MAIN PWR

UTP port

Main link switches from Primary to Secondary if Primary link fails


Figure 3-6. Typical Redundant Switch (Media Converter)

The switch shown in Figure 3-7 has 12 ports for UTP connectors and is called a T-Switch. It can have one or more fiber-optic ports.
UTP Ports 100BaseFX Port (Fiber-optic)

1.7 (44 mm)

10 11

12

BX

Front View Power Fan RJ45 Connector

100BaseTX Port

Back View 17.5 (445 mm)

Dc Input

AUI Port

Figure 3-7. Typical Fast Ethernet Switch (T-Switch) with UTP Ports

Typical UDH and PDH networks are shown in Figure 3-8. Fiber-optics are used for communication between the local controllers and the central control room. UTP cabling is used for short distances.

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Central Control Room


Local HMI Viewer, UTP PDH Switch A PDH Switch B UTP connections

A B Switch

A B Switch

To remote HMI Viewer, 100Base-FX

HMI Server

HMI Server

Switch A B

Switch A B UTP connections

UDH Switch A

UDH Switch B

From other Units T-Switch A

From other Units T-Switch B

100Base-FX connections

To local HMI Viewer, UTP From Unit Controllers From Unit Controllers

UTP connections

Local Control Area


Figure 3-8. Typical UDH and PDH Networks

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Selecting IP Addresses
A recommended procedure for selecting the IP addresses on the UDH and PDH is outlined in the following table. The standard IP address is 192.168.ABC.XYZ
Table 3-4. Ethernet IP Address Rules Network Type UDH A Type 1 BC Network Number 01-99 X Controller/Device Number 1 = Gas Turbine Controllers 2 = Steam Turbine Controllers Y Unit Number 1 = Unit 1 2 = Unit 2 . . 9 = Unit 9 Z Type of Device 1 = R0 2 = S0 3 = T0 4 = HRSG A 5 = HRSG B 6 = EX2000 or EX2100 A 7 = EX2000 or EX2100 B 8 = EX2000 or EX2100 C 9 = Not assigned 0 = Static Starter

0 = All other devices on the UDH

02 15 = Servers 16 25 = Workstations 26 37 = Other stations (Viewers) 38 = Historian 39 = OSM 40 99 = Aux Controllers, such as ISCs

PDH

01 54

2 to 199 are reserved for customer supplied items 200 to 254 are reserved for GE supplied items such as Viewers and Printers

The following are examples of IP addresses: 192.168.104.133 would be UDH number 4, gas turbine unit number 3, T0 core. 192.168.102.215 would be UDH number 2, steam turbine unit number 1, HRSG B. 192.168.201.201 could be a CIMPLICITY Viewer supplied by GE, residing on PDH#1. 192.168.205.10 could be a customer-supplied printer residing on PDH#5.
Note Each item on the network such as a controller, server, or viewer must have an

IP address. The above addresses are recommended, but if this is a custom configuration, the requisition takes precedence.

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IONet
IONet is an Ethernet 10Base2 network used to communicate data between the VCMI communication board in the control module, the I/O boards, and the three independent sections of the Protection Module <P>. In large systems, it is used to communicate with an expansion VME board rack containing additional I/O boards. These racks are called interface modules since they contain exclusively I/O boards and a VCMI. IONet also communicates data between controllers in TMR systems. Remote I/O can be located up to 185 meters from the controller. Another application is to use the interface module as a remote I/O interface located at the turbine or generator. Since there is no controller in the rack, all boards are specified for an external cabinet ambient temperature of 50 C. Figure 3-9 shows a TMR configuration using remote I/O and a protection module.
R0 V C M I U C V X V C M I U C V X S0
V C M I

TMR System with Remote I/O Racks

T0 U C V X IONet - R IONet - S IONet - T

R8 V P R O

S8 V P R O

T8 V P R O

R1 V C M I I/O Boards V C M I

S1 I/O Boards V C M I

T1 I/O Boards

IONet Supports Multiple Remote I/O Racks

UCVX is Controller, VCMI is Bus Master, VPRO is Protection Module, I/O are VME boards. (Terminal Boards not shown)

Figure 3-9. IONet Communications with Controllers, I/O, and Protection Modules

Table 3-5. IONet Features IONet Feature Type of Network Speed Media and Distance Description Ethernet using extension of ADL protocol 10 Mb/s data rate Ethernet 10Base2, RG-58 coax cable is standard Distance to 185 meters Ethernet 10BaseFL with fiber-optic cable and converters Distance is 2 km 16 nodes Extension of ADL protocol designed to avoid message collisions; Collision Sense (CSMA) functionality is still maintained Maximum packet size 1500 bytes 32-bit CRC appended to each Ethernet packet

Number of Nodes Protocol Message Size Message Integrity

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IONet - Communications Interface


Communication between the control module (control rack) and interface module (I/O rack) is handled by the VCMI in each rack. In the control module the VCMI operates as the IONet Master, while in the interface module it operates as an IONet slave. The VCMI establishes the network ID, and displays the network ID, channel ID, and status on its front panel LEDs. The VCMI serves as the Master frame counter for all nodes on the IONet. Frames are sequentially numbered and all nodes on IONet run in the same frame This ensures that selected data is being transmitted and operated on correctly.

I/O Data Collection


I/O Data Collection, Simplex Systems - When used in an interface module, the VCMI acts as the VME bus Master. It collects input data from the I/O boards and transmits it to the control module through IONet. When it receives output data from the control module it distributes it to the I/O boards. The VCMI in slot 1 of the control module operates as the IONet Master. As packets of input data are received from various racks on the IONet, the VCMI collects them and transfers the data through the VME bus to the I/O table in the controller. After application code completion, the VCMI transfers output values from the controller I/O table to the VCMI where the data is then broadcast to all the I/O racks. I/O Data Collection and Voting, TMR Systems - For a small TMR system, all the I/O may be in one module (triplicated). In this case the VCMI transfers the input values from each of the I/O boards through the VME bus to an internal buffer. After the individual board transfers are complete, the entire block of data is transferred to the pre-vote table, and also sent as an input packet on the IONet. As the packet is being sent, corresponding packets from the other two control modules are being received through the other IONet ports. Each of these packets is then transferred to the pre-vote table. After all packets are in the pre-vote table, the voting takes place. Analog data (floating point) goes through a median selector, while logical data (bit values) goes through a two-out-of-three majority voter. The results are placed in the voted table. A selected portion of the controller variables (the states such as counter/timer values and sequence steps) must be transferred by the Master VCMI boards to the other Master VCMI boards to be included in the vote process. At completion of the voting the voted table is transferred through the VME bus to the state table memory in the controller. For a larger TMR system with remote I/O racks, the procedure is very similar except that packets of input values come into the Master VCMI over IONet. After all the input data is accumulated in the internal buffer, it is placed in the pre-vote table and also sent to the other control modules over IONet. After all the packets and states are in the pre-vote table, they are voted, and the results are transferred to the controller. For more information on the VCMI, see Chapter 9, I/O Descriptions (GEH-6421D, Vol. II, Mark VI System Guide). Output Data Packet - All the output data from a control module VCMI is placed in packets. These packets are then broadcast on the IONet and received by all connected interface and control modules. Each interface module VCMI extracts the required information and distributes to its associated I/O boards.

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Ethernet Global Data (EGD)


The Unit Data Highway uses the Ethernet Global Data (EGD) protocol. Ethernet Global Data (EGD) is the primary, peer-to-peer, communications protocol used by the Mark VI. Controller data configured for transmission over EGD are segretated into groups called exchanges. An exchange has the same meaning as a page for other protocols supported in the control system toolbox. EGD provides for the repeated transmission of an exchange from a controller, called a producer, to other devices, such as operator interfaces, called consumers. Each controller can support several exchanges, and these may be configured to be sent to either a specific address (unicast) or to multiple consumers at the same time (broadcast). Each exchange is identified by the combination of a Producer ID and an Exchange ID so the consumer recognizes the data and knows where to store it. The exchange contains a configuration signature, which shows the revision number of the exchange configuration. If the consumer receives data with an unknown configuration signature then it makes the data unhealthy. Error handling services handle lost packets and device failure conditions. In the case of a transmission interruption, the receiver waits three periods for the EGD message, after which it times out and the data is considered unhealthy. Data integrity is preserved by: 32-bit cyclic redundancy code (CRC) in the Ethernet packet Standard checksums in the UDP and IP headers Configuration signature Data size field

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EGD Features
Table 3-6. EGD Communications Features Feature Type of Communication Description Multidrop Ethernet CSMA/CD, employing the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) facilities of TCP/IP. Pages are normally transmitted every 320 ms but can be sent as fast as every 10 ms. 10 Mb/s data rate Using 10Base2 RG-58 coax, the maximum distance is 185 meters. Using 10BaseT shielded-twisted pair, with a media access converter, the maximum distance is 100 meters. Using 10BaseFL fiber-optics, with a media access converter, a distance of several km is possible. Only the coax cable can be multidropped; the other cable types use a hub to form a Star network. Broadcast - a message to all stations on a subnet Unicast - a directed message to one station Exchanges may be broadcast onto multiple Ethernet subnets or may be received from multiple Ethernet subnets if the specified controller hardware supports multiple Ethernet ports. In TMR configurations a controller is capable of forwarding EGD data across the IONet to another controller in the panel that has been isolated from the Ethernet. A page (exchange) can be a maximum of 1400 bytes long. Ethernet supports a 32-bit CRC appended to each Ethernet packet. Reception timeout (3 periods). Missing/out of order packet detection UDP and IP header checksums Configuration signature (data layout revision control) Exchange size validation EGD allows each controller to send a block of information to, or receive a block from, other controllers in the system. Integer, Floating Point, and Boolean datatypes are supported.

Speed Media and Distance

Message Type Redundancy

Fault Tolerance

Mode Message Integrity

Function Codes

EGD exchange is available only on controllers which have multiple Ethernet ports.

For greater failsafe protection, an EGD exchange may be sent over multiple Ethernets as shown in Figure 3-10. If at least one of the two physical networks is functioning the exchange will be received by the consumer and considered healthy.

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HMI

UNIT DATA HIGHWAY

EGD

EGD

Mark VI
ENET1

90-70 PLC
ENET1 ENET2 UCVx CPU
EGD

VCMI

I/O

I/O

ENET2

Simplex
DEDICATED ETHERNET

Figure 3-10. EGD Multiple Ethernets

TMR configurations provide Ethernet fault tolerance.

Each of the three controllers in a TMR panel receives EGD data independently from a direct Ethernet connection. If the connection is broken a controller may request for the missing data from the IONet. When other controllers in the panel receive these requests they forward the data if it is available from their own Ethernet connection. One controller in a TMR configuration is automatically selected to transmit the panels EGD data onto the UDH. If the UDH fractures causing the controllers to be isolated from each other onto different physical network segments, multiple controllers are enabled for transmission, providing panel data to each of the segments. These features add a level of Ethernet fault tolerance to the basic protocol.

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I/O

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

<R>
EGD

UNIT DATA HIGHWAY

Redundant path for EGD

Figure 3-11. TMR Configuration

IONET

<S>
EGD

<T>
EGD

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Modbus Communications
The Modbus support is available in either the Simplex or TMR configurations. The Mark VI control platform can be a Modbus Slave on either the COM2 RS-232C Serial connection or over Ethernet. In the TMR configuration, commands are replicated to multiple controllers so only one physical Modbus link is required. All the same functions are supported over Ethernet that are supported over the serial ports. All Ethernet Modbus messages are received on Ethernet port 502. Messages are transmitted and received using the Modbus RTU transmission mode where data is transmitted in eight-bit bytes. The other Modbus transmission mode where characters are transmitted in ASCII is not supported. The supported Modbus point data types are bits, shorts, longs and floats. These points can be scaled and placed into compatible Mark VI signal types. There are four Modbus register page types used: Input coils Output coils Input registers Holding registers

Since the Mark VI has high priority control code operating at a fixed frame rate, it is necessary to limit the amount of CPU resources that can be taken by the Modbus interface. To limit the operation time, a limit on the number of commands per second received by the Mark VI is enforced. The Mark VI control code also can disable all Modbus commands by setting an internal logical signal. There are two diagnostic utilities that can be used to diagnose problems with the Modbus communications on a Mark VI. The first utility prints out the accumulated Modbus errors from a network and the second prints out a log of the most recent Modbus messages. This data can be viewed using the toolbox. Note For additional information on Mark VI Modbus communications, refer to the sections Ethernet Modbus Slave and Serial Modbus Slave and to document, GEI100535, Modbus Communications.

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Ethernet Modbus Slave


Modbus is widely used in control systems to establish communication between distributed control systems, PLCs, and HMIs. The Mark VI controller supports Ethernet Modbus as a standard slave interface. Ethernet establishes high-speed communication between the various portions of the control system, and the Ethernet Modbus protocol is layered on top of the TCP/IP stream sockets. The primary purpose of this interface is to allow third party Modbus Master computers to read and write signals that exist in the controller, using a subset of the Modbus function codes. The Mark VI controller will respond to Ethernet Modbus commands received from any of the Ethernet ports supported by its hardware configuration. Ethernet Modbus may be configured as an independent interface or may share a register map with a serial Modbus interface.

UNIT DATA HIGHWAY


Ethernet Modbus Ethernet Modbus

Mark VI
ENET1

90-70 PLC
Serial 1
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Com2

Simplex
RS-232
Serial Modbus
Figure 3-12. Ethernet Modbus

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ENET1

UCVx

VCMI

CPU

I/O

I/O

I/O

Ethernet Modbus Features


Table 3-7. Ethernet Modbus Features Feature Communication Type Speed Media and Distance Description Multidrop Ethernet CSMA/CD, employing TCP/IP with Modbus Application Protocol (MBAP) layered on top. Slave protocol only 10 Mb/s data rate Using 10Base2 RG-58 coax, the maximum distance is 185 meters. Using 10BaseT shielded twisted-pair, with media access converter, the maximum distance is 100 meters Using 10BaseFL fiber-optics, with media access converter, a distance of several kilometers is possible Only the coax cable can be multidropped; the other cable types use a hub forming a Star network. Ethernet supports a 32-bit CRC appended to each Ethernet packet. Responds to Modbus commands from any Ethernet interface supported by the controller hardware Supports register map sharing with serial Modbus

Message Integrity Redundancy

Function Codes 01 Read Coil 02 Read Input 03 Read Registers 04 Read Input Registers 05 Force Coil 06 Preset Register Read the current status of a group of 1 to 2000 Boolean signals Read the current status of a group of 1 to 2000 Boolean signals Read the current binary value in 1 to 125 holding registers Read the current binary values in 1 to125 analog signal registers Force a single Boolean signal to a state of ON or OFF Set a specific binary value into holding registers

07 Read Exception Status Read the first 8 logic coils (coils 18) - short message length permits rapid reading 15 Force Coils 16 Preset Registers Force a series of 1 to 800 consecutive Boolean signals to a specific state Set binary values into a series of 1 to 100 consecutive holding registers

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Serial Modbus Slave


Serial Modbus is used to communicate between the Mark VI and the plant Distributed Control System (DCS). This is shown as the Enterprise layer in the introduction to this Chapter. The serial Modbus communication link allows an operator at a remote location to make an operator command by sending a logical command or an analog setpoint to the Mark VI. Logical commands are used to initiate automatic sequences in the controller. Analog setpoints are used to set a target such as turbine load, and initiate a ramp to the target value at a predetermined ramp rate. The Mark VI controller also supports serial Modbus slave as a standard interface. The HMI Server supports serial Modbus as a standard interface. The DCS sends a request for status information to the HMI, or the message can be a command to the turbine control. The HMI is always a slave responding to requests from the serial Modbus Master, and there can only be one Master.

Serial Modbus Features


Table 3-8. Serial Modbus Features Serial Modbus Feature Type of Communication Speed Media and Distance Mode Description Master/slave arrangement with the slave controller following the Master; full duplex, asynchronous communication 19,200 baud is standard; 9,600 baud is optional Using an RS-232C cable without a modem, the distance is 15.24 meters (50 feet); using an RS-485 converter it is 1.93 kilometers (1.2 miles). ASCII Mode - Each 8-bit byte in the message is sent as two ASCII characters, the hexadecimal representation of the byte. (Not available from the HMI server.) Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) Mode - Each 8-bit byte in the message is sent with no translation, which packs the data more efficiently than the ASCII mode, providing about twice the throughput at the same baud rate. Supports register map sharing with Ethernet Modbus. An optional parity check is done on each byte and a CRC16 check sum is appended to the message in the RTU mode; in the ASCII mode an LRC is appended to the message instead of the CRC.

Redundancy Message Security

Note This section discusses serial Modbus communication in general terms. Refer to GEH-6410, Innovation Series Controller System Manual and HMI manuals for additional information. Refer to GEH-6126, HMI Application Guide and GFK-1180, CIMPLICITY HMI for Windows NT and Windows 95 User's Manual. For details on how to configure the graphic screens refer to GFK-1396, CIMPLICITY HMI for Windows NT and Windows 95 CimEdit Operation Manual.

Modbus Configuration
Systems are configured as single point-to-point RS-232C communication devices. A GE device on Serial Modbus is a slave supporting binary RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) full duplex messages with CRC. Both dedicated and broadcast messages are supported.

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A dedicated message is a message addressed to a specific slave device with a corresponding response from that slave. A broadcast message is addressed to all slaves without a corresponding return response. The binary RTU message mode uses an 8-bit binary character data for messages. RTU mode defines how information is packed into the message fields by the sender and decoded by the receiver. Each RTU message is transmitted in a continuous stream with a 2-byte CRC checksum and contains a slave address. A slave stations address is a fixed unique value in the range of 1 to 255. The Serial Modbus communications system supports 9600 and 19,200 baud, none, even, or odd parity, and 7 or 8 data bits. Both the Master and slave devices must be configured with the same baud rate, parity, and data bit count.
Table 3-9. Modbus Function Codes Function Codes 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 15 16 Title 01 Read Holding Coils 02 Read Input Coils 03 Read Holding Registers 04 Read Input Registers 05 Force Single Holding Coil 06 Preset Single Holding Register 07 Read Exception Status 08 Loopback Test 15 Force Multiple Coils 16 Preset Multiple Holding Registers Message Description Read the current status of a group of 1 to 2000 Boolean signals Read the current status of a group of 1 to 2000 Boolean signals Read the current binary values in 1 to 125 analog signal registers Read the current binary values in 1 to125 analog signal registers Force (or write) a single Boolean signal to a state of ON or OFF Preset (or write) a specific binary value into a holding register Read the first 8 logic coils (coils 18) - short message length permits rapid reading of these values Loopback diagnostic to test communication system Force a series of 1 to 800 consecutive Boolean signals to a specific state Set binary values into a series of 1 to 100 consecutive analog signals

Hardware Configuration
The RS-232C standard specifies twenty-five signal lines: twenty lines for routine operation, two lines for modem testing, and three remaining lines unassigned. Nine of the signal pins are used in a nominal RS-232C communication system. Cable references in this document will refer to the 9-pin cable definition found in Table 310. Terms describing the various signals used in sending or receiving data are expressed from the point of view of the DTE device. For example the signal, transmit data (TD), represents the transmission of data coming from the DTE device going to the DCE device. Each RS-232C signal uses a single wire. The standard specifies the conventions used to send sequential data as a sequence of voltage changes signifying the state of each signal. Depending on the signal group, a negative voltage (less than 3 volts) represents either a binary one data bit, a signal mark, or a control off condition, while a positive voltage (greater that +3 volts) represents either a binary zero data bit, a signal space, or a control on condition. Because of voltage limitations, an RS232C cable may not be longer than 50 feet.

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A Data Terminal Device (DTE) is identified as a device that transmits serial data on pin 3 (TD) of a 9-pin RS-232C cable (see pin definitions in the following table). A Data Communication Device (DCE) is identified as a device that transmits serial data on pin 2 (RD) of a 9-pin RS-232C cable. Using this definition, the GE slave Serial Modbus device is a Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) device because it transmits serial data on pin 3 (TD) of the 9-pin RS-232C cable. If the Master Serial Modbus device is also a DTE device, connecting the Master and slave devices together requires an RS-232C null modem cable. Nine of the twenty-five RS-232C pins are used in a common asynchronous application. All nine pins are necessary in a system configured for hardware handshaking. The Modbus system does not use hardware handshaking; therefore it requires just three wires, receive data (RD), transmit data (TD), and signal ground (GND) to transmit and receive data. The nine RS-232C signals used in the asynchronous communication system can be broken down into four groups of signals: data, control, timing, ground.
Table 3-10. RS-232C Connector Pinout Definition DB 9 1 DB 25 8 Description Data Carrier Detect (DCD) DTE Output DTE Input X Signal Type Control Function Signal comes from the other RS-232C device telling the DTE device that a circuit has been established Receiving serial data Transmitting serial data DTE places positive voltage on this pin when powered up Must be connected Signal from other RS-232C device telling the DTE that the other RS-232C device is powered up DTE has data to send and places this pin high to request permission to transmit DTE looks for positive voltage on this pin for permission to transmit data A modem signal indicating a ringing signal on the telephone line

2 3 4 5 6

3 2 20 7 6

Receive Data (RD) Transmit Data (TD) Data Terminal Ready (DTR) Signal Ground (GND) Data Set Ready (DSR) X X

Data Data Control Ground

Control

7 8 9

4 5 22

Request To Send (RTS) Clear To Send (CTS) Ring Indicator (RI)

X X X

Control Control Control

Data Signal wires are used to send and receive serial data. Pin 2 (RD) and pin 3 (TD) are used for transmitting data signals. A positive voltage (> +3 volts) on either of these two pins signifies a logic 0 data bit or space data signal. A negative voltage (< 3 volts) on either of these two pins signifies a logic 1 data bit or mark signal. Control Signals coordinate and control the flow of data over the RS-232C cable. Pins 1 (DCD), 4 (DTR), 6 (DSR), 7 (RTS), and 8 (CTS) are used for control signals. A positive voltage (> +3 volts) indicates a control on signal, while a negative voltage (< 3 volts) signifies a control off signal. When a device is configured for hardware handshaking, these signals are used to control the communications.

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Timing Signals are not used in an asynchronous 9-wire cable. These signals, commonly called clock signals, are used in synchronous communication systems to synchronize the data rate between transmitting and receiving devices. The logic signal definitions used for timing are identical to those used for control signals. Signal Ground on both ends of an RS-232C cable must be connected. Frame ground is sometimes used in 25-pin RS-232C cables as a protective ground.

Serial Port Parameters


An RS-232C serial port is driven by a computer chip called a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART). The UART sends an 8-bit byte of data out of a serial port preceded with a start bit, the 8 data bits, an optional parity bit, and one or two stop bits. The device on the other end of the serial cable must be configured the same as the sender to understand the received data. The software configurable setup parameters for a serial port are baud rate, parity, stop, and data bit counts. Transmission baud rate signifies the bit transmission speed measured in bits per second. Parity adds an extra bit that provides a mechanism to detect corrupted serial data characters. Stop bits are used to pad a serial data character to a specific number of bits. If the receiver expects eleven bits for each character, the sum of the start bit, data bits, parity bit, and the specified stop bits should equal eleven. The stop bits are used to adjust the total to the desired bit count. UARTs support three serial data transmission modes: simplex (one way only), full duplex (bi-directional simultaneously), and half duplex (non-simultaneous bidirectional). GEs Modbus slave device supports only full duplex data transmission. Device number is the physical RS-232C communication port. Baud rate is the serial data transmission rate of the Modbus device measured in bits per second. The GE Modbus slave device supports 9,600 and 19,200 baud (default). Stop bits are used to pad the number of bits that are transmitted for each byte of serial data. The GE Modbus slave device supports 1 or 2 stop bits. The default is 1 stop bit. Parity provides a mechanism to error check individual serial 8-bit data bytes. The GE Modbus slave device supports none, even, and odd parity. The default is none. Code (byte size) is the number of data bits in each serial character. The GE Modbus slave device supports 7 and 8-bit data bytes. The default byte size is 8 bits.

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Ethernet GSM
Some applications require transmitting alarm and event information to the DCS. This information includes high-resolution local time tags in the controller for alarms (25 Hz), system events (25 Hz), and sequence of events (SOEs) for contact inputs (1 ms). Traditional SOEs have required multiple contacts for each trip contact with one contact wired to the turbine control to initiate a trip and the other contact to a separate SOE instrumentation rack for monitoring. The Mark VI uses dedicated processors in each contact input board to time stamp all contact inputs with a 1 ms time stamp, thus eliminating the initial cost and long term maintenance of a separate SOE system. The HMI server has the turbine data to support GSM messages. An Ethernet link is available using TCP/IP to transmit data with the local time tags to the plant level control. The link supports all the alarms, events, and SOEs in the Mark VI panel. GE supplies an application layer protocol called GSM (GEDS Standard Messages), which supports four classes of application level messages. The HMI Server is the source of the Ethernet GSM communication (see Figure 3-13).

HMI View Node PLANT DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS)

Redundant Switch Ethernet GSM Ethernet Modbus

PLANT DATA HIGHWAY PLANT DATA HIGHWAY

HMI Server Node

HMI Server Node

Modbus Communication

From UDH

From UDH

Figure 3-13. Communication to DCS from HMI using Modbus or Ethernet Options

Administration Messages are sent from the HMI to the DCS with a Support Unit message, which describes the systems available for communication on that specific link and general communication link availability.

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Event Driven Messages are sent from the HMI to the DCS spontaneously when a system alarm occurs or clears, a system event occurs or clears, or a contact input (SOE) closes or opens. Each logic point is transmitted with an individual time tag. Periodic Data Messages are groups of data points, defined by the DCS and transmitted with a group time tag. All of the 5,000 data points in the Mark VI are available for transmission to the DCS at periodic rates down to 1 second. One or multiple data lists can be defined by the DCS using controller names and point names. Common Request Messages are sent from the DCS to the HMI including turbine control commands and alarm queue commands. Turbine control commands include momentary logical commands such as raise/lower, start/stop, and analog setpoint target commands. Alarm queue commands consist of silence (plant alarm horn) and reset commands as well as alarm dump requests which cause the entire alarm queue to be transmitted from the Mark VI to the DCS.

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PROFIBUS Communications
PROFIBUS is an open fieldbus communication standard. PROFIBUS is used in wide variety of industrial applications. It is defined in PROFIBUS Standard EN 50170 and in other ancillary guideline specifications. PROFIBUS devices are distinguished as Masters or slaves. Masters control the bus and initiate data communication. They decide bus access by a token passing protocol. Slaves, not having bus access rights, only respond to messages received from Masters. Slaves are peripherals such as I/O devices, transducers, valves, and such devices. At the physical layer, PROFIBUS supports three transmission mediums: RS-485 for universal applications; IEC 1158-2 for process automation; and optical fibers for special noise immunity and distance requirements. The Mark VI PROFIBUS controller provides opto-isolated RS-485 interfaces routed to 9-pin D-sub connectors. Termination resistors are not included in the interface and must therefore be provided by external connectors. Various bus speeds ranging from 9.6 kbit/s to 12 Mbit/s are supported, although maximum bus lengths decrease as bus speeds increase. To meet an extensive range of industrial requirements, PROFIBUS consists of three variations: PROFIBUS-DP, PROFIBUS-FMS, and PROFIBUS-PA. Optimized for speed and efficiency, PROFIBUS-DP is utilized in approximately 90% of PROFIBUS slave applications. The Mark VI PROFIBUS implementation provides PROFIBUS-DP Master functionality. PROFIBUS-DP Masters are divided into Class 1 and Class 2 types. Class 1 Masters cyclically exchange information with slaves in defined message cycles, and Class 2 Masters provide configuration, monitoring, and maintenance functionality. Mark VI UCVE controller versions are available providing one to three PROFIBUSDP Masters. Each may operate as the single bus Master or may have several Masters on the same bus. Without repeaters, up to 32 stations (Masters and slaves) may be configured per bus segment. With repeaters, up to 126 stations may exist on a bus. Note More information on PROFIBUS can be obtained at www.profibus.com.

PROFIBUS functionality is only available in simplex, non-TMR Mark VIs only.

The Mark VI operates as a PROFIBUS-DP Class 1 Master exchanging information (generally I/O data) with slave devices each frame.

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Features
Table 3-11. PROFIBUS Features PROFIBUS Feature Type of Communication Description PROFIBUS-DP Class 1 Master/slave arrangement with slaves responding to Masters once per frame; a standardized application based on the ISO/OSI model layers 1 and 2 Linear bus, terminated at both ends with stubs possible 9.6 kbit/s, 19.2 kbit/s, 93.75 kbit/s, 187.5 kbit/s, 500 kbit/s, 1.5 Mbit/s, 12 Mbit/s Shielded twisted pair cable Up to 32 stations per line segment; extendable to 126 stations with up to 4 repeaters 9-pin D-sub connector From 13 Masters per UCVE

Network Topology Speed Media Number of Stations Connector Number of Masters

Table 3-12. PROFIBUS Bus Length kb/s 9.6 19.2 93.75 187.5 500 1500 12000 Maximum Bus Length in Meters 1200 1200 1200 1000 400 200 100

Configuration
GSD files define the properties of all PROFIBUS devices. The properties of all PROFIBUS Master and slave devices are defined in electronic device data sheets called GSD files (for example, SOFTB203.GSD). PROFIBUS can be configured with configuration tools such as Softing AGs PROFI-KON-DP. These tools enable the configuration of PROFIBUS networks comprised of devices from different suppliers based on information imported from corresponding GSD files. The third party tool is used rather than the toolbox to identify the devices making up PROFIBUS networks as well as specifying bus parameters and device options (also called parameters). The toolbox downloads the PROFIBUS configurations to Mark VI permanent storage along with the normal application code files. Note Although the Softing AGs PROFI-KON-DP tool is provided as the PROFIBUS configurator, any such tool will suffice as long as the binary configuration file produced is in the Softing format. For additional information on Mark VI PROFIBUS communications, refer to document, GEI-100536, PROFIBUS Communications.

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I/O and Diagnostics


PROFIBUS I/O transfer is done by application blocks. PROFIBUS I/O transfer with slave devices is driven at the Mark VI application level by a set of standard block library blocks. Pairs of blocks read and write analog, Boolean, and byte-oriented data types. The analog blocks read 2, 4, 8 bytes, depending on associated signal data types, and handle the proper byte swapping. The Boolean blocks automatically pack and unpack bit-packed I/O data. The byteoriented blocks access PROFIBUS I/O as single bytes without byte swapping or bit packing. To facilitate reading and writing unsigned short integer-oriented PROFIBUS I/O (needed since unsigned short signals are not available), a pair of analog-to-word/word-to-analog blocks work in tandem with the PROFIBUS analog I/O blocks as needed. Data transfers initiated by multiple blocks operating during a frame are fully coherent since data exchange with slave devices takes place at the end of each frame. PROFIBUS diagnostics can be monitored by the toolbox and the Mark VI application. PROFIBUS defines three types of diagnostic messages generated by slave devices: Station-related diagnostics provide general station status. Module-related diagnostics indicate certain modules having diagnostics pending. Channel-related diagnostics specify fault causes at the channel (point) level.

Presence of any of these diagnostics can be monitored by the toolbox as well as in Mark VI applications by a PROFIBUS diagnostic block included in the standard block library.

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Fiber-Optic Cables
Fiber-optic cable is an effective substitute for copper coaxial cable, especially when longer distances are required, or electrical disturbances are a serious problem. The main advantages of fiber-optic transmission in the power plant environment are: Fiber-optics is a good choice for high bandwidth transmission over longer distances. Fiber-optic segments can be longer than copper because the signal attenuation per foot is less. In high lightning areas, copper cable can pick up currents, which can damage the communications electronics. Since the glass fiber does not conduct electricity, the use of fiber-optic segments avoids pickup and reduces lightning caused outages. Grounding problems are avoided with fiber-optic cable. The ground potential can rise when there is a ground fault on transmission lines, caused by currents coming back to the generator neutral point. Optical cable can be routed through a switchyard or other electrically noisy area and not pick up any interference. This can shorten the required runs and simplify the installation. Fiber-optic cable with proper jacket materials can be run direct buried, in trays, or in conduit. High quality fiber-optic cable is light, tough, and easily pulled. With careful installation, it can last the life of the plant. The total cost of installation and maintenance of a fiber-optic segment may be less than a coax segment. Fiber-optic links require powered hubs with a reliable source of ac power. Power failure to the hub on either end of the fiber-optic segment causes a link failure. Light travels more slowly in a fiber than electricity does in a coax conductor. As a result the effective distance of a fiber-optic segment is 1.25 times the electrical cable distance. The extra equipment required for fiber-optic links, such as fiber hubs and any UPS systems, can contribute to communications downtime. The cost, especially for short runs, may be more for a fiber-optic link. Inexpensive fiber-optic cable can be broken during installation, and is more prone to mechanical and performance degradation over time. The highest quality cable avoids these problems.

Disadvantages of fiber-optics are:

Cable Contruction
Two connectors are required for duplex operation of each fiber-optic link. Each fiber-optic link consists of two fibers, one outgoing and the other incoming, to form a duplex channel. A light emitting diode drives the outgoing fiber and the incoming fiber illuminates a phototransistor, which generates the incoming electrical signal. Multimode fiber, with a graded index of refraction core and outer cladding, is recommended for the fiber-optic links. The fiber is protected with buffering which is the equivalent of insulation on metallic wires. Mechanical stress is bad for fibers so a strong sheath is used, sometimes with pretensioned Kevlar fibers to carry the stress of pulling and vertical runs.

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Connectors for a power plant need to be fastened to a reasonably robust cable with its own buffering. The SC type connector is recommended. This connector is widely used for local area networks, and is readily available.

Cable Ratings
Multimode fibers are rated for use at 850 nanometers and 1300 nanometers wavelength. Cable attenuation is between 3.0 and 3.3 db/km at 850 nm. The core of the fiber is normally 62.5 microns in diameter, with a gradation of index of refraction. The higher index of refraction is at the center, gradually shifting to a medium index at the circumference. The higher index slows the light, therefore a light ray entering the fiber at an angle curves back toward the center, out toward the other side, back toward the center, and so on. This ray travels further but goes faster because it spends most of its time nearer the circumference where the index is less. The index is graded to keep the delays nearly equal, thus preserving the shape of the light pulse as it passes through the fiber. The inner core is protected with a low index of refraction cladding, which for the recommended cable is 125 microns in diameter. 62.5/125 optical cable is the most used type of cable and should be used if possible. Never look directly into a fiber. Although most fiber links use light emitting diodes, which cannot damage the eyes, some longer links use lasers, which can cause permanent damage to the eyes. Some guidelines on cables: Gel filled (or loose tube) cables should not be used because of difficulties making installations, and terminations, and the potential for leakage in vertical runs. Use a high quality break out cable, which makes each fiber a sturdy cable, and helps prevent too sharp bends. Sub-cables are combined with more strength and filler members to build up the cable to resist mechanical stress and the outside environment Two types of cable are recommended, one with armor and one without. Rodent damage is a major cause of fiber-optic cable failure. If this is a problem in the plant, the armored cable should be used. If not, the armor is not recommended because it is heavier, has a larger bend radius, is more expensive, attracts lightning currents, and has lower impact and crush resistance. Optical characteristics of the cable can be measured with an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). Some manufacturers will supply the OTDR printouts as proof of cable quality. A simpler instrument is used by installers to measure attenuation, and they should supply this data to demonstrate the installation has a good power margin. Cables described here have four fibers, enough for two fiber-optic links. This can be used to bring redundant communications to a central control room, or the extra fibers can be retained as spares for future plant enhancements. Cables with two fibers are available for indoor use.

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Fiber-optic Converter
The Mark VI communication system may require an Ethernet Media Converter to convert selected UDH and PDH electrical signals to fiber-optic signals. The typical media converter makes a two-way conversion of one or more Ethernet 10BaseT signals to Ethernet 100BaseFX signals (10 or 100 Mb/s). The media converter mounts adjacent to the Ethernet switch. The fiber-optic cable plugs into two SC ports on the front as shown in Figure 3-14. The diagnostic display consists of four LEDs providing visual status monitoring of the fiber-optic link.

100BaseFX Port
TX RX

10/100BaseTX Port Dimensions:


Pwr

Power: 120 V ac, 60 Hz

Data: 100 Mbps, fiber optic

Fiber

UTP/STP

Width: 3.0 (76 mm) Height: 1.0 (25 mm) Depth: 4.75 (119 mm)

Figure 3-14. Media Converter, Ethernet Electric to Ethernet Fiber-optic

Connectors
The 100BaseFX fiber-optic cables for indoor use in Mark VI have SC type connectors. The connector, shown in Figure 3-15, is a keyed, snap-in connector that automatically aligns the center strand of the fiber with the transmission or reception points of the network device. An integral spring helps to keep the SC connectors from being crushed together, to avoid damaging the fiber. The two plugs can be held together as shown, or they can be separate.
Locating Key Fiber

.
Solid Glass Center Snap-in connnectors
Figure 3-15. SC Connector for Fiber-optic Cables

The process of attaching the fiber-optic connectors involves stripping the buffering from the fiber, inserting the end through the connector, and casting it with an epoxy or other plastic. This requires a special kit designed for that particular connector. After the epoxy has hardened, the end of the fiber is cut off, ground, and polished. The complete process takes an experienced person about five minutes.

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System Considerations
When designing a fiber-optic network, note the following considerations: Redundancy should be considered for continuing central control room (CCR) access to the turbine controls. Redundant HMIs, fiber-optic links, Ethernet switches, and power supplies are recommended. The optical power budget for the link should be considered. The total budget refers to the brightness of the light source divided by the sensitivity of the receiver. These power ratios are measured in dBs to simplify calculations. The difference between the dB power of the source and the dB power of the receiver represents the total power budget. This must be compared to the link losses made up of the connector and cable losses. Installation of the fiber can decrease its performance compared to factory new cable. Installers may not make the connectors as well as experts can, resulting in more loss than planned. The LED light source can get dimmer over time, the connections can get dirty, the cable loss increases with aging, and the receiver can become less sensitive. For all these reasons there must be a margin between the available power budget and the link loss budget, of a minimum of 3 dB. Having a 6 dB margin is more comfortable, helping assure a fiber-optic link that will last the life of the plant.

Installation
Planning is important for a successful installation. This includes the layout for the required level of redundancy, cable routing distances, proper application of the distance rules, and procurement of excellent quality switches, UPS systems, and connectors. Considerations include the following: Install the fiber-optic cable in accordance with all local safety codes. Polyurethane and PVC are two possible options for cable materials that might meet the local safety codes. Select a cable strong enough for indoor and outdoor applications, including direct burial. Adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations on the minimum bend radius and maximum pulling force. Test the installed fiber to measure the losses. A substantial measured power margin is the best proof of a high quality installation. Use trained people for the installation. If necessary hire outside people with fiber-optic LAN installation experience. The fiber-optic switches and converters need reliable power, and should be placed in a location that minimizes the amount of movement they must endure, yet keep them accessible for maintenance.

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Component Sources
The following are typical sources for fiber-optic cable, connectors, converters, and switches. Fiber-Optic Cable: Optical Cable Corporation 5290 Concourse Drive Roanoke, VA 24019 Phone: (540) 265-0690 Siecor Corporation PO Box 489 Hickory, NC 28603-0489 Phone: (800) 743-2673 Fiber-Optic Connectors: 3M - Connectors and Installation kit Thomas & Betts - Connectors and Assembly polishing kit Amphenol Connectors and Terminal kit Ethernet Media Converters and Switches: Cisco Systems West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA www.cisco.com Transition Networks Minneapolis, MN 55344 3COM Corporation 5400 Bayfront Plaza Santa Clara, CA 95052 www.3com.com Lancast 12 Murphy Drive Nashua, NH 03062 www.lancast.com

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Time Synchronization
The time synchronization option synchronizes all turbine controls, generator controls, and operator interfaces (HMIs) on the Unit Data Highway to a Global Time Source (GTS). Typical GTSs are Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receivers such as the StarTime GPS Clock or similar time processing hardware. The preferred time sources are Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or GPS. Sequence of Events data requires accurate time tags for event analysis. A time/frequency processor board, either the BC620AT or BC627AT, is placed in the HMI PC. This board acquires time from the GTS with a high degree of accuracy. When the HMI receives the time signal, it makes the time information available to the turbine and generator controls on the network through Network Time Protocol (NTP). The HMI Server provides time to time slaves either by broadcasting time, or by responding to NTP time queries, or by both methods. Refer to RFC 1305 Network Time Protocol (Version 3) dated March 1992 for details Redundant time synchronization is provided by supplying a time/frequency processor board in another HMI Server as a backup. Normally, the primary HMI Server on the UDH is the time Master for the UDH, and other pcs without the time/frequency board are time slaves. The time slave computes the difference between the returned time and the recorded time of request and adjusts its internal time. Each time slave can be configured to respond to a time Master through unicast mode or broadcast mode. Local time is used for display of real-time data by adding a local time correction to UTC. A nodes internal time clock is normally global rather than local. This is done because global time steadily increases at a constant rate while corrections are allowed to local time. Historical data is stored with global time to minimize discontinuities.

Redundant Time Sources


If either the GTS or time Master becomes inoperative, the backup is to switch the BC620AT or BC627AT to flywheel mode with a drift of 2 ms/hour. In most cases, this allows sufficient time to repair the GTS without severe disruption of the plants system time. If the time Master becomes inoperative, then each of the time slaves picks the backup time Master. This means that all nodes on the UDH lock onto the identical reference for their own time even if the primary and secondary time Masters have different time bases for their reference. If multiple time Masters exist, each time slave selects the current time Master based on whether or not the time Master is tracking the GTS, which time Master has the best quality signal, and which Master is listed first in the configuration file.

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Selection of Time Sources


The BC620AT and BC627AT boards support the use of several different time sources; however, the time synchronization software does not support all sources supported by the BC620AT board. A list of time sources supported by both the BC620AT and the time synchronization software includes: Modulated IRIG-A, IRIG-B, 2137, or NASA-36 timecode signals - Modulation ratio 3:1 to 6:1 - Amplitude 0.5 to 5 volts peak to peak Dc Level Shifted Modulated IRIG-A, IRIG-B, 2137, or NASA-36 timecode signals - TTL/CMOS compatible voltage levels 1PPS (one pulse per second) using the External 1PPS input signal of the BC620AT board - TTL/CMOS compatible voltage levels, positive edge on time Flywheel mode using no signal, using the low drift clock on the BC620AT or BC627AT board - Flywheel mode as the sole time source for the plant

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Chapter 4

Codes and Standards

Introduction
This chapter describes the codes, standards, and environmental guidelines used for the design of all printed circuits, modules, cores, panels, and cabinet line-ups in the Mark VI. Requirements for harsh environments, such as marine applications, are not covered here.
Section Page

Safety Standards .......................................................................................................4-1 Electrical...................................................................................................................4-2 Environmental ..........................................................................................................4-4 Packaging .................................................................................................................4-5 UL Class 1 Division 2 Listed Boards .......................................................................4-6

Safety Standards
UL 508A CAN/CSA 22.2 No. 1010.1-92 ANSI/ISA S82.01 1999 Safety Standard Industrial Control Equipment Industrial Control Equipment Industrial Control Equipment

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Electrical
Printed Circuit Board Assemblies
UL 796 ANSI IPC guidelines ANSI IPC/EIA guidelines Printed Circuit Boards

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)


EN 55081-2 EN 50082-2:1994 EN 55011 IEC 61000-4-2:1995 IEC 61000-4-3:1997 IEC 61000-4-4:1995 IEC 61000-4-5:1995 IEC 61000-4-6:1995 IEC 61000-4-11:1994 ANS/IEEE C37.90.1 General Emission Standard Generic Immunity Industrial Environment Radiated and Conducted Emissions Electrostatic Discharge Susceptibility Radiated RF Immunity Electrical Fast Transient Susceptibility Surge Immunity Conducted RF immunity Voltage variation, dips, and interruptions Surge

Low Voltage Directive


EN 61010-1 IEC 529 Safety of Electrical Equipment, Industrial Machines Intrusion Protection Codes/NEMA 1/IP 20

Supply Voltage
Line Variations
Ac Supplies Operating line variations of 10 % IEEE Std 141-1993 defines the Equipment Terminal Voltage Utilization voltage. The above meets IEC 204-1 1996, and exceeds IEEE Std 141-1993, and ANSI C84.1-1989. Dc Supplies Operating line variations of 30 %, +20 % This meets IEC 204-1 1996.

Voltage Unbalance
Less than 2 % of positive sequence component for negative sequence component Less than 2 % of positive sequence component for zero sequence component This meets IEC 204-1 1996 and IEEE Std 141-1993.

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Harmonic Distortion
Voltage: Less than 10% of total rms voltage between live conductors for 2nd through 5th harmonic Additional 2% of total rms voltage between live conductors for sum of 6th 30th harmonic This meets IEC 204-1 1996. Current: The system specification is not per individual equipment Less than 15% of maximum demand load current for harmonics less than 11 Less than 7% of maximum demand load current for harmonics between 11 and 17 Less than 6% of maximum demand load current for harmonics between 17 and 23 Less than 2.5% of maximum demand load current for harmonics between 23 and 35 The above meets IEEE Std 519-1992.

Frequency Variations
Frequency variation of 5% when operating from ac supplies (20 Hz/sec slew rate) This exceeds IEC 204-1 1996.

Surge
Withstand 2 kV common mode, 1 kV differential mode This meets IEC 61000-4-5 (ENV50142), and ANSI C62.41 (combination wave).

Clearances
NEMA Tables 1-111-1 and 1-111-2 from NEMA ICS1-1993 This meets IEC 61010-1:1993/A2:1995, CSA 22.2 #14, and UL 508C, and exceeds EN50178 (low voltage).

Power Loss
100 % Loss of supply - minimum 10 ms for normal operation of power products 100 % Loss of supply - minimum 500 ms before control products require reset This exceeds IEC 61000-4-11.

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Environmental
Temperature Ranges
Ambient temperature ranges for the Mark VI equipment are as follows: Operating I/O processor and terminal boards 0 to 50 C Operating controller with forced air cooling 0 to 45 C Shipping and storage 40 to 80 C The allowable temperature change without condensation is 15 C per hour.

Humidity
The ambient humidity range is 5% to 95%. This exceeds EN50178, 1994.

Elevation
Equipment elevation is related to the equivalent ambient air pressure. Normal Operation 0 to 3300 feet (101.3 KPa 89.8 KPa) Extended Operation 3300 to 10000 feet (89.8 KPa 69.7 KPa) Shipping 15000 feet maximum (57.2 KPa) Note A guideline for system behavior as a function of altitude is that for altitudes above 3300 feet, the maximum ambient rating of the equipment decreases linearly to a derating of 5 C at 10000 feet. The extended operation and shipping specifications exceed EN50178, 1994.

Contaminants
Gas
The control equipment withstands the following concentrations of corrosive gases at 50% relative humidity and 40 C: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) 30 ppb Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) 10 ppb Nitrous fumes (NOx) 30 ppb 10 ppb Chlorine (Cl2) Hydrogen fluoride (HF) 10 ppb Ammonia (NH3) 500 ppb Ozone (O3) 5 ppb The above meets EN50178:1994 Section A.6.1.4 Table A.2 (m).

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Dust
Particle sizes from 10 100 microns for the following materials: Aluminum oxide Ink Sand/Dirt Cement Lint Steel Mill Oxides Coal/Carbon dust Paper Soot This exceeds IEC 529:1989-11 (IP20).

Vibration
Seismic
Universal Building Code (UBC) - Seismic Code section 2312 Zone 4

Operating/Installed at Site
Vibration of 1.0 G Horizontal, 0.5 G Vertical at 15 to 120 Hz See Seismic UBC for frequencies lower than 15 Hz.

Packaging
The standard Mark VI cabinets meet NEMA 1 requirements (similar to the IP-20 cabinet). Optional cabinets for special applications meet NEMA 12 (IP-54), NEMA 4 (IP-65), and NEMA 4X (IP-68) requirements. Redundant heat exchangers or air conditioners, when required, can be supplied for the above optional cabinets.

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UL Class 1 Division 2 Listed Boards


Certain boards used in the Mark VI are UL listed (E207685) for Class 1 Division 2, Groups A, B, C, and D, Hazardous Locations, Temperature Class T4 using UL-1604. Division 2 is described by NFPA 70 NEC 1999 Article 500 (NFPA - National Fire Protection Assocation, NEC - National Electrical Code). The Mark VI boards/board combinations that are listed may be found under file number E207685 at the UL website and currently include: IS200VCMIH1B, H2B IS200DTCCH1A, IS200VTCCH1C IS200DRTDH1A, IS200VRTDH1C IS200DTAIH1A, IS200VAICH1C IS200DTAOH1A, IS200VAOCH1B IS200DTCIH1A, IS200VCRCH1B IS200DRLYH1B IS200DTURH1A, IS200VTURH1B IS200DTRTH1A IS200DSVOH2B, IS200VSVOH1B IS200DVIBH1B, IS200VVIBH1C IS200DSCBH1A, IS200VSCAH2A IS215UCVEH2A, M01A, M03A, M04A, M05A IS215UCVDH2A IS2020LVPSG1A

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Chapter 5

Installation

Introduction
This chapter defines installation requirements for the Mark VI control system. Specific topics include GE installation support, wiring practices, grounding, equipment weights and dimensions, power dissipation and heat loss, and environmental requirements. The chapter is organized as follows:
Section Page

Installation Support ..................................................................................................5-3 Early Planning ...................................................................................................5-3 GE Installation Documents................................................................................5-3 Technical Advisory Options..............................................................................5-3 Equipment Receiving, Handling, and Storage..........................................................5-5 Receiving and Handling ....................................................................................5-5 Storage...............................................................................................................5-5 Operating Environment .....................................................................................5-6 Weights and Dimensions ..........................................................................................5-8 Cabinets.............................................................................................................5-8 Control Console (Example).............................................................................5-12 Power Requirements...............................................................................................5-13 Installation Support Drawings ................................................................................5-14 Grounding...............................................................................................................5-19 Equipment Grounding .....................................................................................5-19 Building Grounding System ............................................................................5-20 Signal Reference Structure (SRS) ...................................................................5-20 Cable Separation and Routing ................................................................................5-26 Signal/Power Level Definitions ......................................................................5-26 Cableway Spacing Guidelines.........................................................................5-28 Cable Routing Guidelines ...............................................................................5-31 Cable Specifications ...............................................................................................5-32 Wire Sizes .......................................................................................................5-32 Low Voltage Shielded Cable...........................................................................5-33 Connecting the System ...........................................................................................5-36 I/O Wiring .......................................................................................................5-38 Terminal Block Features .................................................................................5-39 Power System..................................................................................................5-39 Installing Ethernet ...........................................................................................5-39

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Startup Checks........................................................................................................5-41 Board Inspections ............................................................................................5-41 Wiring and Circuit Checks ..............................................................................5-44 Startup.....................................................................................................................5-45 Topology and Application Code Download ....................................................5-46 I/O Wiring and Checkout ................................................................................5-46 Maintenance............................................................................................................5-47 Modules and Boards ........................................................................................5-47 Component Replacement........................................................................................5-48 Replacing a Controller.....................................................................................5-48 Replacing a VCMI...........................................................................................5-48 Replacing an I/O Board in an Interface Module..............................................5-49 Replacing a Terminal Board............................................................................5-49 Cable Replacement..........................................................................................5-50 Note Before installation, consult and study all furnished drawings. These should include panel and layout drawings, connection diagrams, and a summary of the equipment.

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Installation Support
GEs system warranty provisions require both quality installation and that a qualified service engineer be present at the initial equipment startup. To assist the customer, GE offers both standard and optional installation support. Standard support consists of documents that define and detail installation requirements. Optional support is typically the advisory services that the customer may purchase.

Early Planning
To help ensure a fast and accurate exchange of data, a planning meeting with the customer is recommended early in the project. This meeting should include the customers project management and construction engineering representatives. It should accomplish the following: Familiarize the customer and construction engineers with the equipment Set up a direct communication path between GE and the party making the customers installation drawings Determine a drawing distribution schedule that meets construction and installation needs Establish working procedures and lines of communication for drawing distribution

GE Installation Documents
Installation documents consist of both general and requisition-specific information. The cycle time and the project size determine the quantity and level of documentation provided to the customer. General information, such as this manual, provides product-specific guidelines for the equipment. They are intended as supplements to the requisition-specific information. Requisition documents, such as outline drawings and elementary diagrams, provide data specific to a custom application. Therefore, they reflect the customers specific installation needs and should be used as the primary data source.

As-Shipped Drawings
These drawings include changes made during manufacturing and test. They are issued when the equipment is ready to ship. As Shipped drawings consist primarily of elementary diagrams revised to incorporate any revisions or changes made during manufacture and test. Revisions made after the equipment ships, but before start of installation, are sent as Field Change, with the changes circled and dated.

Technical Advisory Options


To assist the customer, GE Industrial Systems offers the optional technical advisory services of field engineers for: Review of customers installation plan Installation support

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These services are not normally included as installation support or in basic startup and commissioning services shown in Figure 5-1. GE presents installation support options to the customer during the contract negotiation phase.

Installation Support Startup

Begin Installation

Complete Installation

Commissioning

Begin Formal Testing

Product Support - On going

System Acceptance

Figure 5-1. Startup and Commissioning Services Cycle

Review of Installation Plan


It is recommended that a GE field representative review all installation/construction drawings and the cable and conduit schedule when completed. This optional review service ensures that the drawings meet installation requirements and are complete.

Installation Support
Optional installation support is offered: planning, practices, equipment placement, and onsite interpretation of construction and equipment drawings. Engineering services are also offered to develop transition and implementation plans to install and commission new equipment in both new and existing (revamp) facilities.

Customers Conduit and Cable Schedule


The customers finished conduit and cable schedule should include: Interconnection wire list (optional) Level definitions Shield terminations

Level Definitions
The cable and conduit schedule should define signal levels and classes of wiring (see section, Cable Separation). This information should be listed in a separate column to help prevent installation errors. The cable and conduit schedule should include the signal level definitions in the instructions. This provides all level restriction and practice information needed before installing cables.

Shield Terminations
The conduit and cable schedule should indicate shield terminal practice for each shielded cable (refer to section, Connecting the System).

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Equipment Receiving, Handling, and Storage


This section is a general guide to the receiving, handling, and storage of a Mark VI control system.

Receiving and Handling


GE inspects and packs all equipment before shipping it from the factory. A packing list, itemizing the contents of each package, is attached to the side of each case. Upon receipt, carefully examine the contents of each shipment and check them with the packing list. Immediately report any shortage, damage, or visual indication of rough handling to the carrier. Then notify both the transportation company and GE Industrial Systems. Be sure to include the serial number, part (model) number, GE requisition number, and case number when identifying the missing or damaged part. Immediately upon receiving the system, place it under adequate cover to protect it from adverse conditions. Packing cases are not suitable for outdoor or unprotected storage. Shock caused by rough handling can damage electrical equipment. To prevent such damage when moving the equipment, observe normal precautions along with all handling instructions printed on the case. If assistance is needed contact: GE Industrial Systems Post Sales Service 1501 Roanoke Blvd. Salem, VA 24153-6492 "+" indicates the international access code required when calling from outside of the USA. Phone: +1 888 GE4 SERV (888 434 7378, United States) +1 540 378 3280 (International) Fax: +1 540 387 8606 (All)

Storage
If the system is not installed immediately upon receipt, it must be stored properly to prevent corrosion and deterioration. Since packing cases do not protect the equipment for outdoor storage, the customer must provide a clean, dry place, free of temperature variations, high humidity, and dust. Use the following guidelines when storing the equipment: Place the equipment under adequate cover with the following requirements: - Keep the equipment clean and dry, protected from precipitation and flooding. - Use only breathable (canvas type) covering material do not use plastic. Unpack the equipment as described, and label it.

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Maintain the following environment in the storage enclosure: - Recommended ambient storage temperature limits from 20 C (4 F) to 55 C (131 F). - Surrounding air free of dust and corrosive elements, such as salt spray or chemical and electrically conductive contaminants - Ambient relative humidity from 5 to 95% with provisions to prevent condensation - No rodents - No temperature variations that cause moisture condensation

Moisture on certain internal parts can cause electrical failure.

Condensation occurs with temperature drops of 15 C (27 F) at 50% humidity over a four hour period, and with smaller temperature variations at higher humidity. If the storage room temperature varies in such a way, install a reliable heating system that keeps the equipment temperature slightly above that of the ambient air. This can include space heaters or panel space heaters (when supplied) inside each enclosure. A 100-watt lamp can sometimes serve as a substitute source of heat. To prevent fire hazard, remove all cartons and other such flammable materials packed inside units before energizing any heaters.

Operating Environment
The Mark VI control cabinet is suited to most industrial environments. To ensure proper performance and normal operational life, the environment should be maintained as follows: Ambient temperature (acceptable): Control Module 0 C (32 F) to 45 C (113 F) I/O Module 0 C (32 F) to 50 C (122 F) Ambient temperature (preferred): Relative humidity: 20 C (68 F) to 30 C (87 F) 5 to 95%, non-condensing.

Note Higher ambient temperature decreases the life expectancy of any electronic component. Keeping ambient air in the preferred (cooler) range should extend component life.

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Environments that include excessive amounts of any of the following elements reduce panel performance and life: Dust, dirt, or foreign matter Vibration or shock Moisture or vapors Rapid temperature changes Caustic fumes Power line fluctuations Electromagnetic interference or noise introduced by: - Radio frequency signals, typically from nearby portable transmitters - Stray high voltage or high frequency signals, typically produced by arc welders, unsuppressed relays, contactors, or brake coils operating near control circuits

The preferred location for the Mark VI control system cabinet would be in an environmentally controlled room or in the control room itself. The cabinet should be mounted where the floor surface allows for attachment in one plane (a flat, level, and continuous surface). The customer provides the mounting hardware. Lifting lugs are provided and if used, the lifting cables must not exceed 45 from the vertical plane. Finally, the cabinet is equipped with a door handle, which can be locked for security. Interconnecting cables can be brought into the cabinet from the top or the bottom through removable access plates. Convection cooling of the cabinet requires that conduits be sealed to the access plates. Also, air passing through the conduit must be within the acceptable temperature range as listed previously. This applies to both top and bottom access plates.

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Weights and Dimensions


Cabinets
A single Mark VI cabinet is shown below. This can house three controllers used in a system with all remote I/O. Dimensions, clearance, bolt holes, lifting lugs, and temperature information is included.
Lift Bolts with 38 mm (1.5 in) dia hole, should be left in place after installation for Seismic Zone 4. If removed, fill bolt holes.

Single Control Panel Total Weight Cabinet Depth 400 lbs

610.0 mm (24 in)

Window

Cable Entry Space for wire entry in base of cabinet 1842 mm (72.5) Equipment Access Front and rear access doors, no side access. Front door has clear plastic window. Service Conditions NEMA1 enclosure for standard indoor use.

A A

Air Intake

610 mm (24) Six 16 mm (0.635 inch) dia holes in base for customers mounting studs or bolts. View of base looking down in direction "A" 475 (18.6875)

610 (24.0)

236.5 (9.31) 236.5 (9.31)

Figure 5-2. Controller Cabinet

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The one door cabinet shown in Figure 5-3 is for small gas turbine systems (Simplex only). It contains control, I/O, and power supplies, and weighs 1,367lbs complete.

151.64 (5.97)

609.6 (24.0)

One Panel Lineup (one door)


Notes: 1. All dimensions are in mm and (inches) unless noted. 2. Door swing clearance required at front as shown. Doors open 105 degrees max. and are removable by removing hinge pins. 3. All doors have provisions for pad locking. 4. Suggested mounting is 10 mm (0.375) expansion anchors. Length must allow for 71.1 (2.8) case sill. 5. Cross hatching indicates conduit entry with removable covers. 6. Lift angles should remain in place to meet seismic UBC zone 4 requirements. 7. No mechanical clearance required at back or ends. 8. Service conditions - indoor use at -5 C minimum to =40 C maximum ambient temperature. 9. Approx. weight is 1367 lbs.
925.58 (36.44)

254.0 (10.0) 317.25 (12.49)

View of top looking down in direction of arrow "A"

114.3 (4.5)

38.1 (1.5) 2400.3 (94.5) 57.9 (2.28)

906.53 (35.69) 348.49 (13.72)

865.63 (34.08)

Approx. Door Swing (See Note 2)

184.15 (7.25)

387.6 (15.26) 387.6 (15.26)

62.74 (2.47)

6 holes, 16 mm (0.635 inch) dia, in base for customers mounting studs or bolts.
69.09 (2.72) 775.97 (30.55) 61.47 (2.42)

View of base looking down in direction of arrow "A"

Figure 5-3. Controller Cabinet

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The two-door cabinet shown in Figure 5-4 is for small gas turbine systems. It contains control, I/O, and power supplies, and weighs 1,590 lbs complete. A 1600 mm wide version of this cabinet is available, and weighs 2,010 lbs complete.
Lift Angles with two 30.2 (1.18) holes, should be left in place for Seismic Zone 4, if removed, fill bolt holes.

Two Panel Lineup (two doors) Total Weight Cabinet Depth 1,590 lbs 903.9 mm (35.59 in)

Cable Entry Removable covers top and bottom.


2324.3 mm (91.5)

Front Equipment Access doors only, no rear or side access. Door swing clearance 977.9 mm (38.5). Mounting Holes in Base Six 16 mm (0.635 in) dia holes in base of the cabinet for customers mounting studs or bolts, for details see GE dwgs. Service Conditions Standard NEMA1 enclosure for indoor use.

1350 mm (53.15)

387.5 (15.26) 387.5 15.26)

6 holes, 16 mm (0.635 inch) dia, in base for customers mounting studs or bolts.
1225.0 (48.23)

62.5 (2.46)

62.5 (2.46) View of base looking down in direction of arrow "A"


Figure 5-4. Controller Cabinet

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A typical lineup for a complete Mark VI system is shown in Figure 5-5. These cabinets contain controllers, I/O, and terminal boards, or they can contain just the remote I/O and terminal boards.
Lift Angles front and back, should be left in place for Seismic Zone 4, if removed, fill bolt holes.

Three Cabinet Lineup Li doors) (five Total Weight Cabinet Depth 3,900 lbs 602 mm (23.7 in)

I/O

I/O

Control

I/O

Power
2324.3 mm (91.5)

Cable Entry Removable covers top and bottom. Equipment Access Front doors only, no rear or side access. Door swing clearance 977.9 mm (38.5). Mounting Holes in Base Six 16 mm (0.635 in) dia holes in base of each of the three cabinets for customers mounting studs or bolts, for details see GE dwgs. Service Conditions Standard NEMA1 enclosure for indoor use.

1600 mm (62.99)

1000mm (39.37) 4200 mm (165.35)

1600 mm (62.99)

237.5 (9.35) 237.5 (9.35)

62.5 (2.46)

1475.0 (58.07) 62.5 (2.46)

875.0 (34.45)

1475.0 (58.07)

18 holes, 16 mm (0.635 inch) dia, in base for customers mounting studs or bolts. 62.5 (2.46)

125.0 (4.92)

125.0 (4.92)

View of base looking down in direction of arrow "A"

Figure 5-5. Typical Mark VI Cabinet Lineup

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Control Console (Example)


The turbine control HMI pcs can be tabletop mounted, or installed in the optional control console shown in Figure 5-6. The console is modular and expandable from an 1828.8 mm version with two pcs. A 5507 mm version with four pcs is shown. The console rests on feet and is not usually bolted to the floor.
Full Console 5507 mm (18 '- 0 13/16 ") Short Console 1828.8 mm (72 ")

or Monit e od ul M

Main Module
M M onit od or ule

Modular Desktop

2233.61 mm (7 '- 3 15/16")

Printer

Phone

Phone

Monitor

Monitor

Monitor

Monitor
1181.1mm (46.5 ")

Printer Pedestal

Undercounter Keyboards

Figure 5-6. Turbine Control Console with Dimensions

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Power Requirements
The Mark VI control panel can accept power from multiple power sources. Each power input source (such as the dc and two ac sources) should feed through its own external 30 A two-pole thermal magnetic circuit breaker before entering the Mark VI enclosure. The breaker ratings are 250 V and 30 A with a minimum withstand of 10,000 A. The breaker should be supplied in accordance with required site codes. Power sources can be any combination of a 125 V dc source and/or up to two 120/240 V ac sources. Each module within the panel has its own power supply board, each of which operates from a common 125 V dc panel distribution bus. Power requirements for a typical three-bay (five-door) 4200 mm panel containing controllers, I/O, and terminal boards are shown in the table below. The power shown is the heat generated in the cabinet, which must be dissipated. For the total current draw, add the current supplied to external solenoids as shown in the notes below the table. These external solenoids do not generate heat inside the cabinet. Heat Loss in a typical 4200 mm TMR panel is 1500 W fully loaded. For a single control cabinet containing three controllers and VCMIs only (no I/O), Table 5-1 shows the nominal power requirements. This power generates heat inside the control cabinet. Heat Loss in a typical TMR controller cabinet is 300 W. The current draw number in Table 5-1 is assuming a single voltage source; if two or three sources are used, they share the load. The actual current draw from each source cannot be predicted because of differences in the ac/dc converters. For further details on the panel power distribution system, refer to Chapter 9, I/O Descriptions (GEH6421D, Vol. II Mark VI System Guide).
Table 5-1. Power Requirements for Panels Panel Nominal 4200 mm Panel 125 V dc 120 V ac 240 V ac Controller Cabinet 125 V dc 120 V ac 240 V ac Voltage Tolerance 100 to 144 V dc (see Note 5) 108 to 132 V ac (see Note 6) 200 to 264 V ac 100 to 144 V dc (see Note 5) 108 to 132 V ac (see Note 6) 200 to 264 V ac Frequency Nominal Tolerance N/A 50/60 Hz 50/60 Hz N/A 50/60 Hz 50/60 Hz N/A 3 Hz 3 Hz N/A 3 Hz 3 Hz Current Draw (from one source at nom. voltage) 10.0 Amps dc 17.3 Amps rms 8.8 Amps rms 1.7 Amps dc 3.8 Amps rms 1.9 Amps rms (see Note 1) (see Notes 2 and 4) (see Notes 3 and 4) (see Note 1) (see Notes 2 and 4) (see Notes 3 and 4)

Notes on Table 5-1 (these are external and do not create cabinet heat load). 1. Add 0.5 A dc continuous for each 125 V dc external solenoid powered. 2. Add 6.0 A rms for a continuously powered ignition transformer (2 maximum). 3. Add 3.5 A rms for a continuously powered ignition transformer (2 maximum). 4. Add 2.0 A rms continuous for each 120 V ac external solenoid powered (inrush 10 A). 5. Supply voltage ripple is not to exceed 10 V peak-to-peak. 6. Supply voltage Total Harmonic Distortion is not to exceed 5.0%.

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Installation Support Drawings


This section describes GE installation support drawings. These drawings are usually B-size AutoCAD drawings covering all hardware aspects of the system. A few sample drawings include: System Topology I/O Cabinets Panel Layout Diagram I/O Panel Layout Diagram Circuit Diagram Control Sequence Program with cross references (CSP with XREF) Alarm Database (Alarm.dat) I/O Assignments (IO Report)

In addition to the installation drawings, site personnel will need the following:

Figure 5-7. Typical System Topology showing Interfaces to Heat Recovery Steam Generator and B.O.P.

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Figure 5-8. Typical I/O Cabinet Drawing showing Dimensions, Cable Access, Lifting Angles, and Mounting

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Figure 5-9. Panel Layout with Protection Module

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Figure 5-10. I/O Panel with Terminal Boards and Power Supplies

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Figure 5-11. Typical Circuit Diagram showing TRPG Terminal Board

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Grounding
This section defines grounding and signal-referencing practices for the Mark VI system. This can be used to check for proper grounding and Signal Reference Structure (SRS) after the equipment is installed. If checking the equipment after the power cable has been connected or after power has been applied to the cabling, be sure to follow all safety precautions for working around high voltages. To prevent electric shock, make sure that all power supplies to the equipment are turned off. Then discharge and ground the equipment before performing any act requiring physical contact with the electrical components or wiring. If test equipment cannot be grounded to the equipment under test, the test equipment's case must be shielded to prevent contact by personnel.

Equipment Grounding
Equipment grounding and signal referencing have two distinct purposes: Equipment grounding protects personnel and equipment from risk of electrical shock or burn, fire, or other damage caused by ground faults or lightning. Signal referencing helps protect equipment from the effects of internal and external electrical noise such as from lightning or switching surges.

Installation practices must simultaneously comply with all codes in effect at the time and place of installation, and practices, which improve the immunity of the installation. In addition to codes, IEEE Std 142-1991 IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems and IEEE Std 11001992 IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment provide guidance in the design and implementation of the system. Chapter 9 I/O Descriptions (GEH-6421D, Vol. II, Mark VI System Guide), and in particular 9.10, of Std 1100-1992 is very relevant and informative. Code requirements for safety of personnel and equipment must take precedence in the case of any conflict with noise control practices. The Mark VI system has no special or nonstandard installation requirements, if installed in compliance with all of the following: The NEC or local codes With a signal reference structure (SRS) designed to meet IEEE Std 1100 Interconnected with signal/power-level separation as defined later

This section provides equipment grounding and bonding guidelines for control and I/O cabinets. These guidelines also apply to motors, transformers, brakes, and reactors. Each of these devices should have its own grounding conductor going directly to the building ground grid. Ground each cabinet or cabinet lineup to the equipment ground at the source of power feeding it. See NEC Article 250 for sizing and other requirements for the equipment grounding conductor. For dc circuits only, the NEC allows the equipment grounding conductor to be run separate from the circuit conductors.

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With certain restrictions, the NEC allows the metallic raceways or cable trays containing the circuit conductors to serve as the equipment grounding conductor: This use requires that they form a continuous, low-impedance path capable of conducting anticipated fault current. This use requires bonding across loose-fitting joints and discontinuities. See NEC Article 250 for specific bonding requirements. This chapter includes recommendations for high frequency bonding methods. If metallic raceways or cable trays are not used as the primary equipment grounding conductor, they should be used as a supplementary equipment grounding conductor. This enhances the safety of the installation and improves the performance of the Signal Reference Structure (see later).

The equipment grounding connection for the Mark VI cabinets is copper bus or stub bus. This connection is bonded to the cabinet enclosure using bolting that keeps the conducting paths resistance at 1 ohm or less. There should be a bonding jumper across the ground bus or floor sill between all shipping splits. The jumper may be a plated metal plate. The non-current carrying metal parts of the equipment covered by this section should be bonded to the metallic support structure or building structure supporting this equipment. The equipment mounting method may satisfy this requirement. If supplementary bonding conductors are required, size them the same as equipment grounding conductors.

Building Grounding System


This section provides guidelines for the building grounding system requirements. For specific requirements, refer to NEC article 250 under the heading Grounding Electrode System. The guidelines below are for metal framed buildings. For non-metal framed buildings, consult the GE factory. The ground electrode system should be composed of steel reinforcing bars in building column piers bonded to the major building columns. A buried ground ring should encircle the building. This ring should be interconnected with the bonding conductor running between the steel reinforcing bars and the building columns. All underground, metal water piping should be bonded to the building system at the point where the piping crosses the ground ring. NEC Article 250 requires that separately derived systems (transformers) be grounded to the nearest effectively grounded metal building structural member. Braze or exothermically weld all electrical joints and connections to the building structure, where practical. This type of connection keeps the required good electrical and mechanical properties from deteriorating over time.

Signal Reference Structure (SRS)


On modern equipment communicating at high bandwidths, signals are typically differential and/or isolated electrically or optically. The modern SRS system replaces the older single-point grounding system with a much more robust system. The SRS system is also easier to install and maintain.

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The goal of the SRS is to hold the electronics at or near case potential to prevent unwanted signals from disturbing operation. The following conditions must all be met by an SRS: Bonding connections to the SRS must be less than 1/20 wavelength of the highest frequency to which the equipment is susceptible. This prevents standing waves. SRS must be a good high frequency conductor. (Impedance at high frequencies consists primarily of distributed inductance and capacitance.) Surface area is more important than cross-sectional area because of skin effect. Conductivity is less important (steel with large surface area is better than copper with less surface area). SRS must consist of multiple paths. This lowers the impedance and the probability of wave reflections and resonance. In general, a good signal referencing system can be obtained with readily available components in an industrial site. All of the items listed below can be included in an SRS: Metal building structural members Galvanized steel floor decking under concrete floors Woven wire steel reinforcing mesh in concrete floors Steel floors in pulpits and power control rooms Bolted grid stringers for cellular raised floors Steel floor decking or grating on line-mounted equipment Galvanized steel culvert stock Metallic cable tray systems Raceway (cableway) and raceway support systems Embedded steel floor channels Note All provisions may not apply to an installation.

Connection of the protective earth terminal to the installation ground system must first comply with code requirements and second provide a low-impedance path for high-frequency currents, including lightning surge currents. This grounding conductor must not provide, either intentionally or inadvertently, a path for load current. The system should be designed such that in so far as is possible the control system is NOT an attractive path for induced currents from any source. This is best accomplished by providing a ground plane that is large and low impedance, so that the entire system remains at the same potential. A metallic system (grid) will accomplish this much better than a system that relies upon earth for connection. At the same time all metallic structures in the system should be effectively bonded both to the grid and to each other, so that bonding conductors rather than control equipment become the path of choice for noise currents of all types. In the Mark VI cabinet, the electronics panel is insulated from the chassis and bonded at one point. The grounding recommendations illustrated in Figure 5-12 call for the equipment grounding conductor to be 120 mm2 (AWG 4/0) gauge wire, connected to the building ground system. The Control Common (CCOM) is bonded at one point to the chassis safety ground using two 25 mm2 (4 AWG) green/yellow bonding jumpers.

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Control & I/O Electronics Panel Mark VI Cabinet

Control Common (CCOM) Equipment grounding conductor, Identified 120 mm sq. (4/0 AWG), Insulated Wire, short a distance as possible

Two 25 mm sq. (4 AWG) Green/Yellow insulated bonding jumpers

Protective Conductor Terminal (Chassis Safety Ground Plate) PE

Building Ground System

Figure 5-12. Grounding Recommendations for Single Mark VI Cabinet

If acceptable by local codes, the bonding jumpers may be removed and a 4/0 AWG identified insulated wire run from CCOM to the nearest accessible point on the building ground system, or to another ground point as required by the local code. The distance between the two connections to building ground should be approximately 15 feet, but not less than 10 feet. Grounding for a larger system is shown in Figure 5-13. Here the control common is still connected to the control electronics section, but the equipment grounding conductor is connected to the center cabinet chassis. Individual control and I/O panels are connected with bolted plates. On a cable carrying conductors and/or shielded conductors, the armor is an additional current carrying braid that surrounds the internal conductors. This type cable can be used to carry control signals between buildings. The armor carries secondary lightning induced earth currents, bypassing the control wiring, thus avoiding damage or disturbance to the control system. At the cable ends and at any strategic places between, the armor is grounded to the building ground through the structure of the building with a 360-degree mechanical and electrical fitting. The armor is normally terminated at the entry point to a metal building or machine. Attention to detail in installing armored cables can significantly reduce induced lightning surges in control wiring.

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I/O Panel Panel Grounding Connection Plates

Control Electronics Panel

I/O Panel

Control Common (CCOM)

Two 25 mm sq. 4AWG Green/Yellow Bonding Jumper wires

Equipment grounding conductor, Identified 120 mm sq. (4/0 AWG), insulated wire, short a distance as possible

Protective Conductor Terminal (Chassis Safety Ground plate)

PE

Building Ground System


Figure 5-13. Grounding Recommendations for Mark VI Cabinet Lineup

Notes on Grounding
Bonding to building structure - The cable tray support system typically provides many bonding connections to building structural steel. If this is not the case, supplemental bonding connections must be made at frequent intervals from the cable tray system to building steel. Bottom connected equipment - Cable tray installations for bottom connected equipment should follow the same basic principles as those illustrated for top connected equipment, paying special attention to good high frequency bonding between the cable tray and the equipment. Cable spacing - Maintain cable spacing between signal levels in cable drops, as recommended here. Conduit sleeves - Where conduit sleeves are used for bottom-entry cables, the sleeves should be bonded to the floor decking and equipment enclosure with short bonding jumpers. Embedded conduits - Bond all embedded conduits to the enclosure with multiple bonding jumper connections following the shortest possible path. Galvanized steel sheet floor decking - Floor decking can serve as a high frequency signal reference plane for equipment located on upper floors. With typical building construction, there will be a large number of structural connections between the floor decking and building steel. If this is not the case, then an electrical bonding connection must be added between the floor decking and building steel. These added connections need to be as short as possible and of sufficient surface area to be low impedance at high frequencies.

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High frequency bonding jumpers - Jumpers must be short, less than 500 mm (20 in) and good high frequency conductors. Thin, wide metal strips are best. Jumpers can be copper, aluminum, or steel. Steel has the advantage of not creating galvanic half-cells when bonded to other steel parts. Jumpers must make good electrical contact with both the enclosure and the signal reference structure. Welding is best. If a mechanical connection is used, each end should be fastened with two bolts or screws with star washers backed up by large diameter flat washers. Each enclosure must have two bonding jumpers of short, random lengths. Random lengths are used so that parallel bonding paths are of different quarter wavelength multiples. Do not fold bonding jumpers or make sharp bends. Metallic cable tray - System must be installed per NEC Article 318 with signal level spacing per the next section. This serves as a signal reference structure between remotely connected pieces of equipment. The large surface area of cable trays provides a low impedance path at high frequencies. Metal framing channel - Metal framing channel cable support systems also serves as part of the signal reference structure. Make certain that channels are well bonded to the equipment enclosure, cable tray, and each other, with large surface area connections to provide low impedance at high frequencies. Noise-sensitive cables - Try to run noise-sensitive cables tight against a vertical support to allow this support to serve as a reference plane. Cables that are extremely susceptible to noise should be run in a metallic conduit. Keep these cables tight against the inside walls of the metallic enclosure, and well away from higher-level cables. Power cables - Keep single-conductor power cables from the same circuit tightly bundled together to minimize interference with nearby signal cables. Keep 3-phase ac cables in a tight triangular configuration. Woven wire mesh - Woven wire mesh can serve as a high frequency signal reference grid for enclosures located on floors not accessible from below. Each adjoining section of mesh must be welded together at intervals not exceeding 500 mm (20 in) to create a continuous reference grid. The woven wire mesh must be bonded at frequent intervals to building structural members along the floor perimeter. Conduit terminal at cable trays - To provide the best shielding, conduits containing level L cables (see Leveling channels) should be terminated to the tray's side rails (steel solid bottom) with two locknuts and a bushing. Conduit should be terminated to ladder tray side rails with approved clamps. Where it is not possible to connect conduit directly to tray (such as with large conduit banks), conduit must be terminated with bonding bushings and bonded to tray with short bonding jumpers. Leveling channels - If the enclosure is mounted on leveling channels, bond the channels to the woven wire mesh with solid-steel wire jumpers of approximately the same gauge as the woven wire mesh. Bolt the enclosure to leveling steel, front and rear. Signal and power levels - See section, Cable Separation and Routing for guidelines. Solid-bottom tray - Use steel solid bottom cable trays with steel covers for lowlevel signals most susceptible to noise.

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Level P

Level L Solid Bottom Tray Bond leveling channels to the woven wire mesh with solid steel wire jumpers of approximately the same gage as the wire mesh. Jumpers must be short, less than 200 mm (8 in). Weld to mesh and leveling steel at random intervals of 300 - 500 mm (12-20 in). Bolt Leveling Channels Wire Mesh Bolt the enclosure to the leveling steel, front and rear. See site specific GE Equipment Outline dwgs. Refer to Section 6 for examples.

Enclosure

Figure 5-14. Enclosure and Cable Tray Installation Guidelines

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Cable Separation and Routing


This section provides recommended cabling practices to reduce electrical noise. These include signal/power level separation and cable routing guidelines. Note Electrical noise from cabling of various voltage levels can interfere with microprocessor-based control systems, causing a malfunction. If a situation at the installation site is not covered in this manual, or if these guidelines cannot be met, please contact GE before installing the cable. The customer and customers representative are responsible for the mechanical and environmental locations of cables, conduit, and trays. They are also responsible for applying the level rules and cabling practices defined here. To help ensure a lower cost, noise-free installation, GE recommends early planning of cable routing that complies with these level-separation rules. The customers representative should distribute these level rules to all electrical and mechanical contractors, as well as construction personnel. Early planning also enables the customers representatives to design adequate separation of embedded conduit. On new installations, sufficient space should be allowed to efficiently arrange mechanical and electrical equipment. On revamps, level rules should be considered during the planning stages to help ensure correct application and a more trouble-free installation.

Signal/Power Level Definitions


Signal/power carrying cables are categorized into four defining levels: low, medium, high, and power. Each level can include classes.

Low-Level Signals (Level L)


Low-level signals are designated as level L. In general these consist of: Analog signals 0 through 50 V dc, <60 mA Digital (logic-level) signals less than 28 V dc 4 20 ma current loops Ac signals less than 24 V ac The following are specific examples of level L signals used in the Mark VI cabling: All analog and digital signals including LVDTs, Servos, RTDs, Analog Inputs and Outputs, and Pyrometer signals Thermocouples are in a special category (Level LS) because they generate millivolt signals with very low current. Network communication bus signals: Ethernet, IONet, UDH, PDH, RS-232C, and RS-422 Phone circuits Note Signal input to analog and digital blocks or to programmable logic control (PLC)-related devices should be run as shielded twisted-pair (for example, input from RTDs).

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Medium-Level Signals (Level M)


Medium-level signals are designated as level M. These signals consist of: Analog signals less than 50 V dc with less than 28 V ac ripple and less than 0.6 A current 28 V dc light and switching circuits 24 V dc switching circuits Analog pulse rate circuits Note Level M and level L signals may be run together only inside the control panel. Magnetic pickup signals are examples of level M signals used in the Mark VI.

High-Level Signals (Level H)


High-level signals are designated as level H. These signals consist of: Dc switching signals greater than 28 V dc Analog signals greater than 50 V dc with greater than 28 V ac ripple Ac feeders less than 20 A The following are specific examples of level H signals used in Mark VI cabling: Contact inputs Relay outputs Solenoid outputs PT and CT circuits Note Flame detector (GM) type signals, 335 V dc, and Ultraviolet detectors are a special category (Level HS). Special low capacitance twisted shielded pair wiring is required.

Power (Level P)
Power wiring is designated as level P. This consists of ac and dc buses 0 600 V with currents 20 A 800 A. The following are specific examples of level P signals used in plant cabling: Motor armature loops 20 A and above Generator armature loops 20 A and above Ac power input and dc outputs 20 A and above Primaries and secondaries of transformers above 5 kVA SCR field exciter ac power input and dc output greater than 20 A Static exciters (regulated and unregulated) ac power and dc output 250 V shop bus Machine fields over 20 A

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Class Codes
Certain conditions can require that specific wires within a level be grouped in the same cable. This is indicated by class codes, defined as follows: S Special handling of specified levels can require special spacing of conduit and trays. Check dimension chart for levels. These wires include: Signals from COMM field and line resistors Signals from line shunts to regulators U High voltage potential unfused wires over 600 V dc PS Power greater than 600 V dc and/or greater than 800 A If there is no code, there are no grouping restrictions

Marking Cables to Identify Levels


It is good practice to mark the cableway cables, conduit, and trays in a way that clearly identifies their signal/power levels. This helps ensure correct level separation for proper installation. It can also be useful during equipment maintenance. Cables can be marked by any means that makes the level easy to recognize (for example, coding or numbering). Conduit and trays should be marked at junction points or at periodic intervals.

Cableway Spacing Guidelines


Spacing (or clearance) between cableways (trays and conduit) depends on the level of the wiring inside them. For correct level separation when installing cable, the customer should apply the general practices along with the specific spacing values for tray/tray, conduit/tray, conduit/conduit, cable/conduit, and cable/cable distances as discussed below.

General Practices
The following general practices should be used for all levels of cabling: All cables of like signal levels and power levels must be grouped together in like cableways. In general, different levels must run in separate cableways, as defined in the different classes. Intermixing cannot be allowed, except as noted by exception. Interconnecting wire runs should carry a level designation. If wires are the same level and same type signal, group those wires from one panel to any one specific location together in multiconductor cables. When unlike signals must cross in trays or conduit, cross them in 90 angles at maximum spacing. Where it is not possible to maintain spacing, place a grounded steel barrier between unlike levels at the crossover point. When entering terminal equipment where it is difficult to maintain the specific spacing guidelines shown in the following tables, keep parallel runs to a minimum, not to exceed 1.5 m (5 ft) in the overall run. Where the tables show tray or conduit spacing as 0, the levels can be run together. Spacing for other levels must be based on the worst condition. Trays for all levels should be galvanized steel and solidly grounded with good ground continuity. Conduit should be metal to provide shielding.

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The following general practices should be used for specific levels of cabling: When separate trays are impractical, levels L and M can combined in a common tray if a grounded steel barrier separates levels. This practice is not as effective as tray separation, and may require some rerouting at system startup. If levels L and M are run side-by-side, a 50 mm (2-inch) minimum spacing is recommended. Locate levels L and M trays and conduit closest to the control panels. Trays containing level L and level M wiring should have solid galvanized steel bottoms and sides and be covered to provide complete shielding. There must be positive and continuous cover contact to side rails to avoid high-reluctance air gaps, which impair shielding. Trays containing levels other than L and M wiring can have ventilation slots or louvers. Trays and conduit containing levels L, M, and H(S) should not be routed parallel to high power equipment enclosures of 100 kVA and larger at a spacing of less than 1.5 m (5 ft) for trays, and 750 mm (2-1/2 ft) for conduit. Level H and H(S) can be combined in the same tray or conduit but cannot be combined in the same cable. Level H(S) is listed only for information since many customers want to isolate unfused high voltage potential wires. Do not run levels H and H(S) in the same conduit as level P. Where practical for level P and/or P(S) wiring, route the complete power circuit between equipment in the same tray or conduit. This minimizes the possibility of power and control circuits encircling each other.

Tray and Conduit Spacing


The tables in Figure 5-15 show the recommended distances between metal trays and metal conduit carrying cables with various signal levels. For non-metal conduit and trays, the cable-to-cable distances in Table 5 of Figure 5-15 apply.

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Table 1. Spacing Between Metal Cable Trays, inches(mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 1(25) 0 H 6(150) 6(150) 0 H(S) 6(150) 6(150) 0 0 P 26(660) 18(457) 8(302) 8(302) 0 P(S) 26(660) 26(660) 12(305) 12(305) 0 0 Recommended minimum distances between trays from the top of one tray to the bottom of the tray above, or between the sides of adjacent trays. Table 1 also applies if the distance between trays and power equipment up to 100 kVA is less than 1.5 m (5 ft).

Table 2. Spacing Between Metal Trays and Conduit, inches(mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 1(25) 0 H 4(102) 4(102) 0 H(S) 4(102) 4(102) 0 0 P 18(457) 12(305) 4(102) 4(102) 0 P(S) 18(457) 18(457) 8(203) 8(203) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of metal trays and conduit. Use Table 1 if the distance between trays or conduit and power equipment up to 100 kVA is less than 1.5 m (5 ft).

Table 3. Spacing Between Metal Conduit Runs, inches(mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 1(25) 0 H 3(76) 3(76) 0 H(S) 3(76) 3(76) 0 0 P 12(305) 9(229) 3(76) 3(76) 0 P(S) 12(305) 12(305) 6(150) 6(150) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of metal conduit run in banks.

Table 4. Spacing Between Cable and Steel Conduit, inches(mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 2(51) 0 H 4(102) 4(102) 0 H(S) 4(102) 4(102) 0 0 P 20(508) 20(508) 12(305) 12(305) 0 P(S) 48(1219) 48(1219) 18(457) 18(457) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of cables and metal conduit.

Table 5. Spacing Between Cable and Ca ble, inches(mm) Level L M H H(S) P P(S) L 0 M 2(51) 0 H 6(150) 6(150) 0 H(S) 6(150) 6(150) 0 0 P 28(711) 28(711) 20(508) 20(508) 0 P(S) 84(2134) 84(2134) 29(737) 29(737) 0 0 Recommended minimum distance between the outside surfaces of cables.

Figure 5-15. Cable, Tray, and Conduit Spacing

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Cable Routing Guidelines


Pullboxes and Junction Boxes
Keep signal/power levels separate inside pullboxes and junction boxes. Use grounded steel barriers to maintain level spacing. Tray-to-conduit transition spacing and separation are a potential source of noise. Be sure to cross unlike levels at right angles and maintain required separation. Protect transition areas per the level spacing recommendations.

Transitional Areas
When entering or leaving conduit or trays, make sure that cables of unlike levels do not intermix. If the installation needs parallel runs over 1.5 m (5 ft), grounded steel barriers may be needed for proper level separation.

Cabling for Retrofits


Reducing electrical noise on retrofits requires careful planning. Lower and higher levels should never encircle each other or run parallel for long distances. It is practical to use existing conduit or trays as long as the level spacing can be maintained for the full length of the run. Existing cables are generally of high voltage potential and noise producing. Therefore, route levels L and M in a path apart from existing cables when possible. Use barriers in existing pullboxes and junction boxes for level L wiring to minimize noise potential. Do not loop level L signals around high control or level P conduit or trays.

Conduit Around and Through Machinery Housings


Care should be taken to plan level spacing on both embedded and exposed conduit in and around machinery. Runs containing mixed levels should be minimized to 1.5 m (5 ft) or less in the overall run. Conduit running through and attached to machinery housings should follow level spacing recommendations. This should be discussed with the contractor early in the project. Trunnions entering floor mounted operator station cabinets should be kept as short as possible when used as cableways. This helps minimize parallel runs of unlike levels to a maximum of 1.5 m (5 ft) before entering the equipment. Where different signal/power levels are running together for short distances, each level should be connected by cord ties, barriers, or some logical method. This prevents intermixing.

RF Interference
To prevent radio frequency (RF) interference, take care when routing power cables in the vicinity of radio-controlled devices (for example, cranes) and audio/visual systems (public address and closed-circuit television).

Suppression
Unless specifically noted otherwise, suppression (for example, a snubber) is required on all inductive devices controlled by an output. This suppression minimizes noise and prevents damage caused by electrical surges. Standard Mark VI relay and solenoid output boards have suppression.

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Cable Specifications
Wire Sizes
The recommended current carrying capacity for flexible wires up to 1,000 V, PVC insulated, based on DIN VDE 0298 Part 4, is shown in Table 5-3. Cross section references of square mm versus AWG are based on EN 60204 Part 1, VDE 0113 Part 1. NFPA 70 (NEC) may require larger wire sizes based on the type of wire used.
Surface

d d

Ambient temperature .......................30 oC (86 oF) Maximum temperature .................. 70 oC (158 oF) Temperature rise ............................ 40 oC (72 oF) Installation ........................Free in air, see sketch

Wire Insulator
Figure 5-16. Wire Separation

General Specifications
Individual minimum stated wire size is for electrical needs. Clamp-type terminals accept two 14 AWG wires or one 12 AWG wire. Mark VI terminal blocks accept two 12 AWG wires. PTs and CTs use 10 AWG wire.

Recommended wire separation is shown in Figure 5-16. It is standard practice to use shielded cable with control equipment. Shielding provides the following benefits: Generally, shielding protects a wire or grouping of wires from its environment. Because of the capacitive coupling effect between two sources of potential energy, low-level signals may require shielding to prevent signal interference.

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Table 5-2. American Wire Gage (AWG) Wire Sizes

Current Amp 15 19 24 32 42 54 73 98 129 158 198

Cross Section 2 Area (mm ) 0.75 0.82 1 1.31 1.5 2.08 2.5 3.31 4 5.26 6 8.36 10 13.3 16 21.15 25 33.6 35 42.4 50 53.5 67.4

Wire Size AWG No. 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2

Circular mils

69,073 1 92,756 1/0 2/0 138,146 3/00 187,484 4/00 236,823 296,000 365,102 473,646 592,057 789,410

245 292 344 391 448 528 608 726

70 85 95 107 120 150 185 240 300 400

Low Voltage Shielded Cable


This section defines minimum requirements for low voltage shielded cable. These guidelines should be used along with the level practices and routing guidelines provided previously. Note The specifications listed are for sensitive computer-based controls. Cabling for less sensitive controls should be considered on an individual basis.

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Single-Conductor Shielded Cable, Rated 300 V


18 AWG minimum, stranded single-conductor insulated with minimum 85% to 100% coverage shield Protective insulating cover for shield Wire rating: 300 V minimum Maximum capacitance between conductor and shield: 492 pF/m (150 pF/ft)

Multiconductor Shielded Cable, Rated 300 V


18 AWG minimum, stranded conductors individually insulated per cable with minimum 85% to 100% coverage shield Protective insulating cover for shield Wire rating: 300 V minimum Mutual capacitance between conductors with shield grounded: 394 pF/m (120 pF/ft) maximum Capacitance between one conductor and all other conductors and grounded shield: 213 pF/m (65 pF/ft)

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable, Rated 300 V


Two 18 AWG minimum, stranded conductors individually insulated with minimum 85% to 100% coverage shield Protective insulating cover for shield Wire rating: 300 V minimum Mutual capacitance between conductors with shield grounded: 394 pF/m (120 pF/ft) maximum Capacitance between one conductor and the other conductor and grounded shield: 213 pF/m (65 pF/ft) maximum

Coaxial Cable RG-58/U (for IONet and UDH)


20 AWG stranded tinned copper conductor with FEP insulation with a 95% coverage braid shield Protective Flamarrest insulating jacket for shield Normal attenuation per 30.48 m (100 ft): 4.2 dB at 100 MHz Nominal capacitance: 50.5 pF/m (25.4 pF/ft) Nominal impedance: 50 ohms Example supplier: Belden Coax Cable no. 82907 Note Belden refers to the Belden Wire & Cable Company, a subsidiary of Belden, Inc.

UTP Cable (for Data Highways)


High quality, category 5 UTP cable, for 10BaseT Ethernet Four pairs of twisted 22 or 24 AWG wire Protective plastic jacket Impedance: 75 165 ohms Connector: RJ45 UTP connector for solid wire

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RS-232C Communications
Modbus communication from the HMI: for short distances use RS-232C cable; for distances over 15 m (50 feet) add a modem Modbus communication from the controller COM2 port: for use on small systems, RS-232C cable with Micro-D adapter cable (GE catalog No. 336A4929G1); for longer distances over 15 m (50 feet) add a modem For more information on Modbus and wiring, refer to Chapter 3 Network.

Instrument Cable, 4 20 mA
With Tefzel insulation and jacket: Belden catalog no. 85231 or equivalent With plastic jacket: Belden catalog no. 9316 or equivalent

Fiber-optic Cable, Outdoor Use (Data Highways)


Multimode fiber, 62.5/125 micron core/cladding, 850 nm infra-red light Four sub-cables with elastomeric jackets and aramid strength members, and plastic outer jacket Cable construction: flame retardant pressure extruded polyurethane Cable diameter: 8.0 mm Cable weight: 65 kg/km Optical Cable Corporation Part No. RK920929-A

Fiber-Optic Cable, Heavy Duty Outdoor Use


Multimode fiber, 62.5/125 micron core/cladding, 850 nm infra-red light Four sub-cables with elastomeric jackets and aramid strength members, and armored outer jacket Cable construction: flame retardant pressure extruded polyurethane. Armored with 0.155 mm steel tape, wound with 2 mm overlap, and covered with polyethylene outer jacket, 1 to 1.5 mm thick Cable diameter: 13.0 mm Cable weight: 174 kg/km Optical Cable Corporation Part No. RK920929-A-CST

Fiber-Optic Cable, Indoor Use (Data Highways)


Multimode fiber, 62.5/125 micron core/cladding, 850 nm infra-red light Twin plastic jacketed cables (Zipcord) for indoor use Cable construction: tight-buffered fibers surrounded by aramid strength members with a flexible flame retardant jacket Cable dimensions: 2.9 mm dia x 5.8 mm width Cable weight: 15 kg/km Siecor Corporation Part No. 002K58-31141

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Connecting the System


The panels come complete with the internal cabling. This cabling will probably never need to be replaced. I/O cables between the control modules and interface modules and the I/O racks are run in plastic racks behind the mounting plates as shown in Figure 5-17. Power cables from the Power Distribution Module to the control modules, interface modules, and terminal boards are secured by plastic cable cleats located behind the riser brackets. Most of this cabling is covered by the mounting brackets and plates.
Plate Mounting Panel Lexan Tray for I/O Cables

3/4 inch Cable Cleat for Power Cables

I/O Cable

Riser Bracket 1 inch Cable Cleat Terminal Board

Insulating Plate

Figure 5-17. Cable Trays and Mounting Brackets for Terminal Boards

The upper diagram in Figure 5-18 shows routing of the I/O cables and power cables in a typical 1600 mm panel line up. Dotted outlines show where terminal boards and I/O modules will be mounted on top. These cables are not visible from the front. The lower diagram shows routing of IONet cables and customer field wiring to the I/O modules and terminal boards. This wiring is visible and accessible from the front so that boards and field wiring can be replaced.

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Tray I/O Powr Tray for I/O Cables R

Tray for I/O Power PDM Tray for 115 V dc Power

Tray for I/O Cables

Tray for I/O Cables T Main 125 V dc Supply

Typical Power and I/O Cabling behind Mounting Brackets Tie wrap Wiring to vertical perforated side plate

IM R

IM S

IM T

Customer I/O Wiring

IONet Cables

Customer I/O Wiring

Typical Communication and Customer I/O Wiring in Front of Mounting brackets


Figure 5-18. Typical Cabinet Wiring and Cabling

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I/O Wiring
I/O connections are made to terminal blocks on the Mark VI terminal boards. The various terminal boards and types of I/O devices used are described in Chapter 9 I/O Board Descriptions (GEH-6421D, Vol. II Mark VI System Guide). Shielding connections to the shield bar located to the left of the terminal board are illustrated in Figure 5-19 below.
Grounded Shield Bar Shield Terminal Block Shield

Terminal Board

Shield

Cable
Figure 5-19. I/O Wiring Shielding Connections to Ground Bar at Terminal Board

The grounded shield bars provide an equipotential ground plane to which all cable shield drain wires should be connected, with as short a pigtail as practical. The length should not exceed 5 cm (2 in) to reduce the high-frequency impedance of the shield ground. Reducing the length of the pigtail should take precedence over reducing the length of exposed wire within the panel. Pigtails should not be connected except at the grounding bars provided, to avoid loops and maintain a radial grounding system. Shields should be insulated up to the pigtail. In most cases shields should not be connected at the far end of the cable, to avoid circulating power-frequency currents induced by pickup. A small capacitor may be used to ground the far end of the shield, producing a hybrid ground system, and may improve noise immunity. Shields must continue across junction boxes between the control and the turbine, and should match up with the signal they are shielding. Avoid hard grounding the shield at the junction boxes, but small capacitors to ground at junction boxes may improve immunity.

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Terminal Block Features


Many of the terminal boards in the Mark VI use a 24-position pluggable barrier terminal block (179C9123BB). These terminal blocks have the following features: Made from a polyester resin material with 130 C rating Terminal rating is 300 V, 10 A, UL class C general industry, 0.375 in creepage, 0.250 in strike UL and CSA code approved Screws finished in zinc clear chromate and contacts in tin Each block screw is number labeled 1 through 24 or 25 through 48 in white Recommended screw tightening torque is 8 in lbs.

Power System
The 125 V dc supply must be installed and maintained such that it meets requirements of IEC 61010-1 cl. 6.3.1 to be considered Not Hazardous Live. The BJS berg jumper must be installed in the PDM to provide the monitored ground reference for the 125 V dc. If there are multiple PDMs connected to the dc mains, only one has the Berg jumper installed. If the dc mains are connected to a 125 V dc supply (battery) it must be floated, that is isolated from ground. Note The DS200TCPD board in the PDM must provide the single, monitored, ground reference point for the 125 V dc system. Refer to section, Wiring and Circuit Checks.

Installing Ethernet
The Mark VI modules communicate over several different Ethernet LANs (refer to Chapter 3 Networks). IONet uses Ethernet 10Base2 cable. The data highways use a number of 10BaseT segments, and some 10Base2 segments and fiber-optic segments. These guidelines comply with IEEE 802.3 standards for Ethernet. For details on installing individual Ethernet LAN components, refer to the instructions supplied by the manufacturer of that equipment.

Installing Ethernet 10Base2 Coax Cable for IONet


10Base2 cable (Thinwire) is a 20 AWG copper-centered wire used for connecting the interface modules and control modules. Use the following guidelines when installing 10Base2: The maximum length of a 10Base2 coax cable segment is 185 m (607 ft) Both ends of each segment should be terminated with a 50-ohm resistor All connectors and terminators must be isolated from ground to prevent ground loops (grounding of shield controlled by Mark VI boards) The maximum length of cable is 3035 ft (925 m) using the IEEE 5-4-3 rule Maximum length of a transceiver and repeater cable: 164 ft (50 m) Minimum distance between transceivers: 8.2 ft (2.5 m) Maximum device connections (taps) per segment: 100, including repeater taps In systems with repeaters, transceivers should have the SQE test (heartbeat) switch disabled

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Preventing Reflections
Short segments should have no breaks with 50-ohm terminations on both ends. This produces minimal reflections from cable impedance discontinuities. A coaxial barrel connector is used to join smaller segments. However, the joint between the two segments makes a signal reflection point. This is caused by impedance discontinuity from the batch-to-batch impedance tolerance of the manufactured cable. If cables are built from smaller sections, all sections should either come from the same manufacturer and lot, or with one of the IEEE recommended standard segment lengths. Note Cables of non-standard length produce impedance mismatches that cause signal reflections and possible data loss. IEEE standard segment lengths are: 23.4 m (76.75 ft) 117 m (383.76 ft) 70.2 m (230.25 ft) 500 m (1640 ft) These standard sections can be used to build a cable segment up to 500 m (1640 ft) long. To prevent excessive reflections, the segment should be an odd multiple of 23.4 m (76.75 ft) lengths. For example: 3 23.4 m (or 3 76.75 ft) 7 23.4 m (or 7 76.75 ft) 9 23.4 m (or 9 76.75 ft) These lengths are odd integral multiples of a half wavelength in the cable at 5 MHz. Any mix of these cable sections (only) can be used.

Grounding Ethernet Cable


On the PDH and UDH only, connect the Ethernet 10Base2 cable to a reliable earth ground at only one point. The actual connection to ground can be made at any point on the cable, but is usually easier at the terminator connector. For all Ethernet cables, insulate all connections, except grounded ones, from any other metallic surface. This prevents chance grounding, which creates a ground loop. Ground loops can introduce noise and add hazardous voltage potential onto the coax cable because of different earth ground reference points. All connectors must be insulated.
Table 5-3. Ethernet Cable Component Descriptions

Component 10Base2 Connector

Description Connector for Ethernet 10Base2 trunk ThinWire coax cable

Part Number BNC coax connector with gold-plated pin, MilesTek catalog no. 10-02001-233 BNC F-Adapter, MilesTek catalog no. 10-02918 BNC Goal Post Adapter, MilesTek catalog no. 10-02914 MilesTek catalog no. 10-02406-009 MilesTek catalog no. 40-50156/GE

10Base2 Terminator* 10Base2 Connection Tools

BNC terminator for Ethernet trunk coax cable, 50 ohm Quick crimp tool kit for crimping connectors on Ethernet trunk 10Base2 coax cable, including strip tool, flush cutter, and case.

*On the PDH and UDH only, use a terminator with grounding tether if the repeater BNC output is not grounded.

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Startup Checks
All Mark VI control panels are pre-cabled and factory-tested before shipment. However, final checks should be made after installation and before starting the equipment. This equipment contains a potential hazard of electrical shock or burn. Power is provided by the Mark VI control panel to various input and output devices. External sources of power may be present in the Mark VI panels that are NOT switched by the control power circuit breaker(s). Before handling or connecting any conductors to the equipment, use proper safety precautions to insure all power is turned off. Inspect the control panel components for any damage, which might have occurred during shipping. Check for loose cables or wires, connections or loose components such as relays or retainer clips. Report any damage that may have occurred during shipping to GE Product Service. Refer to section, Grounding for equipment grounding instructions.

Board Inspections
Perform the following to inspect the printed circuit boards, jumpers, and wiring: The VCMI is always in slot 1 and has no jumpers. Inspect the boards in each module checking for loose or damaged components. Verify the Berg jumpers on each I/O board are set correctly for the slot number in the VME rack (see Figure 5-20). If the boards do not have Berg jumpers, then the VCMI identifies all the I/O boards during startup by communication over the VME backplane. At this point do not replug the I/O boards. This will be done after the rack power supply check. Check the EMI spring-gasket shield on the right hand side of the board front (see Figure 5-21). If the installed boards do not have EMI emissions shielding, and a board with a shield gasket is present, remove this gasket by sliding it out vertically. Failure to do this could result in a damaged board.

VME I/O Board

Example:

VME Slot Position = 17 1 0 0 0 16

Board ID Berg Jumpers

1 2 4 8 16 Jumper Binary Values

Figure 5-20. ID Jumper Positions on VME Board

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VME I/O Board Gasket removal

EMI spring gasket to reduce EMI/RFI emissions. Use only with adjacent EMI-shielded I/O boards. Note: if the board in the adjacent righthand slot does not have an EMI spring gasket, then this spring gasket must be removed.

Figure 5-21. EMI Emissions Shield Gasket

Check wire harnesses and verify they are securely connected. Verify that the terminal board hardware jumpers match the toolbox configuration settings, and move the jumper(s) if necessary. Verify all plug-in relays are firmly inserted into their sockets (refer to Chapter 9 I/O Descriptions, GEH-6421D, Vol. II Mark VI System Guide). Verify the jumpers on TRLY are removed. Check the Ethernet ID plug located at the left side of the rack under the power test points. The jumpers on this plug define the number of the rack (0, 1, 2, 3) in the IONet channel. The jumper positions are shown in Figure 5-22 and are defined in Table 5-4.

VME Rack Backplane

Ethernet ID Plug

Wire Jumper Positions per Table

VME Rack front view

1 RO-SMP

15

16

Ethernet ID Plug located at Bottom Left Hand Side of VME Rack

Figure 5-22. Rack Ethernet ID Plug

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Table 5-4. Ethernet ID Plug Jumper Positions

Conn. P/N 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 28 29 30 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 60 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 90

Connector Label R0-SMP R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R0-DPX R0-TPX R0-TMR S0-SMP S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S0-TMR T0-SMP T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T0-TMR

Pins 1-2 X X X X X X X

Wire Jumper Locations Pins Pins Pins 3-4 5-6 7-8 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Pin to Pin Pins Pins 9-10 11-12 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Pins Pins Notes 13-14 15-16 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Future

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X Future

Future Future Future X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Future Future Future X X X X X X X X Future X X X Future X X Future

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Wiring and Circuit Checks


This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment. The following steps should be completed to check the panel wiring and circuits. To check the power wiring 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Check that all incoming power wiring agrees with the elementary drawings supplied with the panel and is complete and correct. Make sure that the incoming power wiring conforms to approved wiring practices as described previously. Check that all electrical terminal connections are tight. Make sure that no wiring has been damaged or frayed during installation. Replace if necessary. Check that incoming power (125 V dc, 115 V ac, 230 V ac) is the correct voltage and frequency, and is clean and free of noise. Make sure the ac to dc converters, if used, are set to the correct voltage (115 or 230 V ac) by selecting the JTX1 or JTX2 jumper positions on the front of the converter. If the installation includes more than one PDM on an interconnected 125 V dc system, the BJS jumper must be installed in one and only one PDM. This is because the parallel connection of more than one ground reference circuit will reduce the impedance to the point where the 125 V dc no longer meets the Not Hazardous Live requirement. To verify that the 125 V dc is properly grounded, a qualified person using appropriate safety procedures should make tests. Measure the current from first the P125 V dc, and then the N125 V dc, using a 2000-Ohm, 10 W resistor to the Protective Conductor Terminal of the Mark VI in series with a dc ammeter. The measured current should be 1.7 mA to 2.0 mA (the tolerance will depend on the test resistor and the PDM tolerances). If the measured current exceeds 2.0 mA the system must be cleared of the extra ground(s). A test current of about 65 mA usually indicates one or more hard grounds on the system, while currents in multiples of 1 mA usually indicate more than one BJS jumper is installed.

6.

At this point the system is ready for initial rack energization.

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Startup
This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment. Assuming all the above checks are complete, use the following steps to apply power, load the application code, and startup the Mark VI system. Note It is recommended that the initial rack energization be done with all the I/O boards removed to check the power supply in an unloaded condition. To energize the rack for the first time 1. 2. 3.
Bottom of VME Rack Backplane

Unlock the I/O boards and slide them part way out of the racks. Apply power to the PDM and to the first VME I/O rack power supply. Check the voltages at the test points located at the lower left side of the VME rack. These are shown in Figure 5-23 below.
P15 ACOM N15 P28AA P28BB P28CC P28DD P28EE PCOM N28 DCOM SCOM VME Rack Power Supply Test Points

P5 DCOM1

ETHERNET ID
Figure 5-23. VME Rack Power Supply Test Points

4. 5. 6.

If the rack voltages check out, switch off the power supply, and carefully replace the boards in that rack. Reapply power. All the I/O boards should flash green within five minutes displaying normal operation in the RUN condition. Repeat steps 1 5 for all the racks.

If the system is a remote I/O system, the controller is in a separate rack. Apply power to this rack, wait for the controller and VCMI to boot up, and check that they are in the RUN condition. Check the VPRO modules, if present, to make sure all three are in the RUN condition.

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Topology and Application Code Download


Network topology defines the location of the control and interface modules (racks) on the IONet network, and is stored in the VCMI. Refer to GEH-6403 Control System Toolbox for a Mark VI Controller for details. Note If you have a new controller, before application code can be downloaded, the TCP/IP address must be loaded. Refer to GEH-6403 Control System Toolbox for a Mark VI Controller for details. To download topology and application code 1. 2. From the toolbox Outline View, select the first VCMI (R0), and right click on it. From the shortcut menu, select Download. The network topology configuration downloads to the Master VCMI in the first controller rack and now knows the location of the Interface Modules (R0, R1, R2, ...). Repeat for all the Master VCMIs in the controller racks S, and T. Cycle power to reboot all three controllers. The controllers reboot and initialize their VCMIs. The VCMIs expect to see the configured number of racks on IONet. If an Ethernet ID plug does not identify a rack, then communication with that rack is not possible. Similarly if a VCMI is not responding, then communication with that rack is not possible. The VCMI will work even if there are no I/O boards in its rack. Following the above procedure, download the network topology to the slave VCMI in the I/O racks (R1, R2, R3 ...). The VCMI now knows what I/O boards are in its rack. Download to each rack in turn, or all racks at once. Cycle power to reboot all racks. Download the I/O configuration to all the I/O boards, one at a time or all at once. With all racks running you are now ready to check the I/O.

3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

I/O Wiring and Checkout


Connect the input and output wiring to the terminal boards. The jumpers on TRLY have been removed by the factory for safety reasons, and are shipped in a plastic bag. Conduct individual loop energization checks per standard practices, and install the jumpers as required.

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Maintenance
This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment.

Modules and Boards


System troubleshooting should be at the circuit board level. This is described in Chapter 8, Troubleshooting and Diagnostics. The failed board or module should be removed and replaced with a spare. (See section, Component Replacement for downloading.) Note Return the failed board to GE for repair. Do not attempt to repair it on site. After long service in a very dirty environment it may be necessary to clean the boards. If there is a dust build up it is advisable to vacuum around the rack and the front of the boards before removing them. Remove the boards from the cabinet before cleaning them. Dust can be removed with a low-pressure air jet. If there is dirt, which cannot be removed with the air jet, it should be cleaned off using deionized water. Shake off and allow the board to air-dry before re-applying power.

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Component Replacement
This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment.

Replacing a Controller
To replace and reload the UCVx 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. If a controller has failed, the rack should be powered down, and all cables disconnected from the controller board front. Remove the controller and replace it with a spare controller. Pull the VCMI out of the rack far enough to disconnect it from the backplane. Connect the serial loader cable between the PC and COM1 of the controller. If the controller is a UCVB or UCVD, use the serial loader to download the flash file system to the controller Use the serial loader to configure the controller with its TCP/IP address. Reconnect the Ethernet cable to the controller and power up the rack. Use the toolbox to download runtime to the controller. Use the toolbox to download application code, to permanent storage only, in the controller.

10. Power down the rack. 11. Re-insert the VCMI into the backplane. 12. Power up the rack.

Replacing a VCMI
To replace and reload the VCMI 1. If a VCMI or VPRO has failed, the rack should be powered down, and the IONet connector unplugged from the board front, leaving the network still running through the T-fitting. Remove the VCMI and replace it with a spare VCMI that has a clear flash disk memory, then power up the rack. From the toolbox Outline View, under item Mark VI I/O, locate the failed rack. Locate the VCMI, which is usually under the Simplex rack, and rightmouse click the VCMI. From the shortcut menu, click Download. The topology downloads into the new board. Cycle power to the rack to establish communication with the controller.

2. 3.

4. 5.

For a successful download, the flash disk memory in the replacement VCMI should be clear, because an old topology stored in flash can sometimes cause problems. If the flash memory needs to be cleared, contact GE.

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Replacing an I/O Board in an Interface Module


To replace an I/O Board 1. Newer I/O boards do not have Berg jumpers. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Power down the rack and remove the failed I/O board. Replace the board with a spare board of the same type, first checking that the jumper positions match the slot number (the same as the old board). Power up the rack. From the toolbox Outline View, under item Mark VI I/O, locate the failed rack. Find the slot number of the failed board and right-mouse click the board. From the shortcut menu, click Download. The board configuration downloads. Cycle power to the rack to establish communication with the controller.

Replacing a Terminal Board


The terminal boards do not contain software requiring reload, but some have power supplied to them. This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Power is provided by the Mark VI control panel to various input and output devices. External sources of power may be present in the Mark VI panel that are NOT switched by the control power circuit breaker(s). Before handling or connecting any conductors to the equipment, use proper safety precautions to ensure all power is turned off. To minimize risk of personal injury, damage to the control equipment, or damage to the controlled process, it is recommended that all power to a terminal board be removed before replacement of the terminal board. Most terminal boards are supplied from all three power supplies of a TMR system as well as multiple external sources and therefore may require shutdown of the turbine before replacement is made.

To replace a terminal board 1. 2. 3. 4. Disconnect any power cables coming into the terminal board, and unplug the I/O cables (J-plugs). Loosen the two screws on the wiring terminal blocks and remove the blocks, leaving the field wiring attached. Remove the terminal board and replace it with a spare board, checking that any jumpers are set correctly (the same as the old board). Screw the terminal blocks back in place and plug in the J-plugs and the power cables.

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Cable Replacement
The I/O cables or power cables are supported in plastic brackets behind the mounting panels as shown in Figure 5-17. Since these brackets are not continuous, it is not recommended that the replacement cable be pulled through behind the panel. To replace an I/O cable 1. 2. 3. Power down the interface module and disconnect the failed cable from the module. Leave the cable in place. Disconnect the failed cable from the terminal board. Connect the replacement cable to the terminal board, and lay the new cable in the field-wiring trough at the side of the I/O terminal boards. Use space at the top and bottom of the panel to run the cable across the cabinet to the interface module. Connect the cable to the interface module and power up the module. Secure the cable in place with tie wraps.

4. Additional cables that may be required for system expansion can be installed in this same way

The power cables (125 V dc) are held in cable cleats behind the mounting panels. If a power cable needs to be replaced, it is recommended it be run across the top or bottom of the mounting panel and down the side of the I/O wiring trough to the module power supply.

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Chapter 6

Tools

Introduction
This chapter summarizes the tools used for configuring, loading, and operating the Mark VI system. These include the Control System Toolbox (toolbox), CIMPLICITY HMI operator interface, and the Historian. This chapter is organized as follows:
Section Page

Toolbox ....................................................................................................................6-2 Configuring the Application..............................................................................6-3 CIMPLICITY HMI ..................................................................................................6-4 Basic Description ..............................................................................................6-4 Product Features ................................................................................................6-5 Computer Operator Interface (COI) .........................................................................6-7 Interface Features ..............................................................................................6-7 Historian ...................................................................................................................6-8 System Configuration........................................................................................6-8 Data Flow ..........................................................................................................6-9 Historian Optional Tools .................................................................................6-10

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Toolbox
The toolbox is Windows-based software for configuring and maintaining the Mark VI control system. The software usually runs on an engineering workstation or a CIMPLICITY HMI located on the Plant Data Highway. For details refer to GEH6403, Control System Toolbox for a Mark VI Controller. IONet communicates with all the control and interface racks. This network topology is configured using the toolbox. Similarly, the toolbox configures all the I/O boards in the racks and the I/O points in the boards. Figure 6-1 displays the toolbox screen used to select the racks. The Outline View on the left-hand side of the screen is used to select the racks required for the system. This view displays all the racks inserted under Mark VI I/O. In the example, three TMR Rack 1s are included under the heading Rack 1 Channel R/S/T (TMR).
Click on the TMR rack in the Outline View (Rack 1 in this example) to view all the channels at the same time in the Summary View. The Summary View displays a graphic of each rack and all the boards they contain.

Figure 6-1. Configuring the Equipment Racks

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Configuring the Application


The turbine control application is configured in the toolbox using graphically connected control blocks, which display in the Summary View. These blocks consist of basic analog and discrete functions and a library of special turbine control blocks. The Standard Block library contains over 60 different control blocks designed for discrete and continuous control applications. Blocks provide a simple graphical way for the engineer to configure the control system. The turbine block library contains more than 150 additional blocks relating to turbine control applications. The control system is configured in the toolbox work area, displayed in Figure 6-2 The Outline View on the left-hand side of the screen displays the control device. The Summary View on the right side of the screen displays the graphical configuration of the selected item. Block inputs and outputs are connected with signals to form the control configuration. These connections are created by dragging and dropping a signal from a block output to another block input. The connected blocks form macros, and at a higher level, the blocks and macros form tasks covering major sections of the complete control.

Figure 6-2. Connecting Control Blocks in the Work Area

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CIMPLICITY HMI
The CIMPLICITY Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is the main operator interface to the Mark VI turbine control system. HMI is a pc with a Microsoft Windows NT operating system and CIMPLICITY graphics display system, communicating with the controllers over Ethernet. For details refer to GEH-6126, HMI Application Guide. Also refer to GFK-1180, CIMPLICITY HMI for Windows NT and Windows 95 User's Manual. For details on how to configure the graphic screens refer to GFK1396 CIMPLICITY HMI for Windows NT and Windows 95 CimEdit Operation Manual.

Basic Description
The Mark VI HMI consists of three distinct elements: HMI server is the hub of the system, channeling data between the UDH and the PDH, and providing data support and system management. The server also provides device communication for both internal and external data interchanges. System database establishes signal management and definition for the control system, provides a single repository for system alarm messages and definitions, and contains signal relationships and correlation between the controllers and I/O. The database is used for system configuration, but not required for running the system. HMI Viewer provides the visual functions, and is the client of the server. It contains the operator interface software, which allows the operator or maintenance personnel to view screen graphics, data values, alarms, and trends, as well as issue commands, edit control coefficient values, and obtain system logs and reports. Depending on the size of the system, these three elements can be combined into a single pc, or distributed in multiple units. The modular nature of the HMI allows units to be expanded incrementally as system needs change. A typical Viewer screen using graphics and real-time turbine data is displayed in Figure 6-3. In the graphic display, special displays can be obtained using the buttons in the column on the right hand side. Also note the setpoint button for numeric entry and the raise/lower arrows for opening and closing valves.

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Alarm Summary window

Setpoint Entry selection

Alarm Detail display selection

Shaft Vibration display selection

Figure 6-3. Interactive Operator Display for Steam Turbine & Generator

Product Features
The HMI contains a number of product features important for power plant control: Dynamic graphics Alarm displays Process variable trending Point control display for changing setpoints Database logger HMI access security Data Distribution Equipment (DDE) application interface

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The graphic system performs key HMI functions and provides the operator with real time process visualization and control using the following: CimEdit is an object-oriented program that creates and maintains the user graphic screen displays. Editing and animation tools, with the familiar Windows environment, provide an intuitive, easy to use interface. Features include: Standard shape library Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Movement and rotation animation Filled object capabilities, and interior and border animation

CimView is the HMI run-time portion, displaying the process information in graphical formats. In CimView the operator can view the system screens, and screens from other applications, using OLE automation, run scripts, and get descriptions of object actions. Screens have a one-second refresh rate, and a typical graphical display takes one second to repaint. Alarm Viewer provides alarm management functions such as sorting and filtering by priority, by unit, by time, or by source device. Also supported are configurable alarm field displays, and embedding dynamically updated objects into CimView screens. Trending, based on Active X technology, gives users data analysis capabilities. Trending uses data collected by the HMI or data from other third-party software packages or interfaces. Data comparisons between current and past variable data can be made for identification of process problems. Trending includes multiple trending charts per graphic screen with unlimited pens per chart, and the operator can resize or move trend windows to convenient locations on the display. The point control panel provides a listing of points in the system with real-time values and alarm status. Operators can view and change local and remote set points using the up/down arrows or by direct numeric entry. Alarms can be enabled and disabled, and alarm limits modified by authorized personnel. The basic control engine allows users to define control actions in response to system events. A single event can invoke multiple actions, or one action can be invoked by many events. The program editor uses a Visual Basic for Applications compliant programming language. Optional features include the Web Gateway that allows operators to access HMI data from anywhere in the world over the Internet. Third party interfaces allow the HMI to exchange data with distributed control systems (DCS), programmable logic controllers, I/O devices, and other computers.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Computer Operator Interface (COI)


The Computer Operator Interface (COI) consists of a set of product and application specific operator displays running on a small panel pc (10.4 or 12.1 inch touch screen) hosting Embedded Windows NT. Embedded Windows NT uses only the components of the operating system required for a specific application. This results in all the power and development advantages of Windows NT in a much smaller footprint. Development, installation or modification of requisition content requires the GE Control System Toolbox. For details, refer to GEH-6403, Control System Toolbox for a Mark VI Controller. The COI can be installed in many different configurations, depending on the product line and specific requisition requirements. For example, it can be installed in the panel door for Mark VI applications or in a control room desk for EX2100 applications, for example. The only cabling requirements are for power and for the Ethernet connection to the UDH. Network communication is via the integrated autosensing 10/100BaseT Ethernet connection. Expansion possibilities for the pc are limited, although it does support connection of external devices through FDD, IDE, and USB connections. The networking of the COI to the Mark VI is requisition or customer defined. The COI can be directly connected to the Mark VI or EX2100, or it can be connected through an EGD Ethernet switch. A redundant topology is available when the controller is ordered with a second Ethernet port.

Interface Features
Numeric data displays are driven by EGD (Ethernet Global Data) pages transmitted by the controller. The refresh rate depends both on the rate at which the controller transmits the pages, and the rate at which the COI refreshes the fields. Both are set at configuration time in GE Control System Toolbox. The COI uses a touch screen, and no keyboard or mouse is provided. The color of pushbuttons are feedbacks and represent state conditions. To change the state or condition, press the button. The color of the button will change if the command is accepted and the change implemented by the controller. Numeric inputs on the COI touch screen are made by touching a numeric field that supports input. A numeric keypad then displays and the desired number can be entered. For complete information, refer to GEI-100434, Computer Operator Interface (COI) for Mark VI or EX2100 Systems. An Alarm Window is provided and an alarm is selected by touching it. Then Ack, Silence, Lock, or Unlock the alarm by pressing the corresponding button. Multiple alarms can be selected by dragging through the alarm list. Pressing the button then applies to all selected alarms.

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 6 Tools 6-7

Historian
The Historian is a data archival system based on client-server technology, that provides data collection, storage, and display of power island and auxiliary process data. Depending on the requirements, the product can be configured for just turbinerelated data, or for broader applications that include balance of plant process data. For additional Historian information, refer to GEH6422, Turbine Historian System Guide. The Historian combines high-resolution digital event data from the turbine controller with process analog data to create a sophisticated tool for investigating cause-effect relationships. It provides a menu of predefined database query forms for typical analysis relating to the turbine operations. Flexible tools enable the operator to quickly generate custom trends and reports from the archived process data.

System Configuration
The GE Historian provides historical data archiving and retrieval functions. When required, the system architecture provides time synchronization to ensure time coherent data. The Historian accesses turbine controller data from the UDH as shown in Figure 6-4. Additional Historian data acquisition is performed through Modbus and/or Ethernet based interfaces. Data from third party devices such as Bently Nevada monitors, or non-GE PLCs is usually obtained through Modbus, while Ethernet is the preferred communication channel for PLC products. The HMI and other operator interface devices communicate to the Historian through the PDH. Network technology provided by the Microsoft Windows NT Operating System allows interaction from network computers including query and view capabilities using the Historian Client Tool Set. The interface options include the ability to export data into spreadsheet applications.
Plant Data Highway

HMI Server # 1

HMI Server # 2

HMI Viewer

Historian

DAT Tape

TR Unit Data Highway

Figure 6-4. Data Transmission to the Historian and HMI

6-8 Chapter 6 Tools

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

System Capability
The Historian provides an online historical database for collecting and storing data from the Mark VI turbine controls. Up to 20,000 total point tags may be configured and collected from as many as eight turbine controls. A typical turbine control application uses less than 1,000 points of time tagged analog and discrete data per unit. The length of time that the data is stored on disk before offline archiving is required depends upon collection rate, dead-band configuration, process rate of change, and disk size.

Data Flow
The Historian has three main functions: data collection, storage, and retrieval. Data collection is over the UDH and Modbus. Data is stored in the Exception Database for SOE, events, and alarms, and in the archives for analog values. Retrieval is thorugh a web browser, or standard trend screens. Figure 6-5 shows these functions and data flow.

I/O Mark VI Ethernet

I/O PLC Ethernet

I/O 3rd Party Devices Modbus

Turbine Control Exception Database (SOE)

Data Dictionary

Process Archives (Analog Values)

Server Side Client Side Web Browser Trend generation Process Data (Trends) DataLink Excel for Reports & Analysis

Alarm & Event Report Cross Plot Event Scanner

Figure 6-5. Historian Functions and Data Flow

Details
Data is collected by various methods. For the Mark VI, the process is centered about the System Database (SDB) which is the real-time database used by the controller. The Mark VI scans the SDB for alarm and event state changes. When a state change occurs, it is sent to the Historian. Contact inputs, or Sequence of Event (SOE) changes are scanned, sent to the Historian and stored in the Exception Database with the alarms and event state changes.

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 6 Tools 6-9

These points are time-tagged by the Mark VI at the frame rate. The Mark VI also distributes one-second periodic updates scanned from the SDB. Time synchronization and time coherency are extremely important when the operator or maintenance technician is trying to analyze and determine the root cause of a problem. To provide this, the data is time-tagged at the controller, which offers system time-sync functions as an option to ensure that PLC and Mark VI data remain time-coherent. Sophisticated data compression is used Data points configured for collection in the archives are sampled once per second from the Data Dictionary. Analog data that exceeds an exception dead-band and digital data that changes state are sent to the archives. The Historian uses the swinging door compression method that filters on the slope of the value to determine when to save a value. This allows the Historian to keep orders of magnitude more data on-line than in conventional scanned systems. The web browser interface provides access to the Alarm & Event Report, the CrossPlot, the Event Scanner, and several Historian status displays. Configurable trend displays are the graphical interface to the history stored in the archives. They provide historical and real-time trending of all process data. The data link is used to extract data from the archives into spreadsheets. Applications such as Excel, Access, SQL, and Minitab can be used to generate reports and analize data.

Historian Optional Tools


A selection of tools, screens, and reports are for the collected data. Alarms and Events Report is a tabular display of the alarms, events, and Sequence of Events (SOE) for all Mark VI units connected to the Historian. This report presents the following information on a points status: time of pickup (or dropout), unit name, status, processor drop number, and descriptive text. This is a valuable tool to aid in the analysis of the system, especially after an upset. Historical Cross Plot references the chronological data of two signal points, plotted one against another, for example temperature against RPM. This function permits visual contrasting and correlation of operational data. Event Scanner function uses logic point information (such as start, trip, shutdown, or user-defined) stored in the historical database to search and identify specific situations in the unit control. Event/Trigger Query Results shows the users inputs and a tabular display of resulting event triggers. The data in the Time column represents the time-tag of the specified Event Trigger. Process Data (Trends). The Historian can trend any analog or digital point. It is fully configurable and has the ability to auto-range the scales or set fixed indexes. For accurate read out, the trend cursor displays the exact value of all points trended at a given point in time. The Historian can be set up to mimic strip chart recorders, analyze the performance of particular parameters over time, or help trouble-shoot root causes of a turbine upset. The trend display in Figure 6-6 is an example of a turbine start-up.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Figure 6-6. Typical Multi-Pen Process Trend Display

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 6 Tools 6-11

Chapter 7

Applications

Introduction
This chapter describes some of the applications of the Mark VI hardware and software, including the servo regulators, overspeed protection logic, generator synchronization, and ground fault detection. This chapter is organized as follows:
Section Page

Servo Regulator Descriptions...................................................................................7-2 LVDT Auto Calibration ....................................................................................7-9 Generator Synchronization .....................................................................................7-11 Hardware .........................................................................................................7-11 Application Code.............................................................................................7-13 Algorithm Descriptions ...................................................................................7-13 Configuration ..................................................................................................7-17 VTUR Diagnostics for the Auto Synch Function............................................7-20 VPRO Diagnostics for the Auto Synch Function ............................................7-20 Hardware Verification Procedure....................................................................7-20 Synchronization Simulation ............................................................................7-21 Overspeed Protection Logic ...................................................................................7-22 Power Load Unbalance...........................................................................................7-46 Early Valve Actuation ............................................................................................7-49 Fast Overspeed Trip in VTUR................................................................................7-51 Compressor Stall Detection ....................................................................................7-54 Vibration Sampling Speed and Accuracy...............................................................7-58 Ground Fault Detection Sensitivity ........................................................................7-60

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-1

Servo Regulator Descriptions


The following figures show examples of servo regulators in VSVO firmware. 3_LVposMID regulator in Figure 7-1 has three LVDTs on the valve. The regulator takes the mid-value of the three position signals. 4_LV_LM regulator in Figure 7-2 uses two LVDTs. Each LVDT has two secondaries, where one signal rises while the other falls, and a ratio calculation yields the desired position. The two position values (posa and posb) are input to a select function. 2_PulseRateMax regulator in Figure 7-3 is controlling flow. Two pulse rate pickups provide flow signals, which are input to a high selector providing the flow feedback. 2_LVpilotCyl regulator in Figure 7-4 controls a hydraulic servo valve with a pilot valve. There is an LVDT for the pilot valve inner loop, and one for the cylinder position outer loop. Each servo coil output provides 120 mA for a total of 240 mA. 4_LvpilotCyl regulator in Figure 7-5 controls a hydraulic servo valve with a pilot valve. There are two LVDTs for the pilot valve inner loop, and two LVDTs for the cylinder position outer loop. Each servo coil output provides 120 mA for a total of 240 mA.

7-2 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

VSVO
RegNumber EnableCurSuic

Insert Regulator (IO Config)


200 hz, 4 Regulators per card
Suicide Function

Reg3 (exam)

Software

Hardware TSVO #1

I/O Config

EnableFdbkSuic RegType DitherAmpl RegNullBias RegGain

3_LVposMID

SuicideForce RD Suicide P2 JR1 JS1 J3 JT1 Dedicated connection

Regn_GainMod Regn_Ref Regn_Error Regn_NullCor CalibEnabn

not used

Gain

Current Driver

Servo coil; positive current to shutdown +

+-

+ +

++

D I T H

D/A Ref1

D/A
total of 4 ccts

Calib function

Servo_MA_Out L o g i c Suicide

2 ccts per TB per Controller

Regn_suicide ServoOutputn

LVDT
Fan Connection

Signal Space SuicideForce

3 LVDT Signals
LVDT1input Regn_Fdbk PilotFdbkn MinPosvalue MaxPosvalue MnLVDT3_Vrms MxLVDT3_Vrms LVDT_Margin Servo_MA_Out LVDT1input LVDT2input LVDT3input LVDT2, (exam) LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT Scaling Function not used Mid Sel LVDT2input LVDT3input LVDT1 LVDT2 LVDT3 LVDT4 LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT7 LVDT8 LVDT9 LVDT10 LVDT11 LVDT12

JR5 JS5 JT5

6 ccts per TB

A/D

+ + Gain

Fan Connection

2 ccts per TB total of 12 LVDT ccts


JR1 JS1 J4 JT1

Not used, VSVO has only one P5 connector

I/O Config

Offset

TSVO #2

Diag, Suicide

Servo coil; positive current to shutdown +


Dedicated connection R

LVDT input selections

2 ccts per TB per Controller

I/O Config Signal Space I/O Config Signal Space

PRType PRScale FlowRate1

LVDT flow hz PR/D


Fan Connection

PRType PRScale FlowRate2 P5

flow

hz PR/D

JR5 JS5 JT5

6 ccts per TB

Pulse Rate Pickup


Fan Connection

Notes: 1: where "n" in signal space has values 1 to 4 (i.e. four regulators)

second PR cct

2 ccts per TB

Figure 7-1. Servo Regulator with LVDT feedback, Mid of 3 LVDTs (3_LVposMID)

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-3

VSVO
RegNumber Reg3 (exam)

Insert Regulator (IO Config) 200 hz, 4 Regulators per card

Software

Hardware

EnableCurSuic Suicide Suicide EnableFdbkSuic I/O Function RegType 2_LV_LM_ACT (exam) SuicideForce Config DitherAmpl CurClpNg, CurClpPs Tau1, Tau2 RegNullBias C RegGain L CurBreak + Ld A + Lg CurSlope1,CurSlope2 M Gain Regn_GainMod P not used Regn_Ref x + +Regn_Error + Regn_NullCor CalibEnabn Regn_suicide Calib function

TSVO #1

D I T H

Current Driver D/A Ref1

RD

Suicide P2

JR1 JS1 J3 JT1 Dedicated connection

Servo coil; positive current to shutdown

D/A
total of 4 ccts

+
2 ccts per TB per Controller
R S

Servo_MA_Out Gain

Signal Space SuicideForce


Regn_Fdbk

ServoOutputn Position sel (avg, min,max) SelectMnMx DefltValue Posa Posb LVDT1input LVDT2input LVDT3input A A-B LVDT4input A+B B

L o g i c

Suicide Fan Connection

LVDT

posit'n select not used

JR5 JS5 JT5

6 ccts per TB

PilotFdbkn MasterReset, VCMI PosaFail PosbFail PosDiffEnab PosDiffFail1 PosDiffFail2 MinPosvalue MaxPosvalue MnLVDT3_Vrms MxLVDT3_Vrms MnLVDT4_Vrms MxLVDT4_Vrms LVDT_Margin LVDTVsumMarg PosSelect Servo_MA_Out LVDT1input LVDT2input LVDT3input LVDT4input SelectMnMx DefltValue PosDefltEnab PosDiffCmp1 PosDiffTime1 PosDiffCmp2 PosDiffTime2

A/D
LVDT1 LVDT2 LVDT3 LVDT4 LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT7 LVDT8 LVDT9 LVDT10 LVDT11 LVDT12

+ +

+ -

Fan Connection

2 ccts per TB

Not used, VSVO has only one P5 connector

I/O Config

Posa Posb PosDiffCmp1 LVDT PosDiffTime1 Scaling Offset Function PosDiffCmp2 PosDiffTime2 Diag Suicide Learned Position sel limit checks PosaFail with PosbFail latching PosDiffFail1 MasterReset LVDT5, (exam) LVDT6 LVDT7 LVDT8 PosDefltEnab PosDiffEnab PosSelect LVDT input selections

Gain

total of 12 LVDT ccts


JR1 JS1 J4 JT1

TSVO #2

Servo coil; positive current to shutdown

+
Dedicated connection R

PosDiffFail2

2 ccts per TB per Controller

LVDT Fan Connection

6 ccts per TB

I/O Config

PRType PRScale

P5

JR5 JS5 JT5

Signal FlowRate1 Space I/O Config


PRType PRScale

flow

hz

PR/D

PR condit'n cct Fan Connection

Pulse Rate Pickup

Signal FlowRate2 Space

flow

hz

PR/D second PR cct

2 ccts per TB

Notes: 1: where "n" in signal space has values 1 to 4 (i.e. four regulators)

Figure 7-2. Servo Regulator with LVDT Feedback, Ratiometric (4_LV_LM)

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

VSVO
RegNumber EnableCurSuic

Insert Regulator (IO Config)


200 hz, 4 Regulators per card
Suicide Function

Reg3 (example)

Software

Hardware

TSVO #1

I/O Config

EnableFdbkSuic RegType DitherAmpl RegNullBias RegGain

2_PulseRateMax

SuicideForce RD JR1 JS1 J3 JT1 Dedicated connection

Regn_GainMod Regn_Ref Regn_Error Regn_NullCor CalibEnabn

not used

Gain

+-

+ +

+ +

D I T H

Current Driver D/A Ref1

Suicide P2

Servo coil; positive current to shutdown

D/A
total of 4 ccts

Calib function

Servo_MA_Out

2 ccts per TB per Controller


Suicide

Regn_suicide ServoOutputn SuicideForce

Signal Space

L o g i c

LVDT
Fan Connection

JR5 JS5 JT5

6 ccts per TB

Regn_Fdbk PilotFdbkn not used

Max Sel

PRateinput1 PRateinput2

A/D
LVDT1 LVDT2 LVDT3 LVDT4 LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT7 LVDT8 LVDT9 LVDT10 LVDT11 LVDT12

Fan Connection

Not used, VSVO has only one P5 connector

2 ccts per TB total of 12 LVDT ccts TSVO #2

Servo_MA_Out

PRateinput1

PR1 (exam) PR2

JR1 JS1 J4 JT1

Servo coil; positive current to shutdown

I/O Config

PRateInput2

PR input selections

Dedicated connection R

2 ccts per TB per Controller


PRType PRScale

LVDT

Signal FlowRate1 Space I/O Config


PRType PRScale

flow 1

hz

PR/D

PR1

Fan-out Connection

6 ccts per TB
P5 JR5 JS5 JT5

Signal FlowRate2 Space


Notes:

flow 2

hz

PR/D

PR2

Pulse Rate Pickup


Fan-out Connection

1: where "n" in signal space has values 1 to 4 (i.e. four regulators)

second PR cct

2 ccts per TB

Flow 1

Figure 7-3. Servo Regulator with Pulse Rate Feedback (2_PulseRateMax)

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-5

VSVO
RegNumber EnableCurSuic EnableFdbkSuic RegType DitherAmpl PilotGain RegNullBias 75% RegGain Regn_GainMod Regn_Ref Regn_Error

Insert Regulator (IO Config)


200 hz, 4 Regulators per card
Suicide Function SuicideForce RD RD JR1 JS1 P2 J3 JT1 Dedicated connection

Reg2(exam)

Software

Hardware
Suicide relays

2_LVpilotCyl

TSVO #1
2 ccts per TB per Controller Servo coil; positive current to shutdown +

I/O Config

not used

Gain

+-

X
Gain

+ +

+-

+ +

D I D/A Ref1 D/A T H

Current Driver

Regn_NullCor

Pilot Fdbkn

total of 4 ccts Servo_MA_Out Current Driver

Signal Space CalibEnabn

D D/A Ref2 I D/A T H


Calib function

Dedicated connection

Two parallel drivers, on one coil or on separate coils. +

Servo_MA_Out

Suicide

Regn_suicide SuicideForce Regn_Fdbk

Cylinder Position - OuterLoop


Cylinder fdbk

Cur1 Cur2 6 ccts per TB Fan Connection


A/D
LVDT1 LVDT2 LVDT3 LVDT4 LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT7 LVDT8 LVDT9 LVDT10 LVDT11 LVDT12

+ +
Gain

+ -

LVDT1input

I/O Config

MinPosvalue MaxPosvalue MnLVDT3_Vrms MxLVDT3_Vrms

LVDT
Scaling Function

LVDT

Offset

ccts LVDT1 thru LVDT6

Pilot Fdbkn

Pilot Position - Inner Loop


Signal Space PilotFdbkn

. .

++ LVDT
Scaling Function Gain

-+

LVDT2input

I/O Config

MinPosvalue MaxPosvalue MnLVDT5_Vrms MxLVDT5_Vrms LVDT_Margin LVDT1input LVDT2input

Offset

total of 12 LVDT ccts ccts LVDT7 thru LVDT12

JR1 JS1 J4 JT1

TSVO #2

Diag, Suicide
LVDT3, (exam) LVDT5

LVDT input selections

Servo_MA_Out

Servo scale selection

Notes: 1: where "n" in signal space has values 1 to 4 (i.e. four regulators) 2: where the output current drivers are configured under.... J3/J4: IS200TSVO... ServoOutputn... and where the output is assigned to a specific regulator ( 1 thru 4). The regulator type is configured under "Regulators". The "2_LVpilotCyl" regulator type is used on low pressure hydraulic systems with an inner pilot position loop. In this case, two distinct outputs must be assigned to the same regulator. Each output will be config for 120 mA, yielding a total output of +/-240 mA. This regulator has only one LVDT for each position loop.

Figure 7-4. Pilot Valve Position Loop, One LVDT per Position Loop (2_LvpilotCyl)

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

VSVO
RegNumber EnableCurSuic EnableFdbkSuic RegType DitherAmpl

Insert Regulator (IO Config)


200 hz, 4 Regulators per card
Suicide Function

Reg2(exam)

Software

Hardware
Suicide relays RD RD JR1 JS1 P2 J3 JT1 Dedicated connection

4_LVp/cyl

SuicideForce

TSVO #1
2 ccts per TB per Controller Servo coil; positive current to shutdown +

I/O Config

PilotGain RegNullBias 75% RegGain Regn_GainMod not used Regn_Ref Regn_Error

Gain

+-

X
Gain

+ +

+-

+ +

D I D/A Ref1 D/A T H

Current Driver

Regn_NullCor

Pilot Fdbkn

total of 4 ccts Servo_MA_Out Current Driver

Signal Space CalibEnabn

D D/A Ref2 I D/A T H Calib function

Dedicated connection

Two parallel drivers, on one coil or on separate coils. +

Servo_MA_Out

Suicide

Regn_suicide SuicideForce Regn_Fdbk

Cylinder Position - Outer Loop


Cylinder fdbk

etc. Max + X + LVDT


Gain Offset

LVDT1 input

Cur1 Cur2 6 ccts per TB Fan Connection


A/D
LVDT1 LVDT2 LVDT3 LVDT4 LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT7 LVDT8 LVDT9 LVDT10 LVDT11 LVDT12

+ LVDT2 input -

I/O Config

MinPosvalue MaxPosvalue MnLVDT3_Vrms MxLVDT3_Vrms

LVDT

Scaling Function

ccts LVDT1 thru LVDT6

Pilot Fdbkn
Signal Space

Pilot Position - Inner Loop


LVDT3input

PilotFdbkn

Max ++ LVDT
Scaling Function

etc. X -+
LVDT4input

. .

total of 12 ccts

LVDT

I/O Config

MinPosvalue MaxPosvalue MnLVDT8_Vrms MxLVDT8_Vrms LVDT_Margin LVDT1input LVDT2input LVDT3input LVDT4input

Gain Offset

ccts LVDT7 thru LVDT12

JR1 JS1 J4 JT1

TSVO #2

Diag, Suicide
LVDT2, (exam) LVDT3 LVDT7 LVDT8

LVDT input selections

Servo_MA_Out

Servo scale selection

Notes: 1: where "n" in signal space has values 1 to 4 (i.e. four regulators) 2: where the output current drivers are configured under.... J3/J4: IS200TSVO... ServoOutputn... and where the output is assigned to a specific regulator ( 1 thru 4). The regulator type is configured under "Regulators". The "4_LVp/Cyl" regulator type is used on low pressure hydraulic systems with an inner pilot position loop. In this case, two distinct outputs must be assigned to the same regulator. Each output will be configured for 120 mA, yielding a total output of +/-240 mA. This regulator has two LVDTs for each position loop, where the Max value is used.

Figure 7-5. Regulator for Pilot Valve, Two LVDTs per Position Loop (4_LVp/cyl)

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-7

There are applications where the position of a device must be monitored. Figure 7-6 shows three LVDTs monitoring a device position, using a mid-selector (median).
Software Hardware

VSVO
RD Current Driver Suicide P2 JR1 JS1 J3 JT1

TSVO #1
Servo coil; positive current to shutdown

D/A
total of 4 ccts

+
Dedicated connection R

Insert Monitor (IO Config) 100 hz,up to 16 Monitors per card I/O MonitorType Config
L o g i c
Suicide

2 ccts per TB per Controller

LVDT
Fan Connection

3_LVposMID (exam)

JR5 JS5 JT5 LVDT1input

6 ccts per TB

Signal Space

Monn

A/D
LVDT1 LVDT2 LVDT3 LVDT4 LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT7 LVDT8 LVDT9 LVDT10 LVDT11 LVDT12

Mid Sel

LVDT2input

+ +

LVDT3input

Fan Connection

Not used, VSVO has only one P5 connector

MinPosvalue MaxPosvalue Gain LVDT Scaling Function Offset MnLVDT3_Vrms MxLVDT3_Vrms LVDT_Margin

2 ccts per TB total of 12 LVDT ccts

I/O Config

TSVO #2

Diag, Suicide

LVDT1input LVDT2input LVDT3input

LVDT2, (exam) LVDT5 LVDT6 LVDT input selections

JR1 JS1 J4 JT1

Servo coil; positive current to shutdown

+
Dedicated connection

2 ccts per TB per Controller


PRType PRScale FlowRate1

LVDT

flow

hz

PR/D

Fan Connection

PRType PRScale FlowRate2 P5

JR5 JS5 JT5

6 ccts per TB Pulse Rate Pickup


Fan Connection

flow

hz

PR/D

Notes: 1: where "n" in signal space has values 1 to 16 (i.e. up to 16 monitors)

second PR cct

2 ccts per TB

Figure 7-6. Servo Monitor with Three LVDTs

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

LVDT Auto Calibration


A procedure can be used to calibrate the valve mounted LVDTs. From the toolbox a series of commands are made from the LVDT/R Calibration dialog box (refer to Figure 7-7).
View position gain & offset constants for each LVDT Calibrate; the system learns the voltage ranges for future use Save the measured values to controller flash memory Verify the performance by stroking the actuator under manual control, position ramping, or step current

Force actuator to minimum end position (positive current, shutdown)

Force actuator to maximum end position (negative current, maximum capacity) Fix; take the measured values

Actual values for all regulators

Manual entry of actuator position

Figure 7-7. LVDT Auto Calibration Screen on the Toolbox

By selecting Calibration Mode-On, a full-screen real time trend of current and valve position displays. This is used to verify LVDT calibration and actuator performance.

Calibrate Sequence. The Min End Position command is sent to the VSVO board, which checks the permissive logic, then manipulates the valve current reference to the servo valve. The servo valve drives the actuator to its end stop where the LVDT voltage is read. Clicking the Max End Position button causes the actuator to be driven to the other end stop where the LVDT voltage is read again. The difference represents a known stroke. These voltage fixes are used in conjunction with the I/O configuration definition of the end stops to map the LVDT voltages into the actuator stroke, in engineering units. The normal voltage range is learned during the calibration, a margin is added, and the result is used for shutdown and diagnostic limits. For firmware revisions VSVO-EB and earlier, after 30 minutes with no activity, Calibration Mode automatically switches to Off, and servo motion can occur.

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-9

Verification. The three ways to verify servo performance through stroking the actuator are manual, position ramping, and step current. In manual mode, the desired value is entered numerically and the performance monitored from the trend recorder. Select Verify Position to apply a ramp to the actuator, and select Verify Current to apply a step input to the actuator. The trend recorder displays any abnormalities in the actuator stroke.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Generator Synchronization
Top center is often known as top dead center. This section describes the Mark VI Generator Synchronization system. Its purpose is to momentarily energize the breaker close coil, at the optimum time and with the correct amount of time anticipation, so as to close the breaker contact at top center on the synchroscope. Closure will be within one degree of top center. It is a requirement that a normally closed breaker auxiliary contact be used to interrupt the closing coil current. The synchronizing system consists of three basic functions, each with an output relay, with all three relays connected in series. All three functions have to be true (relay picked up) simultaneously before the system applies power to the breaker close coil. Normally there will be additional external permissive contacts in series with the Mark VI system, but it is required that they be permissives only, and that the precise timing of the breaker closure be controlled by the Mark VI system. The three functions are: Relay K25P, a synchronize permissive; turbine sequence status Relay K25A, a synchronize check; checks that the slip and phase are within a window (rectangle shape); this window is configurable Relay K25, an auto synchronize; optimizes for top dead center

The K25A relay should close before the K25 otherwise the synch check function will interfere with the auto synch optimizing. If this sequence is not executed, a diagnostic alarm will be posted, a lockout signal will be set true in signal space, and the application code may prevent any further attempts to synchronize until a reset is issued and the correct coordination is set up.

Hardware
The synchronizing system interfaces to the breaker close coil via the TTUR terminal board as in Figure 7-8. Three Mark VI relays must be picked up, plus external permissives must be true, before a breaker closure can be made. The K25P relay is directly driven from the controller application code. In a TMR system, it is driven from <R>, <S>, and <T>, using 2/3 logic voting. For a simplex system, it may be configured by jumper to be driven from <R> only. The K25 relay is driven from the VTUR auto synch algorithm, which is managed by the controller application code. In a TMR system, it is driven from <R>, <S>, and <T>, using 2/3 logic voting. Again for a simplex system, it may be configured by jumper to be driven from <R> only. The K25A relay is located on TTUR, but is driven from the VPRO synch check algorithm, which is managed by the controller application code. The relay is driven from VPRO, <R8>, <S8>, and <T8>, using 2/3 logic voting in TREG/L/S. The synch check relay driver (located on TREG/L/S) is connected to the K25A relay coil (located on TTUR) through cabling through J2 to TRPG/L/S. It then goes through JR1 (and JS1, JT1) to J4 and VTUR, then J3, JR1 to TTUR. Both sides of the breaker close coil power bus must be connected to the TTUR board. This provides diagnostic information and also measures the breaker closure time, through the normally open breaker auxiliary contact for optimization. The breaker close circuit is rated to make (close) 10 amps at 125 VDC, but to open only 0.6 amps. A normally open auxiliary contact on the breaker is required to interrupt the closing coil current.

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<T> <S> <R> TTUR VTUR TTUR Cont'd P28 K25P K25 J3 Cont'd JR1 Cont'd 2/3 RD <T> 2/3 RD <S> K25A

Generator, PT secondary, nomin. 115 Vac, (75 to 130 Vac), 45 to 66 hz.

17 18

Fan out connection JR1

J3

Slip +0.3 hz

P125/24 VDC 03

(0.25 hz)

+0.12 hz JS1 Gen lag

Bus, PT secondary, nomin. 115 Vac, (75 to 130 Vac), 45 to 66 hz.

19 20

to <S> JT1 to <T>

Phase +10 Deg Gen lead

(0.1 hz)

01 02

CB_Volts_OK CB_K25P_PU L52G CB_K25_PU

K25P K25 K25A

04 05 06 07 52G b

L52G a

Auto Synch Algorithm

CB_K25A_PU

Breaker Close Coil 08 N125/24 VDC

J4

JR1 JS1 JT1

TRPG/L/S

J2 <T8> <S8> <R8> VPRO

J2 TREG/L/S

TPRO

Generator, PT secondary, nomin. 115 Vac, (75 to 130 Vac), 45 to 66 hz.

1 2

Fan out connection JX1

J3 J6 Slip
+0.3 Hz

JX1 <R8> <S8> <T8>

L25A

K25A Relay Driver 2/3 RD

JY1 Bus, PT secondary, nomin. 115 Vac, (75 to 130 Vac), 45 to 66 hz. 3 4 to <S8> JZ1 to <T8>

-10 Deg

+10 Deg Phase -0.3 Hz

Synch Check Algorithm

Figure 7-8. Generator Synchronizing System

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Application Code
The application code must sequence the turbine and bring it to a state where it is ready for the generator to synchronize with the system bus. For automatic synchronization, the code must: Match speeds Match voltages Energize the synch permissive relay, K25P Arm (grant permission to) the synch check function (VPRO, K25A) Arm (grant permission to) the auto synch function (VTUR, K25)

The following illustrations represent positive slip (Gen) and negative phase (Gen).
Oscilloscope V_Bus V_Gen time Voltage Phasors SynchroScope

V_Bus V_Gen, Lagging

Figure 7-9. Generator Synchronizing System

Algorithm Descriptions
This section describes the synchronizing algorithms in the VTUR I/O processor, and then VPRO.

Automatic Synchronization Control in VTUR (K25)


VTUR runs the auto synch algorithm. Its basic function is to monitor two Potential Transformer (PT) inputs, generator and bus, to calculate phase and slip difference, and when armed (enabled) from the application code, and when the calculations anticipate top center, to attempt a breaker closure by energizing relay K25. The algorithm uses the zero voltage crossing technique to calculate phase, slip, and acceleration. It compensates for breaker closure time delay (configurable), with selfadaptive control when enabled, with configurable limits. It is interrupt driven and must have generator voltage to function. The configuration can manage the timing on two separate breakers. For details, refer to Figure 7-10. The algorithm has a bypass function, two signals for redundancy, to provide dead bus and Manual Breaker Closures. It anticipates top dead center, therefore it uses a projected window, based on current phase, slip, acceleration, and breaker closure time. To pickup K25, the generator must be currently lagging, have been lagging for the last 10 consecutive cycles, and projected (anticipated) to be leading when the breaker actually reaches closure. Auto synch will not allow the breaker to close with negative slip. In this fashion, assuming the correct breaker closure time has been acquired, and the synch check relay is not interfering, breaker closures with less than 1 degree error can be obtained.

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Slip is the difference frequency (Hz), positive when the generator is faster than the bus. Positive phase means the generator is leading the bus, the generator is ahead in time, or the right hand side on the synchroscope. The standard window is fixed and is not configurable. However, a special window has been provided for synchronous condenser applications where a more permissive window is needed. It is selectable with a signal space Boolean and has a configurable slip parameter. The algorithm validates both PT inputs with a requirement of 50% nominal amplitude or greater; that is, they must exceed approximately 60 V rms before they are accepted as legitimate signals. This is to guard against cross talk under open circuit conditions. The monitor mode is used to verify that the performance of the system is correct, and to block the actual closure of the K25 relay contacts; it is used as a confidence builder. The signal space Input Gen_Sync_Lo will become true if the K25 contacts are closed when they should not be closed, or if the Synch Check K25A is not picked up before the Auto Synch K25. It is latched and can be reset with Synch_Reset. The algorithm compensates for breaker closure time delay, with a nominal breaker close time, provided in the configuration in milliseconds. This compensation is adjusted with self-adaptive control, based upon the measured breaker close time. The adjustment is made in increments of one cycle (16.6/20 ms) per breaker closure and is limited in authority to a configurable parameter. If the adjustment reaches the limit, a diagnostic alarm Breaker #n Slower/Faster Than Limits Allows is posted.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Signal Space, Outputs; Algorithm Inputs VTUR Config SystemFreq CB1CloseTime CB1AdaptLimt CB1AdapEnbl CB1FreqDiff CB1PhaseDiff etc. for CB2_Selected CB2 TTUR AS_Win_Sel 17 Generator, PT secondary 18 19 Bus, PT secondary 20

Slip

+0.3 Hz (0.25Hz) +0.12 Hz (0.1Hz) +10 Deg Phase Gen Lead

L3window Signal Space, inputs Algorithm Outputs GenFreq BusFreq GenVoltsDiff GenFreqDiff GenPhaseDiff CB1CloseTime CB2CloseTime

Gen Lag

Phase, Slip, Freq, Amplitude, Bkr Close Time, Calculators Gen lagging (10)

19 L52G a 20 L52G Sync_Perm_AS, L83AS PT Signal Validation L3window L52G Sync_Bypass1 Sync_Bypass0 Gen voltage AND OR Min close pulse Max(6,bkr close time) AND Diagn AND Ckt_Bkr L25_Command TTUR K25 Sync_Monitor Sync_Perm Synch_Reset AND

CB_Volts_OK CB_K25P_PU CB_K25_PU CB_K25A_PU

Gen_Sync_LO

CB_Volts_OK CB_K25P_PU CB_K25_PU CB_K25A_PU

Figure 7-10. Automatic Synchronizing on VTUR

Synchronization Check in VPRO (K25A)


The synch check algorithm is performed in the VPRO boards. Its basic function is to monitor two Potential Transformer (PT) inputs, and to calculate generator and bus voltage amplitudes and frequencies, phase, and slip. When it is armed (enabled) from the application code, and when the calculations determine that the input variables are within the requirements, the relay K25A will be energized. The above limits are configurable. The algorithm uses the phase lock loop technique to derive the above input variables, and is therefore relatively immune from noise disturbances. For details, refer to Figure 7-11.

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The algorithm has a bypass function to provide dead bus closures. The window in this algorithm is the current window, not the projected window (as used on the auto synch function), therefore it does not include anticipation. The Synch Check will allow the breaker to close with negative slip. Slip is the difference frequency (Hz), positive when the Generator is faster than the Bus. Positive phase means the generator is leading the Bus, the Generator is ahead in time, or the right hand side on the synchroscope. The window is configurable and both phase and slip are adjustable within predefined limits.
Signal Space, Outputs; Algorithm Inputs VPRO Config SynchCheck used/unused SystemFreq FreqDiff TurbRPM PhaseDiff *ReferFreq PR_Std PR1/PR2 TPRO 1 Generator, PT secondary Bus, PT secondary 2 3 4 GenVolts GenVoltage 6.9 BusVolts BusVoltage 6.9 GenVoltsDiff VoltageDiff 2.8 A A>B B DriveFreq

Slip +0.3 Hz +10 Deg Phase Gen Lag Gen Lead

L3window Signal Space, inputs; Algorithm Outputs BusFreq GenFreq GenVoltsDiff GenFreqDiff GenPhaseDiff

center freq Phase Lock Loop Phase, Slip, Freq, Amplitude Calculations

L3GenVolts

A L3BusVolts A>B AND B A A<B B L3window AND

SynCk_Perm SynCk_Bypass L3GenVolts L3BusVolts *Note: "ReferFreq" is a configuration parameter, used to make a selection of the variable that is used to establish the center frequency of the "Phase Lock Loop". It allows a choise between: (a): "PR_Std" using speed input , PulseRate1, on a single shaft application; speed input, PulseRate2,on all multiple shaft applications. (b): or "SgSpace", the Generator freq (Hz), from signal space (application code), "DriveFreq". Choise (b) is used when (a) is not applicable. AND dead bus

OR

L25A_Command TREG/L/S TRPG/L/S VTUR RD

TTUR K25A

Figure 7-11. Synchronization Check on VTUR

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Configuration
VTUR configuration of the auto synch function is shown in Table 7-1. The configuration is located under J3 J5: IS200VTUR, signal Ckt_Bkr.
Table 7-1. VTUR Auto Synch Configuration VTUR Parameter SystemFreq CB1CloseTime CB1AdaptLimt CB1AdaptEnabl CB1FreqDiff CB1PhaseDiff CB2CloseTime CB2AdaptLimt CB2AdaptEnabl CB2FreqDiff CB2PhaseDiff Description System Frequency Breaker #1 closing time Breaker #1 adaption limit Breaker #1 adaption enable Breaker #1 allowable frequency difference for the special window Breaker #1 allowable phase difference for the special window Breaker #2 closing time Breaker #2 adaption limit Breaker #2 adaption enable Breaker #2 allowable frequency difference for the special window Breaker #2 allowable phase difference for the special window Selection Choice 50 Hz, 60 Hz 0 to 500 ms 0 to 500 ms Enable, disable 0.15 to 0.66 Hz 0 to 20 degrees 0 to 500 ms 0 to 500 ms Enable, disable 0.15 to 0.66 Hz 0 to 20 degrees

VPRO configuration of the Synch Check Function is shown in Table 7-2. The configuration is located under J3: IS200TREX, signal K25A_Fdbk.
Table 7-2. VTUR Auto Synch Configuration VPRO Parameter SynchCheck SystemFreq ReferFreq Description Enable System Frequency Phase Lock Loop center frequency Selection Choice Used, unused 50 Hz, 60 Hz PR_Std, SgSpace Where PR_Std means use PulseRate1 on a single shaft application - use PulseRate2 on all multiple shaft applications SgSpace means use generator freq (Hz), from signal space (application code), DriveFreq 0 to 20,000 Used to compensate for driving gear ratio between the turbine and the generator 1 to 1,000 0 to 0.5 Hz 0 to 30 degrees 1 to 1,000 1 to 1,000 Engineering units, kV or percent Engineering units, kV or percent Engineering units, kV or percent

TurbRPM

Load Turbine rated RPM

VoltageDiff FreqDiff PhaseDiff GenVoltage BusVoltage

Allowable voltage difference Allowable freq difference Allowable phase difference Allowable minimum gen voltage Allowable minimum bus voltage

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-17

This section defines all inputs and outputs in signal space that are available to the application code for synchronization control. The breaker closure is not given directly from the application code, rather the synchronizing algorithms, located in the I/O boards, are armed from this code. In special situations the synch relays are operated directly from the application code, for example when there is a dead bus. The VTUR signal space interface for the Auto Synch function is shown in Table 7-3.
Table 7-3. VTUR Auto Synch Signal Space Interface VTUR Signal Space Output Sync_Perm_AS Sync_Perm Sync_Monitor Description Auto Synch permissive Synch permissive mode, L25P Auto Synch monitor mode Comments Traditionally known as L83AS Traditionally known as L25P; interface to control the K25P relay Traditionally known as L83S_MTR; enables the Auto Synch function, except it blocks the K25 relays from picking up Traditionally known as L25_BYPASS; to pickup L25 for Dead Bus or Manual Synch Traditionally known as L25_BYPASSZ; to pickup L25 for Dead Bus or Manual Synch Traditionally known as L43SAUTO2; to use the breaker close time associated with Breaker #2 New function, used on synchronous condenser applications to give a more permissive window Traditionally known as L86MR_TCEA; to reset the synch Lockout function

Sync_Bypass1 Sync_Bypass0 CB2 Selected AS_WIN_SEL Synch_Reset

Auto Synch bypass Auto Synch bypass #2 Breaker is selected Special Auto Synch window Auto Synch reset

VTUR Signal Space Inputs Ckt_BKR CB_Volts_OK CB_K25P_PU Breaker State (feedback) Breaker Closing Coil Voltage is present Traditionally known as L52B_SEL Used in diagnostics

Breaker Closing Coil Voltage is Used in diagnostics present downstream of the K25P relay contacts Breaker Closing Coil Voltage is present downstream of the K25 relay contacts Used in diagnostics

CB_K25_PU

CB_K25A_PU

Breaker Closing Coil Voltage is Used in diagnostics present downstream of the K25A relay contacts Synch Lock out Traditionally known as L30AS1 or L30AS2; it is a latched signal requiring a reset to clear (Synch_Reset). It detects a K25 relay problem (picked up when it should be dropped out) or a slow Synch Check (relay K25A) function Traditionally known as L25 Hz

Gen_Sync_LO

L25_Comand GenFreq

Breaker Close Command to the K25 relay Generator frequency

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BusFreq GenVoltsDiff GenFreqDiff GenPhaseDiff CB1CloseTime CB2CloseTime GenPT_Kvolts BusPT_Kvolts

Bus frequency Difference Voltage between the Generator and the Bus Difference Frequency between the Generator and the Bus Difference Phase between the Generator and the Bus Breaker #1 measured close time Breaker #2 measured close time Generator Voltage Bus Voltage

Hz Engineering units, kV or percent Hz Degree ms ms Engineering units, kV or percent Engineering units, kV or percent

The VPRO signal space interface for the Synch Check function is shown in Table 7-4.
Table 7-4. VPRO Synch Check Signal Space Interface VPRO Signal Space Outputs SynCk_Perm SynCk_ByPass DriveRef Description Synch Check permissive Synch Check bypass Comments Traditionally known as L25X_PERM Traditionally known as L25X_BYPASS; used for dead bus closure

Drive (generator) frequency (Hz) Traditionally known as TND_PC; used only for nonused for Phase Lock Loop center standard drives where the center frequency can not be frequency derived from the pulserate signals

VPRO Signal Space Inputs K25A_Fdbk L25A_Cmd BusFreq GenFreq GenVoltsDiff GenFreqDiff GenPhaseDiff GenPT_Kvolts BusPT_Kvolts Feedback from K25A relay The synch check relay close command Bus frequency Generator frequency The difference voltage between the gen and bus The difference frequency (slip) between the gen and bus The difference phase between the gen and bus Generator voltage Bus voltage Traditionally known as L25X Traditionally known as SFL2, Hz Hz Traditionally known as DV_ERR, engineering units kV or percent Traditionally known as SFDIFF2, Hz Traditionally known as SSDIFF2, degrees Traditionally known as DV, engineering units kV or percent Traditionally known as SVL, engineering units kV or percent

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-19

VTUR Diagnostics for the Auto Synch Function


L3BKR_GXS Synch Check Relay is Slow. This means that K25 (auto synch) has picked up, but K25A (synch check) or K25P has not picked up, or there is no breaker closing voltage source. If it is due to a slow K25A relay, the breaker will close but the K25A is interfering with the K25 optimization. It will cause the input signal Gen_Sync_LO to become TRUE. L3BKR_GES Auto Synch Relay is Slow. This means the K25 (auto synch) relay has not picked up when it should have, or the K25P is not picked up, or there is no breaker closing voltage source. It will cause the input signal Gen_Sync_LO to become TRUE. Breaker #1 Slower than Adjustment Limit Allows. This means, on breaker #1, the self-adaptive function adjustment of the Breaker Close Time has reached the allowable limit and can not make further adjustments to correct the Breaker Close Time. Breaker #2 Slower than Adjustment Limit Allows. This means, on breaker #2, the self-adaptive function adjustment of the Breaker Close Time has reached the allowable limit and can not make further adjustments to correct the Breaker Close Time. Synchronization Trouble K25 Relay Locked Up. This means the K25 relay is picked up when it should not be. It will cause the input signal Gen_Sync_LO to become TRUE.

VPRO Diagnostics for the Auto Synch Function


K25A Relay (synch check) Driver mismatch requested state. This means VPRO cannot establish a current path from VPRO to the TREx terminal board. K25A Relay (synch check) Coil trouble, cabling to P28V on TTUR. This means the K25A relay is not functional; it could be due to an open circuit between the TREx and the TTUR terminal boards or to a missing P28 V source on the TTUR terminal board.

Hardware Verification Procedure


The hardware interface may be verified by forcing the three synchronizing relays, individually or in combination. If the breaker close coil is connected to the TTUR terminal board, then the breaker must be disabled so as not to actually connect the generator to the system bus. 1. Operate the K25P relay by forcing output signal Sync_Perm found under VTUR, card points. Verify that the K25P relay is functional by probing TTUR screws 3 and 4. The application code has direct control of this relay. Simulate generator voltage on TTUR screws 17 and 18. Operate the K25 relay by forcing TTUR, card point output signals Sync_Bypass1 =1, and Sync_Bypass0 = 0. Verify that the K25 relay is functional by probing screws 4 and 5 on TTUR. Simulate generator voltage on TPRO screws 1 and 2. Operate the K25A relay by forcing TPRO, card point output signals SynCK_Bypass =1, and SynCk_Perm 1. The bus voltage must be zero (dead bus) for this test to be functional. Verify that the K25A relay is functional by probing screws 5 and 6 on TTUR.

2.

3.

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Synchronization Simulation
To simulate a synchronization 1. 2. Disable the breaker Establish the center frequency of the VPRO PLL; this depends on the VPRO configuration, under J3:IS200TREx, signal K25A_Fdbk, ReferFreq. a. If ReferFreq is configured PR_Std, and <P> is configured for a single shaft machine, then apply rated speed (frequency) to input PulseRate1; that is TPRO screw pairs 31/32, 37/38, and 43/44. b. If ReferFreq is configured PR_Std and <P> is configured for a multiple shaft machine, then apply rated speed (frequency) to input PulseRate 2, that is TPRO screw pairs 33/34, 39/40, and 45/46. c. If ReferFreq is configured SgSpace, force VPRO signal space output DriveRef to 50 or 60 (Hz), depending on the system frequency. Apply the bus voltage, a nominal 115 V ac, 50/60 Hz, to TTUR screws 19 and 20, and to TPRO screws 3 and 4. Apply the generator voltage, a nominal 115 V ac, adjustable frequency, to TTUR screws 17 and 18 and to TPRO screws 1 and 2. Adjust the frequency to a value to give a positive slip, that is VTUR signal GenFreqDiff of 0.1 to 0.2 Hz. (10 to 5 sec scope). Force the following signals to the TRUE state: 6. 7. VTUR, Sync_Perm, then K25P should pick up VTUR, Sync_Perm_AS, then K25 should pulse when the voltages are in phase VPRO, SynCK_Perm, then K25A should pulse when the voltages are in phase

3. 4.

5.

Verify that the TTUR breaker close interface circuit, screws 3 to 7, is being made (contacts closed) when the voltages are in phase. Run a trend chart on the following signals: VPRO: GenFreqDiff, GenPhaseDiff, L25A_Command, K25A_Fdbk VTUR: GenFreqDiff, GenPhaseDiff, L25_Command, CB_K25_PU, CB_K25A_PU

8. 9.

Use an oscilloscope, voltmeter, synchroscope, or a light to verify that the relays are pulsing at approximately the correct time. Examine the trend chart and verify that the correlation between the phase and the close commands is correct.

10. Increase the slip frequency to 0.5 Hz and verify that K25 and K25A stop pulsing and are open. 11. Return the slip frequency to 0.1 to 0.2 Hz, and verify that K25 and K25A are pulsing. Reduce the generator voltage to 40 V ac and verify that K25 and K25A stop pulsing and are open.

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-21

Overspeed Protection Logic


Figures 7-12 through 7-32 define the protection algorithms coded in the VPRO firmware. VTUR contains similar algorithms. A parameter configurable from the toolbox is illustrated with the abbreviation CFG(xx), where xx indicates the configuration location. Some parameters/variables are followed with an SS indicating they are outputs from Signal Space (meaning they are driven from the CSDBase); other variables are followed with IO indicating they are hardware I/O points.
CONTACT INPUT TRIPS:
Notes: VPRO config data from signal space to signal space

,CFG ,SS (SS)

== == ==

KESTOP1_Fdbk, IO L86MR, SS

L5ESTOP1, (SS)

ESTOP1 TRIP

L5ESTOP1

KESTOP2_Fdbk, IO L86MR, SS

L5ESTOP2, (SS) ESTOP2 TRIP

L5ESTOP2

vcmi_master_keepalive 3

A A>=B B

L3SS_Comm, (SS)

Trip_Mode1, CFG Direct, CNST

A A=B B A A=B B

Trip1_En_Dir

Trip1_En_Cond

Conditional, CNST Contact1, IO Trip1_En_Dir Trip1_Inhbt, SS L3SS_Comm

Trip1_En_Cond

L5Cont1_Trip, (SS) TDPU CONTACT1 TRIP

TrpTimeDelay (sec.), CFG (J3, Contact1) L5Cont1_Trip L86MR, SS

Trip1_Inhbt, SS

Inhbt_T1_Fdbk, (SS)

Figure 7-12. VPRO Protection Logic - Contact Inputs

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CONTACT INPUT TRIPS (CONT.):


Trip_Mode2, CFG Direct, CNST A A=B B A A=B B Trip2_En_Dir

Trip2_En_Cond

Conditional, CNST Contact2, IO Trip2_En_Dir Trip2_Inhbt, SS L3SS_Comm

Trip2_En_Cond

L5Cont2_Trip, (SS) TDPU CONTACT2 TRIP

TrpTimeDelay (sec.), CFG (J3, Contact2) L5Cont2_Trip L86MR, SS

Trip2_Inhbt, SS

Inhbt_T2_Fdbk, (SS)

Trip_Mode3, CFG Direct, CNST

A A=B B A A=B B

Trip3_En_Dir

Trip3_En_Cond

Conditional, CNST Contact3, IO Trip3_En_Dir Trip3_Inhbt, SS L3SS_Comm

Trip3_En_Cond

L5Cont3_Trip, (SS) TDPU CONTACT3 TRIP

TrpTimeDelay (sec.), CFG (J3, Contact3) L5Cont3_Trip L86MR, SS

Trip3_Inhbt, SS

Inhbt_T3_Fdbk, (SS)

Figure 7-13. VPRO Protection Logic - Contact Inputs (continued)

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-23

CONTACT INPUT TRIPS (CONT.):


Trip_Mode4, CFG Direct, CNST A A=B B A A=B B Trip4_En_Dir

Trip4_En_Cond

Conditional, CNST Contact4, IO Trip4_En_Dir Trip4_Inhibit, SS L3SS_Comm

Trip4_En_Cond

L5Cont4_Trip, (SS) TDPU CONTACT4 TRIP

TrpTimeDelay (sec.), CFG (J3, Contact4) L5Cont4_Trip L86MR, SS

Trip4_Inhbt, SS

Inhbt_T4_Fdbk, (SS)

Trip_Mode5, CFG Direct, CNST

A A=B B A A=B B

Trip5_En_Dir

Trip5_En_Cond

Conditional, CNST Contact5, IO Trip5_En_Dir Trip5_Inhibit, SS L3SS_Comm

Trip5_En_Cond

L5Cont5_Trip, (SS) TDPU CONTACT5 TRIP

TrpTimeDelay (sec.), CFG (J3, Contact5) L5Cont5_Trip L86MR, SS

Trip5_Inhbt, SS

Inhbt_T5_Fdbk, (SS)

Figure 7-14. VPRO Protection Logic - Contact Inputs (continued)

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CONTACT INPUT TRIPS (CONT.):


Trip_Mode6, CFG Direct, CNST A A=B B A A=B B Trip6_En_Dir

Trip6_En_Cond

Conditional, CNST Contact6, IO Trip6_En_Dir Trip6_Inhibit, SS L3SS_Comm

Trip6_En_Cond

L5Cont6_Trip, (SS) TDPU CONTACT6 TRIP

TrpTimeDelay (sec.), CFG (J3, Contact4) L5Cont6_Trip L86MR, SS

Trip6_Inhbt, SS

Inhbt_T6_Fdbk, (SS)

Trip_Mode7, CFG Direct, CNST

A A=B B A A=B B

Trip7_En_Dir

Trip7_En_Cond

Conditional, CNST Contact7, IO Trip7_En_Dir Trip7_Inhibit, SS L3SS_Comm

Trip7_En_Cond

L5Cont7_Trip, (SS) TDPU CONTACT7 TRIP

TrpTimeDelay (sec.), CFG (J3, Contact5) L5Cont7_Trip L86MR, SS

Trip7_Inhbt, SS

Inhbt_T7_Fdbk, (SS)

Figure 7-15. VPRO Protection Logic - Contact Inputs (continued)

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-25

OnlineOS1Tst, SS

OnLineOS1 Online OverSpeed Test

OnlineOS1X, SS

OnlineOS1X, SS A TDPU 1.5 sec B L97EOST_ONLZ

OnlineOS1x, SS

L97EOST_ONLZ

L97EOST_RE Reset pulse

L86MR, SS

L86MRX

L97EOST_RE

OnLineOS1X, SS L97EOST_ONLZ 1.5 sec

L97EOST_RE, Reset Pulse

Figure 7-16. VPRO Protection Logic - Online Overspeed Test

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OS1_Setpoint , SS RPM OS_Setpoint, CFG (J5, PulseRate1) RPM

A A-B B A Min B A

|A| 1 RPM

A A>B B

OS1_SP_CfgEr System Alarm, if the two setpoints don't agree

OS_Stpt_PR1 A 0.04 Mult A Min B A A+B B zero

OS_Setpoint_PR1

B OS_Tst_Delta CFG(J5, PulseRate1) RPM OfflineOS1test, SS OnlineOS1

PulseRate1, IO

A A>=B OS1

OS_Setpoint_PR1

OS1

OS1_Trip Overspeed Trip L86MRX

OS1_Trip

Figure 7-17. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed Trip, HP

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-27

PR_Zero 1 0 A A<B B

Hyst RPM

PulseRate1, IO
Zero_Speed, CFG(J5,PulseRate1)

CFG

PR1_Zero

+ 1 RPM _

Min_Speed, CFG (J5, PulseRate1) S (Der) PR1_Accel -100 %/sec*

A>B
B A

PR1_Min

A<B
B A

PR1_Dec

Acc_Setpoint, CFG (J5,PulseRate1) PR1_DEC Dec1_Trip L86MR,SS

A>B
B

PR1_Acc

Dec1_Trip Decel Trip

Acc_Trip, CFG (J5, PulseRate1) PR1_ACC Acc1_Trip L86MR,SS


Enable

Acc1_TrEnab

Acc1_Trip Accel Trip

*Note: where 100% is defined as the configured value of OS_Stpt_PR1

Figure 7-18. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed Trip, HP (continued)

7-28 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

OS1_SP_CfgEr L5CFG1_Trip

PR1_Zero L86MR,SS

L5CFG1_Trip HP Config Trip

PR_Max_Rst PR1_Zero_Old PR1_Zero

PR1_Max_Rst

PR1_Zero

0.00 PR1_Max_Rst PulseRate1

Max

PR1_Max

PR1_Zero

PR1_Zero_Old

Figure 7-19. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed Trip, HP (continued)

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-29

OS2_Setpoint , SS RPM OS_Setpoint, CFG (J5, PulseRate2) RPM

A A-B B A Min B A

|A| 1 RPM

A A>B B

OS2_SP_CfgEr System Alarm, if the two setpoints don't agree

OS_Stpt_PR2 A 0.04 OS_Tst_Delta CFG(J5, PulseRate2) OfflineOS2test, SS OnlineOS2 Mult B RPM A Min B A A+B B zero

OS_Setpoint_PR2

PulseRate2, IO

A A>=B OS2

OS_Setpoint_PR2

OS2

OS2_Trip Overspeed Trip

OS2_Trip

L86MR,SS

Figure 7-20. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed LP

7-30 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

PulseRate2, IO

A<B
Zero_Speed, CFG (J5, PulseRate2)

PR2_Zero

B
A

Min_Speed, CFG (J5, PulseRate2) S (Der) PR2_Accel -100 %/sec*

A>B
B A

PR2_Min

A<B
B A

PR2_Dec

Acc_Setpoint, CFG (J5,PulseRate2)

A>B
B

PR2_Acc

PR2_DEC

Dec2_Trip Decel Trip LP L86MR,SS

Dec2_Trip

Acc_Trip, CFG (J5, PulseRate2) PR2_ACC Acc2_Trip PR2_MIN L86MR,SS Enable Acc2_TrEnab Acc2_Trip Accel Trip LP

*Note: where 100% is defined as the configured value of OS_Stpt_PR2

Figure 7-21. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed LP (continued)

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-31

OS2_SP_CfgEr

PR2_Zero

L5CFG2_Trip

LP Config Trip

L5CFG2_Trip L86MR,SS

PR_Max_Rst PR2_Zero_Old PR2_Zero

PR2_Max_Rst

PR2_Zero

0.00 PR2_Max_Rst PulseRate2 PR2_Zero PR2_Zero_Old Max PR2_Max

PR1_MIN LPShaftLocked

PR2_Zero L86MR, SS

LockRotorByp

LPShaftLocked

Figure 7-22. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed LP (continued)

7-32 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

OS3_Setpoint , SS RPM OS_Setpoint, CFG (J5, PulseRate3) RPM

A A-B B A Min B A

|A| 1 RPM

A A>B B

OS3_SP_CfgEr System Alarm, if the two setpoints don't agree

OS_Stpt_PR3 A 0.04 OS_Tst_Delta CFG(J5, PulseRate3) OfflineOS3tst, SS OnlineOS3tst, SS Mult B RPM A Min B A A+B B zero

OS_Setpoint_PR3

PulseRate3, IO

A A>=B OS3

OS_Setpoint_PR3

OS3

OS3_Trip Overspeed Trip L86MRX

OS3_Trip

Figure 7-23. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed IP

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-33

PulseRate3, IO

A A<B
Zero_Speed, CFG (J5, PulseRate3)

PR3_Zero

B A PR3_Min

Min_Speed, CFG (J5, PulseRate3) S (Der) PR3_Accel -100 %/sec*

A>B
B

A A<B B A A>B

PR3_Dec

PR3_Acc

Acc_Setpoint, CFG (J5,PulseRate3)

PR3_DEC

Dec3_Trip Decel Trip IP

Dec3_Trip

L86MR,SS

Acc_Trip, CFG (J5, PulseRate3) PR3_ACC Acc3_Trip PR3_MIN Enable Acc3_TrEnab Acc3_Trip Accel Trip IP

L86MR,SS

*Note: where 100% is defined as the configured value of OS_Stpt_PR2

Figure 7-24. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed IP (continued)

7-34 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

OS3_SP_CfgEr L5CFG3_Trip PR_Max_Rst PR3_Zero_Old

PR3_Zero L86MR,SS

L5CFG3_Trip

IP Config Trip

PR3_Max_Rst PR3_Zero

PR3_Zero

0.00 PR3_Max_Rst PulseRate3

Max

PR3_Max

PR3_Zero

PR3_Zero_Old

Figure 7-25. VPRO Protection Logic - Overspeed IP (continued)

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-35

,CFG ,SS (SS)

Notes: == VPRO config data == from signal space == to signal space

TC1 (SS) TC2 (SS) TC3 (SS) Zero


MAX

MED

TC_MED(SS)

OTSPBias(SS)

OTBias,SS L3SS_Comm OTBias_RampP,CFG OTBias_RampN,CFG OTBias_Dflt,CFG A A-B B


-1 MED

A A+B B

TC_MED Overtemp_Trip,CFG A A-B OTSPBias B

A A>=B B

L26T

OTSetpoint(SS)

OT_Trip_Enable,CFG L26T OT_Trip (SS)

OT_Trip

L86MR,SS

Figure 7-26. VPRO Protection Logic - Over-temperature

7-36 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

RatedRPM_TA, CFG (VPRO, Config)

RPM_94% Calc Trip Anticipate Speed references RPM_103.5% RPM_106% RPM_116% RPM_1%

RPM_116% OS1_TATrpSp,SS RPM

A A<B B

TA_StptLoss,SS OR

Alarm L30TA

A A<B RPM_103.5% B RPM_106%

TA_Spd_SP

RPM_1%/sec TA_Spd_SP RPM_94% TrpAntcptTst PulseRate1, IO, RPM RPM_1% Rate Ramp
(Out=In)

TA_Spd_SPX, RPM

Reset

A Trp_Anticptr A<B B
Hyst

SteamTurbOnly

Trp_Anticptr

TA_Trip,SS

Trip Anticipator Trip L12TA_TP

Figure 7-27. VPRO Protection Logic - Trip Anticipation

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-37

L5Cont_Trip L5Cont1_Trip L5Cont2_Trip L5Cont3_Trip L5Cont4_Trip L5Cont5_Trip L5Cont6_Trip L5Cont7_Trip Contact Trip

Turbine_Type, CFG (VPRO Crd_Cfg) LargeSteam MediumSteam SmallSteam

SteamTurb Only

Configured Steam Turbine only, not including Stag

OS1_Trip Dec1_Trip L5CFG1_Trip L5Cont_Trip Acc1_Trip Cross_Trip, SS OT_Trip LM_2Shaft LM_3Shaft HPZero SpdByp,SS

ComposTrip1A Composite Trip 1A

SteamTurbOnly
PR1__Zero

L3Z

LMTripZEnabl, CFG(VPRO)
Figure 7-28. VPRO Protection Logic - Trip Logic

7-38 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

OS2_Trip Dec2_Trip

GT_2Shaft

ComposTrip1B

Composite Trip 1B

LM_2Shaft L5CFG2_Trip LM_3Shaft Acc2_Trip LPShaftLocked OS3_Trip Dec3_Trip L5CFG3_Trip Acc3_Trip LM_3Shaft

ComposTrip1A ComposTrip1B

ComposTrip1

Composite Trip 1

Turbine_Type, CFG (VPRO) ComposTrip1 Stag_GT_1Sh Stag_GT_1Sh OS1_Trip Dec1_Trip L5CFG1_Trip L5Cont_Trip Acc1_Trip Cross_Trip, SS

ComposTrip2 Composite Trip 2

Figure 7-29. VPRO Protection Logic - Trip Logic (continued)

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-39

RelayOutput, CFG( J3,K1_Fdbk) used TA_Trip TestETR1 ComposTrip1 ETR1_Enab L5ESTOP1 x x ETR1

Trip Relay, Energize to Run


KE1*

TRES,TREL*

ETR1

SOL1_Vfdbk KE1_Enab TDPU used

TA_Trp_Enabl1
CFG(VPRO_CRD,CFG)

RelayOutput, CFG( J3,KE1_Vfdbk)

Economizing Relay, Energize to Econ, KE1, J3

2 sec
RelayOutput, CFG( J3,K2_Fdbk) used TA_Trip TestETR2 ComposTrip1 ETR2_Enab x L5ESTOP1 x ETR2

Trip Relay, Energize to Run Economizing Relay, Energize to Econ, KE2, J3

TRES,TREL*

ETR2

SOL2_Vfdbk

KE2_Enab TDPU

KE2*

TA_Trp_Enabl2
CFG(VPRO_CRD,CFG)

used

RelayOutput, CFG(J3,KE2_Vfdbk)

2 sec
RelayOutput, CFG( J3,K3_Fdbk)
L97EOST_ONLZ Large Steam

used TA_Trip ComposTrip1 TestETR3 ETR3_Enab L5ESTOP1 x x ETR3

Trip Relay, Energize to Run Economizing Relay, Energize to Econ, KE3, J3

TRES,TREL*

ETR3

SOL3_Vfdbk KE3_Enab TDPU used

KE3*

TA_Trp_Enabl3
CFG(VPRO_CRD,CFG)

RelayOutput, CFG(J3,KE3_Vfdbk)

2 sec

Note: * Functions, L5ESTOP1 & KEx are not included in the TRES, TREL TB applications. They are included only in the TREG applications.

Figure 7-30. VPRO Protection Logic - ETR 1, 2, and 3

7-40 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

RelayOutput, CFG( J43,K4_Fdbk) used TA_Trip TestETR4 ComposTrip1 ETR4_Enab L5ESTOP2 x x ETR4

Trip Relay, Energize to Run


KE4*

TRES,TREL*

ETR4

SOL4_Vfdbk KE4_Enab TDPU used

TA_Trp_Enabl4
CFG(VPRO_CRD,CFG)

RelayOutput, CFG( J4,KE4_Vfdbk)

Economizing Relay, Energize to Econ, KE1, J4

2 sec
RelayOutput, CFG( J4,K5_Fdbk) ComposTrip1 used ETR5_Enab x L5ESTOP2 x ETR5

Trip Relay, Energize to Run Economizing Relay, Energize to Econ, KE2, J4

TRES,TREL*

ETR5

SOL5_Vfdbk

KE5_Enab TDPU

KE5*

used

RelayOutput, CFG(J4,KE5_Vfdbk)

2 sec
RelayOutput, CFG( J4,K3_Fdbk) used ComposTrip2 ETR6_Enab L5ESTOP2 x x ETR6

Trip Relay, Energize to Run Economizing Relay, Energize to Econ, KE3, J4

TRES,TREL*

ETR6

SOL6_Vfdbk KE6_Enab TDPU used

KE6*

RelayOutput, CFG(J4,KE6_Vfdbk)

2 sec

Note: * Functions, L5ESTOP2 and are not included in the TRES, TREL TB applications. They are included only in the TREG applications.

Figure 7-31. VPRO Protection Logic - ETR 4, 5, and 6

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-41

CFG(J3, K25K_Fdbk)
SynchCheck(Used, Unused) VoltageDiff SystemFreq(50,60) TurbRPM ReferFreq FreqDiff PhaseDiff GenVoltage BusVoltage

SynCk_Perm, SS SynCk_ByPass, SS

Synch Check Function Slip

GenFreq, SS BusFreq, SS GenVolts, SS BusVolts, SS GenFreqDiff, SS

DriveFreq

Phase

GenPhaseDiff, SS GenVoltsDiff, SS

GenPT_KVolts, IO BusPT_KVolts, IO

Synch Window

L25A_Cmd, IO

ComposTrip1

K4CL_Enab Used

OnlineOS1Tst

K4CL

Servo Clamp Relay, Energize to Clamp, K4CL

RelayOutput, CFG (J3,K4CL_Fdbk)

L25A_Cmd

K25A_Enab Used

K25A

SynchCheck, CFG (J3,K25A_Fdbk)

Synch Check Relay Energize to Close Breaker, K25A on TTUR via TREG

Figure 7-32. VPRO Protection Logic - Servo Clamp

7-42 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Inputs TPRO, J5
Speeds, PR PulseRate1 PulseRate2 PulseRate3

Inputs TPRO, J6
Gen Volts Bus Volts Thermocouples GenPT_KVolts BusPT_KVolts TC1* TC2* TC3* ColdJunction Analog Inputs AnalogIn1 AnalogIn2 AnalogIn3

TREG, J3

ESTOP1

KESTOP1_Fdbk Contact1 Contact2 Contact3 Contact4 Contact5 Contact6 Contact7 Sol1_Vfdbk Sol2_Vfdbk Sol3_Vfdbk K1_Fdbk* K2_Fdbk* K3_Fdbk* KE1_Fdbk KE2_Fdbk KE3_Fdbk K4CL_Fdbk K25A_Fdbk ETR4 ETR5 ETR6 KESTOP2_Fdbk Sol4_Vfdbk Sol5_Vfdbk Sol6_Vfdbk K4_Fdbk* K5_Fdbk K6_Fdbk KE4_Fdbk KE5_Fdbk KE6_Fdbk KE4 KE5 KE6 ETR1 ETR2 ETR3 KE1 KE2 KE3 K4CL K25A

Trip Interlocks

Outputs:
TREG, J3 Relays KX1, KY1, KZ1 Relays KX2, KY2, KZ2 Relays KX3, KY3, KZ3 Relay KE1 Relay KE2 Relay KE3 Relay K4CL Relay K25A TREG, J4 Relays KX1, KY1, KZ1 Relays KX2, KY2, KZ2 Relays KX3, KY3, KZ3 Relay KE4 Relay KE5 Relay KE6

Voltage to solenoid, feedback Trip Relay feedback

Econ Relay feedback Clamp Relay feedback Synch Check Relay feedback TREG, J4 ESTOP2 Voltage to solenoid, feedback Trip Relay feedback

Econ Relay feedback

*Note: Each signal appears three times in the CSDB; declared Simplex.

Figure 7-33. VPRO Protection Logic - Hardware I/O Definition

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-43

Inputs
PulseRate1 PulseRate2 PulseRate3 KESTOP1_Fdbk Contact1 Contact2 Contact3 Contact4 Contact5 Contact6 Contact7 Sol1_Vfdbk Sol2_Vfdbk Sol3_Vfdbk *K1_Fdbk *K2_Fdbk *K3_Fdbk KE1_Fdbk KE2_Fdbk KE3_Fdbk K4CL_Fdbk K25A_Fdbk KESTOP2_Fdbk Sol4_Vfdbk Sol5_Vfdbk Sol6_Vfdbk *K4_Fdbk K5_Fdbk K6_Fdbk KE4_Fdbk KE5_Fdbk KE6_Fdbk GenPT_KVolts BusPT_KVolts *TC1 *TC2 *TC3 ColdJunction AnalogIn1 AnalogIn2 AnalogIn3

Signal Space
TPRO,J5 Speeds, RPM TREG, J3 ESTOP1 Contacts

Inputs
PR1_Zero PR2_Zero PR3_Zero OS1_SP_CfgErr OS2_SP_CfgErr OS3_SP_CfgErr ComposTrip1 ComposTrip2 ComposTrip3 L5CFG1_Trip L5CFG2_Trip L5CFG3_Trip OS1_Trip OS2_Trip OS3_Trip Dec1_Trip Dec2_Trip Dec3_Trip Acc1_Trip Acc2_Trip Acc3_Trip LPShaftLock TA_Trip TA_StptLoss OT_Trip L5ESTOP1 L5ESTOP2 L5Cont1_Trip L5Cont2_Trip L5Cont3_Trip L5Cont4_Trip L5Cont5_Trip L5Cont6_Trip L5Cont7_Trip mA1_Trip mA2_Trip mA3_Trip L25A_Cmd GenFreq BusFreq GenVolts BusVolts GenFreqDiff GenPhaseDiff GenVoltsDiff PR1_Accel PR2_Accel PR3_Accel PR1_Max PR2_Max PR3_Max

Signal Space

Zero Speed

Config Alarm

Composite Trips

Config Trip Synch Check

Outputs:
SynCk_Perm SynCk_ByPass Cross_Trip

Voltage to solenoid, feedback Trip Relay feedback Econ Relay feedback Clamp Relay feedback Synch Check Relay feedback ESTOP2 TREG, J4

Overspd Trips Dec Trips

Overspeed Test

Accel Trips LP Shaft Locked Trip Trip Trip Antic Bypass Ovrtemp Diagn Trip checking ESTOPs Contact Trips Overspeed Setpoints TA Setpoint Misc Trips Relay Test Synch Check Cold Junction Backup VCMI (Mstr) Reset Max speed Reset Gen Center Freq Max Speed since the last Zero

OnLineOS1Tst OnLineOS1X OnLineOS2Tst OnLineOS3Tst OffLineOS1Tst OffLineOS2Tst OffLineOS3Tst TrpAntcptTst LockRotorByp HPZeroSpdByp PTR1 PTR2 PTR3 PTR4 PTR5 PTR6 OS1_Setpoint OS2_Setpoint OS3_Setpoint OS1_TATrpSP CPD TestETR1 TestETR2 TestETR3 TestETR4 CJBackup L86MR PR_Max_Rst DriveFreq

Voltage to solenoid, feedback Trip Relay feedback Econ Relay feedback TPRO,J6 Gen Volts Bus Volts Thermocouples

Accel

Analog Inputs

*Note: Each signal appears three times in the CSDB; declared Simplex Figure 7-34. VPRO Protection Logic - Signal Space

7-44 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Inputs

Signal Space

Cont1_TrEnab Cont2_TrEnab Cont3_TrEnab Cont4_TrEnab Cont5_TrEnab Cont6_TrEnab Cont7_TrEnab Acc1_TrEnab Acc2_TrEnab Acc3_TrEnab OT_TrEnab GT_1Shaft GT_2Shaft LM_2Shaft LM_3Shaft LargeSteam MediumSteam SmallSteam Stag_GT_1Sh Stag_GT_2Sh

Configuration Status

ETR1_Enab ETR2_Enab ETR3_Enab ETR4_Enab ETR5_Enab ETR6_Enab KE1_Enab KE2_Enab KE3_Enab KE4_Enab KE5_Enab KE6_Enab K4CL_Enab K25A_Enab

Figure 7-35. VPRO Protection Logic - Signal Space (continued)

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-45

Power Load Unbalance


The Power Load Unbalance (PLU) option is used on large steam turbines to protect the machine from overspeed under load rejection. The PLU function looks for an unbalance between mechanical and electrical power. Its purpose is to initiate Control Valve (CV) and Intercept Valve (IV) fast closing actions under load rejection conditions where rapid acceleration could lead to an overspeed event. Valve actuation does not occur under stable fault conditions that are self-clearing (such as grid faults). Valve action occurs when the difference between turbine power and generator load is typically 40% of rated load or greater, and the load is lost at a rate equivalent to going from rated to zero load in approximately 35 ms (or less). The 40% PLU level setting is standard. If it becomes necessary to deviate from this setting for a specific unit, the fact will be noted by the unit-specific documentation. The PLU unbalance threshold, (PLU_Unbal), may be adjusted from the toolbox. Turbine mechanical power is derived from a milliamp reheat steam pressure signal. The mechanical power signal source is configurable as follows: The mid value of the first three mA inputs (circuits 1, 2, 3) The max value of the first two mA inputs (circuits 1, 2) A single transducer, circuit 1 A single transducer, circuit 2 A signal from signal space, where Mechanical Power is calculated in the controller, in percent

The generator load is assumed to be proportional to the sum of the 3-phase currents, thereby discriminating between load rejection and power line faults. This discrimination would not be possible if a true MW signal was used. The PLU signal actuates the CV and IV fast closing solenoids and resets the Load Reference signal to the no-load value (and performs some auxiliary functions).

The PLU function is an important part of the overspeed protective system. Do not disable during turbine operation.

The three current signals from the station current transformers are reduced by three auxiliary transformers on TGEN. These signals are summed in the controller and compare to the power pressure signal from the reheat pressure sensor. The signals are qualified (normalized) according to the Current Rating and Press Rating configuration parameters. This comparison yields a qualified unbalance measure of the PLU, as shown by signal B in Figure 7-36. The output of the total generator current is also fed into the current rate amplifier. This comparison provides a measure of the rate of change of the generator current, signal A. The current rate level may be adjusted through the PLU rate threshold function (PLU_Rate). Selections for this function are high, medium, and low. These settings correspond to 50, 35, and 20 millisecond rates respectively.

7-46 Chapter 7 Applications

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

P.U. Unfiltered Gen. Current A P.U. Unfiltered Gen. Current B P.U. Unfiltered Gen. Current C

IO_Cfg Download PLU Rate Limit X X PLU Current Functional Test PU Rated Current PU Hdwre Current + Rate of Change Detect

PLU Current

PLU Current Rate Out A of Limits A A<B B

1/3

Reheat Pressure

PLU Reheat Pressure

A A>B B PLU Permissive Download Not Signal IO_Cfg

PLU Unbalance

1/(Rated Reheat Pressure)

IO_Cfg Download PLU Arm Limits

PLU Rate Out of Limit

PLU IV Event

PLU CV Event AND PLU Unbalance No Delay Pickup Delay 2 PWR Load Unbalance

B OR

S Latch R 1

S Latch R 2

PLU Event

Delay

Download Delay Time IO_Cfg Pickup Delay 2 Fixed 15 msec

IO_Cfg Download

Figure 7-36. PLU Valve Actuation Logic

If these comparators operate simultaneously, PLU action is initiated and latched, making continuation of the PLU action dependent only on the unbalance for all functions except IV fast closing. The IVs do not lock in, but remain closed for approximately one second and then begin to re-open regardless of PLU duration. A time-delay may be implemented for the PLU function. To initiate the delay, go to the Enable PLU response delay parameter (PLU_Del_Enab) and select Enable. The duration of the time-delay can be adjusted by altering the value of the PLU delay (PLU_Delay) parameter. These dropout times have been arrived at based on experience, and are used to reduce the transient load on the hydraulic system.

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-47

Table 7-5. Solenoid Drop-Out Point Delay Values Steam Valve Dropout Delay, seconds IV1 0.35 IV2 0.50 IV3 0.75 IV4 0.35 IV5 0.75 IV6 0.50 CV1 1.10 CV2 2.00 CV3 3.00 CV4 4.00

*Control Valve 1 Test OR PLU CV Event Fixed Delay

Dropout Delay 1

To TRLY, Control Valve 1 Solenoid

*Control Valve 2 Test OR Fixed Delay OR IO_Cfg *Control Valve 4 Test G EVA IO_Cfg OR Fixed Delay Fixed Delay

Dropout Delay 2

To TRLY, Control Valve 2 Solenoid

*Control Valve 3 Test G EVA

Dropout Delay 3

To TRLY, Control Valve 3 Solenoid

Dropout Delay 4

To TRLY, Control Valve 4 Solenoid

Duplicated for IV Valves 1 to 6

C *

PLU IV Event IV Trigger OR OR Fixed Delay Spare 7 - 12 Test Spare Solenoid 7 - 12 Control * Signal to/from Signal Space Spare Solenoid Control Signals Dropout Delay 5 To TRLY, Intercept Valve 1 Solenoid Control

G EVA
* Intercept Valve 1 Test

Figure 7-37. Fast Acting Solenoid Sequencing

The IVs and CVs may be operated through test signals from the controller. These signals are executed individually and are logic ORed with the above signals as shown in Figure 7-37. The IVs may also be driven by the Early Valve Actuation (EVA) and IV Trigger (IVT) functions. Each solenoid has a unique dropout time delay, refer to Table 7-5 and Figure 7-37.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Early Valve Actuation


The Early Valve Actuation (EVA) system was developed for power systems where instability, such as the loss of synchronization, is a problem. When the EVA senses a fault that is not a load rejection, it causes closing of the Intercept Valves (IV) for approximately one second. This action reduces the available mechanical power to that of the already reduced electrical power, and therefore prevents too large an increase in the machine angle and the consequent loss of synchronization. See Figure 7-38 for valve actuation diagram.

Reheat Pressure

P.U. Reheat pressure + EVA P.U. Unbalance Filter P.U. EVA Unbal Limit (Download) IO_Cfg A A>B B

1/(Rated Heat Press)

EVA Unbalance Out of Limit E

Per Unit Megawatt

EVA per Unit Megawatt Rate A B EVA M.W. Rate Out of Limit

Rate of Change Detect 0.0 * EVA Test Functional Test P.U EVA Rate Limit (Downloaded) Negative Number

A>B

* Ext. EVA * Ext. EVA Enable IO_Cfg Download *EVA Perm. E F OR Pickup Delay 1 Fixed 15 msec AND S Latch R 1 Pickup Delay 1 Fixed 10 msec EVA Enable (Downloaded) IO_Cfg

Dropout Delay #2 Fixed 5 sec. EVA Control

* EVA Event

OR

AND

Dropout Delay #1 Delay time (Downloaded) IO_Cfg

EVA Event

* Signal to/from Signal Space

Figure 7-38. EVA Valve Actuation Logic

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Chapter 7 Applications 7-49

Intercept Valve Trigger


The peak speed following rejection of 10% or greater rated load cannot be maintained within limits on some units by the normal speed and servo control action. Approximately 70% of turbine power is generated in the reheat and low-pressure turbine sections (the boiler re-heater volume represents a significant acceleration energy source). Fast closing of the IVs can therefore quickly reduce turbine power and peak overspeed. The action fulfills the first basic function of normal overspeed control, limiting peak speed. The Intercept Valve Trigger (IVT) signal is produced in the controller by the IVT algorithm and associated sequencing, see Figure 7-38.

Early Valve Actuation (EVA)


The EVA function may be implemented on sites where instability, such as loss of synchronization, presents a problem. EVA closes the IVs for approximately one second upon sensing a fault that is not a load rejection. This action reduces the available mechanical power, thereby inhibiting the loss of synchronization that can occur as a result of increased machine angle (unbalance between mechanical and electrical power). If the fault persists, the generator loses synchronization and the turbine is tripped by the overspeed control or out-of-step relaying. The EVA is enabled in the toolbox by selecting Enable for the EVA_Enab parameter. The conditions for EVA action are as follows: The difference between mechanical power (reheat pressure) and electrical power (megawatts) exceeds the configured EVA unbalance threshold (EVA_Unbal) input value. Electrical power (megawatts) decreases at a rate equivalent to (or greater than) one of three rates configured for EVA megawatt rate threshold (EVA_Rate). This value is adjustable according to three settings: HIgh, MEdium, and LOw. These settings correspond to 50, 35, and 20 millisecond rates respectively.

Note The megawatt signal is derived from voltage and current signals provided by customer-supplied transformers located on the generator side of the circuit breaker. The EVA_Unbal value represents the largest fault a particular generator can sustain without losing synchronization. Although the standard setting for this constant is 70%, it may be adjusted up or down 0 to 2 per unit from the toolbox. All EVA events are annunciated.

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Fast Overspeed Trip in VTUR


In special cases where a faster overspeed trip system is required, the VTUR Fast Overspeed Trip algorithms may be enabled. The system employs a speed measurement algorithm using a calculation for a predetermined tooth wheel. Two overspeed algorithms are available in VTUR as follows: PR_Single. This uses two redundant VTUR boards by splitting up the two redundant PR transducers, one to each board. PR_Max. This uses one VTUR board connected to the two redundant PR transducers. PR_Max allows broken shaft and deceleration protection without the risk of a nuisance trip if one transducer is lost.

The fast trips are linked to the output trip relays with an OR-gate as shown in Figures 7-39 and 7-40. VTUR computes the overspeed trip, not the controller, so the trip is very fast. The time from the overspeed input to the completed relay dropout is 30 msec or less.

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-51

Input, PR1 PR1Type, PR1Scale

Input Config. param. 2

VTUR, Firmware
Scaling RPM

Signal Space Inputs PulseRate1

PulseRate2 PulseRate3 PulseRate4

d RPM/sec Accel1 dt RPM PulseRate2 ------ Four Pulse Rate Circuits ------RPM/sec Accel2 Accel1 PulseRate3 Accel2 RPM Accel3 RPM/sec Accel3 Accel4 RPM PulseRate4 RPM/sec Accel4 Fast Overspeed Protection

FastTripType PR1Setpoint PR1TrEnable PR1TrPerm PR2Setpoint PR2TrEnable PR2TrPerm PR3Setpoint PR3TrEnable PR3TrPerm PR4Setpoint PR4TrEnable PR4TrPerm InForChanA AccASetpoint AccelAEnab AccelAPerm InForChanB AccBSetpoint

PR_Single

PulseRate1 A A>B B PulseRate2 A A>B B PulseRate3 A A>B B PulseRate4 A A>B B

S R S R

FastOS1Trip

FastOS2Trip

S R

FastOS3Trip

S R

FastOS4Trip

Accel1 Accel2 Input Accel3 cct. Accel4 select

AccelA

A A>B B

S R

AccATrip

Accel1 Accel2 Input Accel3 cct. Accel4 select

AccelB

A A>B B

S R

AccBTrip Fast Trip Path False = Run

AccelBEnab AccelBPerm ResetSys, VCMI, Mstr

OR Primary Trip Relay, normal Path, True= Run Primary Trip Relay, normal Path, True= Run

PTR1 PTR1_Output PTR2 PTR2_Output PTR3 PTR3_Output PTR4 PTR4_Output PTR5 PTR5_Output PTR6 PTR6_Output

AND

True = Run

Output, J4,PTR1

AND True = Run Output, J4,PTR2 True = Run Output, J4,PTR3 Output, J4A,PTR4 Output, J4A,PTR5 Output, J4A,PTR6

-------------Total of six circuits -----

True = Run True = Run True = Run

Figure 7-39. Fast Overspeed Algorithm, PR-Single

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Input Config. Input, PR1 param. PR1Type, 2 PR1Scale

Scaling

VTUR, Firmware PulseRate1 d dt ------ Four Pulse Rate Circuits ------RPM RPM/sec RPM RPM/sec RPM RPM/sec RPM RPM/sec

Signal Space inputs PulseRate1 Accel1 PulseRate2 Accel2 PulseRate3 Accel3 PulseRate4 Accel4

PulseRate2 PulseRate3 PulseRate4

Accel1 Accel2 Accel3 Accel4

FastTripType PR_Max DecelPerm DecelEnab DecelStpt InForChanA InForChanB Accel1 Accel2 Accel3 Accel4 Input cct. Select for AccelA and AccelB

Fast Overspeed Protection

AccelA AccelB

Neg Neg

A A<B B

S R

DecelTrip

PulseRate1 PulseRate2 PulseRate3 PulseRate4

PulseRateA A PulseRateB A>B B MAX

PR1/2Max A A>B B S R FastOS1Trip

PulseRate1 FastOS1Stpt FastOS1Enab FastOS1Perm PulseRate2

PR3/4Max PulseRate3 FastOS2Stpt FastOS2Enab FastOS2Perm PulseRate4 MAX A A>B B S R FastOS2Trip

PR1/2Max DiffSetpoint DiffEnab DiffPerm ResetSys, VCMI, Mstr PR3/4Max

A |A-B| B

N/C N/C A A>B B S R

FastOS3Trip FastOS4Trip FastDiffTrip

OR

Fast Trip Path False = Run True = Run Output, J4,PTR1

PTR1 PTR1_Output PTR2 PTR2_Output PTR3 PTR3_Output PTR4 PTR5 PTR5_Output PTR6 PTR6_Output

Primary Trip Relay, normal Path, True= Run Primary Trip Relay, normal Path, True= Run

AND AND

True = Run True = Run

Output, J4,PTR2 Output, J4,PTR3 Output, J4A,PTR4 Output, J4A,PTR5 Output, J4A,PTR6

-------------Total of six circuits ---------

True = Run True = Run True = Run

Figure 7-40. Fast Overspeed Algorithm, PR-Max

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Compressor Stall Detection


Gas turbine compressor stall detection is included with the VAIC firmware and is executed at a rate of 200 Hz. There is a choice of two stall algorithms and both use the first four analog inputs, scanned at 200 Hz. One algorithm is for small LM gas turbines and uses two pressure transducers, refer to Figure 7-41. The other algorithm is for heavy-duty gas turbines and uses three pressure transducers, refer to Figure 7-42. Real-time inputs are separated from the configured parameters for clarity. The parameter CompStalType selects the type of algorithm required, either two transducers or three. PS3 is the compressor discharge pressure, and a drop in this pressure (PS3 drop) is an indication of a possible compressor stall. In addition to the drop in pressure, the algorithm calculates the rate of change of discharge pressure, dPS3dt, and compares these values with configured stall parameters (KPS3 constants). Refer to Figure 7-43. The compressor stall trip is initiated by VAIC, and the signal is sent to the controller where it is used to initiate a shutdown. The shutdown signal can be used to set all the fuel shut-off valves (FSOV) through the VCRC and TRLY or DRLY board.

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Input, cctx* Low_Input, Low_Value, High_Input, High Value SysLim1Enabl, Enabl SysLim1Latch, Latch SysLim1Type, >= SysLimit1, xxxx ResetSys, VCMI, Mstr SysLim2Enabl, Enabl SysLim2Latch, Latch SysLim2Type, <= SysLimit2, xxxx CompStalType

Input Config param.

VAIC, 200 Hz scan rate


Scaling 4 4 Sys Lim Chk #1

*Note: where x, y, represent any two of the input circuits 1 thru 4.

Signal Space Inputs AnalogInx*

SysLimit1_x*

Sys Lim Chk #2 4 SysLimit2_x* AnalogIny* SysLimit1_y* SysLimit2_y* Validation & Stall Detection two_xducer Input Circuit Selection OR PS3A_Fail PS3A PS3A_Fail PS3B_Fail AND PS3B_Fail PS3B PS3_Fail

OR

InputForPS3A InputForPS3B

eg. AnalogIn2 eg. AnalogIn4 PS3A A |A-B| PS3B B

PressDelta SelMode

A A>B B

DeltaFault PS3Sel Selection Definition


If PS3B_Fail & not PS3A_Fail then PS3Sel = PS3A; ElseIf PS3A_Fail & not PS3B_Fail then PS3Sel = PS3B; ElseIf DeltaFault then PS3Sel = Max (PS3A, PS3B) ElseIf SelMode = Avg then PS3Sel = Avg (PS3A, PS3B) ElseIf SelMode = Max then PS3Sel = Max (PS3A, PS3B) Else then PS3SEL = old value of PS3SEL

Max PS3A PS3B PS3A_Fail PS3B_Fail

PS3Sel

PressSel

d __ DPS3DTSel dt PressRateSel -1 X -DPS3DTSel

TimeDelay KPS3_Drop_Mx KPS3_Drop_Mn KPS3_Drop_I KPS3_Drop_S


z-1

-DPS3DTSel Mid

TD

PS3_Fail
A B

A+B

A>B

AND

PS3Sel KPS3_Delta_S KPS3_Delta_I KPS3_Delta_Mx KPS3_Drop_L CompStalPerm

PS3i

stall_timeout
X
A

A+B
B

MIN

delta_ref
A

AND
stall_delta

-DPS3DTSel A A>B AND PS3i_Hold B

delta A<B
B A

stall_set S Latch R

CompStall

PS3Sel BA-B

stall_permissive

MasterReset, VCMI, Mstr

Figure 7-41. Small (LM) Gas Turbine Compressor Stall Detection Algorithm

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Scaling Input, cctx* Low_Input, Low_Value, High_Input, High Value 4 SysLim1Enabl, Enabl 4 SysLim1Latch, Latch SysLim1Type, >= SysLimit1, xxxx ResetSys, VCMI, Mstr 4 SysLim2Enabl, Enabl SysLim2Latch, Latch SysLim2Type, <= SysLimit2, xxxx

Input Config. param.

VAIC, 200 Hz scan rate

*Note: where x, y, z, represent any three of the input circuits 1 thru 4.

Signal Space inputs AnalogInx*

Sys Lim Chk #1

SysLimit1_x*

Sys Lim Chk #2

SysLimit2_x* AnalogIny* SysLimit1_y* SysLimit2_y* AnalogInz* SysLimit1_z* SysLimit2_z*

Stall Detection CompStalType three_xducer Input Circuit Selection InputForPS3A InputForPS3B InputForPS3C eg. AnalogIn1 eg. AnalogIn2 eg. AnalogIn4 not used not used PS3C PressSel PS3B MID PS3Sel, or CPD PS3A SEL d __ DPS3DTSel dt PressRateSel -1 -DPS3DTSel
TD

not used

DeltaFault

PressDelta SelMode TimeDelay KPS3_Drop_Mx KPS3_Drop_Mn KPS3_Drop_I KPS3_Drop_S

-DPS3DTSel

MID

X z-1

A+B

A>B
B

PS3Sel KPS3_Delta_S KPS3_Delta_I KPS3_Delta_Mx


-DPS3DTSel
A

PS3i

stall_timeout X
A

stall_set A+B
B

MIN

delta_ref
A

AND stall_ delta

Latch
R

CompStall

delta A<B
B

KPS3_Drop_L CompStalPerm MasterReset, VCMI, Mstr

A>B
B

AND

PS3i_Hold PS3Sel

A-B
B

stall_permissive

Figure 7-42. Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Compressor Stall Detection Algorithm

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200 0 180 0 Rate of Change of Pressure- dPS3dt, psia/sec A. B. C. D. KPS3_Drop_S KPS3_Drop_I KPS3_Drop_Mn KPS3_Drop_Mx A 25 0 B. Delta PS3 drop (PS3 initial - PS3 actual) , DPS3, psid

140 0 120 0 100 0 80 0 60 0 40 0 20 C 0 B 0 F -200 0

20 0

15 0

G E

10 0

5 0 E. KPS3_Delta_S F. KPS3_Delta_I G. KPS3_Delta_Mx 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 700

Initial Compressor Discharge Pressure PS3


Figure 7-43. Configurable Compressor Stall Detection Parameters

The variables used by the stall detection algorithm are defined as follows: PS3 Compressor discharge pressure PS3I Initial PS3 KPS3_Drop_S Slope of line for PS3I versus dPS3dt KPS3_Drop_I Intercept of line for PS3I versus dPS3dt KPS3_Drop_Mn Minimum value for PS3I versus dPS3dt KPS3_Drop_Mx Maximum value for PS3I versus dPS3dt KPS3_Delta_S Slope of line for PS3I versus Delta PS3 drop KPS3_Delta_I Intercept of line for PS3I versus Delta PS3 drop KPS3_Delta_Mx Maximum value for PS3I versus Delta PS3 drop

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Vibration Sampling Speed and Accuracy


Vibration inputs on Mark VI may be driven from Proximitor, Velomiter, or Seismic transducers. The first three vibration channels may also be configured for Accelerometers, where speed-tracking filters are used, but this is not included in this discussion. Inputs are fast sampled at 2586 or 4600 Hz, depending on the number of inputs configured as vibration type inputs. For eight or less vibration inputs (that is vibration inputs on TB1, J3), the sample rate is 4600 Hz; otherwise (any input on J4 configure for vibration), the sample rate is 2586 Hz. All inputs are simultaneously sampled for discrete 160 ms periods (time windows). The software accumulates the maximum and minimum values (a new set of values for each window), takes the difference for vibration (maximum minimum), and filters the results with a low-pass one-pole filter with a configurable time constant. The resulting peak-to-peak voltage is then scaled with the configurable sensitivity (typically 0.2 volts/mil for Proximitors, 0.150 volts/ips for Seismic transducers), yielding mils (pk-pk) displacement, or ips (pk) velocity. The basic accuracy is 1% of signal, or 0.016 Vpp whichever is larger. In addition, it is theoretically possible to search out a number of subharmonic frequencies where the vibration signal is exactly synchronized with the sample rate, and attenuated an additional amount per Figure 7-44.

1.1000

1.0000 8 or less vibration channels enabled

Attenuation

0.9000

0.8000

0.7000

9 or more vibration channels enabled

0.6000

0.5000 0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 Frequency, Hz 400.0 500.0 600.0

Figure 7-44. Vibration Signal Attenuation versus Frequency

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The significance of the frequency response with respect to the machine speed (RPM) is shown in Figure 7-45 in terms of 0.5X, 1X, 2X and 3X, where X represents the fundamental machine speed frequency.
700

600 Vibration Frequency

500

400

300

0.5X hz 1X hz 2X hz 3X hz

200

100

0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Machine RPM 12000 14000

Figure 7-45. Vibration Frequency versus RPM

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Chapter 7 Applications 7-59

Ground Fault Detection Sensitivity


Ground fault detection is performed by the VCMI using signals from the PDM. Refer to Chapter 9 I/O Descriptions (GEH-6421D, Vol. II Mark VI System Guide). Ground fault detection on the floating 125 V dc power bus is based upon monitoring the voltage between the bus and the ground. The bus voltages with respect to ground are normally balanced (in magnitude), that is the positive bus to ground is equal to the negative bus to ground. The bus is forced to the balanced condition by the bridging resistors, Rb, refer to Figure 7-46. Bus leakage (or ground fault) from one side will cause the bus voltages with respect to ground to be unbalanced.

Power Distribution Module


P125 Vdc Rb Jumper Grd Rb N125 Vdc Rf Grd Fault Vout,Neg Monitor2 Vout,Pos Monitor1

Electrical Circuit Model


Rb/2 Vbus/2 Rf Vout, Bus Volts wrt Ground

Figure 7-46. Ground Fault on Floating 125 Vdc power Bus

There is a relationship between the bridge resistors, the fault resistance, the bus voltage, and the bus to ground voltage (Vout) as follows: (see Figure 7-47) Vout = Vbus*Rf / [2*(Rf + Rb/2)] Therefore the threshold sensitivity to ground fault resistance is as follows: Rf = Vout*Rb / (Vbus 2*Vout). The ground fault threshold voltage is typically set at 30 V, that is Vout = 30 V. The bridging resistors are 82 K each. Therefore, from the formula above, the sensitivity of the control panel to ground faults, assuming it is on one side only, is as shown in Table 7-6.
Note On Mark V, the bridging resistors are 33 K each so different Vout values

result.

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Table 7-6. Sensitivity to Ground Faults Vbus Bus voltage 105 125 140 105 125 140 105 125 140 105 125 140 Vout - Measured Bus to ground voltage (threshold) 30 30 30 19 19 19 10 10 10 30 30 30 Rb (Kohms) bridge resistors (balancing) 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 33 33 33 Rf (Kohms) fault resistor 55 38 31 23 18 15 10 8 7 22 15 12 Control System

Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI Mark VI Mark V Mark V Mark V

The results for the case of 125 V dc bus voltage with various fault resistor values is shown in Figure 7-47.
40.0 Fault, Rf 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 0 10 20 Voltage, Vout
Figure 7-47. Threshold Voltage as Function of Fault Resistance

Fault Resistance (Rf) Vs Threshold Voltage (Vout) at 125 V dc on Mark VI

30

Analysis of Results
On Mark VI, when the voltage threshold is configured to 30 V and the voltage bus is 125 V dc, the fault threshold is 38 Kohms. When the voltage threshold is configured to 17 V and the voltage bus is 125 V dc, the fault threshold is 15 Kohms. The sensitivity of the ground fault detection is configurable. Balanced bus leakage decreases the sensitivity of the detector.

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Chapter 8

Troubleshooting and Diagnostics

Introduction
This chapter discusses troubleshooting and alarm handling in the Mark VI system. The configuration of process alarms and events is described, and also the creation and handling of diagnostic alarms caused by control system equipment failures. This chapter is organized as follows:
Section Page

Overview ..................................................................................................................8-2 Process Alarms .........................................................................................................8-3 Process (and Hold) Alarm Data Flow................................................................8-3 Diagnostic Alarms ....................................................................................................8-5 Voter Disagreement Diagnostics.......................................................................8-6 I/O Board Alarms ..............................................................................................8-7 Controller Runtime Errors...............................................................................8-33 Totalizers................................................................................................................8-35 Troubleshooting......................................................................................................8-36 I/O Board LEDs ..............................................................................................8-36 Controller Failures...........................................................................................8-38 Power Distribution Module Failure.................................................................8-38

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Chapter 8 Troubleshooting and Diagnostic 8-1

Overview
Figure 8-1 shows the routings. Three types of alarms are generated by the Mark VI system, as follows: Process alarms are caused by machinery and process problems and alert the operator by means of messages on the HMI screen. The alarms are created in the controller using alarm bits generated in the I/O boards or in sequencing. The user configures the desired analog alarm settings in sequencing using the toolbox. As well as generating operator alarms, the alarm bits in the controller can be used as interlocks in the application program. Hold list alarms are similar to process alarms with the additional feature that the scanner drives a specified signal True whenever any hold list signal is in the alarm state (hold present). This signal is used to disable automatic turbine startup logic at various stages in the sequencing. Operators may override a hold list signal so that the sequencing can proceed even if the hold condition has not cleared. Diagnostic alarms are caused by Mark VI equipment problems and use settings factory programmed in the boards. Diagnostic alarms identify the failed module to help the service engineer quickly repair the system. For details of the failure, the operator can request a display on the toolbox screen.
Alarm Display Diagnostic Display

HMI

HMI

Toolbox

UDH

Process and <R> Hold List Controller Alarms

<S> Controller

<T> Controller

Diagnostic Alarms

I/O

I/O

I/O

Diagnostic Alarm Bits

Figure 8-1. Three Types of Alarms generated by Mark VI

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Process Alarms
Process Alarms are generated by the transition of Boolean signals configured by the toolbox with the alarm attribute. The signals may be driven by sequencing or they may be tied to input points to map values directly from I/O boards. Process alarm signals are scanned each frame after the sequencing is run. In TMR systems process signals are voted and the resulting composite diagnostic is present in each controller. A useful application for process alarms is the annunciation of system limit checking. Limit checking takes place in the I/O boards at the frame rate, and the resulting Boolean status information is transferred to the controller and mapped to process alarm signals. Two system limits are available for each process input, including thermocouple, RTD, current, voltage, and pulse rate inputs. System limit 1 can be the high or low alarm setting, and system limit 2 can be a second high or low alarm setting. These limits are configured from the toolbox in engineering units. There are several choices when configuring system limits. Limits can be configured as enabled or disabled, latched or unlatched, and greater than or less than the preset value. System out of limits can be reset with the RESET_SYS signal.

Process (and Hold) Alarm Data Flow


The operator or the controller can take action based on process alarms. Process and Hold alarms are time stamped and stored in a local queue in the controller. Changes representing alarms are time stamped and sent to the alarm queue. Reports containing alarm information are assembled and sent over the UDH to the CIMPLICITY HMIs. Here the alarms are again queued and prepared for operator display by the alarm viewer. Operator commands from the HMI, such as alarm Acknowledge, Reset, Lock, and Unlock, are sent back over the UDH to the alarm queue where they change the status of the appropriate alarms. An alarm entry is removed from the controller queue when its state has returned to normal and it has been acknowledged and reset by an operator. Refer to Figure 8-2. Hold alarms are managed in the same fashion but are stored on a separate queue. Additionally, hold alarms cannot be locked but may be overridden.

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Chapter 8 Troubleshooting and Diagnostic 8-3

Mark VI Controller

UDH

Mark VI HMI

Input

Signal 1

. . .
Input

. . .
Signal n
Alarm Logic variable Alarm ID

Alarm Scanner

Alarm Report

Alarm Receiver

Alarm Viewer

Alarm Comm -and

Alarm Queue Operator Commands - Ack - Reset - Lock - Unlock - Override for hold lists

Alarm Queue including Time

Figure 8-2. Generating Process Alarms

To configure the alarm scanner on the controller, refer to GEH-6403 Control System Toolbox for Mark VI Controller. To configure the controller to send alarms to all HMIs, use the UDH broadcast address in the alarm IP address area.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Diagnostic Alarms
The controller and I/O boards all generate diagnostic alarms, including the VCMI, which generates diagnostics for the power subsystem. Alarm bits are created in the I/O board by hardware limit checking. Raw input checking takes place at the frame rate, and resulting alarms are queued. Each type of I/O board has hardware limit checking based on preset (nonconfigurable) high and low levels set near the ends of the operating range. If this limit is exceeded a logic signal is set and some types of input are removed from scan. In TMR systems, a limit alarm called TMR Diff Limt is created if any of the three inputs differ from the voted value by more than a preset amount. This limit value is configured by the user and creates a voting alarm indicating a problem exists with a specific input. If any one of the hardware limits is set, it creates a board composite diagnostic alarm, L3DIAG_xxxx, where xxxx is the board name. This signal can be used to trigger a process alarm. Each board has three L3DIAG_ signals, L3DIAG_xxxx1, 2, and 3. Simplex boards only use L3DIAG_xxxx1. TMR boards use all three with the first assigned to the board in <R>, the second assigned to the same board in <S>, and the third assigned to the same board in <T>. The diagnostic signals can be individually latched, and then reset with the RESET_DIA signal, or with a message from the HMI. Generally diagnostic alarms require two occurrences before coming true (process alarms only require one occurrence).

In addition to inputs, each board has its own diagnostics. The VCMI and I/O boards have a processor stall timer which generates a signal SYSFAIL. This signal lights the red LED on the front panel. The watchdog timers are set as follows: VCMI communication board I/O boards 150 ms 150 ms

If an I/O board times out, the outputs go to a fail-safe condition which is zero (or open contacts) and the input data is put in the default condition, which is zero. The default condition on contact inputs is subject to the inversion mask. The three LEDs at the top of the front panel provide status information. The normal RUN condition is a flashing green and FAIL is a solid red. The third LED is normally off but shows a steady orange if a diagnostic alarm condition exists in the board. The controller has extensive self-diagnostics, most of which are available directly at the toolbox. In addition, UCVB and UCVD runtime diagnostics, which may occur during a program download, are displayed on LEDs on the controller front panel. Each terminal board has its own ID device, which is interrogated by the I/O board. The board ID is coded into a read-only chip containing the terminal board serial number, board type, revision number, and the J type connector location.

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Chapter 8 Troubleshooting and Diagnostic 8-5

Voter Disagreement Diagnostics


Each I/O board produces diagnostic alarms when it is configured as TMR and any of its inputs disagree with the voted value of that input by more than a configured amount. This feature allows the user to find and fix potential problems that would otherwise be masked by the redundancy of the control system. The user can view these diagnostics the same way one views any other diagnostic alarms. The VCMI triggers these diagnostic alarms when an individual input disagrees with the voted value for a number of consecutive frames. The diagnostic clears when the disagreement clears for a number of frames. The user configures voter disagreement diagnostics for each signal. Boolean signals are all enabled or disabled by setting the DiagVoteEnab signal to enable under the configuration section for each input. Analog signals are configured using the TMR_DiffLimit signal under configuration for each point. This difference limit is defined in one of two ways. It is implemented as a fixed engineering units value for certain inputs and as a percent of configured span for other signals. For example, if a point is configured as a 420 ma input scaled as 040 Engineering units, its TMR_DiffLimit is defined as a percent of (400). The type of limit checking used is spelled out in the dialog box for the TMR_DiffLimit signal for each card type and is summarized in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1. Type of TMR Limit Checking I/O Processor Board VAIC VGEN VPRO Analogs PT, CT Pulse rates Thermocouples Analogs PT, CT mA Gap -------Pulse rates POS mA -------Pulse rates PT Flame Shaft monitor Vibration signals Type of I/O Delta Method % of Configured Span % of Configured Span Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units % of Configured Span Engineering Units % of Configured Span Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units % of Configured Span Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units Engineering Units

VPYR VRTD VSVO

VTCC VTURH1/H2

VVIB

For TMR input configuration, refer to GEH-6403 Control System Toolbox for a Mark VI Controller. All unused signals will have the voter disagreement checking disabled to prevent nuisance diagnostics.

Viewing Diagnostic Alarms


Mark VI troubleshooting is simplified using the extensive system diagnostics. Diagnostic alarms can be viewed from the toolbox by selecting the desired board, clicking the right mouse button to display the drop down menu, and selecting display diagnostics. A list of the diagnostic alarms for any I/O board can be displayed and may be reset from the toolbox.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

I/O Board Alarms


The I/O boards, VCMI, VPRO, and the (UCVx) controllers generate the following diagnostic alarms. They are viewed in the toolbox.
Table 8-2. I/O Board Diagnostic Alarms Board UCVx Fault 31 32 33 34 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 68 70 71 72 74 75 76 Fault Description I/O Compatibility Code Mismatch Diagnostic Queue Overflow Foreground Process Background Process Idle Process Ambient Air Overtemperature Warning. The rack is beginning to overheat. CPU Overtemperature Fault. The controller CPU has overheated and may fail at any time. Genius I/O Driver Process Register I/O Process Modbus Driver Process Ser Process Rcvr Process Trans Process Mapper Process SRTP Process Heartbeat Process Alarm Process Queue Manager Process EGD Driver Process ADL Dispatcher Process ADL Queue Process DPM Manager Process Genius IOCHRDY Hangup Genius Lock Retry Genius Application Code Online Load Failure Application Code Startup Load Failure Application Code Expansion Failure ADL/BMS Communication Failure with the VCMI Possible Cause Outdated configuration in the VCMI Too many diagnostics are occurring simultaneously Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version The rack fan has failed or the filters are clogged. The rack fan has failed or the filters are clogged. Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Outdated runtime version Application code error Application code error Application code error The VCMI firmware version is too old to work with this controller runtime version. Outdated runtime version

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NTP Process

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Outdated Controller Topology Outdated VCMI Topology No VCMI Topology

Download application code and reboot Download configuration to VCMI and reboot Old VCMI firmware doesnt support controller/VCMI topology checking. Upgrade VCMI firmware. Outdated runtime version The controller hardware doesnt match the configuration specified by the toolbox. Use the toolbox to view the errors in the controller trace buffer (for example: View General Dump the trace buffer). Verify that the total command rate of all Modbus interfaces does not exceed the maximum. Verify that all three controllers are executing the same application code. The application code is using too many Boolean variables. Move some functions to other controllers. The controller can redirect data over the IONET from a maximum of 16 EGD producers. Data from subsequent producers will be lost in the event of an Ethernet failure. The controller can redirect a maximum of 1400 bytes of data over the IONET. Subsequent EGD points will be lost in the event of an Ethernet failure. The controller is redirecting data from the Ethernet to another controller over the IONET. The controller is requesting that Ethernet data be redirected to it over the IONET from another controller. Subsequent process alarms will be lost unless the current alarms are acknowledged and cleared by the operator. Subsequent hold alarms will be lost unless the current alarms are acknowledged and cleared by the operator. Verify that all controllers are executing the same application code. If no VCMI is used (simulation mode), verify that the clock source is set to internal. If a VCMI is used, verify that the clock source is set to external. Download the same application code to all three controllers

81 82

Platform Process Hardware Configuration Error

83

Register I/O Write/Command Limit Exceeded

84 85

State Exchange Voter Packet Mismatch Maximum Number of Boolean State Variables Exceeded

86

Too Many EGD Producers Configured for Fault Tolerant Support

87

Too Many EGD Points Configured for Fault Tolerant Support

88

Producing Fault Tolerant EGD Data

89

Requesting Fault Tolerant EGD Data

90

Process Alarm Queue Is Full

91

Hold List Queue Is Full

92

Data Initialization Failure

93

Pcode mismatech between TMR controllers

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Unable to start up Dynamic Data Recorder Dynamic Data Recorder Configuration Fault

Outdated runtime version - download runtime and restart. Revalidate the application code and then select the Update Dynamic Data Recorder button from the toolbox toolbar Outdated runtime version - download runtime and restart Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board- check the connectors and call the factory A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. Excitation to transducer, bad transducer, open or short-circuit Board failure

96

Dynamic Data Recorder Process

VAIC

2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility. The firmware on this board cannot handle the terminal board it is connected to ConfigCompatCode mismatch. Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch. Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

30

31

32-65 66-69

Analog Input # Unhealthy Output # Individual Current Too High Relative to Total Current. An individual current is N mA more than half the total current, where N is the configurable TMR_Diff Limit Output # total Current Varies from Reference Current. Total current is N mA different than the reference current, where N is the configurable TMR_Diff Limit

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Board failure or open circuit

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Output # Reference Current Error. The difference between the output reference and the input feedback of the output reference is greater than the configured DA_Err Limit measured in percent Output # Individual Current Unhealthy. Simplex mode only alarm if current out of bounds Output # Suicide Relay Non-Functional. The shutdown relay is not responding to commands Output # 20/200 mA Selection Non-Functional. Feedback from the relay indicates incorrect 20/200 mA relay selection (not berg jumper selection) Output # 20/20 mA Suicide Active. One output of the three has suicided, the other two boards have picked up current

Board failure (D/A converter)

78-81 82-85 86-89

Board failure Board failure (relay or driver) Configured output type does not match the jumper selection, or VAIC board failure (relay). Board failure

90-93

128-223

Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from A problem with the input. This could this board disagrees with the voted value be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory.

224-249

VOAC

2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

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IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory.

82-97

Output # Total Current Too High Relative to Total Current. Board failure An individual current is N mA more than half the total current, where N is the configurable TMR_Diff Limit Output # Total Current Varies from Reference Current. Total current is N mA different than the reference current, where N is the configurable TMR_Diff Limit Output # Reference Current Error. The difference between the output reference and the input feedback of the output reference is greater than the configured DA_Err Limit measured in percent Output # Individual Current Unhealthy. Simplex mode alarm indicating current is too high or too low Output # Suicide Relay Non-Functional. The suicide relay is not responding to commands Board failure or open circuit

98-113

114-129

Board failure (D/A converter)

130-145 146-161 162-177

Board failure Board failure (relay or driver)

Output # Suicide Active. One output of three has suicided, Board failure the other two boards have picked up the current SOE Overrun. Sequence of Events data overrun Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active Communication problem on IONet Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online)

VCCC/ 1 VCRC 2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

System Limit Checking is Disabled. System limit checking System checking was disabled by has been disabled configuration Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J33/J3A ID Failure J44/J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility. The firmware on this board cannot handle the terminal board it is connected to ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J33 or J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J44 or J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board. Check the connections and call the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory.

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IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory.

33-56/ 65-88

TBCI J33/J3A/J44/J4A Contact Input # Not Responding to Normally a VCCC problem, or the Test Mode. A single contact or group of contacts could battery reference voltage is missing to not be forced high or low during VCCC self-check the TBCI terminal board, or a bad cable. TRLY J3/J4 Relay Output Coil # Does Not Match Requested State. A relay coil monitor shows that current is flowing or not flowing in the relay coil, so the relay is not responding to VCCC commands TRLY J3/J4 Relay Driver # Does Not Match Requested State. The relay is not responding to VCCC commands The relay terminal board may not exist, or there may be a problem with this relay, or, if TMR, one VCCC may have been out-voted by the other two VCCC boards. The relay terminal board may not exist and the relay is still configured as used, or there may be a problem with this relay driver.

129-140/ 145-156

161-172/ 177-188

97-102/ 113-118 240/241

TRLY J3/J4 Fuse # Blown. The fuse monitor requires the The relay terminal board may not jumpers to be set and to drive a load, or it will not respond exist, or the jumpers are not set and correctly there is no load, or the fuse is blown. TBCI J3/J4 Excitation Voltage Not Valid, TBCI J33/J3A/J44/J4A Contact Inputs Not Valid. The VCCC monitors the excitation on all TBCI and DTCI boards, and the contact input requires this voltage to operate properly Logic Signal Voting Mismatch. The identified signal from this board disagrees with the voted value The contact input terminal board may not exist, or the contact excitation may not be on, or be unplugged, or the excitation may be below the 125 V level. A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Communication problem on IONet Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem

256-415

VCMI

1 2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

SOE Overrun. Sequence of Events data overrun Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC Failure Override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure

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Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility Board inputs disagree with the voted value

Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A VME rack backplane wiring problem and/or power supply problem If "Remote Control", disable diagnostic and ignore; otherwise probably a back plane wiring or VME power supply problem. If "Remote Control", disable diagnostic and ignore; otherwise probably a VME backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. If "Remote I/O", disable diagnostic and ignore; otherwise probably a VME backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. If "Remote I/O", disable diagnostic and ignore; otherwise probably a VME backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. If "Remote Control", disable diagnostic and ignore; otherwise probably a VME backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. If "Remote Control", disable diagnostic and ignore; otherwise probably a VME backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. If "Remote Control" disable diagnostic. Disable diagnostic if not used; otherwise probably a backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. If "Remote Control" disable diagnostic. Disable diagnostic if not used; otherwise probably a backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. If "Remote Control" disable diagnostic. Disable diagnostic if not used; otherwise probably a backplane wiring and/or power supply problem.

30

ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

31

32 33

P5=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P5 power supply is out of the specified operating limits P15=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P15 power supply is out of the specified operating limits

34

N15=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The N15 power supply is out of the specified operating limits

35

P12=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P12 power supply is out of the specified operating limits

36

N12=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The N12 power supply is out of the specified operating limits

37

P28A=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P28A power supply is out of the specified operating limits

38

P28B=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P28B power supply is out of the specified operating limits

39

P28C=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P28C power supply is out of the specified operating limits

40

P28D=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P28D power supply is out of the specified operating limits

41

P28E=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P28E power supply is out of the specified operating limits

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N28=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The N28 power supply is out of the specified operating limits

If "Remote Control" disable diagnostic. Disable diagnostic if not used; otherwise probably a backplane wiring and/or power supply problem. A source voltage or cabling problem; disable 125 V monitoring if not applicable. Leakage or a fault to ground causing an unbalance on the 125 V bus; disable 125 V monitoring if not applicable. Loose cable, rack power, or VCMI problem Loose cable, rack power, or VCMI problem Loose cable, rack power, or VCMI problem The sum of errors 60 through 66 Contact the factory. IONet communications failure - Check the VCMI and/or IONet cables. IONet communications failure - Check the VCMI and/or IONet cables. IONet communications failure - Check the VCMI and/or IONet cables. Possible VCMI hardware failure Possibly too many I/O I/O board or backplane problem Board ID chip failed ID chip mismatch - Check your configuration Too much application code used in controller. Reduce the code size.

43

125 Volt Bus=###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The 125Volt bus voltage is out of the specified operating limits 125 Volt Bus Ground =###.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The 125-Volt bus voltage ground is out of the specified operating limits IONet-1 Communications Failure. Loss of communication on IONet1 IONet-2 Communications Failure. Loss of communication on IONet2 IONet-3 Communications Failure. Loss of communication on IONet3 VME Bus Error Detected (Total of ### Errors). The VCMI has detected errors on the VME bus Using Default Input Data, Rack R.#. The VCMI is not getting data from the specified rack Using Default Input Data, Rack S.#. The VCMI is not getting data from the specified rack Using Default Input Data, Rack T.#. The VCMI is not getting data from the specified rack Missed Time Match Interrupt (## uSec). The VCMI has detected a missed interrupt VCMI Scheduler Task Overrun. The VCMI did not complete running all its code before the end of the frame Auto Slot ID Failure (Perm. VME Interrupt). The VCMI cannot perform its AUTOSLOT ID function Card ID/Auto Slot ID Mismatch. The VCMI cannot read the identity of a card that it has found in the rack Topology File/Board ID Mismatch. The VCMI has detected a mismatch between the configuration file and what it actually detects in the rack Controller Sequencing Overrun

44

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

57 58

Controller PCODE Version Mismatch between R,S,and T. Error during controller download R, S, and T have different software versions revalidate, build, and download all 3 controllers. IONet Communications Failure. Loss of communications on the slave VCMI IONet Loose cable, rack power, or VCMI problem (VCMI slave only)

59 60-66 67

VME Error Bit # (Total ## Errors). The VCMI has detected VME backplane errors - Contact errors on the VME bus factory. Controller Board is Offline. The VCMI cannot communicate with the controller Controller failed or is powered down.

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I/O Board in Slot # is Offline. The VCMI cannot communicate with the specified board

I/O board is failed or removed. You must replace the board, or reconfigure the system and redownload to the VCMI, and reboot. Sectors not write protected in manufacturing. Contact the factory. The size of the configured system is too large for the VCMI. You must reduce the size of the system.

88 89

U17 Sectors 0-5 are not write protected SRAM resources exceeded. Topology/config too large

VCRC VGEN 2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30

See VCCC Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. The relay terminal board may not exist and the relay is configured a used, or there may be a faulty relay driver circuit or drive sensors on VGEN. Relay is defective, or the connector cable J4 to the relay terminal board J1 is disconnected, or the relay terminal board does not exist.

31

32-43

Relay Driver # does not Match Requested State. There is a mismatch between the relay driver command and the state of the output to the relay as sensed by VGEN Relay Output Coil # does not Match Requested State. There is a mismatch between the relay driver command and the state of the current sensed on the relay coil on the relay terminal board

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Analog Input # Unhealthy. Analog Input 420 mA ## has exceeded the A/D converter's limits

Analog input is too large, TGEN jumper (JP1, JP3, JP5, JP7) is in the wrong position, signal conditioning circuit on TGEN is defective, multiplexer or A/D converter circuit on VGEN is defective.

60-65

Fuse # and/or # Blown. The fuse monitor requires the One or both of the listed fuses is jumpers to be set and to drive a load, or it will not respond blown, or there is a loss of power on correctly TB3, or the terminal board does not exist, or the jumpers are not set. Analog 420 mA Auto Calibration Faulty. One of the analog 420 mA auto calibration signals has failed. Auto calibration or 4-20 mA inputs are invalid 3 Volt or 9 Volt precision reference or null reference on VGEN is defective, or multiplexer or A/D converter circuit on VGEN is defective.

66-69

70-73

PT Auto Calibration Faulty. One of the PT auto calibration Precision reference voltage or null signals has gone bad. Auto calibration of PT input signals reference is defective on VGEN, or is invalid, PT inputs are invalid multiplexer or A/D converter circuit on VGEN is defective. CT Auto Calibration Faulty. One of the CT auto calibration Precision reference voltage or null signals has gone bad. Auto calibration of CT input signals reference is defective on VGEN, or is invalid, CT inputs are invalid multiplexer or A/D converter circuit on VGEN is defective. Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from A problem with the input. This could this board disagrees with the voted value be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration. Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board

74-79

96-223

224-241

VPRO

2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility

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ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. Contact input circuit failure on VPRO or TREG board. Loss of P125 voltage caused by disconnection of JH1 to TREG, or disconnect of JX1, JY1, JZ1 on TREG to J3 on VPRO. A condition such as stray voltage or noise caused the input to exceed +63 millivolts.

31

32-38 39-40

Contact Input # Not Responding to Test Mode. Trip interlock number # is not reliable Contact Excitation Voltage Test Failure. Contact excitation voltage has failed, trip interlock monitoring voltage is lost Thermocouple ## Raw Counts High. The ## thermocouple input to the analog to digital converter exceeded the converter limits and will be removed from scan

41-43

44-46

Thermocouple ## Raw Counts Low. The ## thermocouple The board detected a thermocouple input to the analog to digital converter exceeded the open and applied a bias to the circuit converter limits and will be removed from scan driving it to a large negative number, or the TC is not connected, or a condition such as stray voltage or noise caused the input to exceed 63 millivolts. Cold Junction Raw Counts High. Cold junction device input to the A/D converter has exceeded the limits of the converter. Normally two cold junction inputs are averaged; if one is detected as bad then the other is used. If both cold junctions fail, a predetermined value is used Cold Junction Raw Counts Low. Cold junction device input to the A/D converter has exceeded the limits of the converter Calibration Reference # Raw Counts High. Calibration reference # input to the A/D converter exceeded the converter limits. If Cal. Ref. 1, all even numbered TC inputs will be wrong; if Cal. Ref. 2, all odd numbered TC inputs will be wrong The cold junction device on the terminal board has failed.

47

48

The cold junction device on the terminal board has failed. The precision reference voltage on the board has failed.

49

50

Calibration Reference Raw Counts Low. The precision reference voltage on the Calibration reference input to the A/D converter exceeded board has failed. the converter limits Null Reference Raw Counts High. The null (zero) reference input to the A/D converter has exceeded the converter limits Null Reference Raw Counts Low. The null (zero) reference input to the A/D converter has exceeded the converter limits Thermocouple ## Linearization Table High. The thermocouple input has exceeded the range of the linearization (lookup) table for this type. The temperature will be set to the table's maximum value The null reference voltage signal on the board has failed. The null reference voltage signal on the board has failed. The thermocouple has been configured as the wrong type, or a stray voltage has biased the TC outside of its normal range, or the cold junction compensation is wrong.

51

52

53-55

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Thermocouple ## Linearization Table Low. The thermo couple input has exceeded the range of the linearization (lookup) table for this type. The temperature will be set to the table's minimum value Analog Input # Unhealthy. The number # analog input to the A/D converter has exceeded the converter limits

The thermocouple has been configured as the wrong type, or a stray voltage has biased the TC outside of its normal range, or the cold junction compensation is wrong. The input has exceeded 420 mA range, or for input #1 if jumpered for 10 V, it has exceeded 10 V range, or the 250 ohm burden resistor on TPRO has failed. Analog 15 V power supply on VPRO board has failed. Analog 15 V power supply on VPRO board has failed. The P28A power supply on VPWR board has failed, test P28A at VPRO front panel, otherwise there may be a bad connection at J9, the VPWR to VPRO interconnect. The P28B power supply on VPWR board has failed, test P28B at VPRO front panel, otherwise there may be a bad connection at J9, the VPWR to VPRO interconnect. The ETR # relay driver or relay driver feedback monitor on the TREG terminal board has failed, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG is incorrect. The servo clamp relay driver or relay driver feedback monitor on the TREG board has failed, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG is incorrect. K25A relay driver or relay driver feedback on the TREG board has failed, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG is incorrect. The relay driver on TREG may have failed, or the ETR on the TREG board has failed, or the cabling between the VPRO and TREG is incorrect. The trip solenoid # voltage monitor on TREG has failed or ETR # driver failed, or PTR # driver failed. There may be a loss of 125 V dc via the J2 connector from TRPG, which has a diagnostic. Economizing relay driver # or relay driver feedback monitor on TREG board has failed, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG is incorrect.

59-61

63

P15=####.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P15 power supply is out of the specified +12.75 to +17.25 V operating limits N15=####.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The N15 power supply is out of the specified 17.25 to 12.75 V operating limits P28A=####.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P28A power supply is out of the specified 23.8 to 31.0 V operating limits

64

67

68

P28B=####.## Volts is Outside of Limits. The P28B power supply is out of the specified 23.8 to 31.0 V operating limits

69-71 77-79

Trip Relay (ETR) Driver # Mismatch Requested State. The state of the command to the Emergency Trip Relay (ETR) does not match the state of the relay driver feedback signal; the ETR cannot be reliably driven until corrected Servo Clamp Relay Driver Mismatch Requested State. The state of the command to the servo clamp relay does not match the state of the servo clamp relay driver feedback signal; cannot reliably drive the servo clamp relay until corrected K25A Relay (Synch Check) Driver Mismatch Requested State. The state of the command to the K25A relay does not match the state of the K25A relay driver feedback signal; cannot reliably drive the K25A relay until corrected Trip Relay (ETR) Contact # Mismatch Requested State. The state of the command to the ETR does not match the state of the ETR contact feedback signal; the ETR cannot be reliably driven until corrected TREG Solenoid Voltage # Mismatch Requested State. The state of the trip solenoid # does not match the command logic of the voted ETR # on TREG, and the voted primary trip relay (PTR) # on TRPG, the ETR cannot be reliably driven until corrected Econ Relay Driver # Mismatch Requested State. The state of the command to the economizing relay does not match the state of the economizing relay driver feedback signal; cannot reliably drive the economizing relay until corrected

75

76

83-85 91-93 99-104

72-74 80-82

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Econ Relay Contact # Mismatch Requested State. The state of the command to the economizing relay does not match the state of the economizing relay contact feedback signal; cannot reliably drive the economizing relay until corrected K25A Relay (Synch Check) Coil Trouble, Cabling to P28V on TTUR. The state of the command to the K25A relay does not match the state of the K25A relay contact feedback signal; cannot reliably drive the K25A relay until the problem is corrected. The signal path is from VPRO to TREG to TRPG to VTUR to TTUR Servo Clamp Relay Contact Mismatch Requested State. The state of the command to the servo clamp relay does not match the state of the servo clamp relay contact feedback signal; cannot reliably drive the servo clamp relay until corrected TREG J3 Solenoid Power Source is Missing. The P125 V dc source for driving the trip solenoids is not detected; cannot reliably drive the trip solenoids

Economizing relay driver # on TREG board has failed, or the economizing relay on TREG has failed, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG is incorrect. The K25A relay driver or relay driver feedback on the TREG board has failed, or the K25A relay on TTUR has failed, or the cabling between VPRO and TTUR is incorrect. The servo clamp relay driver or the servo clamp relay on the TREG board has failed, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG is incorrect. The power detection monitor on the TREG1 board has failed, or there is a loss of P125 V dc via the J2 connector from TRPG board, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG1 or between TREG1 and TRPG is incorrect. The power detection monitor on the TREG2 board has failed, or there is a loss of P125 V dc via the J2 connector from TRPG board, or the cabling between VPRO and TREG2 or between TREG2 and TRPG is incorrect. Also trip relays K4-K6 may be configured when there is no TREG2 board. Loss of power bus A through J2 connector from TRPL/S Loss of power bus B through J2 connector from TRPL/S Loss of Power Bus C through J2 connector from TRPL/S

90

89

97

98

TREG J4 Solenoid Power Source is Missing. The P125 V dc source for driving the trip solenoids is not detected; cannot reliably drive the trip solenoids K4-K6

105

TREL/S, J3, Solenoid Power, Bus A, Absent. The voltage source for driving the solenoids is not detected on Bus A; cannot reliably drive these solenoids TREL/S, J3, Solenoid Power, Bus B, Absent. The voltage source for driving the solenoids is not detected on Bus B; cannot reliably drive these solenoids TREL/S, J3, Solenoid Power, Bus C, Absent. The voltage source for driving the solenoids is not detected on Bus C; cannot reliably drive these solenoids

106

107

128-319

Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from A problem with the input. This could this board disagrees with the voted value be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online)

320-339

VPYR

2 3

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active

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16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30

System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

System checking was disabled by configuration. Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. Specified pyrometer's average output is faulty, or VPYR or TPYR is faulty. Specified pyrometer's maximum output is faulty, or VPYR or TPYR is faulty. Specified pyrometer's peak output is faulty, or VPYR or TPYR is faulty. Specified pyrometer's fast output is faulty, or VPYR or TPYR is faulty. VPYR is faulty VPYR is faulty VPYR is faulty VPYR is faulty

31

32&38

Milliamp input associated with the slow average temperature is unhealthy. Pyro## SLOW AVG TEMP unhealthy Pyro## Slow Max Pk Temp unhealthy. Milliamp input associated with the slow maximum peak temperature is unhealthy Pyro## Slow Average Peak Temp. Milliamp input associated with the slow average peak temperature is unhealthy Pyro##Fast Temp Unhealthy. Milliamp input associated with the fast temperature is unhealthy Pyro## Fast Cal Reference out of limits. The fast calibration reference is out of limits Pyro## Fast Cal Null out of limits. The fast calibration null is out of limits Slow Cal Reference out of limits. The slow calibration reference is out of limits Slow Cal Null out of limits. The slow calibration null is out of limits

33&39

34&40

35&41 36&42 37&43 44 45 128-191

Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from A problem with the input. This could this board disagrees with the voted value be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable.

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Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit

A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Terminal board or cable problem

VAMA
Config. Dep.

M040

ASIG Open Wire Detection V dc

M041 M042 M043 M044 M045 M046 M047 M048 M049 M050 M051 M052 M053 M054 M055 VAMA
Startup

ARET Open Wire Detection V dc BSIG Open Wire Detection V dc BRET Open Wire Detection V dc Chan A DAC Bias V dc Chan B DAC Bias V dc Chan A Diff Amp Out V dc Chan B Diff Amp Out V dc Chan A FFT Filtered Null Counts Chan B FFT Filtered Null Counts Chan A FFT Filtered Reference Counts Chan B FFT Filtered Reference Counts Chan A (Slow) Filtered RMS Null Counts Chan B (Slow) Filtered RMS Null Counts Chan A (Slow) Filtered RMS Reference Counts Chan B (Slow) Filtered RMS Reference Counts Chan A FFT Null Chan B FFT Null Counts Chan A FFT Reference Counts Chan B FFT Reference Counts Chan A (Slow) RMS Null Counts Chan B (Slow) RMS Null Counts Chan A (Slow) RMS Reference Counts Chan B (Slow) RMS Reference Counts Ch A FFT AC Gain Corr LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=300 Ch B FFT AC Gain Corr LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=300 Ch A FFT AC Gain Corr LPF=1kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 Ch B FFT AC Gain Corr LPF=1kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 Ch A FFT AC Gain Corr LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=2160 Ch B FFT AC Gain Corr LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=2160 Ch A FFT AC Gain Corr 260_970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600

Terminal board or cable problem Terminal board or cable problem Terminal board or cable problem Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure

M072 M073 M074 M075 M076 M077 M078 M079 M080 M081 M082 M083 M084 M085 M086

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M087 M088 M089 M090 M091 M092 M093 M094 M095 M096 M097 M098 M099 M100 M101 M102 M103 M104 M105 M106 M107 M108 M109 M110 M111 M112 M113 M114 M115 M116 M117 M118 M119 M120 M121 M122 M123

Ch B FFT AC Gain Corr 260_970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 Slow Ch A RMS Gain Corr 270_970Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 Slow Ch B RMS Gain Corr 270_970Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 CHAN A FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=0 CHAN B FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=0 CHAN A FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=1.0 Freq=300 CHAN B FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=1.0 Freq=300 CHAN A FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=300 CHAN B FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=300 CHAN A FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=300 CHAN B FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=300 CHAN A FFT LPF=1kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 CHAN B FFT LPF=1kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 CHAN A FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=2160 CHAN B FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=2160 CHAN A FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 CHAN B FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=600 CHAN A FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=706 12db CHAN B FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=706 12db CHAN A FFT LPF=1kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=1192 12db CHAN B FFT LPF=1kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=1192 12db CHAN A FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=3854 6db CHAN B FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=4.5 Freq=3854 6db CHAN A FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=5 3db CHAN B FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=4.5 Freq=5 3db CHAN A FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 3db CHAN B FFT LPF=600Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 3db CHAN A FFT LPF=1kHz Gain=2.25 Freq=1000 3db CHAN B FFT LPF=1kHz Gain=2.25 Freq=1000 3db CHAN A FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=2.25 Freq=3600 3db CHAN B FFT LPF=3.6kHz Gain=2.25 Freq=3600 3db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=400 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=400 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=400 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=400 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600

Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure

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M124 M125 M126 M127 M128 M129 M130 M131 M132 M133 M134 M135 M136 M137 M138 M139 M140 M141 M142 M143 M144 M145 M146 M147 M148 M149 M150 M151 M152 M153 M154 M155 M156 M157 M158 M159 M160 M161 M162

CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=235 3db CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=235 3db CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=235 3db CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=235 3db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=220 9db CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=220 9db CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=220 9db CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=220 9db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=205 15db CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=205 15db CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=205 15db CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=205 15db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1065 3db CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1065 3db CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1065 3db CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1065 3db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1150 9db CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1150 9db CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1150 9db CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1150 9db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1235 15db CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1235 15db CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1235 15db CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1235 15db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=130 <36db CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=130 <36db CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=130 <36db CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=130 <36db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=250 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=250 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=250 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=250 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=260 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=260 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=260 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=260 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=270

Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure

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M163 M164 M165 M166 M167 M168 M169 M170 M171 M172 M173 M174 M175 M176 M177 M178 M179 M180 M181 M182 M183 M184 M185 M186 M187 M188 M189 M190 M191 M192 M193 M194 M195 M196 M197 M198 M199 M200

CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=270 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=270 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=270 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=930 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=930 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=930 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=930 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=950 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=950 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=950 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=950 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=970 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=970 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=970 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=970 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=990 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=990 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=990 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=990 CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1000 CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1000 CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1000 CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1000

Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure

CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1940 <36db Board failure CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1940 <36db Board failure

CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1940 <36db Board failure CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=1940 <36db CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 50% CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 50% CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 50% CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 50% CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 25% CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 25% CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 25% CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 25% CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 12.5% CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 12.5% CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 12.5% Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure

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M201 M202 M203 M204 M205 M206 M207 M208 M209 M210 M211 M212 M213 VRTD 2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30

CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=600 12.5% CHAN A FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=0 0% CHAN A RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=0 0% CHAN B FFT 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=0 0% CHAN B RMS 260-970Hz Gain=2.25 Freq=0 0% Chan A Dac Bias V dc Set to 0.0V dc Chan B Dac Bias V dc Set to 0.0V dc Chan A Dac Bias V dc Set to 1.0V dc Chan B Dac Bias V dc Set to 1.0V dc Chan A Dac Bias V dc Set to 1.0V dc Chan B Dac Bias V dc Set to 1.0V dc FFT Chan A A/D Bit Integrity - Peak bin cnts 80-100Hz FFT Chan B A/D Bit Integrity - Peak bin cnts 80-100Hz Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board failure Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration. Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory.

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32-47

RTD # high voltage reading, Counts are Y

An RTD wiring/cabling open, or an open on the VRTD board, or a VRTD hardware problem (such as multiplexer), or the RTD device has failed. An RTD wiring/cabling short, or a short on the VRTD board, or a VRTD hardware problem (such as multiplexer), or the RTD device has failed. The current source on the VRTD is bad, or the measurement device has failed. An RTD wiring/cabling open, or an open on the VRTD board, or a VRTD hardware problem (such as multiplexer), or the RTD device has failed. The wrong type of RTD has been configured or selected by default, or there are high resistance values created by faults 32 or 35, or both 32 and 35. The wrong type of RTD has been configured or selected by default, or there are low resistance values created by faults 33 or 34, or both 33 and 34. Internal VRTD problems such as a damaged reference voltage circuit, or a bad current reference source, or the voltage/current null multiplexer is damaged. VME board, terminal board, or cable could be defective.

48-63

RTD # low voltage reading, Counts are Y

64-79

RTD # high current reading, Counts are Y

80-95

RTD # low current reading, Counts are Y.

96-111

RTD # Resistance calc high, it is Y Ohms. RTD # has a higher value than the table and the value is Y

112-127

RTD # Resistance calc low, it is Y Ohms. TRD # has a lower value than the table and the value is Y

128-151

Voltage Circuits for RTDs, or Current Circuits for RTDs have Reference raw counts high or low, or Null raw counts high or low

152

Failed one Clock Validity Test, scanner still running. In TMR mode, the firmware tests whether the three TMR boards are synchronized and will stop scanning inputs under certain conditions Failed one Phase Validity Test, scanner still running. In TMR mode, the firmware tests whether the three TMR boards are synchronized and will stop scanning inputs under certain conditions Failed both Clock Validity Tests, scanner shutdown. In TMR mode, the firmware tests whether the three TMR boards are synchronized and will stop scanning inputs under certain conditions Terminal Board connection(s) wrong. Cables crossed between <R>, <S>, and <T>

153

VME board, terminal board, or cable could be defective.

154

VME board, terminal board, or cable could be defective.

155 156 160-255

Check cable connections.

25 Hz Scan not Allowed in TMR Mode, please reconfigure Configuration error. Choose scan of 4 Hz_50 Hz Fltr or 4 Hz_60 Hz Fltr. Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from A problem with the input. This could this board disagrees with the voted value. be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable.

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Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit

A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration. Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. The LVDT may need recalibration. The VSVO was put into calibration mode. The controller (R, S, T) or IONet is down, or there is a configuration problem with the system preventing the VCMI from bringing the board on line. A cable/wiring open circuit, or board problem. NA

VSVO

2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

31

33-44 45 46

LVDT # RMS Voltage Out of Limits. Minimum and maximum LVDT limits are configured Calibration Mode Enabled VSVO Board Not Online, Servos Suicided. The servo is suicided because the VSVO is not on-line

47-51

Servo Current # Disagrees with Reference, Suicided. The servo current error (reference - feedback) is greater than the configured current suicide margin Servo Current # Short Circuit. This is not currently used

52-56

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Servo Current # Open Circuit. The servo voltage is greater than 5V and the measured current is less than 10% Servo Position # Feedback Out of Range, Suicided. Regulator number # position feedback is out of range, causing the servo to suicide Configuration Message Error for Regulator Number #. There is a problem with the VSVO configuration and the servo will not operate properly Onboard Calibration Voltage Range Fault. The A/D calibration voltages read from the FPGA are out of limits, and the VSVO will use default values instead LVDT Excitation # Voltage out of range Servo output assignment mismatch. Regulator types 8 & 9 use two servo outputs each. They have to be consecutive pairs, and they have to be configured as the same range

A cable/wiring open circuit, or board problem. LVDT or board problem

62-66

67-71

The LVDT minimum and maximum voltages are equal or reversed, or an invalid LVDT, regulator, or servo number is specified. A problem with the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) on the board There is a problem with the LVDT excitation source on the VSVO board. Fix the regulator configurations.

72

73-75 77

128-191

Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from A problem with the input. This could this board disagrees with the voted value be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration. Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board

224-259

VTCC

2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure. J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility

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30

ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A condition such as stray voltage or noise caused the input to exceed +63 millivolts.

31

32-55

Thermocouple ## Raw Counts High. The ## thermocouple input to the analog to digital converter exceeded the converter limits and will be removed from scan

56-79

Thermocouple ## Raw Counts Low. The ## thermocouple The board has detected a input to the analog to digital converter exceeded the thermocouple open and has applied a converter limits and will be removed from scan bias to the circuit driving it to a large negative number, or the TC is not connected, or a condition such as stray voltage or noise caused the input to exceed 63 millivolts. Cold Junction # Raw Counts High. Cold junction device number # input to the A/D converter has exceeded the limits of the converter. Normally two cold junction inputs are averaged; if one is detected as bad then the other is used. If both cold junctions fail, a predetermined value is used Cold Junction # Raw Counts Low. Cold junction device number # input to the A/D converter has exceeded the limits of the converter. Normally two cold junction inputs are averaged; if one is detected as bad then the other is used. If both cold junctions fail, a predetermined value is used Calibration Reference # Raw Counts High. Calibration Reference # input to the A/D converter exceeded the converter limits. If Cal. Ref. 1, all even numbered TC inputs will be wrong; if Cal. Ref. 2, all odd numbered TC inputs will be wrong Calibration Reference # Raw Counts Low. Calibration Reference # input to the A/D converter exceeded the converter limits. If Cal. Ref. 1, all even numbered TC inputs will be wrong; if Cal. Ref. 2, all odd numbered TC inputs will be wrong Null Reference # Raw Counts High Null Reference # Raw Counts Low. The null (zero) reference number # input to the A/D converter has exceeded the converter limits. If null ref. 1, all even numbered TC inputs will be wrong; if null ref. 2, all odd numbered TC inputs will be wrong Thermocouple ## Linearization Table High. The thermocouple input has exceeded the range of the linearization (lookup) table for this type. The temperature will be set to the table's maximum value The cold junction device on the terminal board has failed.

80,81

82,83

The cold junction device on the terminal board has failed.

84,85

The precision reference voltage on the board has failed.

86,87

The precision reference voltage on the board has failed.

88,89 90,91

The null reference voltage signal on the board has failed. The null reference voltage signal on the board has failed.

92-115

The thermocouple has been configured as the wrong type, or a stray voltage has biased the TC outside of its normal range, or the cold junction compensation is wrong.

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116-139

Thermocouple ## Linearization Table Low. The thermo couple input has exceeded the range of the linearization (lookup) table for this type. The temperature will be set to the table's minimum value Logic Signal # Voting mismatch

The thermocouple has been configured as the wrong type, or a stray voltage has biased the TC outside of its normal range, or the cold junction compensation is wrong. A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. The solenoid relay driver on the TRPG/L/S board has failed, or the cabling between VTUR and TRPG/L/S is incorrect.

160-255

256-281

Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit

VTUR

2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

31

32-37

Solenoid # Relay Driver Feedback Incorrect. Solenoid (16) relay driver feedback is incorrect as compared to the command; VTUR cannot drive the relay correctly until the hardware failure is corrected

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38-43

Solenoid # Contact Feedback Incorrect. Solenoid (1-6) relay contact feedback is incorrect as compared to the command; VTUR cannot drive the relay correctly until the hardware failure is corrected TRPG # Solenoid Power Absent. P125/24 V dc power is not present on TRPG terminal board; VTUR cannot energize trip solenoids 1 through 3, or 4 through 6 until power is present

The solenoid relay driver or the solenoid relay on the TRPG/L/S board has failed, or the cabling between VTUR and TRPG/L/S is incorrect. Power may not be coming into TRPG/L/S on the J1 connector, or the monitoring circuit on TRPG/L/S is bad, or the cabling between TRPG/L/S and VTUR is at fault.

44-45

46,48

TRPG # Flame Detector Volts Low at Y Volts. TRPG 1 or Power comes into TRPG via J3, J4, 2 flame detect voltage is low; the ability to detect flame by and J5. If the voltage is less than detectors 1 through 8, or 9 through 16 is questionable 314.9 V dc, this should be investigated. If the voltage is above this value, the monitoring circuitry on TRPG or the cabling between TRPG and VTUR is suspect. TRPG # Flame Detector Volts High at Y Volts. TRPG 1 or 2 flame detect voltage is high; the ability to detect flame by detectors 1 through 8, or 9 through 16 is questionable because the excitation voltage is too high and the devices may be damaged This power comes into TRPG via J3, J4, and J5. If the voltage is greater than 355.1 V dc, this should be investigated. If the voltage is below this value, the monitoring circuitry on TRPG or the cabling between TRPG and VTUR is suspect. The synch check relay I3BKRGXS, known as K25A, on TTUR is suspect; also the cabling between VTUR and TTUR may be at fault. The Auto synch relay I3BKRGES also known as K25, on TTUR is suspect; also the cabling between VTUR and TTUR may be at fault. The breaker is experiencing a problem, or the operator should consider changing the configuration (both nominal close time and selfadaptive limit in ms can be configured).

47,49

50

L3BKRGXS Synch Check Relay is Slow. The auto synchronization algorithm has detected that during synchronization with no dead bus closure (synch bypass was false) the auto synch relay I3BKRGES closed before synch relay I3BKRGEX closed L3BKRGES Auto Synch Relay is Slow. The auto synchronization algorithm has detected that the auto synch relay I3BKRGES had not closed by two cycle times after the command I25 was given Breaker # Slower than Adjustment Limit Allows. Breaker 1 or 2 close time was measured to be slower than the auto synch algorithms adaptive close time adjustment limit allows

51

52-53

54

Synchronization Trouble - K25 Relay Locked Up. The K25 on TTUR is most likely stuck auto synchronization algorithm has determined that the closed, or the contacts are welded. auto synch relay I3BKRGES, also known as K25, is locked up. Auto synch will not be possible until the relay is replaced Card and Configuration File Incompatibility. You are attempting to install a VTUR board that is not compatible with the VTUR TRE file you have installed Term Board on J5X and Config File Incompatibility. VTUR detects that the terminal board that is connected to it through J5 is different than the board that is configured Term Board on J3 and Config File Incompatibility. VTUR detects that the terminal board that is connected to it through J3 is different than the board that is configured Term Board on J4 and Config File Incompatibility. VTUR detects that the terminal board that is connected to it through J4 is different than the board that is configured Install the correct TRE file from the factory Check your configuration.

55

56

57

Check your configuration.

58

Check your configuration.

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59

Term Board on J4A and Config File Incompatibility. Check your configuration. VTUR detects that the terminal board that is connected to it through J4A is different than the board that is configured Term. Board TTUR and card VTUR Incompatibility. VTUR detects that the TTUR connected to it is an incompatible hardware revision TRPL or TRPS Solenoid Power Bus "A" Absent TRPL or TRPS Solenoid Power Bus "B" Absent TRPL or TRPS Solenoid Power Bus "C" Absent TRPL/S J4 Solenoid # Voltage mismatch. The voltage feedback disagrees with the PTR or ETR feedback Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from this board disagrees with the voted value The TTUR or VTUR must be changed to a compatible combination. Cabling problem or solenoid power source Cabling problem or solenoid power source Cabling problem or solenoid power source PTR or ETR relays, or defective feedback circuitry A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Board firmware programming error (board will not go online) Board firmware programming error (board is allowed to go online) System checking was disabled by configuration. Failed ID chip on the VME I/O board Failed ID chip on connector J3, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J5, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J6, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J3A, or cable problem Failed ID chip on connector J4A, or cable problem Invalid terminal board connected to VME I/O board. A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory.

60

61 62 63 64-66 128-223

224-251

Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit

VVIB

2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 30

Flash Memory CRC Failure CRC failure override is Active System Limit Checking is Disabled Board ID Failure J3 ID Failure J4 ID Failure J5 ID Failure J6 ID Failure J3A ID Failure J4A ID Failure Firmware/Hardware Incompatibility ConfigCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The configuration compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

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31

IOCompatCode mismatch; Firmware: #; Tre: # The I/O compatibility code that the firmware is expecting is different than what is in the tre file for this board

A tre file has been installed that is incompatible with the firmware on the I/O board. Either the tre file or firmware must change. Contact the factory. The hardware failed (if so replace the board) or there is a voltage supply problem The hardware failed (if so replace the board) or there is a voltage supply problem

32

VVIB A/D Converter 1 Calibration Outside of Spec. VVIB monitors the Calibration Levels on the 2 A/D. If any one of the calibration voltages is not within 1% of its expected value, this alarm is set VVIB A/D Converter 2 Calibration Outside of Spec. VVIB monitors the Calibration Levels on the 2 A/D. If any one of the calibration voltages is not within 1% of its expected value, this alarm is set

33

65-77/ 81-93

TVIB J3/J4 Analog Input # out of limits. VVIB monitors the The TVIB board(s) may not exist but Signal Levels from the 2 A/D. If any one of the voltages is the sensor is specified as used, or the above the max value, this diagnostic is set sensor may be bad, or the wire fell off, or the device is miswired. Logic Signal # Voting mismatch. The identified signal from A problem with the input. This could this board disagrees with the voted value be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable. Input Signal # Voting mismatch, Local #, Voted #. The specified input signal varies from the voted value of the signal by more than the TMR Diff Limit A problem with the input. This could be the device, the wire to the terminal board, the terminal board, or the cable.

128-287

288-404

Controller Runtime Errors


In addition to generating diagnostic alarms, the UCVB and the UCVD controller boards display status information on front panel LEDs. The Status LED group on these controllers contains eight segments in a two vertical column layout as shown in Figure 8-3. These LEDs display controller errors if a problem occurs. The rightmost column makes up the lower hexadecimal digit and the leftmost column makes up the upper digit (the least significant bits on the bottom). Numerical conversions are provided with the fault code definitions.

Controller front panel ACTIVE SLOT1 BMAS ENET SYS BSLV H S T A T U S L

For example, flashing F in this pattern:

F F F

FLSH GENA

is error 0x43, decimal 67

Figure 8-3. Flashing Controller Status LEDs Indicate Error Codes

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If the controller detects certain system errors (typically during boot-up or download), it displays flashing and non-flashing codes on these green status LEDs. These codes correspond to runtime errors listed in the toolbox help file. Table 8-3 describes the types of errors displayed by the LEDs.
Table 8-3. Controller Runtime Errors Controller Condition Controller successfully completes its boot-up sequence and begins to execute application code Error occurs during the BIOS phase of the boot-up sequence Error occurs during the application code load Status LED Display Display a walking ones pattern consisting of a single lighted green LED rotating through the bank of LEDs. Non-flashing error code is displayed Flashing error codes are displayed until the error has been corrected and either the application code is downloaded again, or the controller is rebooted. May freeze with only a single LED lighted. No useful information can be interpreted from the LED position. Fault codes are generated internally.

Error occurs while the controller is running

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Totalizers
Totalizers are timers and counters that store critical data such as number of trips, number of starts, and number of fired hours. The Mark VI provides a special block, Totalizer, that maintains up to 64 values in a protected section of the NVRAM. An unprivileged user cannot modify the data, either accidentally or intentionally. The totalizer block should be placed in a protected macro to prevent the logic driving its counters from being modified. Users with sufficient privilege may set and clear Totalizer counter values from a toolbox dialogue. The standard block library help file provides more details on using the totalizer block.

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Troubleshooting
To start troubleshooting, be certain the racks have correct power supply voltages; these can be checked at the test points on the left-hand side on the VME rack. Refer to Help files as required. From the toolbox, click Help for files on Runtime Errors and the Block Library. Also, from the Start button, navigate to the Mark VI controller to see help files on Runtime, I/O networks, Serial Loader, Standard Block Library, and Turbine Block Library. This equipment contains a potential hazard of electric shock or burn. Only personnel who are adequately trained and thoroughly familiar with the equipment and the instructions should install, operate, or maintain this equipment. First level troubleshooting uses the LEDs on the front of the I/O and VCMI boards. If more information on the board problems and I/O problems is required, use the toolbox diagnostic alarm display for details.

I/O Board LEDs


Green - Normal Operation
During normal operation all the Run LEDs on the board front panels flash green together. All boards and all racks should flash green in synchronism. If one light is out of sequence there could be a problem with the synchronizing on that board which should be investigated. Contact your turbine control representative and have the firmware revision number for that board available.

Orange - System Diagnostic in Queue


If the orange Status LED lights on one board, this indicates there is an I/O or system diagnostic in queue in that board. This is not an I/O board failure, but may be a sensor problem. To view the diagnostic message 1. 2. 3. From the toolbox Outline View, select Online using the Go on/offline button. Locate the rack in the Summary View and right-mouse click the board. A pop-up menu displays. From the pop-up menu, select View Diagnostic Alarms. The Diagnostic Alarms table displays. The following data is displayed in tabular form: Time The time when the diagnostic was generated Fault Code The fault code number, in this chapter's I/O Board Alarm list Status A 1 indicates an active alarm, and a 0 indicates a cleared but not reset (acknowledged) alarm Description A short message describing the diagnostic

This diagnostic screen is a snapshot, but not real time. For new data, select the Update command.

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Use the left-mouse button and click on the board. All the real time I/O values display in the Summary View. At the top of the list is the L3DIAG board alarm, followed by the board point system limit values, and with the I/O (sensor) values at the bottom. From these alarms and I/O values, determine whether the problem is in the terminal board or in the sensor. For example, if all the I/O points in a board are bad, the board has failed, a cable is loose, or the board has not been configured. If only a few I/O points are bad, the I/O values are bad, or part of the terminal board is burned up.

Red - Board Not Operating


If a board has a red Fail LED lit, it indicates the board is not operating. Check if it is loose in its slot and, if so, switch off the rack power supply, push the board in, and turn on the power again. If the red light still comes on, power down the rack, remove the board and check the firmware flash chip. This chip can be plugged in the wrong way, which damages it; Figure 8-4 shows a typical I/O board with the chip location. The chamfer on the chip should line up with the chamfer on the receptacle, as shown. If no flash chip is installed, replace the board with a new one.
I/O Board

I/O Board Generic Circuitry

Flash Memory Chip

Flash Memory Socket

I/O Board Specific Circuitry

Figure 8-4. I/O Board with Flash Memory Chip

Earlier I/O board versions had a reset button on the front. If your board has this, check to see if this button is stuck in. If so replace the board with a new one. It is possible the failure is in the rack slot and not in the board. This can be determined by board swapping, assuming the turbine is shut down. Remove the same good board from the same slot in an adjacent TMR rack, and move the bad board to this good slot. Be careful to power down the racks each time. If the problem follows the board, replace the board. If it does not, there may be a problem with the VME backplane. Inspect the board slot for damage; if none is visible it may be the original board was not seated correctly.

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If a whole rack of I/O boards show red LEDs, it is probably caused by a communication failure between the slave VCMI and the I/O boards in the rack. This can result from a controller or VCMI failure or an IONet cable break. Either the master or slave VCMI could be at fault, so check the Fail LEDs to see where the problem is. The failure could also be caused by a rack power supply problem. If several but not all I/O boards in a rack show red, this is probably caused by a rack power supply problem.

Controller Failures
If the controller fails, the rotating green LED on the front panel stops. Check the VCMI and controller diagnostic queues for failure information. Power down the controller rack and reboot by bringing power back (do not use the Reset button). If the controller stays failed after reboot, replace it with a spare. If several LEDs are stopped and flashing, this indicates a runtime error that is typically a boot-up or download problem. The LED hex code indicates the type of error encountered. The controller Runtime Errors Help screen on the toolbox also displays all the runtime errors together with suggested actions. If the controller or its VCMI fails, then the IONet on this channel stops sending or receiving data. This drives the outputs on the failed channel to their fail-safe state. The failure does not affect the other two IONet channels, which keep running.

Power Distribution Module Failure


The PDM is a very reliable module with no active components. However, it does contain fuses and circuit switches, and may have an occasional cabling or connector problem. Most of the outputs have lights indicating voltage across their supply circuit. Open the PDM front door to see the lights, switches, and fuses. PDM diagnostic information is collected by the VCMI, including the 125 V dc bus voltage and the status of the fuses feeding relay output boards. These can be viewed on the toolbox by selecting and right-clicking the VCMI board, and then selecting View Diagnostic Alarms. These diagnostics are listed in this chapter in the I/O board alarms section under VCMI.

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Glossary of Terms

ADL
Asynchronous Device Language, an application layer protocol used for I/O communication on IONet.

application code
Software that controls the machines or processes, specific to the application.

ARCNET
Attached Resource Computer Network. A LAN communications protocol developed by Datapoint Corporation. The physical (coax and chip) and datalink (token ring and board interface) layer of a 2.5 MHz communication network which serves as the basis for DLAN+. See DLAN+.

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. An 8-bit code used for data.

attributes
Information, such as location, visibility, and type of data that sets something apart from others. In signals, an attribute can be a field within a record.

Balance of Plant (BOP)


Plant equipment other than the turbine that needs to be controlled.

baud
A unit of data transmission. Baud rate is the number of bits per second transmitted.

Bently Nevada
A manufacturer of shaft vibration monitoring equipment.

bind
A toolbox command in the Device menu used to obtain information from the SDB.

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Glossary of Terms G-1

BIOS
Basic input/output system. Performs the controller boot-up, which includes hardware self-tests and the file system loader. The BIOS is stored in EEPROM and is not loaded from the toolbox.

bit
Binary Digit. The smallest unit of memory used to store only one piece of information with two states, such as One/Zero or On/Off. Data requiring more than two states, such as numerical values 000 to 999, requires multiple bits (see Word).

block
Instruction blocks contain basic control functions, which are connected together during configuration to form the required machine or process control. Blocks can perform math computations, sequencing, or continuous control. The toolbox receives a description of the blocks from the block libraries.

board
Printed wiring board.

Boolean
Digital statement that expresses a condition that is either True or False. In the toolbox, it is a data type for logical signals.

bus
An electrical path for transmitting and receiving data.

bumpless
No disruption to the control when downloading.

byte
A group of binary digits (bits); a measure of data flow when bytes per second.

CIMPLICITY
Operator interface software configurable for a wide variety of control applications.

CMOS
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.

COI
Computer Operator Interface that consists of a set of product and application specific operator displays running on a small panel pc hosting Embedded Windows NT.

COM port
Serial controller communication ports (two). COM1 is reserved for diagnostic information and the Serial Loader. COM2 is used for I/O communication

G-2 Glossary of Terms

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

configure
To select specific options, either by setting the location of hardware jumpers or loading software parameters into memory.

CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check, used to detect errors in Ethernet and other transmissions.

CT
Current Transformer, used to measure current in an ac power cable.

datagrams
Messages sent from the controller to I/O blocks over the Genius network.

data server
A PC which gathers control data from input networks and makes the data available to PCs on output networks.

DCS (Distributed Control System)


Control system, usually applied to control of boilers and other process equipment.

dead band
A range of values in which the incoming signal can be altered without changing the output response.

device
A configurable component of a process control system.

DDPT
IS200DDPT Dynamic Pressure Transducer Terminal Board that is used in conjunction with the IS200VAMA VME Acoustic Monitoring Board that is used to monitor acoustic or pressure waves in the turbine combustion chamber.

DIN-rail
European standard mounting rail for electronic modules.

DLAN+
GE Industrial System's LAN protocol, using an ARCNET controller chip with modified ARCNET drivers. A communications link between exciters, drives, and controllers, featuring a maximum of 255 drops with transmissions at 2.5 MBPS.

DRAM
Dynamic Random Access Memory, used in microprocessor-based equipment.

EGD
Ethernet Global Data is a control network and protocol for the controller. Devices share data through EGD exchanges (pages).

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Glossary of Terms G-3

EMI
Electro-magnetic interference; this can affect an electronic control system

Ethernet
LAN with a 10/100 M baud collision avoidance/collision detection system used to link one or more computers together. Basis for TCP/IP and I/O services layers that conform to the IEEE 802.3 standard, developed by Xerox, Digital, and Intel.

EVA
Early valve actuation, to protect against loss of synchronization.

event
A property of Status_S signals that causes a task to execute when the value of the signal changes.

EX2000 (Exciter)
GE generator exciter control; regulates the generator field current to control the generator output voltage.

EX2100 (Exciter)
Latest version of GE generator exciter control; regulates the generator field current to control the generator output voltage.

fanned input
An input to the termination board which is connected to all three TMR I/O boards.

fault code
A message from the controller to the HMI indicating a controller warning or failure.

Finder
A subsystem of the toolbox for searching and determining the usage of a particular item in a configuration.

firmware
The set of executable software that is stored in memory chips that hold their content without electrical power, such as EEPROM.

flash
A non-volatile programmable memory device.

forcing
Setting a live signal to a particular value, regardless of the value blockware or I/O is writing to that signal.

frame rate
Basic scheduling period of the controller encompassing one complete input-compute-output cycle for the controller. It is the system dependent scan rate.

G-4 Glossary of Terms

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

function
The highest level of the blockware hierarchy, and the entity that corresponds to a single .tre file.

gateway
A device that connects two dissimilar LAN or connects a LAN to a wide-area network (WAN), PC, or a mainframe. A gateway can perform protocol and bandwidth conversion.

Graphic Window
A subsystem of the toolbox for viewing and setting the value of live signals.

health
A term that defines whether a signal is functioning as expected.

Heartbeat
A signal emitted at regular intervals by software to demonstrate that it is still active.

hexadecimal (hex)
Base 16 numbering system using the digits 0-9 and letters A-F to represent the decimal numbers 0-15. Two hex digits represent 1 byte.

HMI
Human Machine Interface, usually a PC running CIMPLICITY software.

HRSG
Heat Recovery Steam Generator using exhaust from a gas turbine.

ICS
Integrated Control System. ICS combines various power plant controls into a single system.

IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A United States-based society that develops standards.

initialize
To set values (addresses, counters, registers, and such) to a beginning value prior to the rest of processing.

Innovation Series Controller


A process and logic controller used for several types of GE industrial control systems.

I/O
Input/output interfaces that allow the flow of data into and out of a device.

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Glossary of Terms G-5

I/O drivers
Interface the controller with input/output devices, such as sensors, solenoid valves, and drives, using a choice of communication networks.

I/O mapping
Method for moving I/O points from one network type to another without needing an interposing application task.

IONet
The Mark VI I/O Ethernet communication network; controlled by the VCMIs.

insert
Adding an item either below or next to another item in a configuration, as it is viewed in the hierarchy of the Outline View of the toolbox.

instance
Update an item with a new definition.

item
A line of the hierarchy of the Outline View of the toolbox, which can be inserted, configured, and edited (such as Function or System Data).

IP Address
The address assigned to a device on an Ethernet communication network.

LCI Static Starter


This runs the generator as a motor to bring a gas turbine up to starting speed.

logical
A statement of a true sense, such as a Boolean.

macro
A group of instruction blocks (and other macros) used to perform part of an application program. Macros can be saved and reused.

Mark VI Turbine controller


A version of the Innovation Series controller hosted in one or more VME racks that perform turbine-specific speed control, logic, and sequencing.

median
The middle value of three values; the median selector picks the value most likely to be closest to correct.

Modbus
A serial communication protocol developed by Modicon for use between PLCs and other computers.

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Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

module
A collection of tasks that have a defined scheduling period in the controller.

MTBFO
Mean Time Between Forced Outage, a measure of overall system reliability.

NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers Association; a U.S. standards organization.

non-volatile
The memory specially designed to store information even when the power is off.

online
Online mode provides full CPU communications, allowing data to be both read and written. It is the state of the toolbox when it is communicating with the system for which it holds the configuration. Also, a download mode where the device is not stopped and then restarted.

pcode
A binary set of records created by the toolbox, which contain the controller application configuration code for a device. Pcode is stored in RAM and Flash memory.

Power Distribution Module (PDM)


The PDM distributes 125 V dc and 115 V ac to the VME racks and I/O termination boards.

period
The time between execution scans for a Module or Task. Also a property of a Module that is the base period of all of the Tasks in the Module.

pin
Block, macro, or module parameter that creates a signal used to make interconnections.

Plant Data Highway (PDH)


Ethernet communication network between the HMI Servers and the HMI Viewers and workstations

PLC
Programmable Logic Controller. Designed for discrete (logic) control of machinery. It also computes math (analog) function and performs regulatory control.

PLU
Power load unbalance, detects a load rejection condition which can cause overspeed.

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Glossary of Terms G-7

product code (runtime)


Software stored in the controllers Flash memory that converts application code (pcode) to executable code.

PROFIBUS
An open fieldbus communication standard defined in international standard EN 50 170 and is supported in Simplex Mark VI systems.

Proximitor
Bently Nevada's proximity probes used for sensing shaft vibration.

PT
Potential Transformer, used for measuring voltage in a power cable.

QNX
A real time operating system used in the controller.

realtime
Immediate response, referring to process control and embedded control systems that must respond instantly to changing conditions.

reboot
To restart the controller or toolbox.

RFI
Radio Frequency Interference; this is high frequency electromagnetic energy which can affect the system.

register page
A form of shared memory that is updated over a network. Register pages can be created and instanced in the controller and posted to the SDB.

relay ladder diagram (RLD)


A ladder diagram represents a relay circuit. Power is considered to flow from the left rail through contacts to the coil connected at the right.

resources
Also known as groups. Resources are systems (devices, machines, or work stations where work is performed) or areas where several tasks are carried out. Resource configuration plays an important role in the CIMPLICITY system by routing alarms to specific users and filtering the data users receive.

RPSM
IS2020RPSM Redundant Power Supply Module for VME racks that mounts on the side of the control rack instead of the power supply. The two power supplies that feed the RPSM are mounted remotely.

G-8 Glossary of Terms

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

RTD
Resistance Temperature Device, used for measuring temperature.

runtime
See product code.

runtime errors
Controller problems indicated on the front panel by coded flashing LEDS, and also in the Log View of the toolbox.

sampling rate
The rate at which process signal samples are obtained, measured in samples/second.

Serial Loader
Connects the controller to the toolbox PC using the RS-232C COM ports. The Serial Loader initializes the controller flash file system and sets its TCP/IP address to allow it to communicate with the toolbox over Ethernet.

Server
A PC which gathers data over Ethernet from plant devices, and makes the data available to PC-based operator interfaces known as Viewers.

SIFT
Software Implemented Fault Tolerance, a technique for voting the three incoming I/O data sets to find and inhibit errors. Note that Mark VI also uses output hardware voting.

signal
The basic unit for variable information in the controller.

Simplex
Operation that requires only one set of control and I/O, and generally uses only one channel. The entire Mark VI control system can operate in Simplex mode, or individual VME boards in an otherwise TMR system can operate in Simplex mode.

simulation
Running a system without all of the configured I/O devices by modeling the behavior of the machine and the devices in software.

stall detection
Detection of stall condition in a gas turbine compressor.

Status_S
GE proprietary communications protocol that provides a way of commanding and presenting the necessary control, configuration, and feedback data for a device. The protocol over DLAN+ is Status_S. It can send directed, group, or broadcast messages.

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Glossary of Terms G-9

SOE
Sequence of Events, a high-speed record of contact closures taken during a plant upset to allow detailed analysis of the event.

Static Starter
See LCI.

Status_S pages
Devices share data through Status_S pages. They make the addresses of the points on the pages known to other devices through the system database.

symbols
Created by the toolbox and stored in the controller, the symbol table contains signal names and descriptions for diagnostic messages.

task
A group of blocks and macros scheduled for execution by the user.

TBAI
Analog input termination board, interfaces with VAIC.

TBAO
Analog output termination board, interfaces with VAOC.

TBCC
Thermocouple input termination board, interfaces with VTCC.

TBCI
Contact input termination board, interfaces with VCCC or VCRC.

TCP/IP
Communications protocols developed to inter-network dissimilar systems. It is a de facto UNIX standard, but is supported on almost all systems. TCP controls data transfer and IP provides the routing for functions, such as file transfer and e-mail.

TGEN
Generator termination board, interfaces with VGEN.

time slice
Division of the total module scheduling period. There are eight slices per single execution period. These slices provide a means for scheduling modules and tasks to begin execution at different times.

TMR
Triple Modular Redundancy. An operation that uses three identical sets of control and I/O (channels R, S, and T) and votes the results.

G-10 Glossary of Terms

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

token passing network


The token is a message which gives a station permission to transmit on a network; this token is passed from station to station so all can transmit in turn.

toolbox
A Windows-based software package used to configure the Mark VI controllers, also exciters and drives.

TPRO
Turbine protection termination board, interfaces with VPRO.

TPYR
Pyrometer termination board for blade temperature measurement, interfaces with VPYR.

TREG
Turbine emergency trip termination board, interfaces with VPRO.

trend
A time-based plot to show the history of values, similar to a recorder, available in the Historian and the toolbox.

TRLY
Relay output termination board, interfaces with VCCC or VCRC.

TRPG
Primary trip termination board, interfaces with VTUR.

TRTD
RTD input termination board, interfaces with VRTD.

TSVO
Servo termination board, interfaces with VSVO.

TTUR
Turbine termination board, interfaces with VTUR.

TVIB
Vibration termination board, interfaces with VVIB.

UCVB
A version of the Mark VI controller.

Unit Data Highway (UDH)


Connects the Mark VI controllers, LCI, EX2000, PLCs, and other GE provided equipment to the HMI Servers.

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Glossary of Terms G-11

validate
Makes certain that toolbox items or devices do not contain errors, and verifies that the configuration is ready to be built into pcode.

VAMA
IS200VAMA VME Acoustic Monitoring Board that is used in conjunction with the IS200DDPT Dynamic Pressure Transducer Terminal Board to monitor acoustic or pressure waves in the turbine combustion chamber.

VCMI
The Mark VI VME communication board which links the I/O with the controllers.

VME board
All the Mark VI boards are hosted in Versa Module Eurocard (VME) racks.

VPRO
Mark VI Turbine Protection Module, arranged in a self contained TMR subsystem.

Windows NT
Advanced 32-bit operating system from Microsoft for 386-based PCs and above.

word
A unit of information composed of characters, bits, or bytes, that is treated as an entity and can be stored in one location. Also, a measurement of memory length, usually 4, 8, or 16-bits long.

G-12 Glossary of Terms

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

Index

digital signal processor 2-12 dimensions 5-1, 5-35 DIN-rail mounted 1-3, 2-15 Distributed Control System (DCS) 1-6, 2-5, 2-36, 3-2, 3-21, 3-25, 3-26, 6-6 DRLY 2-15, 7-54 DRTD 2-15 DSVO 2-15 DTAO 2-15 DTE 3-22, 3-23 DTRT 2-15 DTUR 2-15

E A
ANSI 4-1 4-3 Early Valve Actuation (EVA) 7-48 7-50 Electromagnetic Compatability (EMC) 4-1, 4-2 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) 2-6, 3-6, 5-41, 5-42 emergency overspeed 2-16 environmental 1-3, 4-1, 5-1, 5-26 Ethernet 1-6, 2-2, 2-4 2-11, 2-36, 3-1 3-21, 3-25, 332 3-34, 5-1, 5-26, 5-34, 5-39, 5-40 5-43, 546, 5-48, 6-4, 6-7, 6-8, 8-8 Ethernet Global Data (EGD) 1-6, 2-2, 2-4, 2-23, 3-1, 33, 3-6, 3-7, 3-14 3-16, 6-7, 8-7, 8-8 EX2100 1-4, 2-4, 3-11, 6-7 exciter 2-5, 2-29, 5-27 exhaust overtemperature 2-16

B
Balance of Plant (BOP) 1-6, 2-2, 2-18, 6-8

C
cabinets 2-2, 2-5, 2-20, 2-29, 4-5, 5-11, 5-20, 5-31 CIMPLICITY 1-3, 1-6, 2-3 2-5, 2-17, 3-11, 3-21, 6-1, 6-2, 6-4, 8-3 compressor stall detection 7-54 configuration 2-3, 2-4, 2-9, 2-12, 2-17, 2-19, 2-23, 226, 2-27, 3-2, 3-3, 3-6, 3-7, 3-11 3-14, 3-16, 318, 3-19, 3-27, 3-28, 3-35, 5-24, 5-46, 5-49, 6-3, 6-4, 6-7, 6-9, 7-9, 7-13, 7-14, 7-17, 7-21, 7-22, 746, 8-1, 8-6 8-17, 8-20, 8-25, 8-27 8-32 controller 1-3, 2-2, 2-4, 2-6 2-12, 2-17 2-23, 2-26, 2-28 2-30, 2-32, 2-34, 3-6, 3-7, 3-11 3-21, 325 3-27, 4-4, 5-13, 5-35, 5-45 5-49, 6-7 610, 7-11, 7-46, 7-48, 7-50, 7-51, 7-54, 8-2 8-8, 8-14, 8-27, 8-33, 8-34, 8-36, 8-38 Control Operator Interface (COI) 1-4, 2-4, 6-1, 6-7 corrosive gases 4-4 Current Transformer (CT) 1-6, 5-27, 7-46, 8-6, 8-16 Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) 3-6, 3-7, 3-12, 3-14, 3-15, 3-20 3-22, 8-9 8-12, 8-15, 8-16, 8-19, 825, 8-27, 8-28, 8-30, 8-32

F
fiber-optic 2-2, 2-5, 3-1, 3-6 3-9, 3-12, 3-30 3-34, 5-39 fiber-optic cable 3-1, 3-6, 3-7, 3-12, 3-30 3-34 frame 2-6, 2-9, 2-22, 2-28, 2-29, 3-3, 3-13, 3-18, 3-27 3-29, 6-10, 8-3, 8-5, 8-14

G
gas turbine 1-1, 1-6, 2-6, 2-16, 3-11, 5-9, 5-10, 7-54 Geiger Mueller 2-13 generator protection 2-5 generator synchronization 1-2, 2-16, 7-1 GE Standard Messaging (GSM) 2-36, 3-1, 3-2, 3-6, 325 Global Position System (GPS) 3-7, 3-35 ground reference 5-39, 5-40, 5-44

D
data highways 1-3, 2-3, 3-2, 5-39 data server 2-4 Data Communications Equipment (DCE) 3-22, 3-23 designated processor 2-2 diagnostic alarms 1-3, 8-1, 8-5 8-7, 8-33

H
Historian 1-3, 1-4, 3-2, 3-11, 6-1, 6-8 6-10 Human Machine Interface (HMI) 1-3, 1-6, 2-2 2-6, 220, 2-36, 3-2, 3-5, 3-6, 3-21, 3-25, 3-26, 3-35, 512, 5-35, 6-1 6-8, 8-2, 8-3, 8-5

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Index I-1

humidity range 4-4

Q
QNX 2-17

I
I/O cabinet 2-2, 5-19 IONet port 2-8, 2-10, 3-13

R
Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) 1-6, 2-12, 2-13, 2-15, 8-3, 8-26 RF immunity 4-2

L
Load Commutated Inverter (LCI) 2-6 Local Area Network (LAN) 3-2, 3-33, 5-39 LVDT 2-13, 2-15, 7-1 7-6, 7-9, 8-27, 8-28

S
Sequence of Events (SOE) 1-6, 2-5, 2-12, 2-22, 2-36, 325, 3-26, 6-9, 6-10, 8-11, 8-12 serial Modbus 3-19 3-21 Serial Request Transfer Protocol (SRTP) 3-7, 8-7 servo actuator 2-24 servo regulator 1-3, 7-1, 7-2 Simplex 2-10, 2-18, 2-19, 2-30, 2-31, 3-7, 3-13, 3-18, 5-9, 5-48, 8-5, 8-10, 8-11 Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) 1-6, 210, 2-19, 2-22, 2-27, 2-29, 2-31 static starter 2-6 steam turbine 1-2, 2-15, 3-11, 7-46 suicide relay 8-11 surge 5-21 synchronization 1-3, 2-16, 2-22, 3-1, 3-3, 3-35, 3-36, 68, 6-10, 7-13, 7-18, 7-21, 7-49, 7-50, 8-31 system reliability 2-1, 2-18

M
magnetic pickups 2-13, 2-33 Mean Time Between Forced Outages (MTBFO) 2-34, 2-35 Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) 1-6, 2-35 median value 2-28 Modbus 1-4, 2-5, 2-6, 2-36, 3-1, 3-2, 3-6, 3-18 3-25, 5-35, 6-8, 6-9, 8-7, 8-8

N
Network Time Protocol (NTP) 3-7, 3-35, 8-7

O
online repair 2-34, 2-35 operator stations 2-5, 2-17, 2-20 output voting 2-19, 2-31 overspeed 1-2, 2-16, 2-27, 2-32, 2-33, 7-1, 7-46, 7-50, 7-51 overspeed protection 2-32, 2-33, 7-1

T
TBAO 2-13 TBCI 2-13, 8-12 TBTC 2-13 TCP/IP 2-5, 2-36, 3-2, 3-5, 3-6, 3-15, 3-19, 3-20, 3-25, 5-46, 5-48 TGEN 2-13, 7-46, 8-16 toolbox 1-3, 1-4, 2-3, 2-4, 2-12, 2-17, 3-14, 3-18, 3-28, 3-29, 5-42, 5-46 5-49, 6-1 6-3, 7-9, 7-22, 746, 7-50, 8-2 8-9, 8-34 8-38 toolbox configuration 5-42 TPRO 2-13, 2-16, 2-33, 7-20, 7-21, 8-18 TPYR 2-13, 8-20 TREG 2-13, 2-16, 2-33, 7-11, 8-17, 8-18, 8-19 trip solenoids 2-16, 2-33, 8-19, 8-31 triple modular redundant 1-2 TRLY 2-13, 5-42, 5-46, 7-54, 8-12 TRPG 2-13, 2-32, 2-33, 5-18, 7-11, 8-18, 8-19, 8-30, 831 TRTD 2-13 TSVO 2-13, 2-33 TTUR 2-13, 2-32, 7-11, 7-20, 7-21, 8-19, 8-31, 8-32 turbine control console 2-5 TVIB 2-13, 8-33

P
peer-to-peer 2-5, 3-6, 3-14 permissive relay 2-16, 7-13 pilot valve 7-2 Plant Data Highway (PDH) 1-6, 2-2 2-5, 3-2, 3-5 311, 3-32, 5-26, 5-40, 6-4, 6-8 Potential Transformer (PT) 1-6, 5-27, 7-13 7-15, 8-6, 8-16 Power Distribution Module (PDM) 2-7, 2-15, 5-39, 544, 5-45, 7-60, 8-38 primary trip 8-18 process alarms 8-1 8-3, 8-5, 8-8 producer 3-14 PROFIBUS 3-1, 3-27 3-29 programmable logic controllers 6-6 protection module 2-2, 2-16, 2-20, 2-33, 3-12

I-2 Index

Mark VI System Guide GEH-6421D, Vol. I

U
UCVB 2-9, 3-7, 5-48, 8-5, 8-33 UCVD 2-9, 5-48, 8-5, 8-33 Unit Data Highway (UDH) 1-6, 2-2 2-6, 2-9, 2-11, 222, 2-23, 2-29, 2-31, 3-3 3-11, 3-16, 3-32, 3-35, 5-26, 5-34, 5-40, 6-4, 6-7 6-9, 8-3, 8-4 UL 4-1 4-3, 4-6, 5-39 unhealthy 3-14, 8-20

V
VAIC 2-13, 2-15, 7-54, 8-6, 8-9, 8-10 VAMA 8-21 VAOC 2-13, 2-15 VCCC 2-12 2-15, 8-11, 8-12, 8-15 VCMI 2-2, 2-6 2-12, 2-16, 2-17, 2-20, 2-22, 2-31, 312, 3-13, 5-2, 5-13, 5-41, 5-45 5-48, 7-60, 8-5 8-15, 8-27, 8-36, 8-38 VCRC 2-12 2-15, 7-54, 8-11, 8-15

VDSK board 2-7 Versa Module Eurocard (VME) 2-6 2-16, 3-12, 3-13, 5-41, 5-45, 8-9 8-16, 8-20, 8-25 8-28, 8-30, 832, 8-36, 8-37 VGEN 2-13, 8-6, 8-15, 8-16 vibration 2-13, 3-2, 7-58 voting 1-2, 1-6, 2-10, 2-16 2-19, 2-22, 2-23, 2-25, 226 2-34, 3-13, 7-11, 8-5 VPRO 2-13, 2-16, 2-20, 2-33, 5-45, 5-48, 7-1, 7-11, 713, 7-15, 7-17, 7-19 7-45, 8-6, 8-7, 8-16, 8-17, 8-18, 8-19 VPYR 2-13, 8-6, 8-19, 8-20 VRTD 2-13, 2-15, 8-6, 8-25, 8-26 VSVO 2-13, 2-15, 7-2, 7-9, 8-6, 8-27, 8-28 VTCC 2-13, 2-15, 8-6, 8-28 VTUR 2-13, 2-15, 2-32, 7-1, 7-11, 7-13, 7-15 7-22, 7-51, 8-19, 8-30, 8-31, 8-32 VVIB 2-13, 2-15, 8-6, 8-32, 8-33

GEH-6421D, Vol. I Mark VI System Guide

Index I-3

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GEH 6421D, volume 2


To access this document, go to the contents and click on the link to GEH 6421D, volume 2, in tab 5.



GEH 6403F
To access this document, go to the contents and click on the link to GEH 6403F in tab 6.



GEH 6409
To access this document, go to the contents and click on the link to GEH 6409 in tab 7.

 
  




 
 

 
 

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