2

ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ
ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ

2.1 ΟΙ ΠΡΑΞΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΙΔΙΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΤΟΥΣ
(Επαναλήψεις - Συμπληρώσεις) 
!"#" 
 


       

    
    

   .           .

 .

.

 .

 .   : 9  .

   .

  ≠ 0 .  (     )     !.    . "  "  ! .  .  9  .

   .

    ! # " "    "  " "   .  .  !#.

8 . − = −1. 14 9 60 225 230 = 2. 45 . " "    "  " "          !. 2.    "  . = 5. 25 =  2.32 = 5 8 11 100 99 \$ " "       . 25 .

    " "     "  " "   .

. %  #   .

3. "     !  # " "   #  "  " " ). π.    .  ..   ≠ 0 (. .    .. #  2. &  .  "    .

     .

.    ! .

ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ KL       .44 2.

          .

        .   '.

 !     "  . •    .  .

.         "    !     .      '   '   .

 .

.

.

  .

 +  =  +  =  .

     ' '.              .  + (  +  ) = ( +  ) +   (  ) = (  )    !"# +0=  #/ #\$   + ( − ) = 0 %  ⋅1 =  ⋅ 1 =1.  ≠ 0   (  +  ) =  +     .

.

&  .   "* " !  . .

 0     "#  . "    .

   "  .

+    . "   '  .

 1     "#  .

.

.

"    "  ..

MN /   .      "  '  .

         "    .

 .   #  .

 .

      "  .

    "  ..

       "   .

   "  . − 3 + 2 + 2 + 3 − 2 + 5 − 2 = −3 + 3 + 2 − 2 + 5 + 2 − 2 = 5 . &#.   "       .        "       "         .

   "   .

   "  .   "       . 2 1⎞ ⎛ 5⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 2 ⎞⎛ 5 ⎞ ( −3) ⎛⎜ − ⎞⎛ ⎟⎜ − ⎟ ( −6 ) 4 ⎜ − ⎟ = ( −3) ⎜ − ⎟⎜ − ⎟⎜ − ⎟ ( −6 ) 4 = −24 ⎝ 5 ⎠⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝ 5 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠ .

1 Οι πράξεις και οι ιδιότητές του 45 (/ "  #    #  *        ).2. • / !     "      '.

   .

        # # :  − ^ =  + (− ^) .

 .  :^ =  1 = ⋅ ^ ^ ( ^ ≠ 0) 7 ":   '  " ! α − β .

   #  .

         .    ≠ 0  " .      "     !  " .   ≠ 0 .  ! . *   '    _ + " "    "   " "  .  .

 •                .  "  .

"       . ( =    = ) ⇒  +  =  + " ". "    #     : 1.

2. ( =    = ) ⇒   =  " ".    .    "        . 3. "           . = ⇔ + =  + " ".

   !    "   .

   "              "     "   "   . 4.. :  =  ⇔  =  " ". .  ≠ 0.

. ⋅ =0⇔  =0   =0 . 5.

46 2. ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ " ".    "    *  .

            .*      ".

<    "      .      ".

:  ⋅ ^ ≠ 0 ⇔  ≠ 0 .

 ^ ≠ 0 MN =      +  =  +       ⋅  =  ⋅   '     =  .    .

\$   "   .

   "      #.  "  ". =#  #   "  !  "        #           ".

   .

. # '   .

> #  = 1 . ?  " "  :  =1  ⋅  =  ⋅1 2 =  2 −1 =  −1 (  + 1)(  − 1) = (  − 1) ⋅1  +1 =1 =0 =#    = 1 .   1 .   "  .

&".      0.

    .

"    (  + 1)(  − 1) = (  − 1) ⋅ 1 "  @      (  − 1)  .     . #  .

     ". . K + #         "   .

  .

         .   .  .

 K"Y\ .     :  =  ⋅  ⋅  " .     : 0 = 1  − = 1  .    ! .     ≠ 0 .   = 1.    > 1  1 = .

 −2 ≠ 2 . "    !.    =   .   =  .2. !    "   ( −2 ) = 22 .1 Οι πράξεις και οι ιδιότητές του 47 MN +*  !   . 2     @  "  # " #  .

  .   A.

    .

  .  . !   "          * .  = −   ⋅   = +   ⋅  = (  )    ⎛  ⎞ =⎜ ⎟  ⎝  ⎠  ( )    =   LY!c#\ \\[\\ /       #     .

      '   .

       #  '* *  .

.

    ..

  !  #        #  : ( +  ) ( −  ) 2 =  2 + 2 +  2 2 =  2 − 2 +  2 2 −  2 = ( +  ) ⋅ ( −  ) (  +  ) = 3 + 3 2  + 3 2 +  3 3 (  −  ) = 3 − 3 2  + 3 2 −  3  3 +  3 = (  +  ) ⋅ (  2 −  +  2 ) 3  3 −  3 = (  −  ) ⋅ (  2 +  +  2 ) ( +  + ) 2 =  2 +  2 +  2 + 2 + 2  + 2 .

ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ ]eYZY [ZL 1) ec [ZL > #          .48 2.

     . .

  +  +  = 0  .

  "  3 +  3 + 3 = 3 . " "  #  .

  "   #: « .   3 +  3 + 3 = 3 ».  .  +  +  = 0.   = − (  +  ) . + "  +  +  = 0 .

( !  +  = − ) .   "      #  #      . : 3 3 3  3 +  3 +  3 = ⎡− ⎣ (  +  ) ⎦⎤ +  +  = − (  +  ) +  3 + 3 3 = −  3 − 3  2  − 3  2 −  3 +  3 +  3 = − 3  2  − 3  2 = − 3  (  +  ) = 3.

\$  " "     #.   +  +  = 0   " "  '         3 +  3 + 3 = 3 .

.

 . MN 1Y ) +.

  "      (  +  ) =  2 + 2 +  2 .  .    "  . #  # # ] 2Y )   "       .  ∈ R . "            "  # # *    #.  " "  : 2 ( +  ) 2 = (  +  )(  +  ) =  ( +  ) +  ( +  ) =  2 +  +  +  2 =  2 + 2 +  2 [&  "  ] [ +    "  ] [ +    "  ] [ .

.   !  " "              "      .

. >           .

#         .    "  ..

y .  . . x.

  "    : .

2.1 Οι πράξεις και οι ιδιότητές του ( 2 49 +  2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) = ( x + y ) + ( y − x ) 2 2 > " "  : ( 2 +  2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) = ( x + y ) + ( y − x ) 2 2 ⇔  2 x 2 +  2 y 2 +  2 x 2 +  2 y 2 =  2 x 2 + 2xy +  2 y 2 +  2 y 2 − 2xy +  2 x 2 ⇔  2 x2 +  2 y 2 +  2 x2 +  2 y 2 = 2 x2 + 2 y 2 +  2 x2 +  2 y 2 . 3Y )   "       # .   .

  .

.

  '  .   '    "          "  . # ..

.

.

>    «   > 0     2 >  » "  ..

. 2 4 2) ]eYZY \ "#" ! g\YY > #  . !   = 1 1   2 = . " "  2 <  .

  "   : « .

 .

.

      .

..

.

   .

  .

» . " " «  2 # .

  .

 ..

   # .

  .

»   "        # :  .

 .

     .

. ?   .

  . " " .

   .  .   !  = 2 + 1 .

7 "  2 = 2  + 1.  ∈' . #   . .       2   . :  2 = ( 2 +1) 2 = 4 2 +4 +1 = 2 ( 2 2 + 2 ) + 1 = 2 + 1 (  = 2 2 + 2 ).

    .

+#.    "   "      .     2   .

<   # . .

    # "  . .

  "    .

   "    *  .

    !.

        .

&".     #   .

.  #   .

ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ / .50 2.

"  "    .

  * !   .  >   .

.

   . h  1 &.

.

"      .

.

 :  " = ⇔ Z = ^" ^ Z i) ii ) iii ) iv )  "  ^ = ⇔ = ^ Z " Z  " + ^ "+Z = ⇔ = ^ Z ^ Z  "  " +" = ⇒ = = ^ Z ^ Z ^+Z ( \$ ^Z ≠ 0 ) ( \$ ^"Z ≠ 0 ) ( \$ ^Z ≠ 0 ) ( \$ ^Z ( ^ + Z ) ≠ 0 )  .

 i)   ≠ 0 :     = ⇔  ⋅ =  ⋅ ⇔  = .     iii )   ≠ 0 :     +  + = ⇔ +1 = +1 ⇔ =      iv)   (  + ) ≠ 0.   ii )   ≠ 0 :       = ⇔  =  ⇔ = ⇔ = .  .

 = = . " " = =  +   + 2 &.   +  = (  + ).  = +   + . +#. :   =    =  .

.

"#   .

 2 # .

!  ". .

.   "  .

 .

.

  .

'. .

.

.

.

   .

.

 .

2 . .

 − 2    .

.

2.1 Οι πράξεις και οι ιδιότητές του 51  .

?    @ 2 =   . > #   2  .   X .  .

  .

(" "          "     ). ?  " "  : !   .

      .  ( ) ⎛⎞ =⎜ ⎟ ⎝⎠ 2 2= 2   2 = 2 2 2 2 2       2   . 25)      . " "   ! =2.  ( . ?  " "  :  2 = 2 2 (2) 2 = 2 2 4  2 = 2 2 2 = 2  2 C     2   .   # .

 .

!    .   ( ). .                     .     .

 1 @*  .

     1. ?    .

         = 2  !       xEx     M’        .#  *       2 .

. 2  − 2  #.

= ⎢ xy −1 : x3 y 7 −1 ⎤ 2  ⎥ ⎦  y = − 2. 2 2 2 ⎛ 999 1000 ⎞ ⎛ 999 1000 ⎞ + − ⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟ .3265 ⋅ 2.3265) 2 − 0. F          : ( 7. F "   " ! #  *# " " " * ! *  . ii) F          : 2 iii) 11. ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ    j  −3 1. = x 9 ⋅ y 9 . 46 2 .52 2. 2010 ) ( 2 . 4 −2 ⎛ x3 ⎞ 7      . 6. 23) − ( 4. 4 3. = ⎡⎢( x 2 y 3 ) ⋅ ( xy 3 ) ⎤⎥ : ⎜ −1 ⎟ . i) F "   2 − (  − 1)(  +1) = 1 . ii) F '          x = 2010  y = 2. ⎣ ⎦ ⎝y ⎠ i) F "  . 999 ⎠ ⎝ 1000 999 ⎠ ⎝ 1000 5. F '         x = 0.5 . 23) 2 i) 10012 − 999 2 4. ii) F          : (1.3265 . ) ii) 99 ⋅101 i) F "  (  +  ) − (  −  ) = 4 . ( ⎣ ⎡ 1 .

* (      )    .

.  . 7.  !   .

 "    ..

 2  + 2  +1 + 2  + 2      7. .

2. > # . F "   #     . F           2 i) 3. ( 1 ⎞ 3 +  2 ⎛  − ⎜ ⎟ ⋅  ⎠ (  + 1)3 ⎝ ii) 2 +  + 1 2 −1 ⋅ 3  +1  −1 F           i) (x + y) 2 ⋅ ( x −1 + y −1 ) −2 ii) x + y x −1 − y −1 .1 Οι πράξεις και οι ιδιότητές του 53 kj  1. ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ x − y ⎠ ⎝ x− y ⎠ 4. F "  5.      # *   * !.  3 − 2 2 +  2 −  ii) 2 −  ) + 2 − 2 2 − 1 . F          : i) 2. ⋅ x − y x − 2 − y −2 ⎛ x3 + y 3 ⎞ ⎛ x 2 ⎞ : − y ⎟ =1 .

6.  . F "  . =  . =  .    i) . ii) .   . .       #  *  :    = = .

  .*    L = 4  ' " E =  2 .

  ≠ 0.   ⋅  . F "  : i) .   +  . ii) .*     #      .  .   . 7.     . .

«  ».    # :  >   .2.   #     .2 ΔΙΑΤΑΞΗ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΩΝ ΑΡΙΘΜΩΝ mY \ ZK\L &   «  ».

     .

     .

   " !  − ^  .  .   !  > ^ .

   .

.     #     #  : •  .  #               ! ^ <  .

 .

   .

      ". •  .

    .

>       ! "  : > ^⇔− ^>0 #      >     .      ".  #   #    *   .

.    .   "     .

  !  ≥ ^  " ' : « .      >    =  .

  #  ^» . .             .

  : • ( > 0 ( < 0   > 0 ) ⇒  +  > 0   < 0 ) ⇒  +  < 0  >0   .    • ⇔ ⋅  >0⇔ .    ⇔  ⋅  < 0 ⇔ < 0  .      .

  .2 Διάταξη πραγματικών αριθμών 55  2 ≥ 0.2.

:  >  ⇔  ⋅  >  ⋅  • .  < 0 .   "      # "  #  #: ( >  1.  > 0 . :  >  ⇔  ⋅  <  ⋅  • ( >  •    . 2.        " :  2 + ^ 2 = 0 ⇔  = 0 X ^ = 0 2 + ^ 2 > 0 ⇔  ≠ 0  ^ ≠ 0 Z[\\ \# !Y\\#    "   > ^ ⇔  − ^ > 0 .   >  ) ⇒  >  • >  ⇔+> + • . 3.  ∈  • ( /       = 0) .

 . .   #  #  #  .  >  ) ⇒ 1 + 2 + .. .   : 9 ( 1 > 1  2 > 2  ..... . +  9 ..       . +  > 1 + 2 + ..    #: (  >    > ) ⇒  ⋅  >  ⋅   > ) ⇒  +  >  + / "  3.

. : ( 1 > 1  2 > 2  .  >  ) ⇒ 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ . ⋅  > 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ .. ⋅  (*)   ......

"      # "  .  . 4.

   .

 .   .

       "  :  >  ⇔  >   .

ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ  .56 2.

 • > #  >  . ?.. =  =  > 0 .   :   >   .. •   "    ! .. =  =  > 0  1 = 2 = .   (*)..  1 = 2 = .

     .

       . > #      >     ≤  . ?: 9 9     =  ."   #  .

    =   ( ). . *     <  .

 >  . \$  '. < .     <   ( ).

     # "   .

" *  : *.

 .

^ . .

  .

.

  "   .

#.

:  = ^ ⇔  = ^   .

?.         . • > #  =  .    =   . •   "    ! . #  -   #.

     .

#  (4)."   #  . . > #      =     ≠  . ?: 9     >  .

. * 9     <  . #  (4).     >   ( ).

 "    "  !     . MN 1 !#   "  3.  =  .     <   ( ). < .

   . 7 '  #  "    !  . 2o + . !#   "  3.     "  ! .  10 − 7 < 6 − 2 .    "  .  10 > 6  7 > 2.  "    "  !   .

 .         .    "  .  .     "  ! . 7 '  #  "    "  . #.

 57 24 10 < . 6 2 !\\ ?  #    *  .2.2 Διάταξη πραγματικών αριθμών 24 > 10  6 > 2.

* x   ≤ x ≤    .

.

 *     "  [ . . ^ ] . ^ ]   @          .  " ^  '  [ .

 .

.

   " ^  '  (  . &  . ^ ) .

   ^  .

 .

 *   .

  .

/ " ! " "             "      *     . < ! "  #  : 9 ? .   #   ^    # *. *  " "    .

   .

[ . ^ )      .

 x      ≤ x < ^  9 ? .

 .

 .

^ ]      . ( .

9 ?  #  . ?.  ! "  .  x      < x ≤ ^ .

* 9 ?  #  . + ∞ ) .* x      ≤ x '  [ .

+ ∞ )  ( −∞ .  ) . "          . ? ' +∞  −∞ . \$       "   ( .* x     x ≤  '  ( −∞ .  ] .  " '  « »  « »  #.

.     #   @  ! "  #    *  .

*   " !       : .

+ ∞ ) x≤ (−∞.  ] x< (−∞.  ] ≤x<  [ .  ] <x<  ( . + ∞ ) x> ( . ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ   l   kN ≤x≤  [ .58 2.  ) h  1 &.  ) x≥ [ .  ) <x≤  ( .

.

^  ."#  : 1 1 >  ^ i)   .

  < ^ ⇔ ii) *.#.

    .

.

 .

^ "  2 + ^ 2 ≥ 2^ iii)   > 0 .   + 1 ≥2   .  .

! .      . i) .

  .  . +#  : <⇔ ii)   1 1 1 1 < ⇔ < ⇔ > .   2 iii) >: 1 2  + ≥ 2 ⇔  2 + 1 ≥ 2 ⇔  2 + 1 − 2 ≥ 0 ⇔ (  − 1) ≥ 0 .   > 0 .       >:  2 +  2 ≥ 2 ⇔  2 +  2 − 2 ≥ 0 ⇔ (  −  ) ≥ 0 .

2 Διάταξη πραγματικών αριθμών 1 2 2  − < x < 59 3 2 5 .2.

. − < y < .

.

"# : 4 3 6 −11 < 8 x − 12 y + 3 < 17  .

    − (1) (2) −10 < −12 y <8 C . 1 3 < x <  " "  : 2 4 3 ⎛ 1⎞ 8 ⎜ − ⎟ < 8x < 8 ⋅ 4 ⎝ 2⎠ −4 < 8 x < 6 2 5 &#   − < y <  " "  : 3 6 5 ⎛ 2⎞ 12 ⎜ − ⎟ < 12 y < 12 ⋅ 6 ⎝ 3⎠ − 8 < 12 y <10 8 > −12 y > −10 .

 : −14 < 8 x − 12 y < 14.  . *        (1)  (2).    " ! .

F "  : i)  2 + 9 ≥ 6 ii) 2 (2 +  2 ) ≥ ( +  ) 2 2. F '       .  : −14 + 3 < 8 x − 12 y + 3 < 14 + 3 < − 11 < 8 x − 12 y + 3 < 17    j  1. C    . F "   2 +  2 − 2 + 1 ≥ 0 . 3.

 x  y   .

 ( x − 2) 2 + ( y + 1) = 0 2 ii) . x 2 + y 2 − 2 x + 4 y + 5 = 0 .       #  *  : i) .

3 < y < 5.  '     # #       . 4. 6  5.5 < x < 4. ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ 4. 4 . .60 2.

         : x x+ y i) ii) x − y iii) iv) x 2 + y 2 y 5. ?   x    y  .

#        2 < x < 3  3 < y < 5 . .1.2   * -      0.       0. .  '   "   : i)    ii)  ' "   .

F '   . 1+  1+  6. 0 ≤  <  .#. .  "  7.   < .

7      . ?  " "  x>5 5 x > 25 5 x − x 2 > 25 − x 2 x ( 5 − x ) > ( 5 + x )( 5 − x ) x > 5+ x 0 > 5.     #  : > # x > 5 . kj  1.

      .

   .

. F  "  :  +  i) .  > 1 >  . .  . < 1 . .  >  +  ii) .  <  +  2.  "   +  > 1 +  .  +  > 1 . . 3.

   .

F "  : i)  2 +  +  2 ≥ 0 ⎛1 1⎞ + ⎟≥4. ⎝ ⎠ ( +  ) ⎜ ii)  2 −  +  2 ≥ 0 . .  "  4.

2.3 ΑΠΟΛΥΤΗ ΤΙΜΗ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΥ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΥ ![ \ [\ \ #    .

#                .            #     . " "    .

  .    .

     .

. . = .               : 13 13 • 2 = 2.    '   . 2 = 2    :  =  .

5 5 7 ": + .   > 0 .

    .

 # .

  #  .

. − 13 13 = . . • −2 = 2. − 2 = 2    :  = −  .

5 5 7 ": + .   < 0 .

   .

  .

 # .

  .

  . • 0 = 0. +#. #  .

 '             .

 / ..

         .

  < 0 .   ≥ 0  =⎨ ⎩ − .  '       : ⎧ .

: • x =  ⇔ x =  x = − • x =  ⇔ x =  x = −    "  .  > 0 .      #  : •  = − ≥ 0 •  ≥    ≥ − •  = 2 2 . ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ . 9 x = 5 ⇔ x = 5  x = −5 9  −  = 2 − 3  ⇔  −  = 2 − 3  ⇔  = 2  =  −  = 3  − 2  4  3 Z[\\ \# [\# \ .62 2.     #  #      *  .

*.         .

+  ≤  +  & "  .   " . " : 1. ⋅  =  ⋅  2.   =   3. #.

    '.

 . # #   #.

+ "   "      ⋅  =  ⋅       . 1.

2 2. ..  " "  :  ⋅  =  ⋅  ⇔  ⋅  =(  ⋅  ) 2 2 2 ⇔ ⋅  =  ⋅  2 2 ⇔ (  ⋅  ) =  2 ⋅  2 ."    "  .   . .

2. 63 + "   "       +  ≤  +    -    .3 Απόλυτη τιμή πραγματικού αριθμού 3.

+ !      =        ≥ 0 .   . " "       .  " "  : +  ≤  +  ⇔ +  ≤( +  ) 2 2 ⇔ ( +  ) ≤  +  + 2  ⋅  2 2 2 ⇔  2 +  2 + 2 ≤  2 +  2 + 2  ⇔  ≤  ..

.. :  =  •  /    +  ≤  +        . ⋅  = 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ . ⋅    "     #    1 = 2 = .         ".. -   : 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ .           MN • /   ⋅  =  ⋅         . =  =  ....

.. +  ≤ 1 + 2 + .   : 1 + 2 + . +  [!\! ZY e • ...   * "  ..

.       #          #. ?       .    "   −2  3.

.

 #  .

C    (  ) = 5 = ( −2 ) − 3 = 3 − ( −2 ) .   .  .* −2  3.

#  "  .

          #          #. .

64 2. ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ ?       .

.

 #  .

• .      #         −      "   [.  #        <  . + " ": d ( .  ] . .  )       −  .  ) =  −  C! *  d ( .  ) = d (  . '  d ( .  ) .*    .

 ) ⇔ x0 −  = x0 −  ⇔ x0 −  =  − x0 .   ( MA) = ( MB ) ⇔ d ( x0 .#  *  "  [.  ]                       #.  ] .  ) = d ( x0 . ( "  < x0 <  ) ⇔ 2x0 =  +  ⇔ x0 = +  2 + ^              2 ^−    "   [. *   . .  ( x0 )        AB .

  =  .

# .

&  . 2  [.  ] .

 ]   . • > # *  . [. K .    # "  # ( .  )  (.       "   [.  ] .  ) .

  '       .

 x     x − 3 < 2 . .

2.        : x − 3 < 2 ⇔ d ( x.3) < 2 ⇔ 3 − 2 < x <3+2 ⇔ x ∈ ( 3 − 2.3 Απόλυτη τιμή πραγματικού αριθμού 65 . x0 +  ) ⇔ x0 −  < x < x0 +  7 ". 3 + 2 )   :  x0 ∈    > 0.  : x − x0 <  ⇔ x ∈ ( x0 − .   .

* .  .  ) ⇔ −  < x <  . x < 2 ⇔ x ∈ ( −2.    "  . • > #. 2 ) ⇔ −2 < x < 2 . : x <  ⇔ x ∈ ( − . x        x − x0 <      "   ( x0 − . x0 +  )     x0   .   "  #    x0 = 0 .

  '       .

3) > 2 ⇔ x <3−2  x >3+ 2 ⇔ x ∈ ( −∞. 3 − 2 ) ∪ ( 3 + 2.   : . x     x − 3 > 2 . + ∞ ) .        : x − 3 > 2 ⇔ d ( x. .

ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ  x0 ∈    > 0. x0 −  ) ∪ ( x0 + . + ∞ ) ⇔ x < x0 −   x > x0 +  7 "   .  : x − x0 >  ⇔ x ∈ ( −∞.66 2.

   j  1. . i)  −3 iii) 3 −  + 4 −  2. x        x − x0 >        ( x )   xEx      # ( x0 )        . F  @      #      #   . 3 < x < 4 . F  @ #          x − 3 − 4 − x .   "  #    x0 = 0 .  : i) x<3 ii) x > 4. .   @ #          x−3 + x −4 3. ii) iv) −4 2− 3 − 3− 2 .   "     !: x >  ⇔ x < −  x >     "  : x > 2 ⇔ x < −2  x > 2 .

= 6.  − 4.3 Απόλυτη τιμή πραγματικού αριθμού 67 − . . x ≠ 0  y ≠ 0 .  '               . x x + y y / "   "  .2.  '         5.  ≠  . .

  '.

37dm. ?  . 2.

 D       "   . .005dm. : i) F !      #   "   '.       0.

 .        ii) F '    * # '     D. F *      #   # "  *   . &9!   . 7.

 <.

 .

− 2] ∪ [ 2. −1) > 2 d ( x. + ∞ ) ( −∞. 2 ) [ −5. + ∞ ) . −1) ≤ 2 ( −2. 1] ( −∞. 4) ≤ 2 [ 2. 6] x+3 < 4 x−4 > 2 x+3 ≥ 4 d ( x.5) ≥ 1 d ( x. − 5 ) ∪ (1.5) < 1 d ( x. x−4 ≤ 2 d ( x.

  >  . . 2.  "  : i) 3. F "   −  ≤  −  +  −  .68 2. ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ kj  1. + + − 2 = ii) + − − 2 ?      .

= /  x + y = 0 . i) F "            . x  y : i) 4. ii) /   x + y > 0 . > # 0 <  <  .

   1.   ii) F "          .  .

   1     .

2 .  . x − 2 < 0.  '     . 5.           #    #  #: .1  y − 4 < 0.

4 ΡΙΖΕΣ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΩΝ ΑΡΙΘΜΩΝ \"#X c{  \XYu eYu     .2.

     #        .

    "  .    .

  :  H .

  #>.

     .

  '          .

  @#. .

  .   #. "   . \$ #    :   ≥ 0 .

    .

    #     *  .     #  x 2 =  .

* #       # " : • 2 =  •  ⋅  = ⋅  •  =    -Y!\ c{  \XYu eYu . .

  .

    . x      " . .       '  "  #   64 ' * #      .

 x 3 '    # .

.  : x 3 = 64 .       .

 x .   @#.

  '. .

  "*  64. &  .

!     . .    .

\$ "  '     . .

70 2. ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ  .

"  43 = 64 . &  .   4.

 4  # #>.

 64  '  3 64 . 7 " 3 64 =4. /     .

    ' #>.

  .

 .    *     #    .

.

"  . .

 / - #>.  .

     .

  '           .

(1) .   @#.

    . \$ #    :   ≥ 0 .  . +   ! 1  =   2 = . "  .

    .

MN + 104 = 10000 . !. "     !    #  . +    =#.     -         .     #  x =  . !#   10000          #  4 x = 10000 . 10000 = −10 . Z[\\ \# { .  4 4 ( −10 ) 4 = 10000 .  4 10000 = 10 .

: ( )  •  =   =  . .  ."        " .  ≥ 0 . :  (1)   =  .    #  : • .  ≤ 0    . .

* 6 ( −2 ) 6 = −2 = 2 .4 Ρίζες πραγματικών αριθμών 71    "  : 6 26 = 2 .2. N  #   .

  4. " .  =   =    (!   ≠ 0)    =     .  ≥ 0 .      " *    # " #   #   : .   ⋅   =  ⋅      3. : 1. 2. .

      "      .    = .   . .      . >:    =  ( ) =( ) ⎡ ⎤ ⇔ ⎢(  ) ⎥ =  ⎣ ⎦ ⇔    ⇔ ( )       4. >:    =     =   ( )   =   MN / "  1. 3. 2.   ."  #   1. >:  (  ⋅ ) =( ⋅ ) ⇔ (  ) ⋅(  ) =  ⋅   ⋅   =  ⋅  ⇔          ⇔ ⋅  = ⋅ .   . 1.

2 . ⋅   =  1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ . . .   :  1 ⋅  2 ⋅ .. 1 .... ⋅  ...

#  "   1.72 2.  ≥ 0    ^ =  ⋅  ^ ..  .  :  X = ( )  X . ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ   "     #    1 = 2 = . K  \[ Xe]\    . =  =  ≥ 0 . ..

 -     .         ! a  .   > 0 .

   .    .

      . &   .

    . *   "   #    "  # " #    .

2 ? ..

.     3 5 .  .    "  .      ( ) p q  "  = a pq   "     .

.  .

 5 2 2 ⋅5 ⎛ 52 ⎞ 2 5 5 ⎜ 3 ⎟ = 3 = 3 . 2 7 "    3 5 = 5 32 .      .   :  . a > 0 . <   3       #  ⎝ ⎠ x 5 = 32 .

 :  a  =    + .  .  .   .

  0  = 0 . 4 3 4 27 3 27 \$  '.    "  : 2 3 3 2 3 8 = 8 = 64 = 4  27 − 4 3 = 3 27 −4 = 3 1 1 1 = = 4.    .

 # " # #  * "    "  # " #    .

    "     .

>     "   : 4 1 1 1 1 + 3  ⋅ 3  = 4 ⋅ 3 = 4 7 =  12 = 12  7 .. . ?   "          .

2.4 Ρίζες πραγματικών αριθμών 73 h  1  a .

 ^ # .

  .

 # .

#. .

.

"#   .

#.

: a< ^⇔ < ^   .

  . >:  <  ⇔ ( ) < ( )     ⇔<. 2 &.

.

  .

.

   .

. " # >   .

 .

3 = 10 ( ) = 10 ( ) = 5( 5 +1 ). N > ii) iii) iv) 15 3 = 15 ⋅ 3 10 5 −1 3⋅ 3 = 6 7+ 5 = 10 ( ( 15 ⋅ 3 ( 3) ( = ) 5 +1 )( 6( 5 −1 = 2 7+ 15 3 =5 3. 5 +1 5 +1 5 −1 2 ) ( 5 ) −1 7 − 5) 6( 7 − 5) 6( 7 − 5) = = = 3( 7−5 5 )( 7 − 5 ) ( 7 ) − ( 5 ) 5 +1 2 2 2 2 3 &.: i) 15 10 `ii) 3 6 iii) 5 −1 7+ 5 .

.

 ."# : 10 ⋅ 3 5 ⋅ 6 40 = 10 .

. >: 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 ⋅ 3 5 ⋅ 6 40 = 10 2 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ 40 6 = ( 2 ⋅ 5 ) 2 ⋅ 5 3 ⋅ ( 23 ⋅ 5 ) 6 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 2 2 ⋅ 5 2 ⋅ 53 ⋅ 2 6 ⋅ 56 = 2 2 ⋅ 2 2 ⋅ 5 2 ⋅ 53 ⋅ 5 6 1 1 1 + + 3 6 = 21 ⋅ 5 2 = 2 ⋅ 5 = 10 ) 7− 5 .

) x − 5 + x + 3 = −8 . 1000 . 0001 . 3. 8. 5 4. 5 0. 001 . 6. 00001 . ii) 9 28 ⋅ 6 25 = 2 ⋅ 18 213 F "  : 2⋅ 3 2 = 3 2 i) F "  : i) iii) 9. 8. F  @      #      #    (  − 4) 2 F "  : (2 − 5 ) ( ii) ( ( )( 8 − 18 ⋅ 2 2 + ( x − 1) iii) (3 − 5 ) )( x−5 − x+3 ⋅ F "  : i) 2 2 iv) x2 4 =1. 01 . ii) 5 2 23 2 = 3 2 . 100000 . ) 32 ) = 31 . 3 F "  : 7.74 2. iii) 0. . F "  : i) 25 ⋅ 12 75 = 10 ii) 216 ⋅ 75 50 = 18 . 4 0. 5 32 . ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ    j  1. 50 + 72 − 32 = −14 . F     : 3 i) 100 . 4 16 . )( 28 + 7 + 32 ⋅ 63 − F "  : i) 2⋅ 2− 2 ⋅ 2+ 2 = 2 ii) 3 2 ⋅ 3 3+ 5 ⋅ 3 3− 5 = 2 . 2. 10000 . 3 0. ii) i) 5. ( −20 ) ii) 4. 4 4 33 ⋅ 3 3 = 3 ⋅ 12 3 53 ⋅ 3 5 ⋅ 6 54 = 25 ⋅ 5 .

2. i) ii) F "  3 3−2 2 3− 2 . F  @      #       "      : i) 4 8 ii) 5− 3 7+ 6 iii) 7− 5 7− 6 11. 911 + 27 6 50 − 32 !          *#   #. ii) F "  : i) ⎛ 2 3⎞ + F "    .4 Ρίζες πραγματικών αριθμών 75 10. . = 5+ 6 = ( +  ) +  .  > 0  "   −  −  2. ( ) 2 (  3 − 2 7 ) 2 i) F '     # 3 + 2 7 . i) 162 + 98 = 16 ii) kj  1. F "  912 + 320 = 3.

  . ⎜⎜ ⎟  . 2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 3 ii) 1 ⎞ ⎛ .

2 3. 2 4.  .   .  "   ⎜  + ⎟  . F "  i) 5. 3 5− 3 + 5 5+ 3 =4 ii) 1 1 − (2 − 3) (2 + 3) 2 2 =8 3 . ⎠ ⎝ 37 + 12 7 − 37 − 12 7 = 6 .

*  #   .

i) F     !   *.     =   ! =  . ii) \$  '.

iii)      .   #      "  : +  <  +  .

 "  . C    . .    +  ≤  +  .

76 2. ! . ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ ΕΡΩΤΗΣΕΙΣ ΚΑΤΑΝΟΗΣΗΣ 2ου ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΟΥ I.

 .

  .

.

  .

   .

. .

 "  # .

 .

 .

    .

.

 .

^. . " .

<. .

\$ .

   .

( +  ) =  +  . ? . .   =  . 2. 1. 2 . O 4. O .  =  . . 2 2 2 . ( =    = ) ⇔  +  =  + . O 3.

   +  " #  .

*       .

?    ⋅  " #  . O 5. .

*       .

  >    < . O 19. O . O 14.   = . O .   > 0 . . O 12. 2 − 1) + ( a + 1) > 0 . . . . O 9..  > −2   > −3 .   −  >  − . . O .  2 >  .  <  < 0 . O . . . ( 17. O 8. O 7. O . O  > 1 .  1 .   +  =  +  .   > 1 . 4 2 − 20 + 25  2 ≥ 0 . O .   > 6 .   >  .   > 6 . 2 2 + (  + 1) > 0 . ( +  ) 20. .  > 15. 2 . . O 13. .   >  . . 2 2 2 + ( −  ) = 0 ⇔  =  = 0 .  >    > −  .  < −2   < −3 . . O 18.  ⋅  ≥ 0 . .  2 2 11. . . .  2 =  . 10. (  − 1) 16. . O 6. . . . 2 =  .   >  .

  ⋅  ≥ 0 . \$     ! 4 2 =  . 6  ≥ 0. 1122 > 2211 . . . O . 5 > 25 .  24. 22.       ! 3  = . O 28.  ≥ 0 . O 25 5 27. 26. II. 2 +  2 =  +  . .       ! ⋅  =  ⋅  . O 21.4 Ρίζες πραγματικών αριθμών ( ) 77 . O . . O . . 2 ⋅  =  ⋅  . O . 25. O .  2 =.2. 23. &.  ≥ 0 . .

     .

   .

 .

  .

.

)  <  <  P)  <  <  )  <  <  &  .  = 2   = 3 3 : . 10 < x < 20          . ) −3 P) −2 ) 10 7) 3 . 2 < x < 5       x − 2 + x − 5    : . . 4. P) 7 − 2 x .) 2 3. . x − 10 x − 10 + . 1.  = 6 10 .) 2 x − 7 2.

! . 7)  <  <  . ) 2 + 5 III. x − 20    : x − 20 7) 0 .) 3 + 2 5 7) 2 + 4 5 . 9 + 4 5    : P) 3 + 2 4 5 .

.

   .

.

#.

.  . .

 k .

    .

 0.  . 1.

 ^ .

#" .  0 <  < 1 .

 ^ > 1 .   .

#.

 . . z. . .

 .

   .

^ .  2 . ^ 2 .  .  3 .

"       . ^ 3 .

.

\$ .

. &.

.

"# .

#.

z. . . .  .

    .

  .

! \$ % & ' ( .  .

78 2. ΟΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΙ ΑΡΙΘΜΟΙ     _ & « "     *». " "       *  ' " "     ".

  '. "            . K  .   *   "   ' ". Q  «# »             " '.       «# »   .  *.

. .    "   .

/ "     #  .   " *   *.   (#  "  )         '*  "    .

* .

#     "    @  # C.

(C. #.

&   >    ' . * ). R.  : 6 .

      " .

     .    @  # C.  ’ .       .

# "       " !  .

    .       .

 #"* !  ! *  @#       ! . S    @ # C.

#      .

     .

  !   .

. & .

 !: «)..R.   T   #  450 .

 .

  .

1  .  * +  +  ( / " ).

  .

  .

     .

 .

  .

/  . 2 +  /  .

 .

/   @      .».

#    *.      .   "   !     # ! *  .

.*.

#.

 .

 !   .

R       .  !  ! .

   '    .    @    # #  .      .

*     .

     C.   U .

   "   . / "  # C.

#      U    !#       " ".

/ '  # «"  *»  !  \$ .    @   #.

      #  .

   "    +" (360.R.*.)   " ! «.

/ "          .# # Q#».

.     '     !   .