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Problem Set 2 Solutions

# Problem Set 2 Solutions

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07/26/2013

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# MSE 308 Thermodynamics of Materials

Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering Spring 2005/Bill Knowlton Problem Set 2 Solutions

1. Prove that the inexact differential, dw is equal to mechanical work, pdV: i.e, dw = pdV when the change in all other work is constant. Use the fact that dw = Fdx where F is force and x is distance. dw = Fdx F = dx ⋅ A A = PdV where F A and V = x⋅ A P=

MSE 308 Thermodynamics of Materials

Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering Spring 2005/Bill Knowlton

2. Prove that mechanical work on a system is negative. Use a drawing of a cylinder and piston to prove this and the concept of state 1 with variable V1 and P1 and state 2 with variables V2 and P2.

MSE 308 Thermodynamics of Materials

Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering Spring 2005/Bill Knowlton

3. The equation I provided in class that describes the 1st Law of Thermodynamics has an opposite sign as equation (2.2) provided by Gaskell on page 19. Explain why there is a difference. The equation (2.2) is given by: dU = dQ − dw . The negative sign denote that work is being done by the system rather than on the system which is positive. With this convention, W is defined to be positive when it is transmitted from the system to the surroundings; thus, if W is positive, the internal energy of the system decreases. 4. Contrast the relative magnitudes of the entropy transfer versus entropy production in the following processes: a. A thermally insulated container has two compartments of equal size. Initially, one side is filled with a gas and the other is evacuated. A valve is opened and the gas expands to fill both compartments. In the thermally insulated case, there is no entropy transfer; the total entropy change in this case is entropy production. b. A gas contained in a steel cylinder is slowly expanded to twice its volume. Slow expansion minimizes dissipation effects, and thus is accompanied by a small production of entropy; most of the entropy change in this case is entropy transfer.

MSE 308 Thermodynamics of Materials

Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering Spring 2005/Bill Knowlton

5. The notion of a “reversible process is a fiction in the real world. What make this concept, which at first glance would appear to be only of academic interest, so useful in applying thermodynamics to real-world “irreversible” process?: If the property changes that are of interest in a real irreversible process are state functions, then their changes will be the same for every process that connects the initial and final states of the process. In particular, these changes will be the same as for some reversible process that takes the system between these two states. Calculation of changes for a reversible process is very much simpler than for irreversible processes because internal intensive properties like temperature and pressure are uniform in the system. Further, for reversible processes, general relationships are available for computing W and Q from state function information by integrating:

dQrev = TdS

δWrev = -PdV

along the simplest path that connects the initial and final states. Thus, calculations of changes in state functions for irreversible processes are made accessible through the useful fiction of reversible processes.

MSE 308 Thermodynamics of Materials

Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering Spring 2005/Bill Knowlton

6. Prove that the entropy in the universe is always increasing. Use the method we described in class using the change of entropy for the universe, surroundings and system.

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