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VI) Jagoi Settlement
(a) Historical Background Bidayuh Jagoi originally migrated from Bung Bratak and they moved over to Gunung Jagoi due to bad omen as detailed in the legend of the migration of Bijagoi below. However, there was another version which mentioned that some Bidayuhs under the leadership of Bari moved from Rabak Mikabuh, Penrissen to Paya Pais near the present Pangkalan Entabang and some years later they went to Bung Jagoi where they settled down there. Gunung Jagoi, which is 1,162 feet above sea level, is therefore comparatively a new settlement when compared to Bratak, Singai and Serembu settlements. The Bidayuhs who are staying around Gunung Jagoi call themselves "Bijagoi" and today, the Bijagoi population has not only multiplied tremendously in Bau Dustrict but also has spread over to Jagoi Babang in Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia and Lundu district. (b) Legend of the Migration of Bijagoi. according to a

legend related by the late Temenggong Datuk Salau ak Jambang, a warrior (Panglima) of Bung Bratak by the name of Makabang had a dream. In the dream, he saw one wild boar in the midst of the domestic pigs. He also saw one sea turtle swimming at the Pangkalan Bratak. To him, it was an unusual bad dream. As a Panglima, he
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called up the people for a meeting during which he related his dream and interpreted it. He said, "Kampung Bratak will be attacked by two groups of people from downriver. We have to move elsewhere in order to save our lives and property". Most people in the village hardly believed the interpretation of his dream. In the end, he moved away together with his families and close relatives to another mountain known as Gunung Jagoi sometimes in early 1838. A few months after Panglima Makabang left Bung Bratak, his dream came true. Bung Bratak was attacked and burnt down by the intruders from Simanggang (Sri Aman) on 1-5-1838. Meanwhile, Panglima Makabang and his group settled down at the foot of Gunung Jagoi. They built a village which was known as Kampung Tembawang Jagoi and planted many fruit trees around the Kampung. A year later, the Kampung was burnt down by fire originated, as it was suspected, from the house owned by a woman called Sakup. While the Jagoi Bidayuhs were building their temporary longhouse at the burnt site, one group led by Panglima Makabang moved further up the mountain and two other groups moved out in stages to new places to look for farming land/Plaman and eventually built new settlements at Serasot and Bogak. (c) Visit to Gunung Jagoi A trip was arranged to visit Kampung Jagoi Gunung on 28-4-1986. The party including the author who was then the District Officer of Bau, Government Officers and Penghulu Edward Sibon were warmly welcomed in a traditional way by Tua Kampung Uren ak. Tapak and the villagers. The main purpose of the visit was in connection with the implementation of a generator project costing RM3, 000.00 in the village.

The trek from Kampung Duyuh to Gunung Jagoi took about one and half hours on foot. Panglima Makabang and his group were wise to select Gunung Jagoi for the settlement because the mountain is very steep and situated in a strategic location. It is like a fort which can protect the Kampung people against any possible enemy attack. We went up to "the station" (the peak of Gunung Jagoi) and we could see Kuching International Airport and Kuching City from the distance - a beautiful and fascinating sight. In the olden days" the station" was an "observation tower" against intruders who might attack the settlement. (d) Movement Taeoi Area of the Kampungs in

(1) Jagoi Gunung Settlement After Kampung Tembawang Jagoi was burnt down in 1840, tl}e place was known as Tembawang Sauh Jagoi. The Bijagoi of the "Burned Tembawang" was divided into three groups for migration. One group led by Makabang moved further up the mountain and built a new village at a place called Tembawang Tibodak where they stayed for quite sometime. However, at the later stage the villagers moved further up until they reached the peak of Gunung Jagoi where they found the place was safer for defence purpose. Hence, they settled down there and created a new village known as Kampung Jagoi Gunung sometime in 1842. They made a few longhouses and a Baruk so that they could continue to practise old pagan Adats. In 1845, when Sir Hugh Low visited Upper Sarawak, he visited Kampung Jagoi Gunung. He said that Kampung Jagoi Gunung consisted of 60 houses built in a few rows. After Kampung Jagoi Gunung was established

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for nearly 160 years, the village still exists but with only 36 houses and a population of 73 based on 2000 census. Most of the villagers have been converted to Roman Catholic Christianity with only 9 pagan families left in the village. The present headman is Odeka ak Dirop appointed on 17-41989. (2) Kampung Serasot Settlement Kampung Serasot
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Serasot, Jagoi
Clinic was established in the village in 1975.Based on 2000 census, there were 241 and 705 people staying at Kampung Seraso1. (ii) Kampung Skibang After the establishment of Kampung Serasot, the population increased and there was a shortage of farming land around the village. According to ExTua Kampung Noyem ak Atew who became the headman of Kampung Skibang from 1986 to 1998, a group of 3 families led by Kowang left Kampung Serasot in 1900.They moved over to a place called Kampung Sima tang where they stayed for a while. Because of bad omen, they shifted to a place where they formed a new village called Kampung Sidunuk. In 1910, due to the outbreak of cholera in the village, a group moved over to Skibang where they built a new settlement called Kampung Skibang and they made a 5-door longhouse there. Another group migrated over to Lundu District where they joined the Stungkor

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Sometime in 1850, the second group consisting of 18 families led by Kubeh and Kumbang moved away from Tembawang SauhJagoi. They went over to a place where there were many "Serasot" trees. They settled down there and called the new place Kampung Seraso1. They built individual houses to accommodate the 18 families. Kubeh was appointed as the first Orang Kaya (Tua Kampung) of Kampung Serasot in 1855 by the Brooke Authority, followed by Kumbang, Kitong, Koja, Munjew, Tarek and the present headman, Nyotik ak Moseng, who was appointed on 1-7-1980. In 1955,a primary school known as S1.Leo Primary School was established by Roman Catholic Mission in Kampung Seraso1. In 1965, there were 2 families headed by Munjaw ak Kan and Ajlis ak Goim were converted to Roman Catholic Christianity and an Attap chapel known as S1.Leo's R.c. Church was built in the village in 1966.In 1986,a new building for S1.Leo's Roman Catholic Church was constructed to replace the old Attap chapel. A Government

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for nearly 160 years, the village still exists but with only 36 houses and a population of 73 based on 2000 census. Most of the villagers have been converted to Roman Catholic Christianity with only 9 pagan families left in the village. The present headman is Odeka ak Dirop appointed on 17-41989. (2) Kampung Serasot Settlement Kampung Serasot

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Kampung Serasot, 'agoi
Clinic was established in the village in 1975. Based on 2000 census, there were 241 and 705 people staying at Kampung Serasot. (ii) Kampung Skibang After the establishment of Kampung Serasot, the population increased and there was a shortage of farming land around the village. According to ExTua Kampung Noyem ak Atew who became the headman of Kampung Skibang from 1986 to 1998, a group of 3 families led by Kowang left Kampung Serasot in 1900.They moved over to a place called Kampung Sima tang where they stayed for a while. Because of bad omen, they shifted to a place where they formed a new village called Kampung Sidunuk. In 1910, due to the outbreak of cholera in the village, a group moved over to Skibang where they built a new settlement called Kampung Skibang and they made a 5-door longhouse there. Another group migrated over to Lundu District where they joined the Stungkor

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Sometime in 1850, the second group consisting of 18 families led by Kubeh and Kumbang moved away from Tembawang Sauh Jagoi. They went over to a place where there were many "Serasot" trees. They settled down there and called the new place Kampung Serasot. They built individual houses to accommodate the 18 families. Kubeh was appointed as the first Orang Kaya (Tua Kampung) of Kampung Serasot in 1855 by the Brooke Authority, followed by Kumbang, Kitong, Koja, Munjew, Tarek and the present headman, Nyotik ak Moseng, who was appointed on 1-7-1980. In 1955,a primary school known as St. Leo Primary School was established by Roman Catholic Mission in Kampung Serasot. In 1965, there were 2 families headed by Munjaw ak Kan and Ajlis ak Goim were converted to Roman Catholic Christianity and an Attap chapel known as St. Leo's R.c. Church was built in the village in 1966.In 1986,a new building for St. Leo's Roman Catholic Church was constructed to replace the old Attap chapel. A Government

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group who had established the settlement along Sungai Stungkor. In 1947, from Kampung Skibang Lama, they moved over to the present village which they called Kampung Skibang Baru. Kampung Skibang Baru is accessible by road from Bau. In 1950, a primary school was built at Kampung Skibang. In 1960, the people at the village were converted to Roman Catholic Christianity and a chapel called St. Philip's Roman Catholic Church was built. In 2000 there were 134 houses and 479 people staying at Kampung Skibang. The present headman is T.K. Jihen ak Minaw who was appointed on 16.12.2000. (3) Kampung Bogak Settlement In 1867, following the footstep of the group moving over to Serasot, a group consisting of 16 families led by Nisan also left Kampung Tembawang SauhJagoi. They went over to Sungai Podam where they formed a new village called Kampung Bogak. Kampung Tembawang Sauh Jagoi was then abandoned. There were seven headmen being appointed in the village, namely Nisan who became the first Orang Kaya (Tua Kampung), followed by Anden, Nyuen, Monyis, Nyaun, Nyandeng and until the present headman Johen ak Nyandeng who was appointed on 1-7-1980. The villagers remained as pagans for about 100 years. In 1960s, the people at Kampung Bogak were converted to Roman Catholic faith and a church known as St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church was established.in the village. In 1958, a primary school called SRK Podam was built at the side of Sungai Podam and it was meant to admit school children from Kampung Bogak itself and Kampung Duyoh. In 1997, the name of the school was changed to SekolahKebangsaanJagoi, the name of the mountain and the tribe in the area. Kampung Bogak had 142 houses with 625 people in 2000. (e) Migration of Kampungs from Jagoi Gunune Settlement Since its establishment in 1842, Kampung Jagoi Gunung was prosperous and population increased. Hence, there was a shortage of land for housing expansion and farming. Moreover, during the dry season, there was a shortage of water on the top of the mountain. (1) Kampung Stass Settlement According to Ex-Tua Kampung Lakus ak Nasuh, aged 64, of Kampung Stass, he said on 30-5-1874, Pa'Sabun and Guga led 39 families from Kampung Jagoi Gunung and went to a place which they called Tembawang Omba. They settled down at Tembawang Omba for 25 years. Pa'Sabun became the first Orang Kaya followed by Guga and both headmen died at Tembawang Omba. On 24-5-1899,they moved to Tembawang Baru where they lived for 26 years. By then, the number of families had increased to 57 families. On 6-6-1925, they divided into two groups. One group went to a place where they were many "Pelandok" animals and they settled down there. They called the village Kampung Pelandok and they built a 24-door longhouse. At the later stage they changed the name from Kampung Pelandok to Kampung Stass because the place was full of hardwood trees called "Tass". In 1948, the longhouse at Kampung Stass was dismantled to give way to individual houses. The other group built a village called Kampung Ngilonas at another new place. However, a few years later, a group led by Konak moved out of Kampung Ngilonas and migrated to Belubai in Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. The remaining group also moved out of Kampung Ngilonas and created a new village called Kampung Kaih. Hence, Kampung Ngilonas was abandoned. In 1956,:~ families led by Lafe ak Leong moved to Pla01~e

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Botung within Kaih area where they stayed for 2 years. Later, they shifted to Mudug where they settled down for another 8 years before moving over to Sebemban which was part of the present Kampung Stass in 1965. In 1965 during the Malaysia/ Indonesia confrontation, two Bldayuhs, Siret ak Nasuh and 1 aet Pa Taong of Kampung Kaih were killed by the communists. Hence, at the later part of 1965, the whole settlement at Kampung Kaih was abandoned and they all moved over to Kampung Stass for resettlement. In 1950, a primary school known as Sekolah Kebangsaan Stass was built so that the children could attend their primary education at Kampung Stass itself. In 1951, a group was converted to Roman Catholic Christianity and a church known as St. Mark's Roman Catholic Church and a prim'ary school called St. Mark's Primary School were built there. The present headman,Ringgis ak Lehok, who was appointed on 1-3-1998 is looking after 217 houses with a population of 922 villagers at Kampung Stass based on 2000 census. The Member of Parliament for Mas Gading, Y.B. Dr. Tiki ak Lafe, who is also the Deputy Minister of National Unity and Social Development, Malaysia was born at Kampung Stass on 11-5-1953. (2) Kampung Sebobok Based on my interview with Mabong ak Garin, aged 82, of Kampung Sebobok, he disclosed that sometime in 1875, it was Panglima Kabeng who led a group of Bijagoi moving down from

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Kampllng Stass, ,agoi Kampung Jagoi Gunung. They migrated over to Balung Buan where they stayed for a few years. Panglima Kabeng became the first Orang Kaya of the village appointed by the Brooke Authority in 1880s. Due to the outbreak of cholera disease, they abandoned the settlement and moved to Sungai Gelomang. At Sungai Gelomang they stayed for more than 40 years. In 1926, they moved out from Sungai Gelomang and finally they settled down at Sungai Sebobok where they built a new village called Kampung Sebobok. In 1964, Kampung Sebobok was converted to Christianity and a chapel known as St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Church was established there. In 1967, a primary school called Sekolah Kebangsaan Sebobok was built so that the children could attend their primary education in the village. In 1975, the old village of Kampung Sebobok was abondaned and they moved over to the present Kampung Sebobok Baru which is along the road and at the side of the primary school. The present headman, Jee Majid, who was appointed on 1-61998 looks after 75 houses with a population of 372 people staying at Kampung Sebobok based on 2000 census.

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(3) Jagoi Babang and Raso Settlements In 1900, according to Penghulu Edward Sib on of Jagoi area, Kampung Gunung Jagoi had more than 200 houses in a few rows. The limited area for expansion on the Gunung had resulted in 50 Jagoi Bidayuh families moving over to Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. They looked for new agricultural land and finally they settled down at Babang and called themselves Bijagoi Babang. In 1988, the Jagoi Babang settlement had multiplied to five villages namely Kampung Kindaw, Kampung Bidak, Kampung Takat, Kampung Beredat and Kampung Sijarow with a population of more than 700. In the year 2000, two more new villages were created at Jagoi Babang and the villages are known as Kampung Liso and Kampung Pelanuh. The population of Bijagoi Babang is now more than 1000 people. In 1901, another group headed by Konak left Kampung Jagoi Gunung and they went to Stass. From Stass, Konak led his people to Belubai, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia but some remained at Kampung Stass (Tembawang Baru). At Belubai, the Bidayuh Jagoi lived for a few years. It was at Belubai that they were hit by cholera disease and many of them died. Konak died at Belubai and his son, Kolah, took over the leadership. He led more than 10 families and left Belubai to Sungai Raso in Lundu in 1905. From the initial settlement at Raso where they looked for suitable farming land, the Jagoi Bidayuh population spread over to eight other new villages namely Kampung Bokah, Kampung Raso I, Kampung Raso II, Kampung Stungkor Lama, Kampung Stungkor Baru, Kampung Selampit, Kampung Stuum Muda, Kampung Simpang Bokah and Kampung Siluk with a population of more than 4,300 in the year 2000. 194

(4) Kampung Duyoh Settlement In 1910, another group of 5 families led by Orang Kaya Kanya Pak Raieng moved down from Kampung Jagoi Gunung and established a new village on the lowland along Sungai Duyoh and they called the new village Kampung Duyoh. The word "Duyoh" actually comes from the Bidayuh word "Kuyoh" which means "Crab" because in the olden days, Sungai Duyoh was full of Kuyoh crabs. In 1911, when more families moved down from the mountain, a longhouse consisting of 10 doors was built at Kampung Duyoh. However, the longhouse was dismantled in 1950 for the construction of individual houses. In 1920, Midot ak Sagi was appointed as the Tua Kampung of Kampung Duyoh, followed by Edward Sibon, Ahien ak Nojep and the present Tua Kampung Gumbek ak Moyew. In 1948, another big group of more than 30 families came down from Kampung Jagoi Gunung and settled down at Kampung Duyoh. In 1950s, Edward Sibon ak Nyongiew brought 8 familes from the village to embrace to Roman Catholic Christianity and a few years later a church known as St. Lucas's Church was built there. In 2000, based on the census record kept at District Office, Bau, there were 151 houses with a population of 962 in Kampung Duyoh. The Penghulu of Jagoi area, the former Tua Kampung of Kampung Duyoh, Edward Sibon Nyongiew was appointed as the Penghulu on 1-7-1972 until today. (5) Kampung Sirikin Settlement In 1915, Baseng ak Keros headed a group of 20 families left Kampung Jagoi Gunung and moved down to the foot of Gunung Jagoi where they established a new settlement known as Kampung Serabak at the side of Sungai Sirikin. Kabah Pa Tadeg became the first Orang Kaya

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(Tua Kampung) followed by Kisong Pa Saeng. In Bidayuh Jagoi dialect, the word "Rabak" means "Flat Land". The old village of Kampung Serabak was built on the flat land. They constructed a 20-door longhouse at Kampung Serabak in 1920 but it was dismantled after Second World War in 1947. According to Ex- Tua Kampung Angaw ak Gadeng, aged 71, who was the headman of Kampung Sirikin from 1957 to 1964, he said that in 1953 he led 6 families from Kampung Serabak to Sungai Sirikin where they formed a new village called Kampung Sirikin. Angaw ak Gadeng at the later stage became the first Tua Kampung of the newly formed village of Kampung Sirikin followed by N oew ak Ulai, Mideh ak Gunew and the present headman, Tua Kampung Gihing ak Mideh @Giham ak Meda who was appointed as the headman with effect from 25-2-1988. The word "Sirikin" in Bidayuh Jagoi dialect means "Station" because the village is situated at the border point between Sarawak and Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. Whoever passing the border point had to station there for a while and, hence, the name of Sirikin was created as the name of the village. In 1958, a primary school was built at Kampung Serabak and until today the school is still known as Sekolah Kebangsaan Serabak although there are only five houses left at Kampung Serabak.

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In 1978, Christianity came over to Kampung Sirikin and a group of villagers joined the Roman

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Catholic faith. A church known as St. Francis X'avier's Roman Catholic Church was built there. Today, there are 50% of the people at Kampung Sirikin still believing the Pagan Old
Adat. Based on 2000 census, there were 151

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houses with a population of 649 people staying at Kampung Sirikin. In 1985, there were only three shophouses at Kampung Sirikin. In view of the importance of Kampung Sirikin as a border bazaar, an Immigration and Custom Office was built there to check the border immigration matters. There are many Indonesians especially from Jagoi Babang, Seluas, Sanggauledo, Ledo and Bengkayang areas in Kalimantan Barat coming over to Kampung Sirikin to do their trading business, especially on Saturday and Sunday. They use a 3-kilometre muddy road to cross over the border from Jagoi Babang either by foot that takes about one hour or by motor-cycles which

takes about 15 minutes' drive to reach Sirikn. Besides the general traders in Sirikin, the businessmen from Kuching and Bau also come over to trade with the Indonesians along the SirikinjJagoi Babang Road. Hence, Sirikin Bazaar is a busy and booming rural centre in Bau District. Especially on Saturday and Sunday, many traders and general public from Kuching and Bau areas go to Sirikin for trading and there are so many vehicles going there that it is difficulty to look for empty space for parking. The private car-park is built there and the owner charges every vehicle RM 2/ -per entry per day. In 2001, there were 12 shophouses in Sirikin Bazaar and more shophouses are expected to be built there.

(f) List of N

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Pemanca (pe
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Kg. Kindaw Jagoi Babang (Indonesia)

(g) Namec In the year 2000,~ The details are as.

Kg. Jagoi Gunung

No. 1.
Sungkung, Kalimantan Barat Kg. Bratak Gunung Landar Kg. Tembawang Sauh, Jagoi

Name ofK. Bogag Duyoh Sirikin

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Jagoi Gunl Serasot Sebobok Skibang Stass

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Kowah Keros Katan Gunien Kojang (Pengarah) Basieng Munyew Pa Nyomew Mijod ak Goim Edward Sibon ak. Nyongiew

Kg. Jagoi Gunung Kg. Jagoi Gunung Kg. Jagoi Gunung Kg. Jagoi Gunung Kg. Stass Kg. Duyoh Kg. Serasot Kg. Jagoi Gunung Kg. Duyoh

Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown From 1906-1930.Died on 26.11.30 Unknown Died on 2.1.1948 Retired in 1971 Appointed from 2-4-1973until today

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In the year 2000, there were 8 Kampungs The details are as follows:

with 1,158 houses

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Name of Kampung Bogag Duyoh Sirikin

Name of Tua Kampung Johen ak Nyandeng Gumbek ak. Munjew Gihing ak Mideh @Giham ak Meda
Odeka ak. Dirop

No of Houses 142 162 151
36

Population 625 682 649
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Serasot Sebobok Skibang
Stass

Nyotik ak Moseng

241 75 134
217
1,158

705 372 479
922
4,507 197

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Ringgis ak. Lehok
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(VII) KROKONG SETTLEMENT
(a) Historical Background Krokong Settlement which comprises of 9 Kampungs was formerly under Jagoi area administered by Penghulu Edward Sibon. It was officially split away from Jagoi area on 31-5-1986 and a new Penghulu in the person of Asong ak. Johor from Kampung Kaman was appointed. Krokong Settlement is also comparatively a new area when compared to Bratak or Serembu settlements. In actual fact, the Bidayuhs from Gunung Orat migrated over to Gunung Tra-an sometime in 1840. They stayed at Gunung Traan for a while and then they moved over to Piled. Again, they did not stay long at Piled and they shifted to Perason where they stayed for a couple of years. Sometime in 1843, a group left Perason and moved to Gunung Krokong where they created a village known as Kampung Krokong Gunung. This was confirmed by Hugh Low who visited Kampung Krokong on 26-11-1845. He Gunung Krokong was first inhabited by a group of Bratak Bidayuh in
1843

described that Kampung Krokong had been recently established because there were no fruit trees except plantains. He mentioned that Kampung Krokong belonged to Sow tribe (Sauh) who originally came from Kampung Gunung Rat (Orat). There were about 30 to 40 well-built houses in a single row with a Pangah (Baruk) at Kampung Krokong. Their houses at Kampung Gunung Rat (Orat) were destroyed by the Skrang Ibans who took away many children as slaves (Low, p. 386). When Frederick Boyle visited Sarawak in 1865, he went to Upper Sarawak for hunting. He said that Kampung Krokong Gunung was already in existence. From Bidi, it took him 4 hours to reach Krokong by walking over 'Batang' path. Kampung Krokong was a straggling longhouse about 80 yards long. He saw a Baruk in decaying condition and he saw 9 human skulls were kept in the headhouse. The Baruk was circular or perhaps octagonal in shape, neatly constructed and aborned with crude pictures and rather indecorous carvings. There was an Orang Kaya Pemanca at Krokong (Boyle, p. 34). In 1880s, Barot and his followers abandoned Perason and they migrated to Sungai Peded where they established a new village called Kampung Blimbin. Krokong area is situated within the mining belt and many places within Krokong have been mined either for gold or mercury. Krokong area had also been inhabited by the Chinese miners since the 19th Century. Due to the constant contact with the Chinese miners especially the Hakka,

intermarriage was not uncommon. Because 0 the above factor, many Bidayuhs in the are, especially around Pangkalan Tebang anc Krokong areas can speak ChinesejHakkc fluently and at same time many Chinese residin~ in these areas can converse fluent Bidayul language. (1) Kampung Blimbin Settlement (a) Kampung Blimbin

In 1845, Kampung Krokong Gunung and Perason consisted of 40 houses. However, the increase of population meant more houses were to be constructed but there was a shortage of land for housing expansion at Gunung Krokong. Hence, in 1880, Barot led 20 families out from Perason and moved down from the mountain. They established a new settlement near a Lubok (pool) along Sungai Pedeh. Since the place was full of Blimbin fruit trees in the olden days, they called the place Kampung Blimbin. Barot became the first headman of Kampung Blimbin, followed by Nyuew, Abang ak Nyuew, Siru, Rubis ak Nyowis and the present Tua Kampung Jomet ak Rubis who was appointed on 1-10-1986 still serves the village. In 1961, James Manis brought the villagers to be converted to Roman Christianity and a church known as St. Patrick' b Roman Catholic Church was established in Krokong in 1962. However, a primary school called Sekolah Rendah Bantuan St. Patrick was established much earlier in 1951. In 2000, there were 86 houses and 445 inhabitants at Kampung Blimbin. . (b) Kampung Butcy'Kampung Bijongan After its establishment, Kampung Blimbin was prosperous and population multiplied. In 1975, Mesok ak Nusok led 9 families out of Kampung

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intermarriage was not uncommon. Because of the above factor, many Bidayuhs in the area especially around Pangkalan Tebang and Krokong areas can speak ChinesejHakka fluently and at same time many Chinese residing in these areas can converse fluent Bidayuh language. (1) Kampung Blimbin Settlement (a) Kampune: Blimbin In 1845, Kampung Krokong Gunung and Perason consisted of 40 houses. However, the increase of population meant more houses were to be constructed but there was a shortage of land for housing expansion at Gunung Krokong. Hence, in 1880, Barot led 20 families out from Perason and moved down from the mountain. They established a new settlement near a Lubok (pool) along Sungai Pedeh. Since the place was full of Blimbin fruit trees in the olden days, they called the place Kampung Blimbin. Barot became the first headman of Kampung Blimbin, followed by Nyuew, Abang ak Nyuew, Siru, Rubis ak Nyowis and the present Tua Kampung Jomet ak Rubis who was appointed on 1-10-1986 still serves the village. In 1961, James Manis brought the villagers to be converted to Roman Christianity and a church known as St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church was established in Krokong in 1962. However, a primary school called Sekolah Rendah Bantuan St. Patrick was established much earlier in 1951. In 2000, there were 86 houses and 445 inhabitants at Kampung Blimbin. (b) Kampung ButafKampung Bijongan After its establishment, Kampung Blimbin was prosperous and population multiplied. In 1975, Mesok ak Nusok led 9 families out of Kampung

Blimbin and they moved over to their Plamanj farmland where they established a new settlement along a river called Sungai Buta. They called the new village Kampung Buta. In the olden days, a man was attacked by his enemy and he was made blind in a river. Hence, the river was called Sungai Buta (Blind River). Mesok ak Nusok became the first headman in 1980,
followed by the present Tua Kampung

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Gindey who was appointed on 1-1-2000 and he is still serving the village with 50 houses and 210 people. In the year 2000, during a village meeting at Kampung Buta, it was decided to change the name of Kampung Buta which literally means "blind people village" to "Bijongan". The word "Bijongan" in Bidayuh dialect means "beautiful". Hence, "Kampung Bijongan" means "Beautiful village".
(c)

KampungPedaun

Bawah

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In 1960, a group of 20 families headed by Simat ak Nyangun left Kampung Blimbin and they moved over to a river called Sungai Pedaun where they formed a new village known as Kampung Pedaun Bawah within their own Plamanj farming land. Simat ak Nyangun was later appointed as the first headman for Kampung Pedaun Bawah by the Colonial Government of Sarawak and followed by Simot ak Nyangun. In 1970, a primary school known as Sekolah Kebangsaan Pedaun Bawah was established in the village. In July 2000, Abu Amin who married to Nosen ak Teruk brought 4 families from Kampung Pedaun Bawah to be converted to Muslims. A Muslim Surau called Surau Al Falah was built at Kampung Pedaun Bawah. The present Tua Kampung is T.K. Chipok ak Laip who was appointed on 16-7-2001 and he is looking after 35 houses with a population of 180 people in the village.

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a ne~\ settlement called Kampung Monggak. Due to favourable conditions, the vlllagers buIlt 15 individual houses around Sungal Monggak. In 1993, a Roman Catholic Church was established in the area for the Christians of both Kampung Pedaun Bawah and Kampung Monggak to worship there. The pioneer Baki ak Jowan was appointed as the headman for Kampung Monggak on 1-9-1994 and he is still serving the village. Based on 2000 census, there were 68 houses with a population of 350 people staying at Kampung Monggak Bijuray. In 1998, when the Chief Minister of Sarawak, YAB (Dr) Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Abdul Taib Mahmud declared open the SALCRA oil palm scheme in the area, he proposed the name of Kampung Monggak to be changed to "Kampung Bijuray" which literally means" a place where people group together for meeting". Hence, with effect from 1998, the name of Kampung Monggak was changed to Kampung Bijuray. (e) Kampung Kaman As far back as 1969, a group of 10 families led by Nadot ak Sirul started paddy farming along

Sungai Kaman. After they had established their Plamanj farming land there, they formed a new village called Kampung Kaman in 1980 and the pioneer Nadot ak Sirul was appointed as the headman for the newly formed Kampung Kaman on 11-7-1980. According to T.K. Nadot ak Sirul, the name "Kaman" actually was the name of an old man who had skin disease. He used to take the bath at the river and, hence, at the later stage, whoever went to the river would call the place Sungai Kaman. Hence, the village was known as Kampung Kaman. Based on 2000 census, "Kampung Kaman has 45 individual houses with a population of 359 people. (2) Gunung Krokong Settlements After settling down at Kampung Gunung Krokong sometime in 1843, one row of longhouse with a Baruk was built there. Slowly, another row of longhouse was constructed to meet the increasing population of the village. In early 1930, there were 4 longhouses consisting of 5 doors, 5 doors, 5 doors and 2 doors each being established at the Gunung Krokong. (a) Kampung Pisa When the land on the top of Gunung Krokong was limited for village expansion, the first group of 4 families led by Medilleft Kampung Gunung Krokong in 1930. They moved over to Plaman Tarik where they stayed for 10 years. However, during Second World War in 1941, the Japanese army put up an army camp at Plaman Tarik. Then, the Bidayuh staying there had to shift to Sungai Pedeh where they built a new settlement. Due to constant flooding at Sungai Pedeh especially during rainy days, the group decided to leave their settlement at Sungai Pedeh. In 1950, they abandoned the settlement and moved the whole village to the present Kampung Pisa. The

Kampung Peros, Gunung Krokong

(d) Kampung Biiurav

Monggak/Kampung

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Kampung MonggakjBijuray is a new village. In 1992, Baki ak Jowan led 15 families out of Kampung Pedaun Bawah and moved over to a river called Sungai Monggak where they formed

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Sungai Kaman. After they had established their Plaman/ farming land there, they formed a new village called Kampung Kaman in 1980 and the pioneer Nadot ak Sirul was appointed as the headman for the newly formed Kampung Kaman on 11-7-1980. According to T.K. Nadot ak Sirul, the name "Kaman" actually was the name of an old man who had skin disease. He used to take the bath at the river and, hence, at the later stage, whoever went to the river would call the place Sungai Kaman. Hence, the village was known as Kampung Kaman. Based on 2000 census,oKampung Kaman has 45 individual houses with a population of 359 people. (2) Gunung Krokong Settlements After settling down at Kampung Gunung Krokong sometime in 1843, one row of longhouse with a Baruk was built there. Slowly, another row of longhouse was constructed to meet the increasing population of the village. In early 1930, there were 4 longhouses consisting of 5 doors, 5 doors, 5 doors and 2 doors each being established at the Gunung Krokong. (a) Kampung Pisa When the land on the top of Gunung Krokong was limited for village expansion, the first group of 4 families led by Medilleft Kampung Gunung Krokong in 1930. They moved over to Plaman Tarik where they stayed for 10 years. However, during Second World Warin 1941, the Japanese army put up an army camp at Plaman Tarik. Then, the Bidayuh staying there had to shift to Sungai Pedeh where they built a new settlement. Due to constant flooding at Sungai Pedeh especially during rainy days, the group decided to leave their settlement at Sungai Pedeh. In 1950, they abandoned the settlement and moved the whole village to the present Kampung Pisa. The

word "Pisa" in Bidayuh dialect is the name of a
kind of bamboo in the area. In 1954, James Manis

brought the villagers to embrace to Christianity. In 1958, Saweng ak Medil was appointed as the first headman of Kampung Pis a by the Colonial Government of Sarawak. In 1991, when Saweng ak MediI passed away, Ahsey ak Rani became the second headman on 1-7-1985 and he is still serving in the village. In 2000, there were 61 houses with a population of 302 people staying at Kampung Pisa.
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Sometime in 1960s, Majing @Majim ak Pitot led 20 families out of Kampung Gunung Krokong and moved over to a river called Sungai Puak where they created a new farming land/ Plaman for padi cultivation. The pioneer Majing @Majim ak Pitot was appointed as the first headman on 1-7-1980 and he is still serving Kampung Puak until today. Slowly more families came down from Gunung Krokong to join the group at Kampung Puak. In 1980, when Kampung Puak was fully established, there were 34 families in the village. In 1982, a primary school known as Sekolah Kebangsaan Puak was established at the Kampung so that the children could attend their primary education. The villagers remained as pagans for more than 20 years. Around 1983, Kulim ak Taen headed a group of villagers to accept Roman Catholic Christianity in the village. Based on 2000 census, there were 56 houses with a population of 231 people staying at Kampung Puak. Kampung Puak is the home village of Dr.Patau Rubis, the former Member of Council Negeri for Tasik Biru, former Member of Parliamant for Mas Gading and former State Assistant Minister for Finance and Utilities who was born there on 21-3-1946 but brought up at Kampung Blimbin.

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(d) Kampung Gunung Krokong Peros At the later part of 1959, Caduo ak Regus brought the remaining 20 families at Kampung Gunung Krokong down to the plain and established a new settlement at Sungai Peros. They called the settlement Kampung Gunung Krokong Peros. After the establishment of Kampung Krokong Peros, the old settlement at Gunung Krokong was abandoned. They built a 20-door longhouse at the new settlement but in 2001, there was only a 3-door longhouse left at Kampung Gunung Krokong Peros in the midst of individual houses. Caduo ak Regus was appointed as the first headman for Kampung Gunung Krokong Peros on 1-7-1980 and he is still serving the village. Kampung Gunung Krokong Peros has become the "Kampung Contoh" in Bau District. It was selected as a Kampung Contoh at village level in 1986, at district level in 1997 and at Divisional Level in 1998. A project fund worth RM18,000 1was awarded by the Government to Kampung Peros and the money was used for the construction of a new community hall in the village. In the 1950, a primary school known as St. Patrick's Primary School was established and in 1952, St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church was built at Krokong. Both the school and the church were shared by the people from Kampung Peros, Kampung Pisa, Kampung Batu Sepit, Kampung Blimbin and Kampung Kaman. In 2000, there were 64 houses with a population of 401 people staying at Kampung Krokong Peros. (c) List of Name of Penghulu in Krokong Area. Name of Penghulu Asong ak Johar Home Kampung Kg. Kaman Period From 31.5.1986 until tod

(d) Name of Kampun~ year 2000.

Tua-tua KampuJ

In the year 2000, there were altogether 15 Kampung Tringgus/Gumbang areas. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of Kampungs Krokong Peros Krokong Blimbin Krokong Bijongan/Buta Krokong Pis a Batu Sepit Krokong Puak Pedaun Bawah Krokong Kaman Bijurayl Monggak Tringgus Rabak Rotan Baru Tringgus Matan/Nguan Gumbang Padang Pan Gumbang Ledan Pangkalan Tebang Total Naml Cadu Jome! Juhed Ahse' Noya Majin ak Pit Chipc Nadp Bakia Toe al

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(c) Kampung Batu Sepit In 1959, only 2 longhouses left in Kampung Gunung Krokong. Under the leadership of Noyak ak Semon, a group of 17 families left the old viIlage at Gunung Krokong and settled down at the surrounding area at Batu Sepit. In the olden days, there was a small footpath passing through a very narrow rocky passage. Hence, the place was named "Batu Sepit" which means "Narrow rocky passage". However, in 1957, the narrow rocky passage was blasted for the construction of Baul Krokong Road. According to Tua Kampung Noyak ak Semon whom I interviewed on 30-3-2001, he said that from 1959 until 1980, Kampung Batu Sepit was still under the administration of Tua Kampung Regus @ Regas of Kampung Gunung Krokong. Noyak ak Semon was officially appointed as the first headman of Kampung Batu Sepit on 1-7-1980 and he is still holding the post. In 1970, William Bihai led the villagers to accept Roman Catholic Christianity. There were 67 houses and 425 people staying at Kampung Batu Sepit in 2000. 202

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

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In the year 2000, there were altogether 15 Kampungs with 951 doors and population of 5,433 in Krokongj TringgusjGumbang areas. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of Kampungs Krokong Peros Krokong Blimbin Krokong Bijonganj Buta Krokong Pis a Batu Sepit Krokong Puak Pedaun Bawah Krokong Kaman Bijurayj Monggak Tringgus Rabak Rotan Baru Tringgus Matan j Nguan Gumbang Padang Pan Gumbang Ledan Pangkalan Tebang Total
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Name of Headman Caduo ak. Regus Jomet ak Rubis Juhed ak. Gindey Ahsey ak Rani Noyak ak. Semon Majing @Majim ak Pitol Chipok ak Laip Nadot ak Sirul Baki ak Jowan Toe akNew Sman ak Asem Keelim ak Nilam Liboh ak. Nawat Batang ak Najo Magie ak Moyah

No.of Houses 64 86 50 61 67 56

Population
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35 45 68 54 102 120 61 52 30 951

180 359 350 400 717

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Gumbang Settlement
(1) Historical Background

Krokong Community Hall. Photo taken in 1994

(e)

Summary of Movement of Kampungs in Krokong Area

Kg Gunung Krokon Kg Batu Sepit

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The Bidayuhs staying in Kampung Gumbang belong to a small group of their own. They were the original inhabitants staying at Rabak Jemus near Pangkalan Tebang a long time ago. While staying at Rabak Jemus, they built a 20-door longhouse and a headhouse (Baruk). Around the foot of Gunung Jemus, they planted a lot of fruit trees which are still existing today. The first headman of Kampung Rabak Jemus was Sanok, followed by Samut, Simulai, Sibeus, Sinamai and Simulang. Today, there are 4 settlements namely Kampung Gumbang, Kampung Pangkalan Tebang, Kampung Plaman Pan and Kampung Gumbang Ledan which belong to Gumbang group in Bau. (a) Kampung Gumbang

Kg Peduan Bawah

Kg Peduan

204

Sometime in 1800s when Simulang was th~ headman, the Bidayuhs staying at Rabak Jemus were attacked by the enemies from elsewhere. The longhouse and the Head-house were burnt down and many of them were kiIled by the enemies. Those who survived left Kampung Rabak Jemus. Sasu and Kalos who led 8 families migrated over to the foot of Gunung Api where they settled down along Sungai Gumbang. Then they called the new settlement Kampung Gumbang where they built a row of longhouse and a Baruk Head-house. While staying at Kampung Gumbang, there was a complete peace

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Gumbang Settlement
(1) Historical Background

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The Bidayuhs staying in Kampung Gumbang belong to a small group of their own. They were the original inhabitants staying at Rabak Jemus near Pangkalan Tebang a long time ago. While staying at Rabak Jemus, they built a 20-door longhouse and a headhouse (Baruk). Around the foot of Gunung Jemus, they planted a lot of fruit trees which are still existing today. The first headman of Kampung Rabak Jemus was Sanok, followed by Samut, Simulai, Sibeus, Sinamai and Simulang. Today, there are 4 settlements namely Kampung Gumbang, Kampung Pangkalan Tebang, Kampung Plaman Pan and Kampung Gumbang Ledan which belong to Gumbang group in Bau. (a) Kampung Gumbang Sometime in 1800s when Simulang was the headman, the Bidayuhs staying at Rabak Jemus were attacked by the enemies from elsewhere. The longhouse and the Head-house were burnt down and many of them were killed by the enemies. Those who survived left Kampung Rabak Jemus. Sasu and Kalos who led 8 families migrated over to the foot of Gunung Api where they settled down along Sungai Gumbang. Then they called the new settlement Kampung Gumbang where they built a row of longhouse and a Baruk Head-house. While staying at Kampung Gumbang, there was a complete peace

Abandoned

Rabak Jemus Settlement near
Pangkalan

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Tebang and population increased. There was a group led by Kobang Koma who migrated from Rabak Mikabuh, Penrissen to Kampung Gumbang. They settled down together with the group led by Sasu and Kalos from Rabak Jemus. Kedat was appointed as the first Orang Kaya (Tua Kampung) for Kampung Gumbang by the Brunei Authority in 1830s, followed by Murung, Bisak, Kitong, Singaw, Sakup, Ahem ak Nayang, Johed and the present headman, T.K. Keelim ak Nilam who was appointed on 7-9-1995. On 2511-1845, when Hugh Low visited Kampung Gumbang, he described that the village had sixty houses built in several rows and had two Headhouses (Baruks). During the visit of Hugh Low, Bisak was the Orang Kaya (Tua Kampung) of Kampung Gumbang. Since the establishment of Kampung Gumbang, the Bidayuh Gumbang continued to practise their old pagan Adats. In 1923, there were 3 Baruks known as Baruk Luban, Baruk Namuh and Baruk Dieg being established at Kampung Gumbang. Today, there is one Baruk Namuh left

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is about 8 feet from the ground. The floor is made of bamboo strips and the planks and bamboo strips are used for the walling. Inside the Baruk, there is a fireplace at the centre. Three So bangs measuring 20 feet, 16 feet and 6 feet long are found in the house. There are 9 skulls and some deer horns being kept in the Headhouse. In 1980s, it took about half an hour using a Land Cruiser to travel from Bau Town at the village for the remaining pagan villagers to conduct their Adats there. In 1959, a primary school known as Sekolah Rendah Kerajaan Gumbang was established at Kampung Gumbang. However, the name of the school was known as Sekolah Kebangsaan Gumbang with effect from 1997. In 1979, Roman Catholic Christianity started to extend its influence to the village. A group of the villagers were converted to Roman Catholic Christianity and a church known as St. Nicholas's Roman Catholic was built in 1986. In 2001, there were more than 50% of the Bidayuh Gumbang still believing the old pagan Adat. In 2000, there were 120 houses and 600 people staying at Kampung Gumbang. Baruk Namuh was built sometime in the year 1950. It has a square base of 40 feet and with a conical roof. The roofing originally made of Attap was replaced with zinc sheets by the British Army during Malaysiaj Indonesia Confrontation i~ 1963. The Baruk sitting on piles through the gravel road to Kampung Bogag. From Bogag, it took four hours to walk through the secondary jungle and farmland to reach Kampung Gumbang. Today, one can drive a car through the 23-kilometre road from Bau to Kampung Gumbang in half an hour's time. (b) Kampung PangkaIan Tebang The increase of population and the shortage of farming land around the foot of Gunung Api caused the migration of the people from Kampung Gumbang. Sometime in 1930, Barung ak .Sayon led a small group from Kampung Gumbang and settled down at Pangkalan Tebang. During Second World War from 19411945, Japanese army was stationed in the area to mine mercury at Gunung Tading. Nyaung ak Sayon who stayed around the area was asked to clear the landing place. In Bidayuh dialect, "Pangkalan Tebang" means "cleared landing place". Today, Kampung Pangkalan Tebang is a

mixed group of the Bidayuhs from Gumbanl and Tringgus. In 1988, there were only 10 house: with a population of 56 people but in the yea] 2000, the number of houses had increased to 5~ with a population of 301 and the presenl headman is T.K. Magie ak Moyah who wa~ appointed since 10-10-1986. There is a smal] bazaar known as Pangkalan Tebang Bazaar established at the side of the village. (c) Kampung Plaman Pan Kampung Plaman Pan is a new village. In 1974, a group of 15 families headed by Langu ak Sedon moved down from Kampung Gumbang and settled down on the lowland at Kampung PIaman Pan. The word "Pan" in Bidayuh dialect means "Earthworm" because there were a lot of earthworms in Plaman Pan in those days. In 1975, Ahem ak Nayang was appointed as the first headman of Kampung Plaman Pan and Liboh ak Nawat became the second Tua Kampung with effect from 9-6-1987. In 1984, a Head-hous~ (Baruk) was built in the village so that the pagan villagers could practise their old pagan Adats. In 1984, a group headed by Mikol ak Minyoi of Kampung Plaman Pan embraced Roman Catholic Christianity and in 1986, a chapel known as St. Gonzaro Garagga Church was established in the village. Based on 2000 census, Kampung Plaman Pan had 61 houses and with a population of 384. (d) Kampung Gumbang Ledan Kampung Gumbang Ledan is also a new village. In 1976, another group led by Reka ak Nyoung moved over to the foot of Gunung Ledan along the present BaujPangkalan Tebang Road. They built individual houses and, hence, they established a new settlement called Kampung Gumbang Ledan. In 1992 when the village was

Kampung Gumbang. Baruk Namuh is in the
background

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mixed group of the Bidayuhs from Gumbang and Tringgus. In 1988, there were only 10 houses with a population of 56 people but in the year 2000, the number of houses had increased to 59 with a population of 301 and the present headman is T.K. Magie ak Moyah who was appointed since 10-10-1986. There is a small bazaar known as Pangkalan Tebang Bazaar established at the side of the village. (c) Kampung Plaman Pan Kampung Plaman Pan is a new village. In 1974, a group of 15 families headed by Langu ak Sedon moved down from Kampung Gumbang and settled down on the lowland at Kampung Plaman Pan. The word "Pan" in Bidayuh dialect means "Earthworm" because there were a lot of earthworms in Plaman Pan in those days. In 1975, Ahem ak Nayang was appointed as the first headman of Kampung Plaman Pan and Liboh ak Nawat became the second Tua Kampung with effect from 9-6-1987. In 1984, a Head-house (Baruk) was built in the village so that the pagan villagers could practise their old pagan Adats. In 1984, a group headed by Mikol ak Minyoi of Kampung PIa man Pan embraced Roman Catholic Christianity and in 1986, a chapel known as St. Gonzaro Garagga Church was established in the village. Based on 2000 census, Kampung Plaman Pan had 61 houses and with a population of 384. (d) Kamvune Gumbane Ledan Kampung Gumbang Ledan is also a new village. In 1976, another group led by Reka ak Nyoung moved over to the foot of Gunung Ledan along the present BaujPangkalan Tebang Road. They built individual houses and, hence, they established a new settlement called Kampung Gumbang Ledan. In 1992 when the village was
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Bung Rabak Jemus

Kampung Gumbang

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(IX) Tringgus Settlement
(a) Historical Backeround The Bidayuh of Tringgus is among the smallest group in Bau District. According to Ex-Tua Kampung Yasi ak Abong, the Bidayuh Tringgus were the original inhabitants of Kampung Tringgus Rayawhich was established at the foot of Gunung Sibelih along the border line between Sarawak and Kalimantan Barat Indonesia a long time ago. They built a longhouse and one Headhouse (Baruk) in Kampung Tringgus Raya. The old settlement is two hours on foot from Kampung Tringgus Rabak Rotan at Sungai Pedeh, Sarawak. In 1847, Noel Dension who was

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created new settlements in the following areas:(1) (2) (3) (4) Kampung Tringgus Sang, Kampung Tringgus Matang, Kampung Tringgus Wak, and Kampung Plaman Pasoh.

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(b) Movementof Kampungs
In 1825, Bai Upet and his family left Kampung Tringgus Raya to look for new farming land. They went to Gahung where they stayed for a while. After that they moved to Pibi and finally they settled down at Semban Hill in Padawan area where they created a new village known as Kampung Semban sometime in 1830s. This was the first migration of the Bidayuh from Kampung Tringgus Raya to other area beyond Bau District. In 1946, due to the increase of population and shortage of farming land around Gunung Sibelih, the whole group led by Siak abandoned Kampung Tringgus Raya and they migrated further inside the Sarawak Territory and

Up-River Agent Nain ak Reka on the left with Author on the right. Photo taken in front of Kampung Tringgus Baruk Kampung Rabak Rotan Tringgus

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In July 1953, Peter Howes and his group on their way back from Sungkung, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia did pass through Tringgus area. They spent a night at Tringgus Bering which he described, "Not really a village but a cluster of five or six huts inhabited by people from Tringgus who wanted better farming land". The following day, they passed through Kampung Tringgus, he said, "the Land Dayak longhouse, sprawling high on the slope which had been over-farmed and was now a sea of Imperata grass. There was hardly a soul in the longhouse. It was a lonely spot and all around a Penine emptiness" (Howes p.250). In 1963, during the Malaysia/Indonesia confrontation, there were, many communists' subversive activities along Sarawak/Indonesia Border especially around Tringgus area. The Bidayuh Tringgus had been threatened to supply food and provide shelter to the communists. Upon the advice of the Malaysian Army and on the ground of security, Tua Kampung Yasi ak Abong led the Bidayuhs from all the four Kampungs to Sedoh where they established one settlement for all the four villages known as Kampung Tringgus Sedoh. When the Malaysia/Indonesia confrontation was over and peace was restored along the, border areas, the Bidayuh at Kampung Tringgus Sedoh split into 3 groups and moved out of the village in 1979. They established Kampung Tringgus Bong along Sungai Bong, Kampung

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created new settlements in the following areas:(1) (2) (3) (4) Kampung Tringgus Sang, Kampung Tringgus Matang, Kampung Tringgus Wak, and Kampung Plaman Pasoh.

In July 1953, Peter Howes and his group on their way back from Sungkung, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia did pass through Tringgus area. They spent a night at Tringgus Bering which he described, "Not really a village but a cluster of five or six huts inhabited by people from Tringgus who wanted better farming land". The following day, they passed through Kampung Tringgus, he said, "the Land Dayak longhouse, sprawling high on the slope which had been over-farmed and was now a sea of Imperata grass. There was hardly a soul in the longhouse. It was a lonely spot and all around a Penine emptiness" (Howes p.250). In 1963, during the Malaysia/Indonesia confrontation, there were many communists' subversive activities along Sarawak/Indonesia Border especially around Tringgus area. The Bidayuh Tringgus had been threatened to supply food and provide shelter to the communists. Upon the advice of the Malaysian Army and on the ground of security, Tua Kampung Yasi ak Abong led the Bidayuhs from all the four Kampungs to Sedoh where they established one settlement for all the four villages known as Kampung Tringgus Sedoh. When the Malaysia/Indonesia confrontation was over and peace was restored along the border areas, the Bidayuh at Kampung Tringgus Sedoh split into 3 groups and moved out of the village in 1979. They established Kampung Tringgus Bong along Sungai Bong, Kampung

Tringgus Rabak Rotan where there are a lot of Rotan on the flatland and Kampung Tringgus Awarn along Sungai Awam. Atthe moment, Tua Kampung Toe ak New who was appointed on 1-5-1997 is looking after the village affair of Kampung Tringgus Baru (Bong) and Kampung Tringgus Rabak Rotan whereas Kampung Tringgus Matan/Nguan (Awam) is under the care of Tua Kampung Seman ak Asem who was appointed on 1-7-1980. In 1980, the Government built a primary school known as SK Tringgus in the village so that the children could receive the primary education in their own Kampung. Traditionally, Tringgus settlement is a pagan area. However, in 1990, a group of Bidayuh led by Sylvester Bungas were converted to Roman Catholic Christianity and a church known as St. Sylvester's Roman Catholic Church was built. Today, there are 40% of the Bidayuh Tringgus who are still pagans believing in the old Adat. A new eight-sided Head-house (Baruk) was rebuilt at Kampung Tringgus Rotan in 1991 and it is still well maintained by the pagan group. Based on 2000 census, there were 54 houses with a population of 400 people staying at Kampung Tringgus Rabak Rotan Baru whereas there were 102 houses with a population of 717 people living at Kampung Tringgus Matan/Nguan. In the olden days until 1980s, it took about half an hour by car to travel on a gravel road from Bau Town to Krokong and from Krokong, it took almost four hours by longboat to reach PangkaIan Tebang. From Pangkalan Tebang, it took another three hours on foot to Kampung Tringgus Rabak Rotan. Today, it takes about half an hour to travel by car through the 23-kilometre tar-sealed road from Bau Town to Kampung Tringgus Rabak Rotan.
209

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(c) Summary of the Movement of Kampungs in Tringgus Settlement

In 1987, Bidayuh population in Bau Distric could be classified into the following areas:-

Tringgus

Sang

h
I

I
Tringgus
Sedoh

I

Tringgus Bong

Kg

No. 1. 2. 3.

Area Bratak Singai Krokong Jagoi Serembu Others Total:

No. of Houses 776 966 333 789 813 272 3,949

Population 4,989 4,924 1,676 3,816 5,606 1,412 22,423

Tringgus Tringgus
Raya (Gunung Sibelih)

I

Matang

I
I

H
I
I

I

Tringgus I Wak

H

m

Tringgus RabakKg Rotan

4. 5.

Plaman Pasoh I Kampung Semban (Padawan) (X) Bidayuh Population in Bau

Kg Tringgus Awam

6.

From the above data, we can analyze thE movement of Bidayuh population as follows:According to "Notes on the Land Dayak oj Sarawak Proper" by N. Denison, the populatior of the Land Dayak (Bidayuh) in Bau in 1871 waE 4,852. (Denison, 5). The details are as follows:No. 1. 2. 3. Area Serembu Singai Sauh (Bratak and Population 954 1,108 1,446

The following population data and figures of the Bidayuhs in Bau are collected as far back as 1871 to 2000. Year 1871
1947 1960 1970 1980 1987 1991

Population 4,852
9,525 13,057 18,586 21420 22,423 23,413 29,215

Annual Growth Rate (%)

Remarks
Sarawak Gazette No. 124dated 10.10.1876(P.6.) Figure based on 1947Census Report (P.81) Figure based on 1960Census Report (P.121) Figure based on 1970 Census Report (P.97) Figure based on 1986Sarawak Annual Statistic Bulletin (P.13) Based on locality data collected by Statistics Dept., Sarawak as at 1987 Based on 1991 Census Report Based on Yearbook of Statistics 2001Sarawak

1.0% 2.4% 3.5% 1.3% 0.8%

Jagoi
4. 5.

areas) 867 477 4,852

Gumbang Tringgus Total:

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In 1987, Bidayuh population in Bau District could be classified into the following areas:No. I Area I No.of Population Houses
I

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I Bratak I Singai I Krokong I Jagoi I Serembu I Others Total:

I

776 966 333 789 813 272 3,949

4,989 4,924 1,676 3,816 5,606 1,412 22,423

From the above data, we can analyze the movement of Bidayuh population as follows:According to "Notes on the Land Dayak of Sarawak Proper" by N. Denison, the population of the Land Dayak (Bidayuh) in Bau in 1871 was 4,852. (Denison, 5). The details are as follows:-

No. I Area 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
I

I Population 954 1,108 1,446 867 477 4,852

Serembu Singai Jagoi areas)

There was no further record on the population of the Bidayuh until 1947. Before Second World War, the increase of Bidayuh population in Bau was negligible. According to the official report, the Bidayuh population in 1947 was 9,525.After a period of 13 years, the population rose to 13,057, an increase of 2.4%. This was mainly due to the fact that after Second World War, there was a period of peace conducive to population growth and there were some migrations of the Bidayuh from Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia to the Bidayuh villages along the border. In between 1960-1970, there was a greater increase of 5,529 persons, an annual increase of 3.5%.The increase could be contributed to the fact that the Bidayuhs were more settled down. However; in between 1970- 1980, there was an increase of only 2,629 persons, an increase of 1.3% per annum and between 1980- 1987, there was an increase of 1,203 persons, an increase of 0.8% only. This was mainly due to the urban migration of Bau Bidayuhs to other places especially on employment in government and private sectors. In 1991, based on Census record, there were 23,413 Bidayuhs in Bau District. However, from 1999 to 2000, there was a great increase of 5,802 Bidayuhs population up to 29,215 based on Yearbook of Statistics 2001 Sarawak.

I Sauh (Bratakand I Gumbang I Tringgus Total:

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