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Thermal Properties of Fibers
R.Senthil Kumar, A.P (SRG), Department of Textile Technology, KCT, Coimbatore-49, firstname.lastname@example.org
• • • • • • • • • • • Thermal properties of fibres Thermal Conductivity Effect of Regain % on Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Thermal Conductivity by Tog meter Heat of Wetting Effect of Regain % on Differential and Integral Heat of Sorption Measurement of Heat of Wetting Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) and Melting Temperature (Tm) Thermal Expansion and Heat Setting Specific Heat of Fibres Thermal Characterisation of Synthetic Fibres:
– – – – Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA)
R.Senthil kumar, email@example.com 2
Thermal Properties of Fibres
• The property which is shown by a textile fiber when it is subjected to heating is called thermal property. Thermal properties are including: 1. Thermal conductivity 2. Heat of wetting or heat of absorption 3. Glass transition temperature 4. Melting temperature 5. Heat setting 6. Thermal expansion 7. Specific heat The thermal conductivity of a textile fabric depends to a much greater extent on the air entrapped within it than on the fibre conductivity. Dimensional changes in fabrics due to reversible swelling on moisture absorption are much larger than those due to reversible thermal expansion.
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Senthil kumar. Higher the thermal conductivity indicates the fiber more conductive. 11/24/2012 R.co.Thermal Conductivity • Thermal conductivity is the rate of heat transfer in degree along the body of a textile fiber by conduction.in 4 . • The protein fibres have a lower conductivity than the cellulosic fibres. sen29iit@yahoo. Thermal conductivity is measure by coefficient of thermal conductivity.
email@example.com 5 .Senthil kumar.Effect of Regain % on Thermal Conductivity 11/24/2012 R.co.
Senthil kumar.Tog meter – Thermal Conductivity 11/24/2012 R.co. firstname.lastname@example.org 6 .
in 7 . The heater is adjusted so that the temperature of the upper face of the standard is at skin temperature (31-350C).Senthil kumar. A small airflow is maintained over the apparatus. between the standard and the test fabric (T2) and between the fabric and the top plate (T3). • The temperature is measured at both faces of this standard. • To determine the air resistance (Without sample for 30 min) • To determine the sample resistance (placed until thermal equilibrium reached) 11/24/2012 R.• The tog meter consists of a thermostatically controlled heating plate which is covered with a layer of insulating board of known thermal resistance.co. sen29iit@yahoo. • The temperature is measured at the heater (T1).
co. email@example.com 11/24/2012 8 .Senthil kumar. It is expressed in joules per gram (of dry material) R. Heat of absorption resulting from changes in moisture regain rather than the thermal conductivity.Heat of wetting • When a textile fiber absorb moisture or water it gives of some amount of heat which is called heat of wetting or heat of absorption. • If 1gm of dried textile fiber is completely wetted then heat in calorie/gm is involved which is known as heat of wetting for that fiber. • The Differential heat of sorption Q (sometimes called the heat of absorption) is the heat evolved when 1 g of water is absorbed by an infinite mass of the material at a given moisture regain. is completely wetted. It is expressed in joules per gram (of water absorbed). • The integral heat of sorption W (sometimes called the heat of wetting) is the heat evolved when a specimen of the material at a given regain. whose dry mass is 1 g.
co. firstname.lastname@example.org/24/2012 R.Senthil kumar.in 9 .
in 10 . sen29iit@yahoo.Effect of Regain% on Integral heat of Sorption 11/24/2012 R.Senthil kumar.co.
sen29iit@yahoo.Effect of Regain% on Differential heat of Sorption 11/24/2012 R.co.in 11 .Senthil kumar.
in 12 . • A known mass of the material at the required regain is placed in a calorimeter. the heat evolved can be calculated and the heat of wetting determined. sen29iit@yahoo. and an excess of water is added.co. • From the rise in temperature and the thermal capacity of the system.Measurement of Heat of Wetting • Heats of wetting may be measured calorimetrically. 11/24/2012 R.Senthil kumar.
Senthil kumar.in 13 . The range of Tg is lies between -100˚C to 300˚C.Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) & Melting temperature • Tg: The temperature up to which a fiber behaves hard as like glass and after which it behaves soft as like rubber is called Glass transition temperature and it is denoted by Tg. At melting temperature fiber also losse its strength and some molecular weight. • Tm : A temperature at which fiber melt completely is called melting temperature. At melting temperature fiber losse its identity and convert it into a viscous liquid.co. sen29iit@yahoo. 11/24/2012 R.
sen29iit@yahoo.Senthil kumar.Thermal expansion • Thermal expansion can be measured by co-efficient of thermal expansion and which is defined as the fractional increase in length of a specimen to rise in temperature by 1˚C.co.in 14 . • Co-efficient of thermal expansion ═ Length increased / initial length of specimen ═ ∆L / L ═ L2-L1 / L1 11/24/2012 R.
11/24/2012 R.in 15 . fabric or garment by means of successive heating or cooling in dry and wet condition. yarns.co. sen29iit@yahoo.Heat setting • Heat setting is the process of stabilizing the form of fibers.Senthil kumar.
would be expected to increase the specific heat of fibres.Senthil kumar. which as a liquid has a specific heat of 4.in 16 . The absorption of water.Specific Heat • The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.2 J/(g K).co. sen29iit@yahoo. 11/24/2012 R.
Thermal Characterisation 11/24/2012 R.co.Senthil kumar. email@example.com 17 .
melting temperature.DMA or DMTA (Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis) 11/24/2012 R. firstname.lastname@example.org. thermal stability and other properties as a function of temperature of polymers and fibres.TMA (Thermomechanical analysis) 5. • The Principal techniques used are: 1.in 18 .DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) 3.Thermoanalytical techniques • Thermoanalytical techniques are used for characterization of glass transition.Senthil kumar.TG (Thermogravimetry) 4.DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) 2.
Senthil kumar. while recording any temperature difference between sample and reference. melting and sublimation.in 19 . • Changes in the sample. or against temperature (DTA curve or thermogram).co. • Thus. a DTA curve provides data on the transformations that have occurred. either exothermic or endothermic.1. can be detected relative to the inert reference. the material under study and an inert reference are made to undergo identical thermal cycles.DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) • In DTA. sen29iit@yahoo. 11/24/2012 R. crystallization. • This differential temperature is then plotted against time. such as glass transitions.
1. a furnace.in 20 . As the temperature is increased. there will be a brief deflection of the voltmeter if the sample is undergoing a phase transition. but be incorporated as latent heat in the material changing phase. The key feature is the existence of two thermocouples connected to a voltmeter. sen29iit@yahoo. a temperature programmer. while the other is placed in a sample of the material under study.Senthil kumar. One thermocouple is placed in an inert material such as Al2O3.DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) A DTA consists of a sample holder comprising thermocouples. 11/24/2012 R. This occurs because the input of heat will raise the temperature of the inert substance.co. sample containers and a ceramic or metallic block. and a recording system.
sen29iit@yahoo. 11/24/2012 R.co.Senthil kumar. more or less heat will need to flow to it than the reference to maintain both at the same temperature. • The basic principle underlying this technique is that when the sample undergoes a physical transformation such as phase transitions. Whether less or more heat must flow to the sample depends on whether the process is exothermic or endothermic.DSC – Differential Scanning Calorimetry • Differential scanning calorimetry or DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.in 21 .
co. 11/24/2012 R.DSC Curves • The result of a DSC experiment is a curve of heat flux versus temperature or versus time.Senthil kumar.in 22 . sen29iit@yahoo.
• The percentage crystallinity of a polymer can be found from the crystallization peak of the DSC graph since the heat of fusion can be calculated from the area under an absorption peak.co. • Melting points and glass transition temperatures for most polymers are available from standard compilations. Tm. and the method can show possible polymer degradation by the lowering of the expected melting point.DSC • DSC is used widely for examining polymers to check their composition. Tm depends on the molecular weight of the polymer. for example.Senthil kumar. 23 • 11/24/2012 can also be used R. . so lower grades will have lower melting points than expected. email@example.com DSC to study thermal degradation of polymers.
The atmosphere may be purged with an inert gas to prevent oxidation or other undesired reactions.in 24 . sen29iit@yahoo.Senthil kumar. to determine degradation temperatures.Thermogravimetric analysis • Thermogravimetric analysis or thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a type of testing performed on samples that determines changes in weight in relation to change in temperature.co. • The sample is placed in a small electrically heated oven with a thermocouple to accurately measure the temperature. • Analysis is carried out by raising the temperature of the sample gradually and plotting weight (percentage) against temperature. and solvent residues. the level of inorganic and organic components in materials. The temperature in many testing methods routinely reaches 1000°C or greater. absorbed moisture content of materials. decomposition points of explosives. 11/24/2012 R. • TGA is commonly employed in research and testing to determine characteristics of materials such as polymers.
Senthil kumar. firstname.lastname@example.org 25 .Thermograph 11/24/2012 R.
Senthil kumar.co. a branch of materials science which studies the properties of materials as they change with temperature.Thermomechanical analysis • Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is a technique used in thermal analysis. 11/24/2012 R.in 26 . sen29iit@yahoo.
TMA temperature calibration 11/24/2012 R. sen29iit@yahoo.Senthil kumar.co.in 27 .
co.in 28 . sen29iit@yahoo.TMA .effect of plasticisers 11/24/2012 R.Senthil kumar.
effect of chemical structure 11/24/2012 R.Senthil kumar.co.in 29 . sen29iit@yahoo.TMA .
in 30 .co.• Thank You 11/24/2012 R.Senthil kumar. sen29iit@yahoo.
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