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# CONNECTION DESIGN

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Connections must be designed at the strength limit state

**– Average of the factored force effect at the connection and the force effect
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in the member at the same point

– At least 75% of the force effect in the member

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End connections for diaphragms, cross-frames, lateral bracing for straight flexural members - designed for factored member loads

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Connections should be symmetrical about member axis

– At least two bolts or equivalent weld per connection – Members connected so that their gravity axes intersect at a point – Eccentric connections should be avoided

End connections for floorbeams and girders

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– Two angles with thickness > 0.375 in. – Made with high strength bolts – If welded account for bending moment in design

BOLTED CONNECTIONS

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Slip-critical and bearing type bolted connections. Connections should be designed to be slip-critical where:

– stress reversal, heavy impact loads, severe vibration – joint slippage would be detrimental to the serviceability of the structure

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Joints that must be designed to be slip-critical include

– Joints subject to fatigue loading or significant load reversal. – Joints with oversized holes or slotted holes – Joints where welds and bolts sharing in transmitting load – Joints in axial tension or combined axial tension and shear

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Bearing-type bolted connections can be designed for joints subjected to compression or joints for bracing members

**SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION
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Slip-critical bolted connections can fail in two ways: (a) slip at the connection; (b) bearing failure of the connection Slip-critical connection must be designed to: (a) resist slip at load Service II; and (b) resist bearing / shear at strength limit states

SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION • Slip-critical bolted connections can be installed with such a degree of tightness large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected plates together Applied Shear force resisted by friction P P • Tightened N =Tb N =Tb P N =Tb F=mN F=mN Tb N =Tb Tb P N = Tb N = Tb .

– If the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops between the two surfaces. then no slip will occur between them Nominal slip resistance of a bolt in a slip-critical connection – Rn = Kh Ks Ns Pt – Where.SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION • • Slip-critical connections can resist the shear force using friction. Pt = minimum required bolt tension specified in Table 1 Kh = hole factor specified in Table 1 Ks = surface condition factor specified in Table 3 .

33 For Class B surface conditions 0.0 For oversize and short-slotted holes 0.) 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 Required Tension (kips) A325 A490 19 24 28 35 39 49 51 64 56 80 71 102 85 121 103 148 1.60 For Class A surface conditions 0. and blast-cleaned surfaces with Class A coating – Unpainted blast-cleaned surfaces with Class B coating – Hot-dip galvanized surfaces roughened by wire brushing – Class C .33 • Faying surfaces – Unpainted clean mill scale.50 For Class C surface conditions 0.SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION Values of Kh For standard holes Values of Pt Bolt diameter (in.85 For long slotted holes with the slot Perpendicular to the force direction For long-slotted holes with the slot Parallel to the force direction Values of Ks 0.70 0.

Tu/Pt) Slip is not a catastrophic failure limit-state because slip-critical bolted connections behave as bearing type connections after slip. which reduces clamping – Nominal slip resistance should be reduced by (1. Slip-critical bolted connections are further designed as bearing-type bolted connection for the applicable factored strength limit state. .SLIP-CRITICAL CONNECTION • • • Connection subjected to tensile force (Tu).

bolts are subjected to shear and the connecting / connected plates are subjected to bearing stresses : T T Bearing stresses in plate T Bolt in shear T Bearing stresses in plate .BEARING CONNECTION • In a bearing-type connection.

.BEARING CONNECTION • Bearing type connection can fail in several failure modes a) Shear failure of the bolts b) Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt holes in the connected parts c) Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate d) Tearing or fracture of the connected plate between two bolt holes e) Failure of member being connected due to fracture or block shear or ...

BEARING CONNECTION • Nominal shear resistance of a bolt – Threads excluded: – Threads included: Rn = 0.. Fub = 105 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 1.125 through 1.0 in.5 through 1.38 Ab Fub Ns Where.80 Equations above . then the values from the equations have to be multiplied by 0.48 Ab Fub Ns Rn = 0.valid for joints with length < less than 50. Fub = 150 ksi for A490 bolts.0 in. Ns = number of shear planes • • Resistance factor for bolts in shear = fs = 0.5 in. – If the length is greater than 50 in.8 . Ab = area of the bolt corresponding to the nominal diameter Fub = 120 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 0.

BEARING CONNECTION • • Effective bearing area of a bolt = the bolt diameter multiplied by the thickness of the connected material on which it bears Bearing resistance for standard.80 .0 d Rn = 1.2 Lc t Fu Where.4 d t Fu For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes less than 3.0 d – Rn = 2. or short-slotted holes in any direction. oversize.0 d and for bolts with a clear end distance greater than or equal to 2. d = nominal bolt diameter Lc= clear distance between holes or between the hole and the end of the member in the direction of applied bearing force Fu = tensile strength of the connected material • The resistance factor fbb for material in bearing due to bolts = 0.0 d and for bolts with clear end distances less than 2. and long-slotted holes parallel to the bearing force: – For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes greater than or equal to 3.

) 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 Sheared edge 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-3/8 Rolled or Gas Cut edge 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 .0 t) ≤ 7.0 – Minimum edge distances Bolt diameter (in.BEARING CONNECTION • SPACING REQUIREMENTS – Minimum spacing between centers of bolts in standard holes shall not be less than three times the diameter of the bolt – For sealing against penetration of moisture in joints.0 + 4. the spacing on a single line adjacent to the free edge shall satisfy s ≤ (4.

– The tension member is a W8 x 28 section made from M270-Gr. .. the member is subjected to a tension load of 200 kips. the member is subjected to a maximum tension load of 300 kips. For the Service II load combination. For the strength limit state. it must not slip) at service loads. Use A325 bolts to design the slip-critical splice. – Factored design load = 300 kips – Tension member is W8 x 28 section made from M270 Gr.50. The tension splice must be slip critical (i. Service and factored loads – Service Load = 200 kips. • Step I.BOLTED CONNECTION • Example 1 Design a slip-critical splice for a tension member. 50 steel.e.

24 = 21.24 kips • • Therefore.33 x 1 x 28 = 9. Therefore Ks = 0.0 x 0.BOLTED CONNECTION Step II.33 – Therefore. number of bolts required ≥ 22 . number of ¾ in. Therefore Pt = 28 kips from Table 1 – Assume standard holes. diameter bolts required for splice to be slipcritical at service loads = 200 / 9. fRn = 1.0 – Assume Class A surface condition. Slip-critical splice connection • Slip resistance of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = Rn = Kh Ks Ns Pt – f = 1.64. Therefore Kh = 1. Therefore.0 for slip-critical resistance evaluation – Assume bolt diameter = d = ¾ in.

25 in. choose 24 fully tensioned 3/4 in. Design edge distance Le = 1. need the number of bolts = multiple of 8. from Table 4. Minimum spacing = s = 3 x bolt diameter = 3 x ¾ = 2. Design spacing = 2. Therefore.5 in.BOLTED CONNECTION Step III: Layout of flange-plate splice connection • • • • To be symmetric about centerline.24 kips = 221. – – Slip-critical strength of the connection = 24 x 9. – .25 in. A325 bolts with layout above.7 kips Minimum edge distance (Le) = 1 in.

752 / 4 = 0.BOLTED CONNECTION Step IV: Connection strength at factored loads • • The connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing connection beyond this point for the factored load of 300 kips Shear strength of high strength bolt = f Rn = 0. – Ab = 3.38 x Ab x Fub Ns – Equation given earlier for threads included in shear plane.1 kips/bolt x 24 = 386. fRn = 16.80 x 0.14 x 0.1 kips • The shear strength of 24 bolts = 16. – Ns= 1 – Therefore.442 in2 – Fub = 120 ksi for A325 bolts with d < 1-1/8 in.9 kips .

465 = 892 kips .84375 x 65 kips x t = 52.BOLTED CONNECTION • Bearing strength of 3/4 in. bolts at edge holes (Le = 1. thickness • Bearing strength of of 3/4 in.75 x 65 kips x t = 93.80 x 1.2 x 0. > 2d fbb Rn = 0.465 +16 x 93.65 x 0. bolts at non-edge holes (s = 2.6875 in.25 in.2 Lc t Fu Because the clear edge distance = 1.65 kips / in.) – – fbb Rn = 0.80 x 2. < 2 d fbb Rn = 0.25 – (3/4 + 1/16)/2 = 0.6 kips / in.4 x 0.80 x 2.) – 8 x 52.80 x 1. thickness • Bearing strength of bolt holes in flanges of wide flange section W8 x 28 (t = 0.4 d t Fu Because the clear distance between holes = 2.5) – – fbb Rn = 0.84375 in.465 in.5 – (3/4 + 1/16) = 1.6 x 0.

CONNECTION STRENGTH Connection Strength Slip-critical strength = 221. – Therefore ok .7 kips Shear strength of bolts = 386.9 kips Bearing strength (plate) = 892 kips • Connection strength (fRn) > applied factored loads (gQ).

or even minor flaws at the surface. will escape visual detection.WELDED CONNECTIONS • Introduction – The shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process for field welding. – Welders must be properly certified. special inspection techniques such as radiography or ultrasonic testing must be used. and for critical work. . – Submerged metal arc welding (SAW) used for shop welding – automatic or semi-automatic process – Quality control of welded connections is particularly difficult because of defects below the surface.

Fillet weld Fillet weld .. tee. • Groove welds – deposited in a gap or groove between two parts to be connected e. butt.WELDED CONNECTIONS • Two most common types of welds are the fillet and the groove weld.g. and corner joints with beveled (prepared) edges – Partial penetration groove welds can be made from one or both sides with or without edge preparation. – lap joint – fillet welds placed in the corner formed by two plates – Tee joint – fillet welds placed at the intersection of two plates.

707 a Failure Plane – Shear stress in fillet weld of length L subjected to load P fv = P 0.707 a L w . increments – Fillet welds are usually fail in shear. where the shear failure occurs along a plane through the throat of the weld L a a Throat = a x cos45o = 0.WELDED CONNECTIONS • Design of fillet welded connections – Fillet welds are most common and used widely – Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in.

80 x 0. 100. use E80XX electrode • E70XX is the most popular electrode used for SMAW fillet welds – For E70XX.80 – Fexx is the tensile strength of the weld electrode used in the welding process.FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS • The shear strength of the fillet weld = fe2 0.60 Fexx – Where. 80. 90.60 x 70 x 0. 70. • • Therefore. use E70XX electrode – If yield stress (sy) of the base metal is 60 . E80XX. fRn = 0.65 ksi. the shear strength of the fillet weld connection – fRn = fe2 x 0. fe2 = 0. and so on. The corresponding electrodes are specified using the nomenclature E60XX.60 Fexx x 0. It can be 60. 110.2375 a Lw kips . E70XX.65 ksi. or 120 ksi.707 a Lw Electrode strength should match the base metal strength – If yield stress (sy) of the base metal is 60 .707 a Lw = 0.

0 Elevation Plan Strength of weld in shear = 0.60 x Fexx x 0. fv = 1.80 x 0.0 x 0.58 x Fy x t x Lw Smaller governs the strength of the weld .58 Ag Fy Fy is the yield strength of the base metal and Ag is the gross area in shear T where.707 x a x Lw Strength of base metal = 1.FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS • The shear strength of the base metal must be considered: – f Rn = fv x 0.

• Minimum length (Lw) ... – If T is greater than ¾ in.25 in.5 in. – Minimum effective length of fillet weld = 4 x size of fillet weld – Effective length of fillet weld > 1. amax = thickness of material . • Maximum size (amax) – Maximum size of fillet weld along edges of connected parts – for material with thickness < 0. amax = thickness of the material – for plates with thickness 0.FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS Limitations on weld dimensions • Minimum size (amin) – Weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined. – amin depends on the thickness of the thicker part joined – If the thickness of the thicker part joined (T) is less than or equal to ¾ in.1/16 in.25 in. amin = ¼ in. amin = 5/16 in.

FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS • Weld terminations and end returns – End returns must not be provided around transverse stiffeners – Fillet welds that resist tensile forces not parallel to the weld axis or proportioned to withstand repeated stress shall not terminate at corners of parts or members – Where end returns can be made in the same plane. for a length equal to twice the weld size (2a) . full size around the corner. they shall be returned continuously.

9 Lw kips . Design. amin = 1/4 in.44 Lw kips § Shear strength of weld metal governs. Design the welded connection Considering only the thickness of the angles. = 0.60 x FEXX x 0. amax = 1/2 . § Shear strength of weld metal = f Rn = 0. = 7/16 in.58 x Fy x t x Lw = 10.9 x Lw kips Strength of the base metal in shear = f Rn = 1.707 x a x Lw = 8. f Rn = 8.80 x 0.1/16 in. Considering only the thickness of the angles.0 x 0.375 in.FILLET WELD DESIGN Example 1 Design the fillet welded connection system for a double angle tension member 2L 5 x 3½ x 1/2 made from A36 steel to carry a factored ultimate load of 250 kips. a = 3/8 in. Step I.

1 in. (d) .4 in. the center or gravity of the welded connection must coincide with the center of gravity of the member.0 in. 8. L1 f L1 Tu f L2 L2 3.9 Lw > 250 kips – Therefore.FILLET WELD DESIGN • Design strength f Rn > 250 kips – Therefore. E70XX fillet weld = 30. Lw > 28. Therefore. • Design length of 3/8 in. Shear strength of fillet weld = 267 kips Connection layout • • – Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading.

of the member L1 f L1 Tu f L2 L2 3. of the welded connection must coincide with c.g. – Two angles assume each angle will have weld length of 15 in. .g.4 in.FILLET WELD DESIGN • Connection layout – Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading. (d) – Total length of weld required = 30 in. – The c.

Therefore. from the top and 3.65 = 0 . – Let. – Therefore.0 L2 But. f be the strength of the fillet weld per unit length. .65 in. which is 1. L1 = 2. from the bottom (AISC manual). Design: L1 = 10.0 in. L1 + L2 = 15. of the member.35 in.FILLET WELD DESIGN • The tension force Tu acts along the c.35 .0 in. and L2 = 5.0 in. – Therefore.taking moments about the member c.g. fL1 + fL2 = Tu And fL2 x 3. L1 = 10 in. and L2 = 5 in.fL1 x 1.g.

Additionally.4 in.85 . L1 = 7.4 in. and and L2 = 2.0 in. Design: L1 = 8. L2 = 3. fL1 + fL2 + 5f = Tu L2 fL2 x 3.0 in. L1 + L2 + 5 = 15.Moment about member c.6 in.0 in.FILLET WELD DESIGN • Consider another layout L1 f L1 Tu f L2 5f (e) 3.fL1 x 1. .5 + 5f x 0.65 = 0 .g. Therefore.

Partial penetration groove weld: Welds do not extend completely through the thickness of the pieces being joined. .Groove Welded Connections • • Connects structural members that are aligned in the same plane Basic Types: – – Complete joint penetration groove weld: transmits full load of the member they join and have the same strength as the base metal.

60 x 0.6 fe2 Fexx = 0.6 fe2 Fexx = 0.80 x Fexx – Factored resistance of the base metal Shear loaded lesser of – Factored resistance of the weld = 0.85 x Fexx – 60% of factored resistance of base metal in tension Tension or compression parallel to the weld axis and compression normal to effective area factored resistance of the base metal Partial penetration groove-welded connections • • • Tension normal to the effective area lesser of – Factored resistance of the weld = 0.6 x fe1 x Fexx = 0.80 x Fexx – Factored resistance of base metal = 0.6 x 0.Groove Welds Complete penetration groove welded connections • Tension and compression loaded • – Factored resistance = factored resistance of base metal Shear loaded on effective area lesser of – Factored resistance of weld = 0.60 x 0.58 Fy .

Groove Welds .