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Manpower Utilization, Labour Standards and Labour Cost the Ranking of Manpower Competition for Muslims Countries in ASEAN
Yu-Cheng Lai Department of Finance, Shih Chien University Kaohsiung Campus No. 200 University Rd, Neimen Shiang, Kaohsiung 845, Taiwan E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: + 88673326801; Fax: + 88675371841 Chia-hui Hsieh Department of Finance, Shih Chien University Kaohsiung Campus No. 200 University Rd, Neimen Shiang, Kaohsiung 845, Taiwan 372 Minchuing Secod Road, Kaohsiung 806, Taiwan E-mail: email@example.com Abstract This research will investigate the manpower competition in ASEAN, and ranking their competition for Muslims countries in ASEAN. In particular, we find that Indonesia have higher manpower competition than other nations in ASEAN. Compare to Laos and Thailand, the advantage of manpower competition for Indonesia mainly comes from the labour-capital relationship. It may show that this Muslims country have a stabilize labourcapital relationship, leading to the comparative advantage for business investment. Keywords: Labour quality, National Competitions, ASEAN JEL Classification Codes: J53; J58.
With regard to the geographic location, Southeast Asia is not such close to Middle East. However, Southeast Asia is always considered the “Islamic fringe”, Islam found in Southeast Asia facilitated the development of democracy and industrialization. In ASEAN, the population for Muslims is approximately two hundred million. As seen in table 1, Indonesia has the highest Muslim percentage, then are Brunei and Malaysia. The research will investigate the manpower competition for Muslims countries in ASEAN. However, Islamization of Southeast Asia has rapid economic growth. Indonesia, Brunei and Malaysia, are modern, industrial, and urban while still being a devout Muslim. In particular, we will see the ranking for manpower competition among the Muslim countries. In particular, we find that Indonesia have higher manpower competition in ASEAN, their advantage of manpower competition mainly comes from the labour-capital relationship. However, the economic growth from the 1970s in Indonesia, the rapid pace of industrialization, urbanization, leading to destabilizing, and people often turn to religion to make sense of their changed lives. The religion of Muslim should play an important role to stabilize the relationship between employers and employees.
organizational outcomes such as productivity. The fourth section will talk about the data we collect. The second section will discuss the national competition for labour. the aggregated index for manpower.Middle Eastern Finance and Economics . labour cost. Tseng et. promotion of employees. including labour quantity. culture in the society. (1997) claims. worker living quality. It includes labour productivity. the time. National Manpower Competition Dryers and Reeves (1995) claims that the organizational effectiveness. Philippine and Indonesia. then Vietnam. labour safety and health. al. including the labour quantity (labor supply. 2002). questionnaire answers will more focus on the labour cost. training).islamicpopulation. Based on the BERI standards for human resources of quality. there are seven dimensions affecting the index of human resources in Taiwan. the questionnaire answers pay more attention to the labour quality. labour-capital relationship. Second. Philippine. Thailand.com/asia/asia_islam. Table 1: The Muslims percentage in 2008 The Percentage Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 Country Name Muslims Percentage Indonesia 88% Brunei 67% Malaysia 59% Singapore 16% Myanmar 15% Thailand 10% Philippines 10% Cambodia 7% Vietnam 1% Laos 1% Source: http://www. al (2002) know that Singapore and Malaysia. and turnover of employees. labour productivity). al. and culture in the society. labour disputes or industrial disputes and union power (labour-capital relationship. including the workforce performance. Under the survey of Taiwanese businessman who invests in ASEAN. The fifth section will discuss the methodology. working living quality). education. we can conclude the dimensions affecting the manpower competition in table 1. In Vietnam. Under the Council of Economic Planning and Development request (CEPD. 1995). The last section will conclude all these results. . financial or accounting outcomes such as return on invested capital or return on assets. The third section mentions more detail and definition for each index. the labour structure change. Bird and Bleechler (1995) believe that the factors affect human resources including business ethic. For the human resources outcomes. the last is Indonesia. In Thailand. labour structure change. turnover and individual or group performance. the background of observations. Tseng et. the labour quality. and third. using the theory of scholars to talk the idea of manpower competition. how to calculate the index for each variable as well as the aggregated index for each states in ASEAS. labour-capital relationship. To the weight of each nation.Issue 3 (2009) 19 There are seven sections in this paper. labour cost. labour safety and health. Malaysia. labour quality (education. human resource outcomes such absenteeism. quality and service. there are three dimensions. average length of tenure. al. Finally. (2002) claims that Taiwanese businessman prefers the manpower quality Singapore first. BERI (Business Environment Risk Intelligence) measures Taiwan’s industry by QWI (Quality of workforce Index). The sixth section will discuss the results for national manpower competition. Based on above studies. the questionnaire answers place more emphasis on the labour-capital relationships.html#top 2. there are five dimensions affecting human resources (Tseng et. San et. By using fixed weight. working characteristics and workforce organization and practice. training. First.
2006. 2006). including both labour force participation and weekly working hours (Arthur. 2008). Since the higher enrollment ratio can indicate the higher education quality (Marginson.2. most industries in ASEAN are labour-intensive which high labour cost will decline competitiveness of traditional export industries (Ghani et. With regard to the labour cost. 3. Costs of wages and employee benefit will include the average hourly wage rates. and turnover costs. have we also considered the pupil teacher ratio for each education level (Black and Smith. al. 1987. therefore. it has two dimensions for costs of wages and employee benefits.. we also combine the labour quantity and quality to the single dimension of manpower utilization. Dyer and Reeves. The wage cost mainly indicates average hourly 1 2 Arthur (1994) and Dyer and Reeves (1995) believe that the number working hours can represent the labor productivity. This weighting scheme is typical in the literature of the economics of growth and education (Maddison.Issue 3 (2009) Dimensions of Manpower Competition BERI (1995) (1)Workforce Performance (2)Workforce Characteristics (3)Workforce Organization & Practice San et. there are some factors will affect the manpower competition. 3. Pencavel. and literacy is a stock variable2 (Hanushek and Zhang. we attach weights of 1 to workers completing only a primary education. (1997) (1) Labour Productivity (2a) Education Training (3a) Labour-capital Relationship Tseng et. the dimension of education and training should belong to labor quality in other papers. real wage inflation rates and the benefit level. al. Specifically. al. Not only the enrollment rate. the lower pupil teacher ratio can have higher education quality (Black and Smith. In particular. Therefore. we rearrange the number 3c. Manpower Utilization Manpower utilization includes two sub-categories. 1994). 2006). The higher labour quantity can have higher productivity. including manpower utilization. (1997) and Tseng et. 1 to those completing secondary education. labour disputes or industrial disputes and manpower utilization. 1994. 1995). (1997) paper. Tallman and Wang (1994) claims that the increased productivity of additional education by weighting the educational levels assuming that more educated workers are more productive. Therefore. costs of wages and employee benefit. At the same time. secondary and tertiary education) are calculated from their enrollment ratio divided by pupil teacher rate.20 Table 2: Author Middle Eastern Finance and Economics .1 Labour quality is calculated by enrollment ratios or literacy rates. This dimension includes costs of wage and fringe benefit. al. Costs of Wages and Employee Benefit The higher labour cost will damage the national competition of manpower. (2002) (1) Labour Supply (2a) Labour Quality (2b) Labour cost (3a) Labour-capital Relationship (3b)Culture in the Society Dimens ion (3c) Labour Safety and Health (3d) Labour Structure Change (3e) Worker’s Living Quality Sources: CEPD(1995). (2002) Note: In San et. there are four dimensions to measure the national manpower competition. 2006). 3d. 1991) . (3d) Labor structure change. Higher labour quantity and quality will represent higher competition for national economy.1. the costs of wages and employee benefits are the negative index for national competition. including both quantity and quality for manpower.San et. and 1 for those completing higher education in the first index measure of human capital.3e. al. In contrast to enrollment ratio. enrollment ratios represent investment levels in human capital. Theoretical Expectation Based on discusses in section 2. Benhabib and Spiegel. 3. al. The indexes of labour quality (primary. higher these labour cost will decline national competitions. (3e) Worker’s living quality do not belong to the (3b) culture in the society in other papers. turnover costs. For the (3c) Labor Safety and Health. however.
higher turnover cost will decline employers’ willingness to hire full-time workers (Jiang et. It may block out the interests for investment (Hirsch. 3. It implies that the lower labour quality (Castle and Engberg. 3 4 5 6 Based on the based year 1990. 3 The fringe benefits are other cost for non-wage cost. Department of Business Administration. 3. turnover.4. the survey will include the index and weight for each factor. but the severance payment is the firing cost. we will measure it from the soft data. Government Officers include Officers for Department of International Trading. Department of Public Administration. Turnover Costs Turnover costs includes recruitment. manpower utilization. we have collected scholars in most famous university in those countries. . Department of Labour Relationship. In compiling the index. working days lost. the coverage degree of labour legislation. Department of Public Finance. 2009). employers need to pay training cost for the new hiring employees. and labour or industrial disputes and union power. and Department of Politic. Based on soft and hard data in ASEAN. and it will decline manpower competition. 2004). 2002) . Higher recruitment costs imply that employers have some difficulties to find the employees. Arthur (1994) claims that management’s attempt to implement a classic control system for reducing labour costs by unilaterally increasing performance standards and maintaining wages and benefits is likely to be met by strong resistance from a unionized work force. Department of Human Resource Management. Academy Workers include Department of Economics. we calculate average hourly wage by GNI per capital (Gross National Income) divided by average working hours for a year Since we have difficult to find the average wage for all ten states. The index consists of four major categories. training and severance costs. It will be a negative index for national competition. Therefore. the higher coverage of labour legislation will create the problems of employment rigidity (Lai and Masters.Middle Eastern Finance and Economics . The data collect from government officers. Officers for Department of Human Resources.5 4. Officers for Department of National . 2005). With regard to labour protection. The higher turnover costs will represent higher labour standards. Labour or industrial disputes and union power Labour or industrial disputes include number of strikes and lockouts.Issue 3 (2009) 21 wage and the wage inflation. 2005. cost of wages and employee benefit. 6 Each nation will collect 50 samples. After hiring new employees. We use the national income (Gross National Income) as the average wage for all sectors The recruitment cost and training cost are equal to hiring cost. Higher frequency of labour disputes will create the problem of investment (Krueger and Mas. businessman (employers and employees) and academy workers. It will block out the business investment. and the higher wage inflation will have lower manpower competition. Lai. Department of Business Policy. The wage inflation represents the labour cost stabilization. 2005). the higher level for labour or industrial disputes and union power will decline national manpower competition. 2005. 2004). The higher training cost implies that employees need more training after schooling. Union power will include the union effect on wage rates and the labour existing power on foreign companies. and it will decline national competitions. 2008). al. Since it cannot direct measure from hard data. Higher job security implies employment rigidity (Lai and Masters. 2000.3. Besley and Burgess.4 Higher severance payment may represent higher labour cost as well as job security. Higher union power will increase negotiation power between employers and employees. the enforcement degree of labour legislation. because higher labour standards will hinder economic development (Marshall. The hard data we collect from 1999. Data The main purpose of this paper is to establish a general manpower competition index. The higher level of the fringe benefits implies higher labour standards and labour cost. namely. The stabilization of labour cost will affect the competition of manpower. However.
and there is a nine-nation view for Singapore’s soft data. International and Domestics Bankers. Since the survey of those nation’s soft data are compared to Singapore. . 2000 and 2001. LFPR (Positive Index) Weekly working hours (Positive Index) Literacy ratio (Positive Index) Manpower Utilization Elementary Education Index (Positive Index) Secondary Education Index (Positive Index) Tertiary Education Index (Positive Index) Average wage rates (Negative Index) Costs of Wages and Employee Benefit Average wage inflation (Negative Index) ○ The benefit level of employee (Negative Index) Turnover Costs ○ ○ ○ The level of recruitment cost (Negative Index) The level of training cost (Negative Index) The level of severance payment (Negative Ind. Managers in Domestics Business Human Resources.22 Middle Eastern Finance and Economics . and Officers in those States Business: Managers in Taiwanese Business. Managers in International Business Taiwanese Bankers in those states. Figure 1: The Index Item for Human Resource Labour force participation rate. Human Resources. 7 The figure 1 list those variables used to calculate the index of manpower competition. 8 The Singapore data is based on view of others nations in ASEAN. please kindly check in the appropriate box ranking from the lowest (“1”) to the highest (“7”) for (Country I) and (Country II) according to the best of your knowledge about their human resource.) Number of strikes and lockout (Negative Index) Working days lost (Negative Index) The enforcement degree of labour legislation (Negative Index) The coverage degree of labour legislation (Negative Index) The union effect on wage rates (Negative Index) The labour existing power on foreign companies (Negative Index) Labour Disputes or Industrial Disputes and Union Power ○ ○ ○ ○ Note: ● is hard data ○ is soft data 7 8 Accountancy. Officers for Department of National Statistics Taiwanese. The soft data of the nation other than Singapore are based on Singapore.because the soft data only have 2000 data. and soft data are based from 2000. In order to measure the index for both soft and hard data.Issue 3 (2009) and 2001 three years. and Representatives of Labour Union. we calculate the hard data for the average index for 1999. On the right-hand side of each statement. The means and standards deviation for soft data are based on the Singapore. Officers for Department of Labour Relationships.
It will be the positive index if the measurement uses 50 plus standards deviation. we use the index for calculation from 0 to 100. In the other hand. 6. Under the method of indexation. But the manpower utilization is the highest weight for other eight nations. business and scholars of each nation. there are four dimensions for manpower competitions.Middle Eastern Finance and Economics . Weight Table 3 shows that the weight for each dimension and the calculation of weight will depend on survey for each nation. and calculate the means of weight for each index in every nation. labour disputes or industrial disputes and manpower utilization. the negative index will use 50 minus standards deviations. we measure the competition for human resources. The index is then established by the following five major steps: (1) selection of the appropriate relevant statistics for each category (2) data collection. We conclude the results of weight in first section. (4) determination of appropriate weight for each category and (5) calculate the weight sum to obtain the aggregated index. We collect data from each nation in ASEAN. turnover costs. ⎡ s − s i 100 ⎤ I i = 50 ± ⎢ i × ⎥ 6 ⎦ ⎣ σ Where I i is Index for each variable si is the index for each factor? si is the means for each factor (1) σ is the standards deviation for each factor Based on this measurement. Finally. then aggregate index in next section. and there are three standards deviations for either the index up 50 or below 50. With regard to the weight of each index. it will be the negative index if those variables discard with the manpower competition. it also explain what’s difference in the result of Singapore. We try to find the rank for national competition in these ten states. On the other hand. but both Laos and Thailand will more focus on the cost of wages and employee benefits.1. providing the information of business investment. costs of wages and employee benefit. (3) conversion of all the relevant statistics into index. 6. Results There are three parts in this section. Most nations believe that their enriched labour quantity and quality will benefit their national competition. Thus. the index locates at 50 for center. We know questionnaire answers in most nations will focus on the manpower utilization. AI = ∑Wi × I i i =1 N (2) Where AI is aggregated index Wi is weight for each index The index of manpower competition will be calculated from the weight with their means in each dimension’s factor.Issue 3 (2009) 23 5. Methodology With regard to the index of each factor. We use below measure the index of each factor. In contrast to the positive index. the . The index will be the positive index if those variables can help competition of national economy. the last section will describe the results for each dimension. we calculate those weights of index under government officers. it includes manpower utilization. We find that the cost of wages and employee benefits are the higher weight for both Laos and Thailand.
Cambodia and Singapore are evaluated for lower number of aggregated index. There are two reasons. 6. employers and employees and academy workers.580 18.587 (5) 10. Results of Aggregated Index With regard to the aggregated index.822 Myanmar 50.863 (9) 21.439 (7) 12.742 (8) 47.Issue 3 (2009) other two states questionnaire answers will believe that their manpower competition mainly come from lower wages.970 25.129 (1) 54.862 21.879 19.769 23.539 (7) 11.797 (3) 51.748 29. 6. which have better labour quality and quantity.180 22.625 (7) 51. Table 3: Dimension Manpower Utilization Costs of Wages and Employee Benefit Turnover Costs Labour Disputes or Industrial Disputes and Union Power The Weight of Each Dimension Indonesia 30.2. but Laos and Cambodia have lower rank.173 (8) 12.735 (9) 12.000 10.24 Middle Eastern Finance and Economics .797 22.632 29.806 (3) 9.692 23.665 (4) 11. As seen in the table 5.305 (7) 11.724 (3) 10.929 Malaysia 28.893 25.656 18.312 (2) 9.104 (9) 11. it has a higher quality for skilled labour.908 Laos 27.9 Table 4: Dimension Manpower Utilization Costs of Wages and Employee Benefit Turnover Costs Labour Disputes or Industrial Disputes and Union Power Aggregate d Index The Aggregated Index Indonesia 15.109 34. Results of Dimension The manpower utilization as seen in table 5 shows that Myanmar and Singapore have higher index.566 (8) 14. For Singapore.000 Thailand 27.375 (4) 15. the value of weight are defined by each nation’s.797 (1) 13.408 Cambodia 29.67 (6)0 Malaysia Singapore Myanmar Thailand Philippine Cambodia Vietnam 15.518 Vietnam 36.911 (9) 56.743 (4) 47.929 23.401 (2) 51. Since the aggregated index for general level of human resources.090 Source: Our Survey collect from government officers.702 Brunei 30. both Laos and Thailand have comparative advantages for cost of wage and employee benefits.360 (6) 12.073 22.594 20.336 (2) 12.993 (1) Note: Inside the parentheses is the rank Source: The table 4 is calculated from Equation (2) and table 5.392 Singapore 31. Second.595 (8) 17.258 19.781 (10) 5. questionnaire answers in other nation have bias for the soft data.974 (1) 14.706 (10) 8. but lacking of sufficient general labour.372 (5) 9.000 25.018 (6) 55.738 (5) 14.404 (2) 11.168 28.645 14.546 (8) 14.727 21.498 25. Laos and Thailand have higher index than other states.649 15.000 15. the index is based on the general labour.683 (5) Laos 12.362 (9) 22.943) (4) 18. which needs general or unskilled manpower.153 24. Thailand has the higher labour quantity than other nations.888 20.816 26.673 (10) 15. including both labour force 9 The other reason may come from the soft data are based on Singapore.308 (4) 12.448 26. First one is the weight definition.756 (3) 7.979 (2) 7.800 22.227 (7) 11.685 (10) 13.772 (3) Brunei 17.740 (1) 13.507 (6) 11.3.635 Philippine 27.083 (10) 49. .498 (5) 52.474 (6) 13. Since the weight is based on questionnaire answers in each nation.
490 59.095 55.092 57.974 57. 10 With regard to the turnover costs. training cost and severance payment.441 56. Laos and Vietnam have the highest index for the strikes and lockout.213 57.812 48.728 54.089 34.285 53.042 53.531 38.122 55.304 58. As seen in the table 5.760 60.676 37.068 41.999 62.069 53. At the same time.674 54. As seen in the table 5.752 58.784 61.058 58.507 53.370 37. Brunei. al.664 46.482 51.726 20.164 55.976 60.196 55.911 53.872 24.412 59.017 53.106 50. Vietnam has the highest index for recruitment cost. those countries have low turnover costs. Table 5: Factor Labour Force Participation Rate Working Hours Literacy Primary Education Index Secondary Education Index Tertiary Education Index Average Hourly Wage Average Wage Inflation Benefit Recruitment Cost Training Cost Severance Payment Union Effect Strikes Working Days Lost Labour Legislation Enforcement Labour Legislation Coverage Labour Existing Power on Foreign Power 45. Laos and Cambodia have cheaper labour compare to other ASEAN countries (Ghani et.287 67.415 49.051 64.573 48.259 63. but Brunei has the higher index for all three-education measurement (Primary.618 25.189 55.135 60. Cambodia has the highest index for the labour existing power on foreign company.064 85.449 57.162 59.282 54.886 52.497 36.004 55.144 53.137 54.698 53. 2008).441 56.947 55.770 69. As seen in the table 5.868 48. With regard to the labour quality.791 71.632 58.982 59.866 50.505 41.184 55.701 36. but Singapore and Brunei have lower rank for those cost.362 13.Issue 3 (2009) 25 participation and working hours.929 60.849 53.761 45. On the other hand.853 54.320 45.245 55.476 55. Secondary.317 17. Laos and Thailand have higher index for wages and employee benefits.Middle Eastern Finance and Economics .173 48. Laos have the highest index for average wage inflation.054 34.882 64.790 37.243 37.164 61.810 22.700 36.278 52. 10 Comparatively Vietnam.916 49.618 51.673 56.250 58.243 52. Indonesia and Laos have higher index than other nations.652 12.509 53.426 67. Singapore has the highest index in union effect in ASEAN.693 32.627 53.529 60.134 54.400 53.191 77.840 56.164 84.423 60.916 47.922 68.576 54.021 45.760 56.992 93. Singapore.146 57.019 39.909 2.865 57.396 26.460 The Index for Each Factor Indonesia Brunei Malaysia Singapore Myanmar Thailand Philippine Cambodia Vietnam Laos 56.474 44. Myanmar has the highest index for average working hours and benefits.238 59.615 56.762 56.280 34.275 54.027 49.602 59.729 64.321 51.810 52. Vietnam has the lowest degree for labour legislation enforcement and coverage.387 43.851 41.506 85.164 43.490 58.735 53.462 50.441 56.746 53.198 43.063 52.288 56.164 59.072 48.270 49.646 64.905 52.092 52.889 82.246 34.265 34.821 51.935 46.245 44.389 60.338 55.182 37.208 35.896 34.441 56.297 60.164 55.071 56. With regard to the labour disputes or industrial disputes and union power.834 55.694 Source: The table 5 is calculated from Equation (1). .507 52. Thailand has the highest index for literacy.751 58.218 60.023 52.994 53.772 57.492 61.495 68.441 56. .136 56.294 38.220 53.417 54. and Tertiary).559 56.138 39.241 59.313 30. Laos and Myanmar have lower index than other states in the labour disputes or industrial disputes and union power. Myanmar and Singapore have lower index than other states in turnover costs.273 66.311 45. On the other hand. Indonesia and Vietnam have higher index than other states in the labour disputes or industrial disputes as well as union power.085 53.050 60.227 52.
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