Range of Materials & Processes in a Tractor

Steel pistons with friction-welded skirt and crown and chrome/ molybdenum disulfide Silicon microprocessors with coated piston ring gold-plated connectors Titanium turbocharger Die-cast aluminum compressor wheel valve cover Lexan windshield Centrifugal cast-iron cylinder bores Forged steel connecting rods with precisionfractured joint

Aluminum/copper/nickel journal bearings

Fiberglass hood Copper tube, aluminum fin coolers

High-strength steel bolts

FIGURE 1.1 Model 8430 tractor, with detailed illustration of its diesel engine, showing the variety of materials and processes incorporated. Source: Courtesy of John Deere Company.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

glu in g Im p r o ved ch isels. lea d . Wr o u gh t ir o n . fo r gin g.History of Manufacturing TABLE 1.C . n a t u r a l fib er s F o r m in g a n d sh a p in g H a m m er i n g Jo in in g To o ls.D .C . Pearson Education ISBN No. Greece: ' 1100 B. flin t . Egypt: ' 3100 B. p o t t er ’s w h eel. t u r n in g. ca st st eel G la ss p r essin g a n d b lo w in g Ven et ia n gla ss C r yst a l gla ss St a m p in g o f co in s Fo r ge w eld in g o f ir o n a n d st eel. 5th ed. Roman Empire: ' 500 B. 4 0 0 0 –3 0 0 0 B.C . lo st w a x p r o cess. C u -Pb . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. to ' 300 B. b r a zin g H o e m a k in g. w o o d w o r k in g la t h es Et ch in g o f a r m o r Sa n d p a p er. p ew t er C a st -ir o n ca n n o n . t in . W ir e b y slit t in g sh eet m et a l R ivet in g. m et eo r ic ir o n C o p p er ca st in g. flin t gla ss Po r cela in 1 6 0 0 –1 7 0 0 Bo r in g. w in d m illd r iven sa w H a n d la t h e fo r w o o d 1 –1 0 0 0 A. D . r o llin g m ill fo r co in a ge st r ip s R o llin g (lea d .C . d r ill p r ess Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. to ' 146 B. ca st in g o f b ells. sh a p e r o lling (lea d ) 1 5 0 0 –1 6 0 0 C a st p la t e gla ss. co in in g. sa w s. Pb -Sn ) C o r u n d u m (a l u m i n a . t yp e m et a ls. gla zin g.C . 0-13-227271-7 . t o o ls fo r ir o n m a k in g a n d ca r p en t r y 2 0 0 0 –1 0 0 0 B. h a m m er ed a x es.C .1 H i st or i ca l D evel op m en t of M a t er i a l s a n d M a n u f a ct u r i n g Pr ocesses Per io d D a t es M et a ls a n d ca st in g G o ld . t in p la t e Per m a n en t -m o ld ca st in g. silver.C . to 476 Middle Ages: ' 476 to 1492 Renaissance: 14th to 16th centuries A. gla ss vessels Va r io u s m a t er ia ls a n d co m p o sit es Ea r t h en w a r e. jew elr y 3 0 0 0 –2 0 0 0 B. b r o n ze Br o n ze ca st in g a n d d r a w in g. w o o d . 1 0 0 0 –1 B. co p p er. em er y) Befo r e 4 0 0 0 B. go ld lea f G la ss b ea d s. St a m p in g. silver ). scr ew cu t t in g la t h e. m a ch in in g. go ld .C . st eel sw o r d s W ir e d r a w in g. b r a ss fr o m co p p er a n d m et a llic zin c Ar m o r. co m p o sit e t o o ls So ld er in g (C u -Au . go ld a n d silver sm it h w o r k Wa t er p o w er fo r m et a lw o r k in g. files. a n d m a n u fa ct u r in g syst em s To o ls o f st o n e. b o n e. st eel Bla st fu r n a ce. b r a ss C a st ir o n .C . ivo r y. 1 0 0 0 –1 5 0 0 Z in c.C . st o n e a n d m et a l m o ld s.

sem ico n d u ct o r s. vit r ified gr in d in g w h eel Jo in in g To o ls. n o d u la r i r o n . sea m less t u b e. h o b b in g. vu lca n iza t io n . m illin g. a n d elect r o sla g w eld in g. p o lyu r et h a n e. st yr en e. cr u cib le st eel (ir o n b a r s a n d r o d s) C en t r igu fa l ca st in g. t u r r et la t h e. co n t in u o u s ca st in g Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. cellu lo se a cet a t e. b a k elit e. ca st in g. m a ss p r o d u ct io n . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. h igh -sp eed -st eel t o o ls. a n d m a n u fa ct u r in g syst em s 1 7 0 0 –1 8 0 0 ' 1750 1850 to 1 8 0 0 –1 9 0 0 Industrial Revolution: 1 9 0 0 –1 9 2 0 Tu b e r o llin g. ligh t b u lb . st eel r o llin g. r o llin g St ea m h a m m er. co n t in u o u s r o llin g. p h o t o sen sit ive gla ss Acr ylo n it r ileb u t a d ien e-st yr en e. 5th ed. m o ld i n g Au t o m a t ic b o t t le m a k in g. Su b m er ged a r c sw a gin g. Bessem er p r o cess. p o w d er m et a llu r gy. a u t o m a t ic scr ew m a ch in e. elect r o p la t in g Sh a p in g. a r c. t r a n sfer m a ch in es 1 9 2 0 –1 9 4 0 D ie ca st in g WWI D evelo p m en t o f p la st ics. syn t h et ic r u b b er. H i st or i ca l D evel op m en t of M a t er i a l s a n d M a n u f a ct u r i n g Pr ocesses ( con t . b a b b it t . r u b b er ex t r u sio n . ex p lo sio n w eld in g Ph o sp h a t e co n ver sio n co a t in gs. silicon es. 0-13-227271-7 . r u b b er p r o cessin g.) T ABLE 1 1 . ) Per io d D a t es M et a ls a n d ca st in g M a llea b le ca st ir o n . m o ld in g. gla ss cer a m ics Tu n gst en w ir e fr o m m et a l p o w d er 1 9 4 0 –1 9 5 0 Lo st -w a x p r o cess fo r en gin eer in g p a r t s WWII Ex t r u sio n (st eel). cellu lo id . t h er m o m ech a n ica l p r o cessin g G a s m et a l a r c. flo a t gla ss. t em p er ed gla ss. o p en -h ea r t h st eel W in d o w gla ss fr o m slit cylin d er. m a ch in in g. p o w d er w eld in g m et a ls fo r en gin eer in g parts C o ld ex t r u sio n (st eel). ex p lo sive fo r m in g. ep o x ies. elect r o lyt ic a lu m in u m . b o r o silica t e gla ss Va r io u s m a t er i a l s a n d co m p o sit es F o r m in g a n d sh a p in g Ex t r u sio n (lea d p ip e). h o t ex t r u sio n O x ya cet ylen e. n ick el st eels. p o lyvin yl ch lo r id e.History of Manufacturing (cont. d eep d r a w in g. st eel-r a il r o llin g. gla ss fib er s Acr ylics. a n d t h er m it w eld in g C o a t ed elect r o d es G ea r ed la t h e. a lu m in u m o x id e a n d silico n ca r b id e (syn t h et ic) Tu n gst en ca r b id e. t o t a l q u a lit y co n t r o l Elect r ica l a n d ch em ica l m a ch in in g. flu o r o ca r b o n s. ga lva n ized st eel. u n iver sa l m illin g m a ch in e. p o lyet h ylen e. ga s t u n gst en a r c. a u t o m a t ic co n t r o l 1 9 5 0 –1 9 6 0 C er a m i c m o l d . co p yin g la t h e fo r gu n st o ck s. elect r ica lr esist a n ce. p o lyest er.

va cu u m ca st in g. syn t h et ic d ia m o n d . u lt r a p r ecisio n m a ch in in g. en vir o n m en t a lly fr ien d ly m et a lw o r k in g flu id s Fr ict io n st ir w eld in g. m a ch in a b le cer a m ics. b io d egr a d a b le p la st ics. Sm it h . Ka lp a k jia n . a u t o m a t io n o f m o ld in g a n d p o u r in g. elect r ica lly co n d u ct in g p o lym er s F o r m in g a n d sh a p i n g H yd r o fo r m in g. st r u ct u r a l cer a m ics. m a ch in in g. r a p id t o o lin g N a n o p h a se m a t er ia ls.History of Manufacturing (conc. Information Age 1 9 9 0 –2 0 0 0 s R h eo ca st in g.A. elect r o fo r m in g Jo in in g To o ls. sen so r t ech n o lo gy. su r fa cem o u n t so ld er in g 1 9 7 0 –1 9 9 0 Space Age C o m p a ct ed gr a p h it e. six sigm a 1 9 6 0 –1 9 7 0 Pla sm a -a r c a n d elect r o n -b ea m w eld in g. T. a r t ificia l n eu r a l n et w o r k s. h igh -t em p er a t u r e su p er co n d u ct o r s. co m p u t er sim u la t io n So u r ce: J. su p er p la st ic fo r m in g. o p t ica l fib er s.) TABLE 1. elect r ica lly co n d u ct in g a d h esives Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. d iffu sio n b o n d in g (a lso co m b in ed w it h su p er p la st ic fo r m in g). 0-13-227271-7 . in t egr a t ed cir cu it ch ip C u b ic b o r o n n it r id e . sh a p e-m em o r y a llo ys (sm a r t m a t er ia ls). W illia m s. p o lyca r b o n a t e. m et a l fo a m s. d ies m a d e b y co m p u t er-a id ed d esign a n d m a n u fa ct u r in g. fila m en t w in d in g Ad h esives. m a ch in in g a n d t u r n in g cen t er s. T. r a p id t o o lin g. a d h esive b o n d in g La ser b ea m . a n d S. la ser b u t t w eld ed (t a ilo r ed ) sh eet -m et a l b la n k s. a m o r p h o u s m et a ls. co m p u t er sim u la t io n Pr ecisio n fo r gin g. ex p er t syst em s. C . h yd r o st a t ic ex t r u sio n . sem iso lid m et a lw o r k in g. D er r y. iso t h er m a l fo r gin g.R . sem ico n d u ct o r s. lin ea r m o t o r d r ives. co m p u t erin t egr a t ed m a n u fa ct u r in g. co ld fo r m in g o f p la st ics. r ein fo r ced p la st ics. 5th ed. LIG A (a G er m a n a cr o n ym fo r a p r o cess in vo lvin g lit h o gr a p h y. r a p id so lid ifica t io n . co m p u t er-a id ed d esign o f m o ld s a n d d ies. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.I. a n d m o ld in g). R .S. a r t ificia l in t elligen ce. co m p o sit e m a t er ia ls. n et -sh a p e fo r gin g a n d fo r m in g. Pearson Education ISBN No.1 His t o r ic a l De v e lo p m e n t o f M a t e r ia ls a n d M a n u f a c t u r in g P r o c e s s e s ( c o n t .a n d n a n o fa b r ica t io n . d r y et ch in g. Sch m id .K. a n d m a n u fa ct u r in g syst em s Tit a n iu m ca r b id e. Sch ey. lea d -fr ee so ld er s. m et a l-m a t r ix co m p o sit es. flex ib lem a n u fa ct u r in g syst em s. d ia m o n d t u r n in g. cer a m ic-m a t r ix co m p o sit es. d ia m o n d lik e ca r b o n R a p id p r o t o t yp in g. in d u st r ia l r o b o t s.F. o r ga n ica lly b o n d ed s a n d . co m p u t er sim u la t io n a n d o p t im iza t io n M icr o . a d va n ced co a t in gs. n u m er ica l co n t r o l. elect r o p la t in g. S. Tyleco t e. co a t ed t o o ls. ) Per io d D a t es M et a ls a n d ca st in g Sq u eeze ca st in g. sin gle-cr yst a l t u r b in e b la d es Va r io u s m a t er ia ls a n d co m p o sit es Acet a ls. a u t o m a t ed in sp ect io n.

various years. 1000 US$ 40 USA Australia Kuwait 20 Canada 10 Bangladesh Ethiopia 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Contribution of manufacturing to GDP. Pearson Education ISBN No.Manufacturing Importance GDP per capita. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. The trends shown are from 1982 until 2006. Schey with data from the World Development Report. World Bank. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.2 Importance of manufacturing to national economies.A. Source: After J. % Mexico Germany Thailand China 40 45 Japan France 30 FIGURE 1.

(b) Chart showing general product flow. process and equipment selection. testing and evaluation Production drawings. codes/standards review. physical and analytical models Prototype production. Depending on the complexity of the product and the type of materials used. 5th ed. marketing and sales literature Manufacture Product (a) Sell (b) FIGURE 1. Pugh. Source: After S. the time span between the original concept and the marketing of a product may range from a few months to many years. from market analysis to selling the product. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. marketing information Conceptual design and evaluation. and depicting concurrent engineering. safety review Specification Iterations Pilot production Concept design Main design Flow Production Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Detail design Inspection and quality assurance Packaging. instruction manuals Computer-aided manufacturing and process planning (CAM and CAPP) Market Material specification.Definition of product need. feasibility study Development Process Computer-aided design (CAD) Design analysis.3 (a) Chart showing various steps involved in designing and manufacturing a product. 0-13-227271-7 .

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.Shapes & Manufacturing Process TABLE 1. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.2 Shapes and some common methods of production.

Product Design for Assembly. 5th ed.Design for Assembly Poor Good Poor Good Poor Good Parts can hang up Chamfer allows part to fall into place (a) Part must be released before it is located (b) Part is located before release Can easily tangle Will tangle only under pressure (c) Poor Good Poor Good Difficult to feed—parts overlap (d) Easy to feed Insertion difficult Air-relief hole in workpiece (e) Air-relief hole in pin Air-relief flat on pin FIGURE 1. by courtesy of Marcel Dekker. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.4 Redesign of parts to facilitate automated assembly. Inc. 1989. 0-13-227271-7 . Dewhurst. Boothroyd and P. Pearson Education ISBN No. Source: Reprinted from G. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

thin-walled extrusions exhibit high ductility. extrusions. Source: Courtesy of ALCOA. and sheet components Die-cast nodes are thin-walled to maximize weight reduction yet provide high performance Advanced extrusion bending processes support complex shapes and tight radii (a) (b) Strong. Pearson Education ISBN No. energy absorption. (b) The aluminum body structure. Inc.All-Aluminum Automobile Robotically applied. an example of advanced materials construction. 5th ed. and toughness FIGURE 1.5 (a) The Audi A8 automobile. high-quality assembly of castings. and casting processes. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. sheet forming. showing various components made by extrusion. advanced arc-welding processes provide consistent. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Methods of Manufacture Before After Joined (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) FIGURE 1. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. (c) extrusion. (b) forging or upsetting.6 Various methods of making a simple part: (a) casting or powder metallurgy. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (d) machining. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (e) joining two pieces.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.1 m 0.1 m 5 100 nm Lithography Dust particle Nanomanufacturing 10 nm 1 nm 5 10 Å Atoms 1Å FIGURE 1. 0-13-227271-7 .01 m 5 1 cm Machinery gears 1 mm 0. Pearson Education ISBN No.1 mm 5 100 mm Size Micromanufacturing Human cell 10 mm 1 mm 0. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.7 Illustration of the range of common sizes of parts and the capabilities of manufacturing processes in producing these parts. 5th ed.Classification Examples in nature Manufacturing process examples Applications Aircraft 10 m Human height Casting Forging Mouse Machining Ant Mesomanufacturing Grain of sand Integrated circuit package Chemical blanking Gear for MEMS LIGA Virus Features in integrated circuit Automobile Scales in Manufacturing Macromanufacturing 1m 0.

5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (a) Computer model of the sunglasses as designed and viewed on the monitor. (b) Machining the die cavity using a computer numerical control milling machine. (c) Final product produced from the mold.Machining a Mold Cavity (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 1. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Inc.8 Machining a mold cavity for making sunglasses. Source: Courtesy Mastercam / CNC Software.

9 General view of a flexible manufacturing system. Inc. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . showing several machines (machining centers) and an automated guided vehicle (AGV) moving along the aisle.Flexible Manufacturing FIGURE 1. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron. 5th ed.

Inc. Mexico China. and casting processes.Global Labor Rates TABLE 1. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. India 85 67 53 48 33 27 20 11 10 Source: Courtesy of U. Compensation Costs Vary Depending on Benefits and Allowance. Sweden United States France United Kingdom Australia. Netherlands Austria. November 2004. United States = 100. sheet forming. FIGURE 1. Switzerland Finland.S. (b) The aluminum body structure. an example of advanced materials construction. Department of Labor. showing various components made by extrusion. Italy Spain Israel New Zealand. Japan European countries Asian countries 147 144 136 127 123 116 100 96 93 90 111 33 Ireland. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of ALCOA. Pearson Education ISBN No. for 2003. Korea Singapore Portugal. 0-13-227271-7 . Denmark Norway Germany Belgium. Taiwan Czech Republic Brazil. 5th ed.3 Approximate Relative Hourly Compensation for Production Workers. Canada.5 (a) The Audi A8 automobile.