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Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms

Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms

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Published by: johnpoulianakis on Nov 26, 2012
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07/16/2013

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The rational faculty specific to the human mind; it is primarily the faculty of forming concepts or
inferring the simple intelligible forms from the sensible forms as perceived through the senses. When the
required concepts have been formed the rational faculty throws away the yoke of the senses and the
sensible forms and is sufficient unto itself for all that it does. It compares and synthesizes various concepts
and thus forms judgments about them; it now enters into argumentation and elaborate reasoning about
these judgments and discuses physical and metaphysical problems. All concepts and judgments, however,
are not obtained by the rational faculty; some are innate in it or are given to it through a kind of divine
inspiration these are the self-evident truths -like the whole is greater than the part or that contradictories
cannot combine in the same thing at the same time. Further, the rational faculty has two forms: one
theoretical or speculative (nazari) which enables us to have abstract thinking, and the other practical
(‘amali) on which morality depends.

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