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Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms

Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms

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The denial of consequent in the minor premise of a hypothetical syllogism (al-sharti al-muttasil, q.v.)
leading to the denial of the antecedent in the conclusion, a valid mode of reasoning called the negative
mode (Modus Tollens) of hypothetical syllogism; opposed to ‘ain al-tali (q.v.) which is a form of logical
fallacy (see mughalatah wad‘ al-tali).

naqid al-muqaddam

Denial of antecedent, an invalid (‘aqim, q.v.) mode of reasoning which does not warrant any logical
conclusion. See also mughalatah raf‘ al-muqaddam.


Growth of a body by assimilation of another body through the process of nourishment (al-quwwat al-
, q.v.); one of the four kinds of harakah fi’l-kamm (q.v.). See also al-nafs al-nabatiyah.


The title of the Arabic translation by Hunain ibn Ishaq (d. 264/877) of Plato’s Dialogue the Laws
considered to be the earliest extant classic of European jurisprudence.

nau‘ (pl. anwa‘)

Species. As one of the predicables (see Isaghuji), nau‘ is a relatively smaller class which is included in a

http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/pd/d-23.htm (4 of 5) [9/3/2002 12:09:01 PM]

DIPT:- Nun

wider class called jins (q.v.), i.e. genus; e.g. the smaller class: "man" is included in the wider class: "animal".
thus "man" is a species (nau‘) in relation to "animal" and "animal" is a genus (jins) in relation to "man". See
also jins.

nau‘ al-’anwa‘

Lit. "species of species"; technically infima species, the lowest species of a classification which can no
longer be divided into further sub-classes but only into individuals. In Aristotelian logic the individual
himself is named as nau‘ al-’anwa‘; also called nau‘ al-safil.

http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/pd/d-23.htm (5 of 5) [9/3/2002 12:09:01 PM]

DIPT:- Wow


al-wajib al-wujud

Necessary Being, i.e. that which exists by itself or that which cannot but exist, for non-existence of it is
unthinkable; an expression used by philosophers for God. See also mahiyah and al-mumkin al-wujud.
"Being the most significant entity in the metaphysical system of ibn Sina"

al-wahid bi’l-ittisal

Unity through contiguity like the unity of any material body which is considered one thing: the parts
therein are so closely conjoined with one another that they together make one single body in actuality
(bi’l-fi’l) even though that body can be resolved into a multiplicity of parts in potentiality (bi’l-quwwah).

al-wahid bi’l-irtibat

Unity through conglomeration like a mechanical aggregate in which the parts, though actually (bi’l-fi’l)
separte from each other, are so conjoined that they make one whole; also called al-wahid bi’l-tarkib.

al-wahid al-haqiqi

The real or pure unity, altogether divested of multiplicity (kathrah), i.e. in potentiality as well as in
actuality, like God or a point in geometry; opposed to al-wahid al-majazi (see below).

al-wahid al-majazi

Conceptual or figurative unity which is composed of different parts or items colligated or subsumed
mentally under some kind of logical relation or category such as genus (jins, q.v.), species (nau‘, q.v.),
accident (‘ard), etc. See also ’ittihad fi’l-jins and ’ittihad fi’l-nau‘ .


http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/pd/d-24.htm (1 of 3) [9/3/2002 12:08:59 PM]

DIPT:- Wow

Mu'tazili doctrine of the unconditional punishment of the unrepentant sinner in the hereafter. (AnAc)

wahib al-suwar

The dispenser of forms or dator formarum, a name given to the active intellect (al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al, q.v.).
According to the Muslim Peripatetics like al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, it is the active intellect which gives to
each individual thing its proper form and it also gives to a body a soul, which in fact is its form (surah,
q.v.) when that body is read to receive it. Moreover, the human intellect comes to know of the universal
forms of the particulars only as activated by the active intellect. See also al-‘aql al-fa‘‘al.


The intuitive cognitions, i.e. the apprehension through the inner senses (al-hawas al-batinah, q.v.) of the
meanings or significations of things. See also al-quwwat al-mudrikah.

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