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Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute Solving Basic Trig Equations and Graphing Basic Trig Functions

Warm Up: 1. Evaluate the following (a) sin(30o )

(b) tan(4π / 3)

(c) cos(90o )

(d) sin(7π / 4)

2. Recall that when we related the three basic trigonometric functions to the unit circle, we saw the connection that for an angle of θ :

sin(θ ) = ________ cos(θ ) = ________ tan(θ ) = ________

Section 1: Basic Trig Equations using the Unit Circle Plates Take out your unit circle plates. 1. For angles 0o ≤ θ ≤ 360o , find all angles θ which make the following equation true:

2 2 [Hint: Think about which coordinate you are looking for on the unit circle plate…] sin(θ ) =

**Answer(s): θ = 2. For angles 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π , find all angles θ which make the following equation true:
**

cos(θ ) = − 3 2

**Answer(s): θ = 3. For angles 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π , find all angles θ which make the following equation true:
**

tan(θ ) = − 3

Answer(s): θ = 1

4. For angles 0o ≤ θ ≤ 360o , find all angles θ which make the following equation true: cos(θ ) = 2 Answer(s): θ = 5. For angles 0o ≤ θ ≤ 360o , find all angles θ which make the following equation true: sin(θ ) = −1 Answer(s): θ =

Section 2: Basic Trig Equations without the Unit Circle Plates Put away your unit circle plates.

1 there are two values of θ (for 0o ≤ θ ≤ 360o ) that will take this equation 2 true. What quadrants are they in? How do you know?

1. (a) For the equation sin(θ ) = −

(b) For the equation above, what are the two values of θ that make the equation true?

2. (a) For the equation tan(θ ) = 1 there are two values of θ (for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ) that will make this equation true. What quadrants are they in? How do you know?

(b) For the equation above, what are the two values of θ that make the equation true?

3. For the equation cos(θ ) = (where 0o ≤ θ ≤ 360o ), what is the only value which can go into box which yields only one solution for θ ? How do you know this equation has only one solution?

2

4. For the equation cos(θ ) = (where 0o ≤ θ ≤ 360o ), list a value which can go into box which yields no solutions for θ ? (Hint: There are an infinite number of values that can go into the box! Just find one!) How do you know this equation has no solutions?

Section 3: Basic Trig Equations without Angle Restrictions 1. For the first question in the previous section, we stated that there were two values for θ which made the equation true, if we restricted the angle θ (where 0o ≤ θ ≤ 360o ). However, if we do not make that restriction for θ , there are an infinite number of values for θ which make the equation true. (a) First, list four additional solutions.

(b) Second, can you come up with a general way to represent all of the solutions?

2. For the second question in the previous section, we stated that there were two values for θ which made the equation true, if we restricted the angle θ (where 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ). However, if we do not make that restriction for θ , there are an infinite number of values for θ which make the equation true. (a) First, list four additional solutions.

(b) Second, can you come up with a general way to represent all of the solutions?

3. For the equation cos(θ ) = 1 , without any restrictions on the angle θ , can you find a way to represent all of the solutions?

3

Section 4: Graphing Sine and Cosine On the following two pages, I would like for you to plot points for sin(θ ) and cos(θ ) . Please use your unit plates to graph. A miniature version of the graph is here for you to see…

Axes and what they represent: For the first graph, the horizontal axis is going to represent the angle θ , while the vertical axis will represent the output of the function sin(θ ) . (The same is true for the second graph, except the vertical axis will represent the output of the function cos(θ ) .) [If this seems odd to you, it actually is exactly what we have always done. If we were graphing x 2 , the horizontal axis would represent the x values while the vertical axis would represent the output of the function x 2 … The only difference now is that we are using a different variable, which we are calling θ .] To make things easier to graph, I have put gridmarks on the horizontal axis at the special angle values. I have put gridmarks on the vertical axis for the outputs of special angles when put into basic trig functions. How to plot points: Use your unit circle to start plotting points. For example, for the graph of sin(θ ) I know I am going to be looking at the y -coordinates on the unit circle. • • • Put your pipe cleaner at θ = 0 . I see that the y coordinate is 0 . Thus I am plotting the point (0, 0) . And this makes sense: sin(0) = 0 Put your pipe cleaner at the next angle, θ = π / 6 . I see that the y coordinate is 1/ 2 . Thus I am plotting the point (π / 6,1/ 2) . And this makes sense: sin(π / 6) = 1/ 2 Continue this for all the angles in your unit circle…

When you have finished plotting points all those points, think about how you want to connect them. Then similarly do the same for cos(θ )

4

sin(θ )

cos(θ )

5

1. Look at the graph for sin(θ ) . (a) For what angles θ (for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ) is the value of sin(θ ) positive?

(b) For what angles θ (for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ) is the value of sin(θ ) negative?

(c) Do you see a connection between your answers here and the mnemonic we’ve been using: ASTC?

2. Look at the graph for cos(θ ) . (a) For what angles θ (for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ) is the value of cos(θ ) positive?

(b) For what angles θ (for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π ) is the value of cos(θ ) negative?

(c) Do you see a connection between your answers here and the mnemonic we’ve been using: ASTC?

3. Flip back to Section 1 of this packet. Do you see any connection between the graphs you’ve drawn and the number of solutions you were able to find?

6

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