Rs. 295.
00
FurmAI,lENTALS OF SURVEYING
by S.K. Roy
© i 999 by Prentice-Hall 01 India Pri"ale Limited, New-Delhi. All rights reserved. No part 01 this
book may be reproduced in any lorrn, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission
in writing from the publisher.
IS5N·B1·203·1260-o
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PUblished by Asoke K. Ghosh, Prentlce-Han of India Private Limited, 1..1.97, Connaught Circus,
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Contents
'1,
Preface xi
1. INTRODuctION
1-6
1.1 Definition 1
[,2 Classification of Surveying
1.3 History of Surveying 2
1.4 Modem Trends in Surveying 4
[.5 The Shope and Size of the Earth 4
1.6 Horizontal and Level Distances 5
References 9
2. ERRORS IN
'7-28 ..
2.1 . 'Introduction 7
2.2 Types of Errors 7
2.3 Accuracy and Precision of Measurements 8
2.4 Nature of Random Errors 8
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Measures of Precision 11
2.6 The E
9U
and Errors 12
2.7 Propagation of Random Errors 13
2.8 Error of a Series 20
2.9 Error of a Mean 21
2.10 Weighcs of Measurements 22 . .
2.11 Theory of Least Squares Applied to Observations of Unequal
Weights 22
2.12 Calculating Weights and Corrections to Field Observations 23
Problems 27
3. MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL DISTANCES 29-,6.1
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Methods of Measuring Horizontal Distances 29
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:>.:> Chaining and Taping Accessories 30
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3.4 Measurement by Chain 33
3.5 Reductions to Measurement in Slope 34
3.6 Sysrematic Errors in Linear Measurement by Chaln or Tape:' 37
3.7 Random Errors 40
3.8 Chain and Tape Survey of a FklJ 48
3.9 Error in 50
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3.10 Instruments for Setting Out Right Angles 51
3.11 Miscellaneous Problems in Chaining 53
3.12. Field Work for Chain Surveying 58
Problems 62
·t " ELECTRONIC DISTA:\CE 65-85
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 Basic Concepts 65
4.3 Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation 66
4.-+ Basic Principle of Electronic Distance Measurement 68
4.5 Computing the Distance from the Phase Differences 69
4.6 Brief Description of Different Typesof Instruments 71
4.7 Total Station Instruments 73 .
4.8 Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on Wave Velocity 74
4.9 .Instrumental Errors in EDM 75
4.10 Reduction of Slope Measurements in EDM 76
References 84
Problems 84
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LEVELLING I 86-116
5.1 Introduction 86
5.2 Basic Definitions S6
5.3 Curvature and Refraction 87
.sA Levelling Instruments 89
::;.5 Classification of Surveying Telescope 91
5.6 Lens Formula 92
5.7 Engineer's Levels 95
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5.8 Tilting Level 103
5.9 Automatic or Self-levelling Level 104
5.10 Some Important Optical Terms 106
5.11 Some Important Optical Defects 107
5.12 The Levelling Sl:lff 108
5.13 P:lr:lllel PI:lte Micrometer 110
5.14 Temporary Adjustments of a Dumpy Level 112
:3.15 Terms Used in Levelling 114
5.16 Different Methods of Levelling 114
Problems JJ 5
6. LEVELLING II 117-155
6.1 Introduction 117
6.2 Differential Levelling 117
6.3 Level Book 118
6.4 . Checking of Levels 127
6.5 Errors in Levelling 128
6.6 Reducinz Errors
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:1nJ Eliminatinz Mistakes in Levellins
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130
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6.7 Collimntion Correction 131
6.8 Check Levelling 135
6.9 Fly Levelling 135
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6.10 Profile Levelling 136·
6.11 Cross Sectional Levelling 139
6.12 Reciprocal Levelling 142
6.13 Two Peg Test 144
6.14 Three Wire Levelling 146
-6.15 Error, Adjustment and Precision of Level 147
Problems 152
156-161
7. PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF LEVELS
7.1 Introduction 156
7.2 Permanent Adjustments of a Dumpy Level 156
7.3 Adjustments of a Tilting Level 159
7.4 Adjustments of Automatic Level 160
Problems 161
162-172
8. ANGLES
8.1 Introduction 162
8.2 Different Types of Horizontal Angles 162·
8.3 Direction of a Line 164
8.4 Bearings 164
8.5 Azimuths 165
173--196
9:
CQi,,!PASS SURVEY
9.1
Introduction 173
9.2
Principle of Compass
173
9.3
Declination 173
9.4
Prismatic Compass
174
9.5
Surveyor's Compass
176
9.6. Trough Cornpass 177
.9.7
Magnetic Declination Problem
179
9.8
Compass Traverse
184
9.9 Local Auractlon
185
9.10 Adjustment of 1I Compass Traverse
191
9,11 Errors in Compass Surveying
192
Reference 193
Problems 193
10. THEODOLITES
10.1 lntrcduction 197
10.2 Main Pans of 1I Vernier Theodolite 197
!OJ Some B:15k Definitions ::!D3
IDA Fundamental Planes and Lines of a Theodolite 203
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10.5
10.6
10.7
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10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
Fundamental Operations of the Theodolite 205,
Verniers 206
Accurate Measurement of an Angle
Errors in Theodolite Angles 213
Mistakes in Theodolite Angles 223
Permanent Adjustments of a Vernier Theodolite 223
Micrometer Microscope 227
Optical Theodolites
Electronic Theodolites 231
Measuring Angles with Direction Theodolites 232
11. TRAVERSE SuRVEY
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1l.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
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11.11
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11,14
1J. J5
Problems 237
2·H-283,
Introduction 141
Deficiencies of Open Traverse 242
Closed Traverse 142
Measurement of Traverse Angles 242
Measurement of Lengths 244
Selection of Traverse Stations 245
Angle Misclosure 246
Traverse Balancing 248
Checks in an Oren Traverse 249
Methods of Traverse Adjustments 250
Rectangular Coordinates 252·
Gale's Traverse Table 253
Usc of Analytical Geometry in Survey Computations 257
Problems of Ornined . 266
Finding in Traversing 275
Problems 279
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12. CURVES 284-349
11.1
12.1
12.3
12A
.5
11.6
.7
12.8
.9
12.10
,12.11
12.12
Introduction . 284
Basic Deli nitions 284
Intersection of a Line and Circle 298
Compound Curve 310
Reverse Curve ::;
Transition Curve 32\
Centrifuga] Ratio 323
Length of Transition Curve 323
Ideal Transition Curve 325
Characteristics of a Transition Curve 332
Setting Out the Combined Curve 335
The Lemniscate Curve 336
Problems 3-/7
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Contents ix
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13. VERTICAL CURVES
13.1 Introduction 350
13.2 General Equation of a Parabolic Curve 351
13.3 Computntions for an Unequal Tangent Curve 353
13.4 High or LowPoint on a Vertical Curve 353
13.5 Vertical Curve Passing through a Fixed Point 354
13.6 Design of VerticalCurve 355
13.7 Sight Distnnce of Vertical Curves at a Sag 358
Problems 369
371-40$9
1.t AREAS AND VOLUMES
14.1 Introduction 371
14.2 Methods of Measuring Area 371
14.3 Volumes 385
14.4 Volume through Transition 395
14.5 Volume from Spot Levels 397
14.6 Volume by Simpson's Cubature Formula 398
14.7 Volume from Contour Plan 400
14.8 Mass Haul Curve 403'
References 445
Problems 445
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15. TACHEOMETRY 450-499
15.1 Introduction 450
15.2 Instruments 450
15.3 Different Types of Tncheometric),lensurements 451·
15.4 Principles of Stadia Method 452
15.5 Internal Focussing Telescope .456
15.6 Determination of Tacheometer Constants 457
15.7 Distance and Elevation Formulae 458 •
15.8 Movable Hair Method 461
15.9 Jangentinl System of Measurement 463
15.10 Subtense Bar 464
15.11 Computations with Incomplete Intercepts 465
15.12 Relative Merits of Holding the Staff Vertical or Normal 473
15.13 Problems in Practical Application of Tnngentiul Method '476
15.14 Tacheometric Calculations and Reductions 480
15.15 Errors in Tacbeometric Surveying, 486
15.1 6 Uses of Tacheometry 486
15.17 ~ vIiscellaneous Examples 487
Reference 496
Prob/ellls 496
.. 500-525
16. PLANE TABLE SURVEYING
16.1 Introduction 500
16) Equiprnents Required 500
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16.3 Working with Plane Table 504
16,4 Different Methods of Plane Table Work 505
16.5 .
Errors in Plane Table 511
16,6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Plane Table Survey 512
16.7 Analytical and Graphical Solutions 514
Problems 524
17. TOPOGRAPHICAL St.:RVEYl:\G 526-537 c,
17.1 Introduction 526
17.2 Control for Topographic Surveys 526
17.3 Plotting of Contours 527
j 7.4 Characteristics of Contour 528
17.5 Methods of -Locating Contours 529
17.6 Field Methods of Obtaining Topography 530
17.7 Sources of Errors in Topographical Surveys 531
17.8 Interpolation of Contours 532
17.9 Uses of Contours 532
Problems 536
18.. COi\STRUCTION SURVEYI:\G 538-547
18.1 Introduction 538
18.2 Equipments for Setting Out 538
18.3 Horizontal and Vertical Control 538
18A Selling Out a Pipe Line 539
18.5 Selling Out of Buildings and Structures 541
18.6 Staking Out a Highway 543
19.U!\DERGROU;\D SURVEYS 548-579
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Application of Underground Surveys
19.3 Aligning the Theodolite 551
1904 Determination of Azimuth by Gyroscope 553
19.5 Weisbach Triangle 555
19.6 Problems in Tunnel Survey 566
19.7 Analytical Derivations of Underground Surveys, 566
Problems 5iB
20. CO:,\IPUTE,R SURVEYI;\G 580-595
20.1 Introduction 580
20.2 Explanation of the Programs 580
.4l1slI'ers to Problems 597-600
Bibliograplzj' 601
Index 603-606
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.. Preface
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Modern surveying involves useof sophisticated scientific instruments. mathematical
methods and computational techniques. In writing this book on surveying. I have
tried therefore to explain comprehensively the principles of surveying instruments
and derivarion of mathematical formulae. Separate chapters have been written on
'Underground Surveys' and 'Computer Programs in Surveying' to incorporate the
recent developments in this field. .
I acknowledge my gratefulness to ail the authors listed in the Bibliography
as their works form the background of this book. I am also deeply indebted to
Mr. John Gamer and Dr. John Uren of the University of Leads. Dr. R. Baker of
the University of Salford; Engineering Council (UK). the Institution :of Civil
Engineers (UK) andotherUI< universities for permitting me to use theirquestions
in this book. I have also utilized the-questions from the examinations conducted
by the Institution of Engineers (India) and some figures and tablesof the standards
prepared by the Bureau of Indian Standards. for which I express my sincere
thanks to them. I amgrateful tomycolleague in the Civil Engineering Department,
Dr. K.K. Bhar, who rendered immense help by collaborating with me in writing
the chapter on 'Computer Programs in Surveying'.
I 'owe' my gratitude to the Vice Chancellor, Bengal Engineering College
(Deemed University), my colleagues in the Civil Engineering Department and to
the staff of the University Library for extending full cooperation during the long
and arduous task of writing this book.
I wish to express my appreciation to my wife, Subrata and my sons and
daughters-in-law, Santayan and Riya, Saptak and Bamali, for their encouragement
. and support throughout the course of writing the manuscript.
Finally, I express my deep appreciation to my publishers Prentice-Hall of .
India for their excellent work in editing the book thoroughly. .
S,K. Roy
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Introduction
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1.1 DEFINITION
Surveying is basic to engineering. Before any engineering work can be started we
must prepare a plan or map of the areashowing topographical details. Thisinvolves
both horizontal and vertical measurements.
Engineering surveying is defined as those nctivities involved in the planning
and execution of surveys for the location, design, construction, operation and
maintenance of civil and other: engineering projects. The surveying activities
are:
1. Preparation of surveys and related mapping specifications.
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2.. Execution of photogrammetric and field surveys for the collection of
required data including topographic and hydrographic data. .
3. Calculation, .reduction and plotting cf survey data for use in engineering
design. '
4. Design and provision of horizontal and vertical control survey networks.
5. Provision of line and grade and other layout work for construction and
mining activities..
Thus the scope of surveying is very wide and inter-disciplinary in character.
Basically it involves accurate measurements and accurate computations. In surveying
we use modern sophisticated instruments, e.g. electronic instruments for
measurements and modern computational tools, e.g. computers for accurate
mathematical computations. Hence thorough knowledge of basic science-say,
physics and mathematics-c-is required in grasping modern surveying.
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1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING .....
Surveying is a very old profession and can be classified in many different ways.
Classification Based 01l Accuracy oj Two general classifications of surveys
are geodetic. and plane. If! geodetic surveying the curvature of the earth is taken
into account. Surveys are conducted with a high degree of accuracy. However in
plane surveying. except for levelling, the reference base for field work and
computations is assumed to be a flat horizontal surface. The error caused by
I
.2 Fundamentals of Surveying
assuming the earth to be a plane area is not serious jf the area measured is small
say, within ..
Classification Based 011 Usc or Purpose of Resulting Slap«. This canbe classified
:IS follows:
(a) Control surveys establish a network of horizontal and vertical points that
serve as a reference framework for other SUT