Chapter 2: Load, Stress and Strain

The careful text-books measure (Let all who build beware!) The load, the shock, the pressure Material can bear. So when the buckled girder Lets down the grinding span The blame of loss, or murder is laid upon the man. Not on the stuff - The Man! Rudyard Kipling, “Hymn of Breaking Strain”

Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Establishing Critical Section

To establish the critical section and the critical loading, the designer:

1. Considers the external loads applied to a machine (e.g. an automobile). 2. Considers the external loads applied to an element within the machine (e.g. a cylindrical rolling-element bearing. 3. Located the critical section within the machine element (e.g., the inner race). 4. Determines the loading at the critical section (e.g., contact stress).

Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . (a) Assembly drawing.1 A simple crane and forces acting on it.Example 2.1 Figure 2. (b) free-body diagram of forces acting on the beam.

(d) bending. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . (c) shear. (a) Normal. compressive. (f) combined.2 Load classified as to location and method of application. (b) normal. tensile.Types of Loads Figure 2. (e) torsion.

(a) Positive moment leads to tensile stress in the positive y direction.Sign Convention in Bending Figure 2.3 Sign convention used in bending. (b) positive moment acts in a positive direction on a positive face. The sign convention shown in (b) will be used in this book. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .

Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . (b) results showing (1) normal. (2) shear.2 Figure 2. (a) Lever assembly.Example 2. tensile. (3) bending.4 Lever assembly and results. and (40 torsion on section B of lever assembly.

1 Four types of support with their corresponding reactions. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .Support Types Table 2.

6 External rim brake and forces with the house and the ground acting on it.5 Ladder in contact Figure 2.Examples 2.4 and 2. (a) External rim brake.5 Figure 2. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . part. (b) while a painter is on the external rim brake with forces acting on each ladder.

(a) Sphere supported with wires from top and spring at bottom. (b) free-body diagram of forces acting on sphere. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .6 Figure 2.Example 2.7 Sphere and forces acting on it.

(c) overhanging. (b) cantilevered.Beam Support Types Figure 2.8 Three types of beam support. (a) Simply supported. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .

Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . Plot the shear and moment functions versus x. Draw a free-body diagram. and determine all the support reactions. 2. thus dividing the beam into two segments. and use the equilibrium equations to determine the transverse shear force V and the moment M 4. which is assumed to be the x axis. 3. Note the location of the maximum moment. Choose a position x between the origin and the length of the beam l. Resolve the forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to the beam’s axis. Generally. The origin is chosen at the beam’s left end to ensure that any x chosen will be positive. Draw a free-body diagram of the two segments. it is convenient to show the shear and moment diagrams directly below the free-body diagram of the beam.Shear and Moment Diagrams Procedure for Drawing Shear and Moment Diagrams: 1.

(c) free-body diagram l/2 ≤ x < l.Example 2. (a) Midlength load and reactions.7 Figure 2. (d) shear and moment diagrams.9 Simply supported bar. (b) freebody diagram for 0 < x < l/2. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .

Singularity Functions Table 2.2 Singularity and load intensity functions with corresponding graphs and expressions. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .

write an expression for the load intensity function q(x) that describes all the singularities acting on the beam. 2. Draw a free-body diagram with all the singularities acting on the beam. Integrate the negative load intensity function over the beam to get the shear force. Resolve the forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to the beam’s axis.2). Integrate the negative shear force over the beam length to get the moment (see Section 5. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . Draw shear and moment diagrams from the expressions developed. 4. Referring to Table 2. 3.Using Singularity Functions Procedure for Drawing the Shear and Moment Diagrams by Making Use of Singularity Functions: 1.2. and determine all support reactions.

10 (a) Shear and (b) moment diagrams for Example 2. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .8 Figure 2.Example 2.8.

l=12 m. (c) shear and (d) moment diagrams for Example 2.11 Simply supported beam. (a) Forces acting on beam when P1=8 kN.9.Example 2. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . P2=5 kN. w0=4 kN/m.9 Figure 2. (b) free-body diagram showing resulting forces.

10 Figure 2.12 Figures used in Example 2. (b) free-body diagram.Example 2. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .10. (a) Load assembly drawing.

(a) Threedimensional view. Figure 2.13 Stress element showing general state of threedimensional stress with origin placed in center of element. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .14 Stress element showing twodimensional state of stress.Stress Elements Figure 2. (b) plane view.

15 Illustration of equivalent stress states. (b) stress element oriented in different (arbitrary) direction.Stresses in Arbitrary Directions Figure 2.16 Stresses in an oblique plane at an angle φ. (a) Stress element oriented in the direction of applied stress. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . Figure 2.

13) and (2.Mohr’s Circle Figure 2.14). Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .17 Mohr’s circle diagram of Equations (2.

Constructing Mohr’s Circle Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .

Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . (a) Mohr’s circle diagram.18 Results from Example 2.Example 2. (b) stress element for proncipal normal stress shown in xy coordinates.12 Figure 2.12. (c) stress element for principal shear stresses shown in xy coordinates.

Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .19 Mohr’s circle for triaxial stress state.Three Dimensional Mohr’s Circle Figure 2. (a) Mohr’s circle representation. (b) principal stresses on two planes.

57 ksi. (b) biaxial stress state when σ1=30.76 ksi.13. and σ3 = 0.43 ksi. σ2 = 0.76 ksi. and σ3 = -2.76 ksi. σ2 = 2. (a) Triaxial stress state when σ1=23. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .76 ksi.20 Mohr’s circle diagrams for Example 2.Example 2. (c) triaxial stress state when σ1=30. σ2 = 4.13 Figure 2.

(a) General state of stress.Octahedral Stresses Figure 2. (c) octahedral stress. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .21 Stresses acting on octahedral planes. (b) normal stress.

Figure 2. (b) twodimensional (or plane) view.Strain in Cubic Elements Figure 2. (a) Threedimensional view. (b) twodimensional (or plane) view.23 Shear strain of cubic element subjected to shear stress. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .22 Normal strain of a cubic element subjected to uniform tension in the x direction. (a) Three-dimensional view.

(b) normal strain εy.Plain Strain Figure 2.24 Graphical depiction of plane strain element. (c) shear strain γxy Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . (a) Normal strain εx.

25 Strain gage rosette used in Example 2. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements .Strain Gage Rosette in Example 2.16 Figure 2.16.

(d) moment diagram.26 Expansion process used in honeycomb materials. Figure 2. (a) Machine.27 Glue spreader case study.Glue Spreader Shaft Case Study Figure 2. Hamrock • Fundamentals of Machine Elements . (b) free-body diagram. (c) shear diagram.