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Urinary Symptoms

Dysuria Difficulty painful micturition


Haematuria + blood in urine Proteinuria Transient Contamination from vaginal secretion UTI Pre-eclampsia Kidney: GN Nephrotic syndrome Cong tubular ds: Polycystic kidney Kidney dysplasia Acute tubular damage Kidney papillary necrosis Analgesic nephropathy Diabetic papillary necrosis Multiple myeloma Systemic ds affecting glomeruli: DM HPT SLE Malignancy Drugs Amyloid Vasculitides Non kidney Orthostatic proteinuria Exercise Emotional stess Fever Post opt Incontinence

Causes: Infection Cystitis Pyelonephritis Prostatis Urethritis Vaginitis STD Trauma Anatomical obstruction OR malformations: BPH Urethral stricture Phimosis Meatal stenosis External irritation or rx douching or apply product Hormonal menopausal sx Neuro cond Cancer : Bladder Prostate Urethra

Macroscopic haematuria 1mL blood / 1000 mL urine

Microscopic haematuria RBC > 8000mL/1 mL of urine (phase contrast microscope) OR RBC >2000 per mL urine (light microscope)
Non glomerular Cond affect renal parenchyma Renal tumour Renal cell carcinoma Angiomyolipoma Oncocytoma Vascular d.o Malignant HPT Sickle cell trait or dz AV malformations Renal vein thrombosis /infarct Transplant rejection Metabolic d.o Hypercalciuria Hyperuricuria Familial cond: Polycyctic kidney ds Medullary sponge kidney Infection Pyelonephritis TB Cytomegalovirus infxn IM External cond: Tumours: Renal pelvis Ureter Bladder Prostate Stone BPH Stone or FB Infection Coagulopathy Radiation therapy Indwelling catheter Drugs

Glomerular 10 IgA nephropathy (Bergers ds) Post infxn glomerulonephritis Membranoproloferative GN Focal glomerular sclerosis Rapidly progressive GN 20 Lupus nephritis HSP Vasculitis Polyarteritis nodosa Wegener;s granulomatosis Essential mixed cryoglobulinaemia Haemolytic uraemic syndrome Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura Medications Familial cond: Thin glomerular BM nephropathy Hereditary nephritis (Alports syndrome) Exercise

Causes: DIAPPEERSS Delirium Infection of UT Athrophic urethritis Pharmacological Psychological Endocrine (hypercalcaemia) Environmental Restricted mobility Stool impaction Sphincter damage or weakns

Pseudohaematuria Red urine caused by pigment other than RBC that simply stain d culture red Athocyanins in food (berries) Red coloured confectionery Porphyrins Free Hb Myoglobin Drugs

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