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20.

.
.
() .
, , ,
, ...

, ,
.
.
,

.
(O3), (ClO2), (Cl2), (HOCl),
(H2O2), (KMnO4) ..

. pH
6,5 8,5
pH
.
, .
(Ca(OH)2),
(NaOH), (CaCO3), (MgO)
(Na2CO3). (Ca(OH)2, NaOH),
(CaCO3, Na2CO3).

BOD .

20.1.

(H2S)
(H2SO4). ()
(Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ ...).
(-)
. ... ...

149

20.
(S2-) (CO32-).

.
(coagulation) - (flocculation) -

,
.
10-7 - 10-4 cm (0,01 - 1,0 m) .
. .
, Van der
Waals,
,
.
(, flocs) ( 20.1).

.

(
).

20.1. -

,
.
,
.
(coagulants) (Al2(SO4)3 .18H2O),
( FeCl3 .6H2O FeSO4 .7H2O)
(Ca(OH)2).
(Jar test, 20.2). ,

. ,
COD/BOD, ,
. ,

.
.
( ) .

. ... ...

150

20.
(, )
, ,
COD.
.
,
.

20.2. (Jar test)



, .
(Cl2), , (Br2) (O3).
.

. ... ...

151