Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 78, No. 11, pp. 2051–2066, 2006. doi:10.

1351/pac200678112051 © 2006 IUPAC INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY INORGANIC CHEMISTRY DIVISION COMMISSION ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES AND ATOMIC WEIGHTS*

ATOMIC WEIGHTS OF THE ELEMENTS 2005
(IUPAC TECHNICAL REPORT)
Prepared for publication by M. E. WIESER‡ Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada

*Membership

of the Commission for the period 2004–2005 was as follows:

Chairman: T. P. Ding (China); Secretary: M. E. Wieser (Canada); Titular Members: M. Berglund (Belgium); J. K. Böhlke (USA); T. Walczyk (Switzerland); S. Yoneda (Japan); M. Zhao (China); Associate Members: H. Hidaka (Japan), A.-M. Fouillac (France), Y. Xiao (China); National Representatives: P. De Bièvre (Belgium); J. R. de Laeter (Australia).
‡E-mail:

mwieser@ucalgary.ca

Republication or reproduction of this report or its storage and/or dissemination by electronic means is permitted without the need for formal IUPAC permission on condition that an acknowledgment, with full reference to the source, along with use of the copyright symbol ©, the name IUPAC, and the year of publication, are prominently visible. Publication of a translation into another language is subject to the additional condition of prior approval from the relevant IUPAC National Adhering Organization.

2051

038 06(2). In this case. atomic weights. Ar(Na) = 22. there are several different types of decisions that may be needed to assign a standard atomic weight and uncertainty [5]. Depending on the element in question. The Commission decided to publish the report “Atomic Weights of the Elements 2005” as presented here.6 ‰ to L-SVEC lithium carbonate and +1. isotopic abundance. the situation is relatively simple. Ar(Mn) = 54. during the 43rd IUPAC General Assembly in Beijing. Ar(Co) = 58. Ar(Cs) = 132.938 045(5). the Commission reviewed the literature from the four years since the last compilation of atomic weights and isotopic abundances in 2001 [1. the limited accuracy of measurements is overshadowed by terrestrial variability. which are still not known to a satisfactory level of accuracy. Ding from 11 to 13 August 2005. For polyisotopic elements. The Commission used the atomic mass evaluations of 2003 [3] in this new compilation. The Commission periodically reviews the history of the atomic weight of each element.95 ‰ to NBS 19 calcium carbonate. the © 2006 IUPAC.905 4519(2). Ar(Sm) = 150.980 40(1). E. WIESER Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report) Abstract: The latest evaluation of atomic weight determinations and other cognate data has warranted 16 changes for the standard atomic weights of the elements.981 5386(8).973 762(2). The revised standard atomic weights are as follows: Ar(Al) = 26. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. The resulting Table of Standard Atomic Weights is given in alphabetical order of the principal English names in Table 1 and in order of atomic number in Table 2. for many elements.947 88(2).5]. Ar(Sc) = 44. Ar(Bi) = 208. P.36(2).966 569(4).905 47(7). elements.084(9). The atomic weights reported in Tables 1 and 2 are for atoms in their nuclear and electronic ground states. However. Keywords: IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division.925 35(2). emphasizing the relevant published scientific evidence on which decisions have been made [4.2] and evaluated the published data on atomic weights and isotopic compositions on an element-by-element basis. the atomic weights are considered to be constants of nature. The Commission wishes to emphasize the need for new precise calibrated isotope composition measurements in order to improve the atomic weights of a number of elements. At the 2005 meeting. Ar(Ta) = 180. and periodic changes in the values and uncertainties result from improved measurements of the atomic masses. from those published previously in the 2001 Table of Atomic Weights. the standard atomic weights are equal to the atomic masses as reported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP).955 912(6). Ar(E). Ar(Th) = 232. T. A recommendation is made that δ13C values of all carbon-bearing materials be measured and expressed relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) on a scale normalized by assigning consensus values of –46. of element E can be determined from the knowledge of the isotopic abundances and corresponding atomic masses of the nuclides of that element.933 195(5). China. Ar(E). Ar(Nd) = 144. mononuclidic. 2051–2066 . Ar(P) = 30. For mononuclidic elements like fluorine and phosphorus. Ar(Tb) = 158. Ar(Pt) = 195. Ar(La) = 138. which is included in the tabulated uncertainty of the atomic weights. The atomic weight.2052 M. Ar(Au) = 196.989 769 28(2). INTRODUCTION The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) met under the chairmanship of Prof. polynuclidic.242(3).

the footnote “g” refers to the subset for which the standard atomic weight and its uncertainty do not include all known variations. there are essentially four different categories of elements with contrasting constraints on their atomic weights: 1. Instead. Values before the formation of the International Committee on Atomic Weights in 1900 come from F. extraterrestrial materials. following the last significant figure to which it is attributed). the footnotes “g” and “r” could occur together or either one could occur alone. The name is derived directly from the atomic number of the element using the following numerical roots: 1 un 6 hex 2 bi 7 sept 3 tri 8 oct 4 quad 9 enn 5 pent 0 nil The roots are put together in the order of the digits that make up the atomic number and terminated by “ium” to spell out the name. is recommended. especially in the laboratory and in industry. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. Thus. Clarke [7]. the Commission by custom makes a statement on the reason for the change and includes a list of past recommended values over a period in excess of the last 100 years. the Commission has attempted to find a single value and symmetrical uncertainty that would include almost all substances likely to be encountered. Similarly. In the recommendation of values of standard atomic weights. technological applications. or in materials of commerce. Variations in the relative amounts of isotopes of the elements in different materials commonly can be measured with greater precision than the amounts of the isotopes (commonly termed an “absolute measurement”). and the “i” of “bi” and of “tri” is deleted when it occurs before “ium”. For this reason. elements in category 2 can advance to category 3 as measurements improve. CIAAW generally has not attempted to estimate the average or composite isotopic composition of the Earth or of any subset of terrestrial materials. 4. which are taken from Coplen and Peiser [6]. 2. W. Within category 4. For all elements for which a change in the value of Ar(E) or its uncertainty. once the priority of discovery is established and the name suggested by the discoverers is examined and reviewed. These systematic names and symbols will be replaced by a permanent name approved by IUPAC. The names and symbols for those elements with atomic numbers 112 to 118 referred to in the following tables are systematic and based on the atomic numbers of the elements recommended for provisional use by the IUPAC publication “Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry” [8]. referring to atomic weights whose uncertainties reflect variation. applies only to category 4.Atomic weights of the elements 2005 2053 atomic weights may be different in different substances and the selection of the standard atomic weight is more complex. With minor exceptions to be covered by footnotes. 2051–2066 . Elements in category 3 may enter category 4 as more precise absolute determinations are made. The final “n” of “enn” is deleted when it occurs before “nil”. U[Ar(E)] (in parentheses. mononuclidic polynuclidic with no evidence for natural variation polynuclidic with evidence of variation in the amounts of the isotopes within the uncertainties of the best absolute measurement polynuclidic with variation in the amounts of the isotopes exceeding the uncertainties of the best absolute measurement The footnote “r”. 3. and anomalous occurrences such as the Oklo natural nuclear reactor. Excluded from consideration in the atomic weights are most materials with deliberately altered isotopic compositions. the standard atomic weights and their uncertainties are intended to apply to almost all samples from natural terrestrial occurrences as well as to samples found in laboratories involved in chemical investigations. © 2006 IUPAC.

500(1) 167.904(1) 112.49(2) g g g g (continues on next page) © 2006 IUPAC.981 5386(8) 121.546(3) g m r g g g r g g m r g g Footnotes r r 162.905 4519(2) 40. following the last significant figure to which they are attributed) apply to elements of natural terrestrial origin.25(3) 69. 2051–2066 .9961(6) 58.259(3) 151.2054 M.811(7) 79. Names of elements with atomic numbers 112 to 118 are provisional.964(1) 18.966 569(4) 178.921 60(2) 137. WIESER Table 1 Standard atomic weights 2005.078(4) 12. but depend on the origin and treatment of the material.980 40(1) 10.] The atomic weights of many elements are not invariant.012 182(3) 208.453(2) 51. where 12C is a neutral atom in its nuclear and electronic ground state.411(8) 132. The standard values of Ar(E) and the uncertainties (in parentheses.0107(8) 140.760(1) 39. The footnotes to this table elaborate the types of variation that may occur for individual elements and that may be larger than the listed uncertainties of values of Ar(E).723(1) 72.998 4032(5) 157. [Scaled to Ar(12C) = 12.327(7) 9.948(1) 74.933 195(5) 63. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.64(1) 196. Alphabetical order in English Name actinium* aluminium (aluminum) americium* antimony argon arsenic astatine* barium berkelium* beryllium bismuth bohrium* boron bromine cadmium caesium (cesium) calcium californium* carbon cerium chlorine chromium cobalt copper curium* darmstadtium* dubnium* dysprosium einsteinium* erbium europium fermium* fluorine francium* gadolinium gallium germanium gold hafnium Symbol Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi Bh B Br Cd Cs Ca Cf C Ce Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Ds Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf Number 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 107 5 35 48 55 20 98 6 58 17 24 27 29 96 110 105 66 99 68 63 100 9 87 64 31 32 79 72 Atomic weight 26. E.116(1) 35.

07(2) 150.938 045(5) Footnotes g r 2055 g m r g m g g r g m r g 200.007 94(7) 114.973 762(2) 195.941(2)]† 174.845(2) 83.0983(1) 140.084(9) g g g m g g g g r r 39.905 47(7) 207.36(2) 44.6934(2) 92.955 912(6) g g g (continues on next page) © 2006 IUPAC. 2051–2066 .59(2) 95.002 602(2) 164.4678(3) 101.798(2) 138.930 32(2) 1.23(3) 15. Alphabetical order in English Name hassium* helium holmium hydrogen indium iodine iridium iron krypton lanthanum lawrencium* lead lithium lutetium magnesium manganese meitnerium* mendelevium* mercury molybdenum neodymium neon neptunium* nickel niobium nitrogen nobelium* osmium oxygen palladium phosphorus platinum plutonium* polonium* potassium praseodymium promethium* protactinium* radium* radon* roentgenium* rhenium rhodium rubidium ruthenium rutherfordium* samarium scandium Symbol Hs He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Mt Md Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Rg Re Rh Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc Number 108 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 3 71 12 25 109 101 80 42 60 10 93 28 41 7 102 76 8 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 111 75 45 37 44 104 62 21 Atomic weight 4.0067(2) 190.907 65(2) 231.217(3) 55.42(1) 30.035 88(2) 186. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.207(1) 102.9994(3) 106.967(1) 24.905 50(2) 85.94(2) 144.2(1) [6.818(3) 126.906 38(2) 14.1797(6) 58.3050(6) 54.242(3) 20.904 47(3) 192.Atomic weights of the elements 2005 Table 1 (Continued).

2056 Table 1 (Continued).939 and 6. Pa. However. and for these an atomic weight is tabulated. M.224(2) g m g m g g *Element has no stable nuclides. Substantial deviations in atomic weight of the element from that given in the table can occur.038 06(2) 168.710(7) 47.996.9415(1) 131. 2051–2066 . WIESER Alphabetical order in English Name seaborgium* selenium silicon silver sodium strontium sulfur tantalum technetium* tellurium terbium thallium thorium* thulium tin titanium tungsten ununbium* ununhexium* ununoctium* ununpentium* ununquadium* ununtrium* uranium* vanadium xenon ytterbium yttrium zinc zirconium Symbol Sg Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W Uub Uuh Uuo Uup Uuq Uut U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr Number 106 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 112 116 118 115 114 113 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 Atomic weight 78.04(3) 88.62(1) 32. if a more accurate value is required.867(1) 183.925 35(2) 204. One or more well-known isotopes are given in Table 3 with the appropriate relative atomic mass and half-life.409(4) 91. © 2006 IUPAC.84(1) Footnotes r r g g g r r g g g 238.065(5) 180.0855(3) 107.60(3) 158. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. r Range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents a more precise Ar(E) being given. the tabulated Ar(E) value and uncertainty should be applicable to normal material. it must be determined for the specific material. m Modified isotopic compositions may be found in commercially available material because it has been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation.8682(2) 22. three such elements (Th.3833(2) 232.947 88(2) 127. †Commercially available Li materials have atomic weights that range between 6. and U) do have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition.028 91(3) 50. The difference between the atomic weight of the element in such specimens and that given in the table may exceed the stated uncertainty.934 21(2) 118. g Geological specimens are known in which the element has an isotopic composition outside the limits for normal material.905 85(2) 65. E.293(6) 173.989 769 28(2) 87.96(3) 28.

012 182(3) 10. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. where 12C is a neutral atom in its nuclear and electronic ground state.811(7) 12.0067(2) 15.981 5386(8) 28.867(1) 50. but depend on the origin and treatment of the material.989 769 28(2) 24.002 602(2) [6.948(1) 39. The standard values of Ar(E) and the uncertainties (in parentheses.0107(8) 14.96(3) 79.0983(1) 40.546(3) 65.905 85(2) Footnotes g m r g r g m r g m r g r g r g r g m 2057 r g r g m r g r g r r g m g g r (continues on next page) © 2006 IUPAC.4678(3) 87.938 045(5) 55.453(2) 39.1797(6) 22.64(1) 74.] The atomic weights of many elements are not invariant.9961(6) 54.904(1) 83.933 195(5) 58.9994(3) 18.6934(2) 63.845(2) 58.Atomic weights of the elements 2005 Table 2 Standard atomic weights 2005.007 94(7) 4.998 4032(5) 20.723(1) 72. 2051–2066 .955 912(6) 47.9415(1) 51.3050(6) 26. [Scaled to Ar(12C) = 12. The footnotes to this table elaborate the types of variation that may occur for individual elements and that may be larger than the listed uncertainties of values of Ar(E).409(4) 69.078(4) 44.62(1) 88. Names of elements with atomic number 112 to 118 are provisional.798(2) 85.065(5) 35. Order of atomic number Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Name hydrogen helium lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon sodium magnesium aluminium (aluminum) silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton rubidium strontium yttrium Symbol H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Atomic weight 1. following the last significant figure to which they are attributed) apply to elements of natural terrestrial origin.973 762(2) 32.941(2)]† 9.0855(3) 30.921 60(2) 78.

8682(2) 112.116(1) 140.411(8) 114.07(2) 102. M.905 4519(2) 137.25(3) 158.2058 Table 2 (Continued). WIESER Order of atomic number Number 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Name zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium* ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon caesium (cesium) barium lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium* samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium* astatine* radon* francium* Symbol Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Atomic weight 91.60(3) 126.49(2) 180.967(1) 178.94(2) 101.42(1) 107.217(3) 195.907 65(2) 144.906 38(2) 95.500(1) 164.947 88(2) 183.818(3) 118.934 21(2) 173.23(3) 192.710(7) 121.760(1) 127.04(3) 174.259(3) 168.084(9) 196.964(1) 157.905 50(2) 106.224(2) 92.905 47(7) 140.980 40(1) Footnotes g g g g g g g g g g m g g g g g g g g g g g g r (continues on next page) © 2006 IUPAC.925 35(2) 162.327(7) 138.59(2) 204. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. E.207(1) 190.930 32(2) 167. 2051–2066 .84(1) 186.36(2) 151.2(1) 208.242(3) 150.293(6) 132.966 569(4) 200.3833(2) 207.904 47(3) 131.

Substantial deviations in atomic weight of the element from that given in the table can occur.996. © 2006 IUPAC. The difference between the atomic weight of the element in such specimens and that given in the table may exceed the stated uncertainty. g Geological specimens are known in which the element has an isotopic composition outside the limits for normal material. and U) do have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition. if a more accurate value is required. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. †Commercially available Li materials have atomic weights that range between 6. However.939 and 6. m Modified isotopic compositions may be found in commercially available material because it has been subjected to an undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic fractionation. and for these an atomic weight is tabulated. One or more well-known isotopes are given in Table 3 with the appropriate relative atomic mass and half-life.038 06(2) 231.035 88(2) 238. 2051–2066 . Order of atomic number Number 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 118 Name radium* actinium* thorium* protactinium* uranium* neptunium* plutonium* americium* curium* berkelium* californium* einsteinium* fermium* mendelevium* nobelium* lawrencium* rutherfordium* dubnium* seaborgium* bohrium* hassium* meitnerium* darmstadtium* roentgenium* ununbium* ununtrium* ununquadium* ununpentium* ununhexium* ununoctium* Symbol Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uuo Atomic weight Footnotes 2059 232. the tabulated Ar(E) value and uncertainty should be applicable to normal material. it must be determined for the specific material.028 91(3) g g m *Element has no stable nuclides. r Range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents a more precise Ar(E) being given. Pa. three such elements (Th.Atomic weights of the elements 2005 Table 2 (Continued).

there was no assessment of the linearity of the measurement system. for which the isotope-amount ratio measurement now has a lower uncertainty than the uncertainty on the masses in the atomic mass table [3]. 1955. or to isotopically unfractionated representatives of homogeneous terrestrial materials.36(2) based on a new calibrated measurement by Chang et al. interference between ions. 150. 150. and 1979. 2051–2066 . 1969.43. memory. 150. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The Commission noted that. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. 1900.0. including sample preparation. [12]. analysis of isotope-amount ratios.26. and the results should be given with sufficient detail that the Commission can reconstruct the uncertainty budget in its various components. The relevance and availability of the analyzed material for the scientific community involved in isotopic measurements and calibrations.). the United States. 150. lanthanum and tantalum. The previous value. baseline. © 2006 IUPAC. mass spectrometric fractionation of ions of varying masses. 1903. 1925. covering the variations of isotope-amount ratios in Nature over the range of the masses of the isotopes in the material being analyzed. there are two additional elements. Chang et al. Preference is given to analyses of chemically stable materials that are distributed internationally as isotopic reference materials (e. The overall value of the uncertainty in the atomic weight value of these elements now have components. The Commission seeks evidence that mass spectrometer linearity. and statistical assessment of data were carried out properly. The best measurement may be defined as a complete analysis of the isotope-amount ratios of an element in a well-characterized. Criteria used to evaluate a “best measurement” include: • The extent to which random and systematic effects have been assessed and documented in the report.078(2). 150. • Following are brief descriptions of the changes in the Table of Standard Atomic Weights resulting from the Commission meeting in 2005. Preference is given to measurements that are fully calibrated with synthetic mixtures of isotopes of the element of interest.4(1). WIESER COMMENTS ON EVALUATIONS OF ATOMIC WEIGHTS AND ANNOTATIONS The Commission regularly evaluates reports of atomic weight determinations to select the “best measurement” of the amounts of isotopes of an element. in addition to the mononuclidic elements. 150. etc.S. Samarium The Commission has changed the recommended value for the standard atomic weight of samarium to Ar(Sm) = 150. 150. by the U. The previous value of Ar(Pt) = 195. 1897.g.36(3). and Japan in their study and found no evidence of measurable variation. 150. which it took into consideration when arriving at the final uncertainty.2060 M. The Commission noted that although gravimetrically prepared mixtures of samarium isotopes were used for the calibration. Platinum The Commission has changed the recommended value for the standard atomic weight of platinum to Ar(Pt) = 195. [9] included measurements of five different samples from China. reports must be published in peer-reviewed literature.3. [11]. [9].3. Historical values of Ar(Sm) include [6]: 1894. E. and data handling. recommended in 1979 [10] was based on measurements by Lugmair et al. 1909.. Ar(Sm) = 150.36(3). based on partially calibrated inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric measurements of Briche et al. 150. adopted in 1995.30. To be considered by the Commission for evaluation. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). the European Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). 150. which are controlled by the uncertainty of atomic masses in these two elements. sample purity and preparation effects.084(9). was based on electron impact ionization of gaseous Pt(PF3)4 and measurement of Pt+ ions in a mass spectrometer.4. 1905. representative material with low combined uncertainty.

84. 1896. 139. the United States. Ar(Nd) = 144. 194.23. COBALT. 181. SCANDIUM. 181. 1925. 180. 144.91. was based on the average of isotope amount measurements of Inghram et al. 1909. 1955.2. 1894. 195.8.90.3. 1925. 1903. which was based on the average of the isotope amount data of Inghram et al. 1961.24(3). 195. and 1979.24(3). 1894.5.09(3).64. TERBIUM. 143. 1897.0. 180. 138. 1900. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. The uncertainty values assigned by the Commission to the atomic weights of the mononuclidic elements are the atomic mass uncertainties expanded by a factor of six and then rounded up to the next single digit. 144. 1979. This value was adopted erroneously in 1995 because it did not meet the minimum standards for the Commission to change an atomic weight value.6. 144.08(3). and Japan in their study and found no evidence for measurable variations. 1925. 194.56. The uncertainties in the atomic weight were increased to reflect that this was not a fully calibrated measurement. 2051–2066 . and 1969.9055(3).5. 1894. 195. Historical values of Ar(Pt) include [6]: 1882. 183. GOLD.9. CAESIUM.0. [15] and Walker and Thode [16] arriving at a value of 144. 1969. PHOSPHORUS.6.9. The previous value.24(3). 140. 1961.88. The linearity of the mass spectrometer was verified using a certified potassium reference material (NIST 985).27. [3]. [14]. MANGANESE.4. 195. MONONUCLIDIC ELEMENTS (ALUMINIUM.6. 97 % of the uncertainty of the recommended value for Ar(Ta) comes from the uncertainty in the nuclide mass of 181Ta. 194. 182.947 875(8) based on a recent measurement by de Laeter and Bukilic [13]. Historical values of Ar(La) include [6]: 1882.89.92. 1903.9055(2). 1953. Due to the low abundance of 180Ta. 144. and 1985. and 1995.9479(3).905 47(7) based on new isotope amount data of de Laeter and Bukilic [19] and the data from the 2003 Atomic Mass Table by Audi et al.89. 138.87. Neodymium The Commission has changed the recommended value for the standard atomic weight of neodymium to Ar(Nd) = 144. 182. 180. 1899.6. 1969. 138. [15] and White [20]. SODIUM. 1936. Lanthanum The Commission has changed the recommended value and uncertainty for the standard atomic weight of lanthanum to Ar(La) = 138. 195. 138. Historical values of Ar(Nd) include [6]: 1894.8. 1903. Publication of analytical data in a refereed journal is the precondition for the Commission to evaluate the atomic weight.2. 195. 138. 138. 1900. and instrumental fractionation of the amounts of isotopes of tantalum was corrected using a certified rhenium isotopic reference material (NIST 989).03 to 0. Tantalum The Commission has changed the recommended value for the standard atomic weight of tantalum to Ar(Ta) = 180. This measurement provides a significant improvement in uncertainty from 0. 1896. 138. AND THORIUM) The atomic weights for the mononuclidic elements are based on atomic mass data derived from physical measurements. 1897. 180. 138. 138.003.Atomic weights of the elements 2005 2061 The earlier measurement (evaluated in 1995) was not published in a peer-reviewed journal. 195. 182. 180.24 that was adopted in 1961 [17] and an evaluated uncertainty was included in 1969 [18]. 1933. 1911.80.84. 194.09.242(3) based on a new calibrated measurement by Zhao et al.9479(1). 1910.948. Historical values of Ar(Ta) include [6]: 1882. 138. Zhao et al. 195. 1961.9055(2). 138. 1909. 182.0. 1969. The previous atomic weight value was Ar(La) = 138. 181. BISMUTH. 1897. [14] included measurements of seven different samples from China. 1931. 1909.078(2). Updated atomic weights are provided for those elements for which there have © 2006 IUPAC. 1900. 1907. 140.

0381 231.6(1.1(4) 7.0508 Half-life 4. There is no general agreement on which of the nuclides of the radioactive elements is.6(2) 55.623(3) 102(5) 138.9127 146. or is likely to be judged.592(2) × 105 2. Some of these half-lives have already been documented [21–24].0202 226.0456 238.76(3) 21.0) × 106 2.468(3) × 109 Unit a a a a a a d h h h s d min d d a a a a a a a a a a a 61 84 85 86 promethium polonium astatine radon Pm Po At Rn 87 88 francium radium Fr Ra 89 90 91 92 actinium thorium protactinium uranium Ac Th Pa U (continues on next page) © 2006 IUPAC. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weights for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions.9063 144. h = hour.7(4) 2.66(2) 1599(4) 5.0311 227. 2051–2066 .4(1) 8. “important”. Holden. Names of elements with atomic number 112 to 118 are provisional.25(1) × 104 1. a = year.77(2) 7.0278 230.43(1) 3.455(6) × 105 7.9151 208.823(4) 22.342(4) × 107 4.0331 232.2062 M.21(1) 14.9871 210. and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed in Table 3. E. a former Commission member.0185 224.2(2) × 106 6.1(3) × 105 17.0197 223. the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic mass values and half-lives of selected radionuclides. and “used commercially” have been applied in the past to the Commission’s choice. as in previous years.0114 222. “production in quantity”. As has been the custom in the past. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. [Prepared.9824 209. s = second.04(1) × 108 2. by N.9064 97. RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS VALUES AND HALF-LIVES OF SELECTED RADIONUCLIDES For elements that have no stable or long-lived nuclides. d = day. E.9875 210. Nuclidic mass values have been taken from the 2003 Atomic Mass Table [3].0439 236.9829 209. the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic mass values for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated. Various criteria such as “longest half-life”.0254 228.0(1) 11.0176 223. min = minute.54(3) × 106 1.6(1) 3.9072 98. WIESER been improvements in the measurement precision of the atomic mass values as reported in [3] since the previous evaluation [1].] Atomic number 43 Element name technetium Symbol Tc Mass number 97 98 99 145 147 209 210 210 211 211 220 222 223 223 224 226 228 227 230 232 231 233 234 235 236 238 Atomic mass 96.0359 233.0396 234. Table 3 Relative atomic masses and half-lives of selected radionuclides.0410 235. although the Commission has no official responsibility for the dissemination of such values.40(1) × 1010 3.9906 220.

56(5) × 107 3.8a.0830 257.1380 277.37(2) × 103 29.1096 267.56(1) × 103 14.48(6) × 105 1.65(1) 472(2) 100.4(1) 3.b × 10–3 2063 Unit a d a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a d a a a a d d d d min h min d s s min s s s s s s s s s 95 96 americium curium Am Cm 97 98 berkelium californium Bk Cf 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 118 aThe bThe einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium ununbium ununtrium ununquadium ununpentium ununhexium ununoctium Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uuo uncertainties of these elements are asymmetric.0984 260.b 0.b ~34a.1255 271.5a.0951 258.05a.6a.0723 247.b ~0.0749 250.1(1) 18.0614 243.1215 268.20(3) × 102 351(2) 13.7a.b ~87a.8(3) 58(5) 3.0750 249.5(3) 27.5(2) 51.1037 259.162 280.189 288.3a ~0.0796 252.b ~1. © 2006 IUPAC.5a.75(2) × 105 8.0496 239.1512 281.0568 243.b ~3.7a ~21a ~10a 16.0(5) × 102 2.76(4) × 103 1.00(9) × 107 432.Atomic weights of the elements 2005 Table 3 (Continued).192 Half-life 2.b ~9.0628 245.b × 10–3 ~0.48(6) × 103 4.6(3) 1.0569 242.7(1) 2. 2051–2066 .0482 239.0655 246.1(1) 8.355(6) 87.0672 247.1010 262.1335 272.6a.0538 241.1(1) 9.0704 248.7(6) 7.0522 240.174 284.178 289.0703 249.1645 285.b ~2.410(3) × 104 6. value given is determined only from a few decays.0587 244. Atomic number 93 94 Element name neptunium plutonium Symbol Np Pu Mass number 237 239 238 239 240 241 242 244 241 243 243 244 245 246 247 248 247 249 249 250 251 252 252 257 258 260 259 262 267 268 271 272 277 276 281 280 285 284 289 288 293 294 Atomic mass 237.150 276.14(1) × 106 2.4(3) × 103 3.7a.0614 244.0529 238.0816 252.0764 251. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78.0642 241.

[34] of –29.31]. or other internationally distributed reference materials. geology. are used to understand processes in oceanography.74 ‰. The Commission accepted the recommendations of this IAEA panel that δ13C values of all carbon-bearing materials be measured and expressed relative to VPDB on a scale normalized by assigning consensus values of –46. Netherlands. Advances in instrumentation enable increasingly precise measurements. which is substantially more negative than the value reported by Gonfiantini et al. Recommended δ13C values (on δ a scale anchored by L-SVEC equals –46. Virginia. biology. UFZ Umweltforschungszentrum LeipzigHalle. IAEA-CH-6 sucrose. © 2006 IUPAC. IAEA-CO-8.95 ‰ relative to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) following recommendations of the IAEA and IUPAC [30. USA) utilized state-ofthe-art analysis with continuous-flow elemental analyzer (EA) techniques [29] to analyze selected organic and inorganic carbon isotopic reference materials. environmental sciences. laboratories measuring the same specimen often disagree by 10 times their reported “uncertainty” of measurement [25.6 ‰) were determined for three CO2 gases (NIST RM 8562. Authors are encouraged to report their measurement results for δ13C values of NBS 22 oil. RM 8563. 1) and the values of some have been notably shifted—the δ13C of NBS 22 oil is –30.6 ‰ based on high accuracy measurements [32]. and RM 8564) and three calcium carbonate reference materials (IAEA-CO-1. USGS 41 L-glutamic acid. and NBS 18) because high-quality data were available [27. [29] value of –29. Geological Survey (USGS). Groningen. paleoclimatology. atmospheric sciences. Nevertheless. Gröning reported in Beijing on the outcome of the work of the consultants. Uncertainties of reference material values on this scale are improved by factors up to two or more (Fig.32].99 ‰ (normalized to L-SVEC value of –46. Recognizing that two-point calibrations of the δ2H and δ18O scales substantially improved the agreement among laboratories [28]. Dr. L-SVEC lithium carbonate (NIST RM 8545) was selected as the low-13C content scale anchor because EA δ13C values of amounts as small as 0. Four laboratories (Centrum voor Isotopen Onderzoek (CIO). Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. Germany. L-SVEC was assigned a δ13C consensus value of –46. as appropriate for the measurement method concerned.S. From a total of 1055 δ13C measurements by four laboratories on 13 materials. and food and drug authentication. E.6 ‰ to L-SVEC lithium carbonate and +1.3 mg are statistically identical and carbonates are easily prepared for analysis using H3PO4. but it is in line with the Qi et al.95 ‰ to NBS 19 calcium carbonate.6 ‰). WIESER 13C RECOMMENDATION ON THE REPORTING OF MEASUREMENTS Differences in measured isotope amount ratios of stable carbon isotopes (13C/12C). Progress in these fields requires smaller measurement uncertainties to be achieved.2064 M.26] and agreement has not improved substantially in the last two decades except in a few cases [27]. Germany.03 ‰. Jena. M. 2051–2066 . Adoption of these guidelines should enable laboratories worldwide measuring the same sample to report δ13C values that agree with one another to within measurement uncertainty. Leipzig. MaxPlanck-Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI). commonly called δ13C values. recommended 13C values were determined by a multivariate Bayesian analysis [33]. Reston. the IAEA convened a consultants meeting in 2004 to calibrate internationally distributed stable carbon isotopic reference materials and to recommend another reference material for two-point normalization of the δ13C scale. and authors should clearly state so in their reports. U. NBS 19 calcium carbonate was adopted as the reference material for anchoring at high 13C content and was assigned the value +1.

S. 197 (1896). T. Clarke. Chem. 22. 56. H. 20. National Representative. the Subcommittee on Natural Isotopic Fractionation (SNIF). 7. De Laeter. S. Soc. Böhlke. J. I. W. 237 (1998). 1107 (2003). W. Soc. R. as a Secretary of the Commission from 1969 to 1975 and later as a U. Chem. Phys. Clarke. L. H. J. Hagemann. 683 (2003). Soc. K. S. Pure Appl. (b) F. De Laeter. J. J. Audi. G. © 2006 IUPAC. H. P. Gramlich. Clarke. W. (f) F. Clarke. 179 (1894). R. 57 (2005). 17. Chem. Rosman. and the Subcommittee for Isotopic Abundance Measurements (SIAM). Gramlich served as a member of the Commission from 1985 to 1997 and also of SIAM. R. M. Chem. A 729. Wapstra. John W. de Laeter. 201 (1895). Thibault. E. J. Holden. J. 200 (1899). D. J. K. Am. Barnes.15 ‰). C. Clarke. A. (e) F. Shima. J. By consensus. Chem. K. 19. Am. R. Chem. Phys. Ref. P. P. Clarke. J. 163 (1898). J. Dr. (g) F. Peiser. Am. Pure Appl. (c) F. 695 (1984). Peiser. 4. H. Soc. Peiser served as a member of the Commission from 1967 to 1985. Am. Soc. Sizes of solid points indicate newly estimated uncertainties (largest solid circle is equivalent to an uncertainty of 0. J. D. Pure Appl. Böhlke. Hidaka. 2051–2066 . 70 (1900). Hidaka. G. J. Data 34. De Bièvre. N. H. Mr. Loss. H. P Taylor. Chem. E.06 ‰). Pure Appl. Am. P. Chem. Thode. 2. W. Am. K. R. J. W. Coplen. Taylor. 18. 75. 70. Chem. Am. S.Atomic weights of the elements 2005 2065 Fig. H. P. J. 1 Improvement in combined standard uncertainty for δ13C reference materials compared with previously assessed uncertainty. Peiser. (d) F. R. 337 (2003). Rosman. Chem. Clarke. Pure and Applied Chemistry 78. REFERENCES 1. Peiser. De Bièvre. W. P. He also served as a member of the Commission’s Subcommittee for the Assessment of Isotopic Composition (SAIC). 5. H. Steffen Peiser and Dr. 359 (1897). R. had passed away. 16. De Bièvre. Soc. Chem. Chem. δ13C values of NBS 19 and L-SVEC have no associated uncertainty on the normalized scale. Soc. Roth. B. H. 75. Mr. 21. T. Nucl. S. J. OBITUARIES It was noted with sadness that two former members of the Commission. diameter of open circles (older materials only) indicate their previously estimated uncertainties (largest open circle is equivalent to an uncertainty of 0. 3. J. (a) F. D. W. 6. Murphy.

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