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2.1 Introduction Power Economic Dispatch is vital and essential daily optimization procedure in the system operation. It is a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. This chapter presents brief overview and literature survey on economic dispatch problem with focus on GA based approaches. Final section gives review on economic dispatch using GA independently and in hybrid form with some observations and potential avenues for further investigations.
Power System Operational Planning The operational planning of the power system involves the best utilization of the
available energy resources subjected to various constraints to transfer electrical energy from generating stations to the consumers with maximum safety of personal/equipment without interruption of supply at minimum cost. In modern complex and highly interconnected power systems, the operational planning involves steps such as load forecasting, unit commitment, economic dispatch, maintenance of system frequency and declared voltage levels as well as interchanges among the interconnected systems in power pools etc. Figure 2.1 illustrates the operation and data flow in a modern power system on the assumption of a fully automated power system based on real-time digital control . There are three stages in system control, namely generator scheduling or unit commitment, security analysis and economic dispatch. • Generator scheduling involves the hour-by-hour ordering of generator units on/off in the system to match the anticipated load and to allow a safety margin.
Load forecasting Unit commitment Security analysis Economic dispatch Data base System topology change commands Generator startup & shutdown commands State estimation Generator P & Q loading commands Measurements.Literature Survey Economic dispatch is generation allocation problem and defined as the process of calculating the generation of the generating units so that the system load is supplied entirely and most economically subject to the satisfaction of the constraints . security analysis assesses the system response to a set of contingencies and provides a set of constraints that should not be violated if the system is to remain in secure state. • Economic dispatch orders the minute-to-minute loading of the connected generating plant so that the cost of generation is a minimum with due respect to the satisfaction of the security and other engineering constraints. 8 .• With a given power system topology and number of generators on the bars. switch positions Power system Figure 2-1 Power System Control Activities 2.3 Economic Dispatch --.
Prior to 1930. H. 3. The survey covers the following aspects: • • • • • Developments in Economic dispatch since early 1920’s. The digital computer was investigated in 1954 for ED and is being used to date. later known as the equal incremental method. and 3) Environmental Dispatch [RV]. Valve point loading Optimal load flow Three part series [3-5] presented by IEEE working group 71-2 (W. Happ presented  comprehensive survey on economic dispatch. The analogue computer was developed to solve the coordination equations. H.Historically economic dispatch is being carried out since 1920. the methods in use includes: the base load method and best point loading 2.G. An electronic differential analyzer was developed and used in ED for both offline and on-line use by 1955. It was the time when engineers were concerned with the problem of economic allocation of generation or the proper division of the load among the generating units available. The survey has been focused under the following four areas of economic dispatch: 9 . yielded the most economic results. The economic dispatch has been addressed under “Real Time Operation” function with categories as: 1) Economic Dispatch [RE]. The developments in ED may be listed  as: 1. that the incremental method. 2) Security Dispatch [RS]. It was recognized as early as 1930. Step by step developments taking into account the effect of transmission loss in economic dispatch problem. B . on Operating Economics) describes the major security –economy functions and bibliography from 1959 to 1977.  presented a survey of papers and reports addressing various aspects of economic dispatch during the period 1977-88. et al. Multi-area concepts in economic dispatch.H. 6. Part II  & Part III  give the bibliography. 4. Chowdhury. A transmission loss penalty factor computer was developed in 1954. Part I  contains the descriptions of major economy-security functions. 5.
the cost function for each generator has been approximately represented by a single quadratic function. Most of these are calculus-based optimization algorithms that are based on successive linearization and use the first and second order differentiations of objective function and its constraints equations as the search direction. They usually require heat input. Economic dispatch in relation to AGC.• • • • Optimal power flow. Traditionally.3. Linear Programming (Easy Constraint Handling) 4. Nonlinear Programming Mathematical programming based approaches for ED may be classified as: 2.3. Various mathematical and optimization techniques have been applied to solve ED problem. The key issue is to determine the degree and the coefficients such that the error between the polynomial and test data is sufficiently low. Economic dispatch with non-conventional generation sources. 2. 2.2 Nonconvex Cost Curve Present day large power generating units with multi-valves steam turbines exhibit a large variation in the input-output characteristic functions. Economic dispatch with piecewise quadratic cost function (EDPQ) Economic dispatch with prohibited operating zones (EDPO). thus nonconvexity appears in the characteristic curves. Dynamic dispatch. This curve is convex in nature. It is the standard industrial practice that the fuel cost of generator is represented by polynomial  for Economic Dispatch Computation (EDC).1 Thermal Machine’s Cost Curve in Economic Dispatch Generators in system operation studies are represented by input/output cost curves. power output characteristics of generators to be of monotonically increasing nature or of piecewise linearity. Equal Incremental Cost Criterion (widely used) 3. 10 . Dynamic Programming (Curse of dimensionality) 5. 1. in the EDC. Merit Order approach (Old Method) 2. Two major nonconvex economic dispatch problems may be listed as : 1.
2. which is non-smooth in nature as shown in Figure 2.2.3. Figure 2-2 Value Point Effect b.3.2. Smooth quadratic function approximation of cost curves is used in classical economic dispatch.1 Piecewise Quadratic Cost Curve a. Multiple Fuel Mix Some generation units especially those units which are supplied with multiple fuel sources (gas and oil) are faced with the problem of determining the most economical fuel to burn. it becomes even more important to have a good model for the production cost of each generator. Figure 2-3 Hybrid Cost & Incremental Cost 11 . As fossil fuel costs increase. owing to wire drawing as each steam admission valve starts to open. This type of the characteristic must be used to schedule steam units accurately. Valve Point Effect The valve point effects . but it can not be used in traditional optimization methods because it does not meet the convex condition. typically produce a ripple like heat rate curve. Therefore a more accurate formulation  is obtained for the ED problem by using hybrid cost function and hybrid incremental cost function and expressing these generation cost function as a piecewise quadratic function and linear function respectively as shown in Figure 2.
It has been used to solve the economic dispatch problem independently and 12 . power output characteristics of generators to be of monotonically increasing nature or of piecewise linearity. but due to curse of dimensionality it has limitations.2.3 Economic Dispatch Based on Traditional Optimization--. The actual economic dispatch problem is non-convex in nature due valve point effect.3. multiple fuels and prohibited operating zones. Dynamic programming  has been used to solve this problem. differentiability. They usually require heat input.Bottlenecks Generally the economic dispatch problem is solved as convex optimization problem. convexity are potential solution methodologies. These simplifying assumptions result in an inaccurate dispatch.3. and generating units may have prohibited operating zones lying between their minimum and maximum power outputs . Usually. 3) Evolutionary Computation. Mathematical programming based optimization techniques have been developed to solve economic dispatch (ED) problem. the corresponding economic dispatch problem becomes a non-convex optimization problem . Therefore. AI tools such as 1) Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Thus for the accurate dispatch. the whole of the unit operating range is not always available for load allocation.2 Prohibited Operating Zone Due to the physical restrictions of power plant components (faults in the machines themselves or the associated auxiliaries). 2.4 Genetic Algorithm Based Economic Dispatch The power engineering community has been studying the feasibility and application of Artificial intelligence tools for efficient solution of complex power system problems. and 4) Fuzzy Logic have been developed to formulate and solve the convex and non-convex economic dispatch problem.2. each prohibited region makes the decision space separate into disjoint subsets which then constitute a non-convex decision space. The operation in these zones may result in amplification of vibrations in a shaft bearing which should be avoided in practical application. Genetic algorithm (GA) is one of the most popular paradigms of evolutionary computation. 2.3. 2) Expert Systems. the approaches independent of restrictions such as continuity.
There are several ways by which the performance of GA can be enhanced . et al. et al. 15-machine test system has been used for performance evaluation of GA in terms of objective function and equality constraints satisfaction for four different case studies and established the fact that GA performs function optimization in an adaptive manner so as to schedule the power generation in order to minimize objective function. H. In 1994.in conjunction with other AI tools and optimization approaches.  has used Simple genetic algorithm (SGA) with two different encoding schemes for solving the ED problem including valve point effect. Genetic algorithm has inherent ability to reach the global minimum region of search space in a short or affordable time [13-14].  presented genetic algorithm based solution for ill structured and multimodal economic dispatch problem including transmission loss 13 . In 1993. Ma. The objective of hybridization is to overcome the weakness of one approach during its application with the strengths of other by appropriately integrating them. In the discussion to follow in this section brief review on GA based approaches has been presented. continuity thus providing potential tool for real economic dispatch problem. He made useful observations regarding the GA parameters during analysis and concluded that GA has the ability to handle any type of unit characteristics. Walters. 2) convergence speed near the global optimum becomes slow. The SGA has been tested for ED problem with & without losses for smooth and non-smooth cost curves using three machine test system for five different cases by comparing the results obtained from dynamic programming technique. In 1993.  mapped ED problem in binary coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) environment using typical reproduction operator crossover and mutation. It has the superior global searching capability in a complex searching surface using little information of searching space. Hybrid approach is one of the methodologies used efficiently for producing quality results. But at the same time the disadvantages are: 1) long computational time [15-16]. et al. 3) provide near optimal solution  or non-convergence to global solution . Yoshimi. such as derivative.
robust in large systems. the solution time of GA-II is system dependent and increases linearly with the size of system. et al.considering compensating generation plan provided in the Clean Air Act 1990. Sheble.  presented two genetic algorithms GA–I & GA–II for the solutions of the economic dispatch problem. Wang. Orero. Bakirtzis. He proposed the techniques such as mutation prediction. interval approximation and penalty factors to enhance the program efficiency and accuracy. The proposed algorithm has been tested on 9-units system (including 2 hydro units with fixed outputs).  presented genetic algorithm based solution for economic dispatch with a view to get around the problems in classical optimization theory. In 1996. The comparison of results with lambda –iteration method proved that proposed approach is fast. However. P. In 1996. In 1994. Y. He has selected the encoding scheme such that chromosome contains only an encoding of the normalized system incremental cost thus making chromosome size independent of number of units.  has developed the genetic algorithm solution for nonconvex economic dispatch problem taking into account the prohibited operating zones 14 .  presented fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm for economic dispatch problem. ramp rate limits and prohibited zone avoidance. et al. Three units test system has been test for Economic dispatch solution using proposed algorithm. et al. This feature has been exploited as an edge for large-scale economic dispatch. elitism. Six generators system has been solved for economic dispatch using the proposed algorithm and compared the results with conventional GA. Test results with systems of up to 72 generating units with nonconvex cost functions show that both genetic algorithms outperform the dynamic programming solution to the economic dispatch problem. In 1995. In 1995.  presented genetic algorithm based approach for large-scale economic dispatch subject to the network losses. The two test systems: 3 machines system and 40 units Tai power systems have been used for demonstration of the approach. Two fuzzy logic controllers for adoptively adjustment GA parameters (—crossover rate and mutation rate) have been proposed. Po-Hung. et al. et al.
nonlinear fitness mapping and different crossover techniques have also been explored. The results have been compared with conventional GA and Newton-Raphson Method for the performance evaluation of proposed approach. but also forced the search to move within the operating feasible region. In 1997. et al.of the generators. Li. Song.robustness and few parameter settings) of genetic algorithm. This approach uses combination strategy using local search algorithms and genetic algorithms. adaptive mutation prediction. 15 generators practical power system with 4 of the units up to three prohibited operating zones system has been tested on the proposed approaches.  investigated the capability of genetic algorithms on the ramping rate constrained DED problem on 25 generators practical power supply system -. For the demonstration of algorithm six machines system has been solved for economic load dispatch problem. In 1997. et al. It has been established that the ramping rate constraint not only put no additional burden on the genetic search. In addition to this elite policy. Two fuzzy controllers have been designed to adaptively adjust the crossover probability and mutation rate during the optimization process based on some heuristics. In 1997. a too strict ramping rate constraint will prevent a GA from obtaining an economic. The proposed algorithm has been demonstrated by solving the power economic dispatch problem. It has also been recommended that this algorithm can be applied to wide range of optimization problems. et al.  proposed an advanced engineered-conditioning genetic algorithm (AEC-GA) with a view to improve the performance of GA. Song.  presented the application of a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm (FCGA) to environmental/economic dispatch. An investigation into choice of appropriate ramping rates for the generator units in a power system can be time consuming. Two different implementations of genetic algorithms: Standard Genetic Algorithm & Deterministic Crowding Genetic Algorithm has been presented with a view to improve the performance (--. feasible solution within a reasonable time. and gives smoother and more economical operational strategy for the whole dispatch period. 15 .Northern Ireland Supply (NIE). but highly rewarding. However. The six units test system results have been for its validation.
Yalcinoz. The proposed algorithm has been tested on 3-unit system and a 10-unit system and results compared with the taboo search (TS). et al. which transmit MW to designated buyers (load buses) via wheeling subject to the operation constraints in the cogeneration systems and security constraints in the third party (transmission system 16 .  proposed real coded genetic algorithm for the solution of economic dispatch problem. Yalcinoz. and extensible. continuous & integer optimization problem solution. which are the production cost and emissions functions. In 2002. In 2001. In 2000. The objective function consists of three terms. Chira. The approach has been tested on 6 machine and 20 machine systems and results have been compared with an improved Hopfield NN approach (IHN). ease of use. et al. In 2002.In 1998. Angela. arithmetic crossover and mutation have been used to generate solutions in successive generations.  has developed genetic algorithm based economic dispatch solution for eastern region of Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) system by using piecewise model of cost characteristics for the combined cycle and the cogeneration power plants in the system. flexible. et al. GAFrame includes features: GUI. Conventional & parallel micro genetic algorithms have been used for the solution with result that parallel micro genetic algorithm offers faster convergence. a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm (FLCGA). T. code reusability.  solved using binary coded GA for optimal dispatch among multi-plant (cogeneration systems) with multicogenerators. T.  developed framework “GAFrame” for constructing genetic algorithms based on object oriented programming methodology. Ying-Yi. an advance engineered-conditioning genetic approach (AECGA) and an advance Hopfield NN approach (AHNN) and established the fact that the proposed technique improves the quality of the solution. The two optimization problems: economic dispatch and distribution system expansion planning has been solved by this framework for validation of its features. et al. which based on arithmetic crossover operator.  presented the environmental economic dispatch problem using modified GA. Elitism. et al. the Hopfield NN and an improved Hopfield NN approach.
et al. for each additional problem constraint. it has been shown that the computational time required strongly depends on the number of the gene variables (Lagrange multipliers) instead of the system size. From the test results. only the equation used to define each individual performance needs to be modified and proposed approaches can be an efficient alternative or complementary technique for the planning of Hydrothermal power system operation. In 2003. The paper presents an adaptation of the technique and an actual application on the optimization of the operation planning for a cascaded system composed by interconnected hydroelectric plants. Also. computational loads. The algorithm has been tested on IEEE 30 and 118-bus systems.  presented GA based solution for the operational planning of hydro-thermal power systems to get around the deficiencies in nonlinear programming based approaches. et al. et al.owner). the proposed method can efficiently obtain the global optimum with the concept of equal Lagrange multiplier. Varying weighting coefficients for penalty functions (constraint handling) and determination of gene variables for GA has been adopted. and synchronization overhead for the best performance. The fact has been established that by using GA approach. Jarurote. Ioannis. The proposed algorithm was programmed on thirty-two-processor Bewulf cluster subject to schedule processors. The speedup upper bounds and the synchronization overheads on the Beowulf cluster for different system sizes and different migration frequencies have been shown. In 2002. Claim has been made that PMGA is viable to the online implementation of the constrained ED due to substantial generator fuel cost savings and high speedup upper bounds.  proposed an algorithm based on parallel micro genetic algorithm for the solution of ramp rate constrained economic dispatch neglecting the transmission loss for generating units with non-monotonic & monotonic incremental cost functions. developed  real coded GA for the solution of network constrained Power economic Dispatch for minimizing the dispatch cost subject to branch power flow limits. 52 buses Greek island of Crete system has been tested with convex cost functions and nonconvex cost functions for proposed algorithm to establish that the algorithm retained the advantages of the GAs over the traditional ED methods but also 17 . In 2002. Patricia.
Basically this algorithm is the integration of the improved genetic algorithm (IGA) and the multiplier updating (MU). The results obtained are satisfactory for both approaches. In 2005. IEEE 30 bus system has been tested for the proposed algorithm for its validation. 13-generator system and the standard IEEE 30-bus test system. Liladhur. SGA with generation-apart elitism. 10 units considering multiple fuels only. et al.  presented genetic algorithm solution for economic dispatch taking into account the valve point effect and multiple fuels simultaneously with multiplier update (IGA_MU). Bakare. In 2004. In 2005.eliminated the main disadvantage of the binary coded GAs (long execution time) and thus providing an efficient generic ED solution method. capacity of transmission lines and ramp rate limits. SGA with atavism and atavistic genetic algorithm (AGA). but it is shown that the µGA performed better than CGA with reference to the economic and computational time (average of 62% time reduction) for Nigerian system. and ten units addressing both valve-point effects and multiple fuels. it has been established the fact that IGA_MU is more effective and can apply to the real world problems. Hosseini. Chao-Lung Chiang. Tabu search and conventional Lagrangian multiplier method.  has made comparative investigation of both conventional GA and micro-GA for Power economic dispatch problem using 6-bus IEEE test system and 31-bus Nigerian grid Systems. By comparison of results of proposed algorithm with conventional genetic algorithm with multiplier update. These three concepts have been compared on three test systems: 3-generator system. et al. The proposed algorithm has been demonstrated by applying separately on: 13 units test system considering valve-point effects only. SGA with atavism. SGA with generationapart elitism.  discusses the centralized economic dispatch in deregulated environment.  presented economic dispatch solution considering valve point loading effect using simple genetic algorithm (SGA). et al. In 2004. Power economic dispatch problem has been using genetic algorithm subject to the constraints such as are minimum and maximum power generation of units. 18 . AGA outperforms SGA. et al. It has been established that when valve-point loading and ramping characteristics of the generators are taken into account.
two Genetic simulated annealing based algorithms GGA and GAA2) have been presented to determine the optimal or near optimum solution of the ED problem. Ongsakul. genetic algorithm based on MOL solutions (GA-MOL). 19 . et al. GA-SA is tested on the 10 generating unit systems and compared to the zoom brute force (ZBF). in  presented Simulated Annealing (SA) based economic dispatch algorithm. In comparison with Zoom Dynamic Programming (ZDP) method  economic dispatch results obtained for the test system are more economical. et al. The algorithm was demonstrated on three generating units system only. Subsequently in  four algorithms ( two GA based algorithms.Wong. By modifying step 3 of four steps BGA algorithm. MGAM-MOL used a merit order loading (MOL) solution as a base solution to reduce the search effort to the optimal solution. the algorithm has also been tested and compared to the others on the 20 and 40 generating unit systems. To illustrate the quality of GA-SA solutions on larger generating unit systems. Yalcinoze. Basic Genetic Algorithms (BGA) and Incremental Genetic Algorithm (IGA). Further GAA2 is developed to deal with the memory requirement by reducing the population size to 2. 13 Machine real life system has been tested and established the fact GAA2 is superior than other algorithms. et al. Ongsakul. local search (LS). and MOL. ZDP. Elitism. and MOL methods. presented  hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) for solving the economic dispatch problem. The MGAM-MOL solutions were less expensive than those obtained from simple genetic algorithm (SGA). To avoid premature convergence in IGA. an IGA algorithm has been derived which can find global optimum solution earlier in the solution process than BGA. micro genetic algorithm (MGA). The algorithm incorporates the solution produced by an improved Hopfield neural network (NN) as a part of its initial population. As the transmission line losses are incorporated. hybrid algorithm GAA is developed by combining IGA and simulated annealing.  proposed the micro genetic algorithm based on migration and merit order loading solutions (MGAM-MOL) for solving the constrained ED with linear decreasing and decreasing staircase IC functions. in  presented a genetic algorithm based on simulated annealing solutions (GA-SA) to solve ramp rate constrained Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) problems for generating units with non-monotonically and monotonically increasing IC functions. SA.
27. which can give a good direction to the optimal global region. et al. 23. 23] with different schemes for picking bits in decoding step. power market [33. 22. The technique improves the quality of the solution and reduces the computation time. and an improved GA (IGA). and is compared with the classical optimization technique. 37].4. 32]. 25. Standard test systems of various sizes in terms number of 20 . Then the loss has been participated among all generating units using participation factor method.arithmetic crossover. a fuzzy logic con-trolled GA (FLCGA). 19. an improved Hopfield NN approach (IHN). 21. Working philosophy of algorithm is as: 1) Real Coded GA has been used for global search 2) fine tunings by Tabu Search (TS) to direct the search towards the optimal region and local optimization 3) For loss calculation Fast Decoupled Load Flow (FDLF) conducted to find the losses by substituting the generation values to the respective PV buses. A ten-unit test system with non-smooth fuel cost function has been used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with those obtained from EP and SQP alone. 2. 22. Kumarappan. The algorithm is tested on IEEE 6-bus system and 66-bus utility system. 20.3. environmental concern [20.38] and handling of combined cycle plant. and mutation are used in the GAs to generate successive sets of possible operating policies. and a local search sequential quadratic programming (SQP) has been used as a fine tuning to determine the optimal solution at the final. 21. Attaviriyanupap. The algorithm has been proposed for minimum cost of operating units. 36]. The proposed method has been developed in such a way that a simple evolutionary programming (EP) has been applied as a based level search. Evolution model adopted includes: binary coded GA [9.1 Discussion The focus of GA based approaches for economic dispatch solution is around the aspects such as: convex  & nonconvex ED problem [9. real coded GA [31. micro GA  and parallel GA . presented  Neuro hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve an economic dispatch problem. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been applied to the Hybrid GA. in  proposed hybrid methodology for solving DED.
In the deregulated environment where cost minimizations not only the objective. Hybrid methodology is the useful tool for efficient solution by exploiting the strengths of GA with the powers of other techniques by appropriate integration of both the approaches. 3. Mapping of biological mechanism in terms of GA operators in economic dispatch problem. So this sector is the potential area for developing simple fast and efficient GA based hybrid methodologies.machines [9. 4. 19. Despite the advances in GA based approaches. 20. potential avenues for further exploration may be listed as: 1. Fast and accurate economic dispatch solution is as usual the requirement in deregulated scenario as well. Exploration of GA based ED approaches for the utility systems. Flexible and extensible computational framework as common environment for implementing economic dispatch algorithms. 2. 22. 5. 6. but at the same time profit maximization is the also the concern. 36. Performance evaluation of GA evolution models for economic dispatch problem. Some methodology for GA parameters for economic dispatch. 23. 39] have been used during investigations. 21 . 25] and utility systems [29. 21.
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