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Unit 2

Unit 2

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1. State the expressions for inductance L of a open wire line and coaxial line.

For open wire line , L=9.21*10-7(μ/μr +4ln d/a)=10-7(μr+9.21log d/a) H/m For coaxial line, L = 4.60*10-7[log b/a]H/m 2. What is dissipation less line? A line for which the effect of resistance R is completely neglected is called dissipation less line . 3. What is the nature and value of Z0 for the dissipation less line? For the dissipation less line, the Z0 is purely resistive and given by, Z0=R0 = √ L/c 4. State the values of α and β for the dissipation less line. Answer: α = 0 and β = w √LC (Nov/Dec – 2003)

(Nov/Dec – 2003)

5. What are nodes and antinodes on a line? (Dec – 2005) The points along the line where magnitude of voltage or current is zero are called nodes while the the points along the lines where magnitude of voltage or current first maximum are called antinodes or loops. 6. What is standing wave ratio? (Dec – 2003, June 2006, Dec 2006, June - 2009) The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of voltage or current on a line having standing waves called standing waves ratio.

S=

| Emax | ---------| Emin |

=

| Imax | ---------| Imin |

7. State the relation between standing wave ratio and reflection coefficient. (Dec – 2005) Ans: 1+|K| S = ----------1-|K| 8. What are standing waves? If the transmission is not terminated in its characteristic impedance ,then there will be two waves traveling along the line which gives rise to standing waves having fixed maxima and fixed minima. 9. What is called standing wave ratio? The ratio of the maximum to minimum magnitudes of current or voltage on a line having standing wave is called the standing-wave ratio S. That is,

S=

| Emax | ---------| Emin |

=

| Imax | ---------| Imin |

10. State the relation between standing were ratio S and reflection co-efficient k. The relation between standing wave ratio S and reflection co-efficient k is, 1+|K| S-1 S = ----------also | K | = --------1-|K| S+1 11. List the applications of the smith chart. (June – 2009) The applications of the smith chart are, (i) It is used to find the input impedance and input admittance of the line. (ii) The smith chart may also be used for lossy lines and the locus of points on a line then follows a spiral

Z0 = 692 <-12°Ω. the value of |K| = 1. What are the values of SWR for open circuit. State the values of α & β for the dissipation less line. stub matching is used. Since. Zin = R0[(1 + |K| <Φ . Hence the value of SWR is given by. Write the expression for input impedance of RF line.2βs)] Or Zin = R0[(ZR + jR0 tan βs) / (R0 + jZR tan βs)] 15. the minimum value of S is unity. i. (May – 2005) K = K = (ZR – Z0) / (ZR + Z0) = (200 . The points of minimum & maximum voltage or current are called nodes & antinodes respective. Matching between line & ite termination. 0 point.2010) When load is either open circuit or short circuit.55<-153. So to provide impedance matching between line & its termination. (iii) In single stub matching 12.|K| <Φ .91° / 888. Z0 = R0 = √L/C 13. short circuits & matched load?(May – 2004. A shorted line means having zero receiving end voltage & impedance. Determine K of a line for which ZR = 200Ω. Then the distribution of voltage along the length of the line is not uniform. What is need for stub matching in transmission lines? When line at high frequency is terminated into its characteristic impedance R0 then line operates as smooth line.path towards the chart center. SWR = (1 + |K|) / (1 . loses are absent hence maximum power is delivered with increased performance.|K|) = (1+0)/(1-0) = 1 20.2βs) / (1 .8) / (200 + 676. Hence the value of SWR is given by.51<-9. 17. Distinguish between open & shorted line.8 – j143. but minimum or maximum at different lengths. then the part of energy transmitted returns back to the source as reflected wave. A line reflected back from the load consisting nodes & antinodes is called standing wave.31° K = 0. due to attenuation. What are called standing waves? (May – 2005) When a line is not terminated correctly into its characteristic impedance R0. results in the form of a circle. These circles are called a constant S circle. ZR = ∞ & IR = 0. But practically R0 & the line termination are not matching. What is the nature and value of Z0 for the dissipation less line? (Dec – 2003) For the dissipation less line.8) = 489. ZR = 0 & ER = 0 And open circuited line means having infinite receiving end impedance & zero receiving end current i. Nov/Dec . What are constant S circles? (June – 2009) The input impedance equation for a dissipation less line if expressed in terms of standing wave ratio S. but minimum along the length of the line is not uniform. α = 0 & β = ω√LC 14. stub matching is used. Under this condition. (Dec – 2003) .. 16.|K|) = (1+1)/(1-1) = ∞ When load is matched with characteristic impedance. 19. S circles surround the 1.692<-12°) / (200 + 692<-12°) = (200 – 676.e. the Z0 is purely resistive & is given by. SWR = (1 + |K|) / (1 .8 – j143. the value of |K| is 0..6° 18.e.4<-162.

(Nov/Dec – 2006) 8. Nov/Dec .What are standing waves? Derive the expression for standing wave Ratio. Nov/Dec – 2010. Explain in detail about single stub matching. 2005.21. 23.2007 5. . May/June 2006) 11. 2006. S. ZR is the load impedance. May/June – 2005. 6. (Nov/Dec – 2004. Dec . 2. Write the expression to determine the position of stub. Z0 is the characteristic impedance.2006) 4. 12.Explain in detail about double stub matching.Derive an expression for the input impedance of the dissipation less line.2007) 3. (May/June – 2004. Distinguish between single & double stub matching. What are impedance matching devices. Explain the method of power & impedance measurement on the line.Derive an expression for the voltage and current on the dissipation less line. (Nov/Dec – 2003 9. (OR) Explain single stub matching on a transmission line & derive the expression for the location & the lengthe of the stub used for matching on a line. λ is the wavelength. (June – 2009) 10. Write short notes on quarter wave line and write its applications.Write short notes on eighth line and half line. PART – B 8 & 12 MARKS QUESTION & ANSWERS 1. Discuss how a smith chart is constructed & mention its applications.NO SINGLE STUB MATCHING DOUBLE STUB MATCHING It has one stub to match the transmission line 1 It requires two stub for impedance matching impedance It requires both length & location of stub to be It requires only to alter the length of stubs for 2 altered for matching matching It requires stub should be placed at a definite 3 The location of stub is arbitrary place on a line 22. June – 2009.Derive an expression for the input impedance under open and short circuited condition. May/June . (Nov/Dec – 2005) 7.(Nov/Dec 2005. (OR) Discuss how short circuited & open circuited lines can be used as circuit elements at high frequencies. (Nov/Dec – 2004. ls = ( λ/2π )[Ф + π – cos-1 |K|] or ls = (λ/2π) tan-1 √ZR / Z0 where K is the reflection coefficient. What is meant by electrical length of the line? (Nov/Dec – 2003) The length of the transmission line expressed in terms of wavelength is called an electrical length of line.

15. Describe diagrammatically the incident & reflected voltage-wave phasors & values along the dissipationless line for successive instants of time.13. 18. (Nov/Dec – 2007) . 16. (May/June – 2006) 21. 19. Derive the expression for constant S circle for the dissipation less line & explain. for an open – circuited line. 17. Show that the reflection coefficient (Nov/Dec – 2004) 20. 14.

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