PRESENTATION BY S.VISWANATHAN

DEPUTY DIRECTOR
NATIONAL POWER TRAINING INSTITUTE (SR) NEYVELI

ANNUAL FUEL CONSUMPTION IN A TYPICAL COAL FIRED 210 MW UNIT
PLANT LOAD FACTOR 83.1%

L.D.O. H.F.O. TOTAL OIL COAL SPECIFIC OIL CONSUMPTION

180 K.L. 1180 KL 1360 KL 1053220 T 0.89 ML/KWHR

SPECIFIC COAL CONSUMPTION PLANT HEAT RATE

0.69 KG/KWHR

2479 KCAL/KWHR

01 19.NO.12 85.COST OF GENERATION IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS SL.12 112.9 100 COST/KWHR FUEL OPERATIONAL EXPENCES REPAIRS & MAINT. FIXED COST .13 5.1 14.62 % 80. 4 TOTAL RUNNING COST 5 FIXED COST 6 GRAND TOTAL COST/KWHR 105.61 131. ELEMENT 1 FUEL 2 OPERATIONAL EXPENCES 3 REPAIR & MAINT.1 0.48 1.86 4.

0 3470.1 3785.8 1526.8 1526.1 required 558139 413793 545454 05772 Per Year 53*109 10*109 55*109 *109 Ug*Phr .8 1526.58 2298.73 For 210 MW with 83% PLF Units 1526.85 2272.8 Ug Generated Kwhr 68 68 68 *106 68 *106 Per Year *106 *106 Kc Kcal Kcal 3550.8 3510.COST OF INEFFICIENCY Thr E Turbine Kcal/ heat rate kWh Boiler % Efficiency Change % Plant heat Kcal/ rate kWh 2000 86 2000 87 2000 88 -1 0 1 2479 Phr 2325.

147. 72.372 16.092 04.55.486 .With a Coal of 3600Kcal/Kg Qc Coal required 10514 Per year T/Yr 986349 975011 963932 18 Kc/3600/ 1000 Taking coal cost Rs1400 per tonne Cc Cost of 138.08. 134.578 Qc*1400 Change in Coal T/Yr 11337 required Change in cost of Rs Coal 1.546 69.50. 10. 136.19 Coal Rs 88. 11.280 0 -11080 76407 0 1.69.545 85.95.58.

.PLANT OPTIMISATION • OBJECTIVE – A POWER PLANT MEETS IT’S INSTRUCTED LOAD THROUGHOUT IT’S LIFE AT MINIMUM COST • REQUIREMENT – ESTABLISH THE BESTWAY WITHIN CLOSE LIMITS TO OPERATE AND MAINTAIN THE STATION AND ENSURE THE LIMITS ARE ADHERED TO.

PLANT OPTIMISATION • RANGE OF DECISIONS TO BE OPTIMISED – WHAT IS THE BEST PLANT DESIGN? – WHAT IS THE BEST FUEL TO BURN? – HOW MANY STAFF ARE REQUIRED? .

PLANT OPTIMISATION —. HOW SHOULD A COMPLETE STATION BE OPERATED AT STEADY LOAD? — HOW SHOULD A INDIVIDUAL BOILER OR TURBINE BE OPERATED AT STEADY LOAD? — HOW SHOULD A INDIVIDUAL BOILER OR TURBINE BE OPERATED AT TRANSIENT LOAD? — HOW FREQUIENTLY SHOULD A PLANT BE CLEANED? — HOW FREQUIENTLY SHOULD A PLANT BE SERVICED? —CAN PLANT MODIFICATIONS OR OTHER EXPENDITURE BE JUSTIFIED BY IMPROVED PERFORMANCE? .

PLANT OPTIMISATION • DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION – UNCONTROLLABLE – SHORTTERM • DECISIONS UNDER CONTINUOUS CONTROL – MEDIUMTERM • DECISIONS MADE AT INTERVALS OF HOURS OR DAYS – LONGTERM • DECISIONS MADE INTERVALS OF WEEKS OR MONTHS .

DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION UNCONTROLLABLE – PLANT DESIGN – FUEL QUALITY – LOAD .

TEMPERATURE.STEAM PRESSURE.AIR FLOW ETC. – LOADING OF AUXILLIARIES .DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION SHORTTERM -DECISIONS UNDER CONTINUOUS CONTROL – OPERATING PARAMETERS Viz..

DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION MEDIUMTERM -DECISIONS MADE AT INTERVALS OF HOURS OR DAYS – SOOT BLOWING – CONDENSER CLEANING – MILL CLASSIFIER VANES ADJUSTMENTS .

DECISIONS MADE INTERVALS OF WEEKS OR MONTHS –SERVICING OF PLANT –REPLACEMENT OF WORNOUT PARTS –PLANT MODIFICATIONS .DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION • LONGTERM.

REQUIREMENT FOR EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE MONITORING • KNOWLEDGE ON VARIOUS FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE • COLLECTION OF SAMPLES • MEASUREMENT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS • CALCULATION AND OBTAINING RESULTS • INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS • OPTIMISATION AND IMPLEMENTATION .

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KEY AREAS OF BOILER PERFORMANCE • CONVERSION EFFICIENCY -BOILER EFFICIENCY -AUXILIRY POWER • BOILER AS PART OF SYSTEM -EFFECT OF BOILER PARAMETERS -SPECIFIC OIL CONSUMPTION • LONG TERM CAPABILITY -CAPACITY REDUCTION .

LOSSES ENCOUNTERED IN BOILER • CONTROLLABLE – – – – – – – – COMBUSTIBLE IN ASH LOSS DRY GAS LOSS CO IN FLUE GAS MILL REJECTS LOSS MOISTURE IN FUEL HYDROGEN IN FUEL AIR MOISTURE SENSIBLE HEAT IN ASH • UN CONTROLLABLE – RADIATION AND UNACCOUNTED .

AREAS CONTRIBUTING TO VARIOUS LOSSES IN A BOILER • • • • • COMBUSTION IN BOILER AIRHEATER PERFORMANCE MILL PLANT PERFORMANCE FANS WATER LOSSES .

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FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF COMBUSTION • • • • • • SURFACE CONTACT AREA OF FUEL WITH AIR AIR-FUEL RATIO RETENTION TIME COMBUSTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE TURBULANCE IN COMBUSTION CHAMBER REMOVAL OF PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION .

CARBON LOSS • HEAT LOSS DUE TO UNBURNT CARBON LEAVING THE BOILER ALONG WITH EITHER BOTTOM ASH OR FLY ASH .

FACTORS AFFECTING CARBON LOSS 1 AIR DISTRIBUTION – DISTRIBUTION – EXCESS AIR 2 PARTICLE SIZE – MILL FINENESS -200 – MILL FINENESS +50 3 COAL QUALITY – VOLATILE MATTER 4 COMBUSTION – TIME – TEMPERATURE – TURBULANCE .

AIR FUEL SY.AIR FUEL SY.AIR GOOD AIR DISTRIBUTION .AIR FUEL SY.AIR FUEL SY.AIR DISTRIBUTION SY.

AIR DISTRIBUTION • EXCESS AIR – AIR SUPPLIED IN ADDITION TO STOCHIOMETRIC AIR FOR COMPLETE COMBUSTION OF FUEL • OPTIMUM EXCESS AIR DEPENDS ON – FUEL QUALITY – FIRING SYSTEM DESIGN .

AIR DISTRIBUTION • EXCESS AIR LESS THAN OPTIMUM RESULTS – INCREASED CARBON IN ASH .

V.F.PARTICLE SIZE • COARSER THE FUEL PARTICLE MORE THE CARBON LOSS • MAINTAIN OPTIMUM FUEL SIZE BY PERIODICALLY MONITORING P.SIZE • OPTIMUM FINENESS FOR H.SUB BITUMINOUS COAL – 100% THROUGH 50 MESH – 90% THROUGH 100 MESH – 70% THROUGH 200 MESH .

VOLATILE MATTER • LOWER THAN DESIGNED VALUE NEEDS MORE TIME FOR COMPLETE COMBUSTION WHICH FURNACE CAN NOT PROVIDE • LEADS TO INCREASED COMBUSTIBLES IN ASH • REMEDY – BLENDING OF COAL .

COMBUSTION • TIME – SUFFICIENT RETENTION TIME MUST BE ALLOWED FOR THE FUEL TO STAY INSIDE THE FURNACE TO COMPLETE COMBUSTION – TIME REQUIRED/AVAILABLE DEPENDS • FUEL TYPE.SIZE • FURNACE SIZE • VELOCITY – DRAUGHT .QUALITY.

COMBUSTION • TEMPERATURE – EFFECTS THERMAL DIFFUSION OF REACTING MOLECULES DUE TO INCREASED VELOCITY OF MOLECULES WITH INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE – INFLUENCE THE RATE OF REACTION • FACTORS AFFECTING TEMPERATURE – HEAT ABSORBED BY FURNACE – HEAT ABSORBED BY REACTANTS TO BRING THEM TO IGNITION TEMPERATURE – HEAT ABSORBED BY NITROGEN IN AIR .

IN CORNER FIRED BOILERS • TERTIARY AIR IN WALL FIRED BOILERS .COMBUSTION • TURBULANCE – MECHANICAL AGITATION OF REACTANTS TO BRING THEM INTO PHYSICAL CONTACT – REQUIREMENT IS MORE AT FINAL STAGE OF COMBUSTION – LESSER THE TURBULANCE MORE CARBON LOSS – DEPENDS • WIND BOX TO FURNACE DIFF.PR.

DRY FLUE GAS LOSS • HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY THE DRY CONSTITUENTS OF FLUE GAS THROUGH THE CHIMNEY .

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TA) Kcal/Kgf DRY FLUEGAS LOSS WHERE SHD .V.HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY DRY FLUE GAS Kcal/Kgf C.CALORIFIC VALUE OF FUEL Kcal/Kgf .V. .)*100 % = WD*CP*(TG .DRY FLUE GAS LOSS HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY DRY FLUE GAS SHD WHERE WD CP TG TA WEIGHT OF DRY FLUE GAS Kgm/Kgf SPECIFIC HEAT OF DRY FLUE GAS Kcal/Kgm0C GAS TEMPERATURE AT AIR HEATER OUTLET 0C AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 0C = (SHD/C.

'C' BURNT = TOTAL DRY FLUE GAS/Kg.G/Kg.'C' IN F. i. 24+32=56 24 Kg OF C 56 Kg OF CO CONTAINS  1 Kg OF CO CONTAINS 24/56 = 3/7 Kg OF C TOTAL DRY FLUE GAS = Kg CARBON * DRY F. .e. 12+32=44 44 Kg OF C02 CONTAINS 12 Kg OF C  1 Kg OF CO2 CONTAINS 12/44 = 3/11 Kg OF C 2C+O2 2CO .G/Kg.e. i.CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT C+O2 CO2 .G.'C' BURNT DRY F.

G = 3/11(44CO2%)+3/7(28CO%) = 12(CO2%+ CO%) DRY F.G.CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WEIGHT WHEN DRY F.CONTAINS CO2% OF CARBON-DI-OXIDE AND CO% OF CARBON MONOXIDE BY WEIGHT Kg OF CARBON IN F.CARBON IN ASH Kg/Kg OF FUEL ./Kg 'C' BURNT = TOTAL DRY F.G = 100/12(CO2%+CO%)Kg.U Where C-% OF CARBON IN FUEL U.G = 3/11 CO2 + 3/7 CO WHEN CO2% AND CO% IN FLUE GAS ARE MEASURED IN VOLUME BASIS Kg OF CARBON IN F.mol CARBON BURNT = C/100 .G. OF 'C' IN F.G/ Kg.

fuel IF SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF SULPHUR IS PRESENT AND SO2 IS ALSO TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT THE CARBON EQUIVALENT OF SULPHUR WILL BE ADDED AS S*12/32 = S/2.67 WHERE 'S' IS % SULPHUR IN FUEL DRY FLUE GAS=100(C/100)+(S/267)-U/12(CO2%+CO%) Kgmol/Kg.fuel .CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WEIGHT  DRY FLUE GAS = 100 (C/100)-U/12(CO2%+CO%) Kgmol/Kg.67)-100U/12(CO2%+CO%) Kgmol/Kg.fuel =C+(S/2.

966 MEA MOLS OF EXCESS AIR Kgmol/Kg QXA/ MWA fuel 0.95/100 DRY GAS WT.001 QSA Kg/Kg fuel 4.OF AIR % % % % Kg 36.8051 O2 EA QXA MWA % % 6 40 Kg/Kg fuel 1.6664*(C100*U)+7.28 7.9220 Kg/ Kgmol 28.2317 . OF EXCESS AIR QSA* EA/100 MOL.0139 MDG 0.51 0. PER Kg OF FUEL MO2/ O2 *100 Kgmol/Kg fuel Kgmol/Kg fuel 0.CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WITH O2 DRY C H S OX U CARBON HYDROGEN SULPHUR OXYGEN UNBURNT CARBON/Kg OF FUEL STOCHIOMETRIC AIR 2.60 0.92 2.WT.937*H+S-Ox OXYGEN IN FLUE GAS EXCESS AIR (O2/21-O2)*100 Wt.0664 MO2 MOLS OF O2 IN EXCESS AIR MEA*20.

6664*(C100*U)+7.2317 MDG .OF AIR MOLS OF EXCESS AIR QXA/ MWA MOLS OF O2 IN EXCESS AIR MEA*20.95/100 DRY GAS WT.0139 fuel Kgmol/Kg fuel 0.0664 fuel Kgmol/Kg 0.001 Kg/Kg fuel 4.966 Kgmol/Kg 0.92 2.9220 Kg/ Kgmol 28.937*H+S-Ox OXYGEN IN FLUE GAS EXCESS AIR (O2/21-O2)*100 Wt.28 7.WT.60 0. OF EXCESS AIR QSA* EA/100 MOL.51 0.8051 O2 EA QXA MWA MEA MO2 % % 6 40 Kg/Kg fuel 1. PER Kg OF FUEL MO2/ O2 *100 % % % % Kg 36.CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WITH O2 DRY C H S OX U QSA CARBON HYDROGEN SULPHUR OXYGEN UNBURNT CARBON/Kg OF FUEL STOCHIOMETRIC AIR 2.

0% .6% to1.O2 MEASUREMENT • DRY BASIS – MEASURED THROUGH ORSAT APPARATUS • WET BASIS – MEASURED THROUGH ONLINE ANALYSERS LIKE ZIRCONIA PROBE • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WET AND DRY O2% IN FLUE GAS COAL FIRED BOILERS OIL/GAS FIRED BOILERS .2% .0.0.

FACTORS AFFECTING DRY FLUEGAS LOSS • COAL QUALITY – MOISTURE – CARBON – CALORIFIC VALUE • AIR INLET TEMPERTATURE – AMBIENT TEMPERTURE – SCAPH • FLUE GAS QUANTITY – EXCESS AIR – AH LEAKAGE .

FACTORS AFFECTING DRY FLUEGAS LOSS • FLUEGAS OUTLET TEMPERTATURE – AIR HEATER LEAKAGE – AH ENTERING AIR TEMPERATURE – AH ENTERING GAS TEMPERATURE • • • • • BOILER LOAD FW TEMPERATURE X RATIO OF AH TEMPERING AIR AIR INGRESS .

COAL QUALITY • VARIATION IN COAL QUALITY VARIES AIR REQUIREMENT AND HENCE DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT • VARIATION IN CALORIFIC VALUE VARIES THE %LOSS CALCULATION – UN CONTROLLABLE FACTORS • EFFECTS ARE NEED TO BE DETERMINED BEFORE ANALYSING CONTROLLABLE FACTORS .

AIR INLET TEMPERTATURE • AMBIENT TEMPERTURE – INCREASE IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE BRING DOWN HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY DRYGAS – AFFECT AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE – UNCONTRLLABLE • SCAPH – CONTINUOUS SERVICE OF SCAPH INCREASE TA BUT AT THE SAME INCREASE TG ALSODUE TO A.H.PERFORMANCE DETORIATION – INCREASED LOSSES DUE TO STEAM CONSUMPTION IN SCAPH .

ANALYSIS .FLUE GAS QUANTITY • EXCESS AIR – MORE THAN OPTIMUM INCREASES WD AND SO DRY GAS LOSS – LESS THAN OPTIMUM INCREASES CARBON LOSS – OPTIMUM EXCESS AIR IS DETERMINED THROUGH FIELD TESTS – OPTIMUM EXCESS AIR CAN BE MAINTAINED THROUGH F.G.

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23 LAKHS FOR A210 MW UNIT .LOSS DUE TO HIGH EXCESS OXYGEN 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 INCREASE OF EXCESS OXYGEN % 5 1% INCREASE IN EXCESS OXYGEN WILL LEAD TO AN ANNUAL LOSS OF Rs. 38.

FLUE GAS QUANTITY • AH LEAKAGE – INCREASE DRY GAS WEIGHT – DECREASE A. PERFORMANCE .H.H. GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE – INCREASE DRY GAS LOSS AND DECREASE A.

FLUEGAS OUTLET TEMPERTATURE • AH ENTERING AIR TEMPERATURE – FOR EVERY 30C RISE IN AIR INLET TEMPERATURE GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE RISES BY 20C • AH ENTERING GAS TEMPERATURE – FOR EVERY 30C RISE IN GAS INLET TEMPERATURE GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE RISES BY 10C .

AT A. TEMP. OUTLET 50 45 40 35 30 INCREASE IN F.1CRORE FOR A 210 MW UNIT 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0C INCREASE IN A.LOSS DUE TO HIGH F.G.H. OUTLET BY 100C WILL LEAD TO 25 AN ANNUAL 20 15 LOSS OF Rs.G. OUTLET TEMP . AT A.H.H.TEMP.

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AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE • GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE LOWER THAN OPTIMUM – LEADS TO COLD END CORROSION • LOSS OF HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS • GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE HIGHER THAN OPTIMUM – MORE DRY GAS LOSS – RISE OF 220C ABOVE OPTIMUM REDUCE BOILER EFFICIENCY BY 1% – 20C RISE ABOVE OPTIMUM RESULTS LOSS OF 600Kcal HEAT IN 1 TONNE OF F.G. .

COMBUSTION • FEED WATER TEMP • SEALS CONDITON • DIFF. OF AIR PASSING THROUGH – LIGHTING AND FIRING COLD BOILER • USE SCAPH FACTORS AFFECTING A.H.G – FOULED / CORRODED ELEMENTS – DEFECTIVE BAFFLES – QTY. . • TEMPERING AIR • SETTING INFILTRATION • BYPASS DAMPERS PASSING – AIR LEAKAGE – TEMP. BETWEEN AIR AND F.H • DEPOSITS ON BOILER HEAT TRANSFER AREAS • DELAYED/SY.OFGAS PASSING THROUGH A.H. PR.• LOWER THAN • HIGHER THAN OPTIMUM OPTIMUM – QTY.H. GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE A.OF GAS ENTERING A.

IN AN EFFICIENCY TEST OF A BOILER .H. EXITGAS TEMP.AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE TESTS • REQUIREMENTS – CHECKING ACTUAL PERFORMANCE AGAINST MANUFACTURER’S GUARANTEE – COMPARISON WITH A STANDARD OF OPERATION – COMPARING PERFORMANCE WHEN FIRING DIFFERENT FUELS – DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF CHANGES TO EQUIPMENT – DETERMINING CORRECTIONS TO A. CAUSED BY VARIATIONS IN INLET TEMP.

AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE TESTS • PERFORMANCE ITEMS DETERMINED – – – – GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY AIR LEAKAGE X-RATIO GAS AND AIR TEMPERATURE CORRECTIONS – GAS AND AIRPRESSURE LOSS .

OF AIR LEAVING TEMP. OF HEATED AIR LEAVING AIR SIDE INLET AND OUTLET STATIC PRESSURE AIR SIDE INLET AND OUTLET VELOCITY PRESSURE GAS SIDE INLET AND OUTLET STATIC PRESSURE GAS SIDE INLET AND OUTLET VELOCITY PRESSURE GAS ANALYSIS OF F.DATA REQUIRED FOR A.OF GAS ENTERING TEMP.ENTERING AND LEAVING A. OF AIR ENTERING QTY.G.H HUMIDITY OF INLET AIR .OF AIR ENTERING TEMP.OF GAS LEAVING QTY.H. PERFORMANCE TESTS • • • • • • • • • • • • TEMP.

H.H. PERFORMANCE TESTS • • • • • QTY. OF GAS ENTERING A. OF ATOMISING STEAM IF BURNING OIL . QTY.H. QTY. OF GAS LEAVING A.DATA REQUIRED FOR A. OF FUEL MEASURED OR COMPUTED ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF COAL QTY.

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CORRECTED FOR NO AIR LEAKAGE .H.H tG15(NL) .H.MEASURED AIR TEMP.MEASURED GAS TEMP.CALCULATED GAS TEMP LEAVING A.AIR HEATER CALCULATIONS GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY G = {(tG14-tG15(NL))/(tG14-tA8)}*100 WHERE tG14 . tA8 . ENTERING A. ENTERING A.

HEAT OF AIR .Sp.% AIR LEAKING CpA . OF LEAKING AIR (t A8) TO GAS OUTLET TEMP.( tG15) =A (L)*CpA*(tG15.G HEAT GAINED BY LEAKING AIR=HEAT REQUIRED TO RISE TEMP.tA8) WHERE A (L) .HEAT BALANCE FOR LEAKING AIR IN AIR HEATER HEAT GAINED BY LEAKING AIR=HEAT LOST BY F.

HEAT BALANCE FOR LEAKING AIR IN AIR HEATER
HEAT LOST BY F.G =HEAT LOST TO BRING DOWN THE GAS TEMP. FROM IF THERE IS NO LEAK (tG15(NL)) TO ACTUAL GAS TEMP. ( tG15)
=100*CpG*( tG15(NL) - tG15 ) WHERE CpG - Sp.HEAT OF F.G.

100*CpG*( tG15(NL) - tG15 )
tG15(NL)

=

A (L)*CpA*(tG15- tA8)

= [{A (L)*CpA*(tG15- tA8)}/ 100*CPg ] + tG15

AIR HEATER LEAKAGE A(L) =[WET AIR LEAKAGE/WET GAS ENTERING A.H]*100 =[{WG15-WG14}/WG14]*100

BY EMPRICAL APPROXIMATION A(L) =90*{%CO2 ENTERING A.H.-%CO2 LEAVING A.H.}/ %CO2 LEAVING A.H.

EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON A.H. GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY
• AIR INLET TEMP.IN ALL CASES 300C
CASE GAS INLET TEMP. 0 C 400 400 400 400 430 GAS OUTLET TEMP. 0 C 140 155 140 155 165 LEAKAGE EFFICIENCY % % 13 13 20 20 20 66.5 62.2 64.6 59.7 59.8

IDEAL 1 2 3 4

00 -0.10 36.92 0.10 3689.00 C S U Carbon in fuel Sulphur in fuel Unburnt carbon/kg fuel CO2 Carbon di oxide in flue gas Wd Dry gas wt.2525 7.31 / 0c 0 C 155 0 C 35 120 5.92 0.28 0.0066 13 0.2331 36.0066 13 0.10 36.28 0.46 .ht Specific heat Tg Gas temperature leaving boiler Ta Ambient temperature DT Tg-Ta L1 Dry gas loss Change in loss for 1% CO2 100C Kcal/kgmol 7.28 0.0066 12 0.EFFECT OF COMPONENT ON DRY GAS LOSS / EFFICIENCY Gcv Gross calorific value of fuel Kcal/kg % % Kg % Kgmol/kg 3689.46 3689.92 0.54 0 C % % -0. Per kg of fuel Sp.2331 7.31 165 35 130 6.31 155 35 120 6.

INCREASED GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE .EFFECTS OF TRAMP AIR TO BOILER • NOT CONTRIBUTING TO COMBUSTION • OFTEN IT IS COLD • INCREASE GAS VELOCITY THROUGH E.P • BYPASSING A.H.S.

H.SOURCES OF AIR INGRESS • • • • • • ASH HOPPER SEALS ASH HOPPER DOOR LEFT OPEN DEFECTIVE EXPANSION JOINTS DUCT OPENINGS UNCOVERED BOILER ROOF SEALS DEFECTIVE ATTEMPERATING AIR DAMPERS PASSING • A.AIR BYPASSING DAMPERS PASSING • SUCTION MILLING PLANT • WORN SHAFT SEAL ON EXHAUSTERS .

H . WA9*CpA*(tA9 .G.= -----------------WG14*CpG (tA9 . X RATIO = -------------------------------------------------------------------------HEAT CAPACITY OF GAS PASSING THROUGH A.H.tA8) CpA / CpG = 0.tG15(NL)) WA9*CpA (tG14 .tA8) = WG14*CpG*(tG14 .tG15(NL)) X RATIO = ------------.95 INDICATION OF AIR BY PASSING A.H.X RATIO HEAT CAPACITY OF AIR PASSING THROUGH A. LEAVING A. TEMP.H EFFECT OF BYPASSING AIR ON F.

Tgo Gas temp.39 152.H.H.78 % 63 8.68 0.Efficiency T/hr T/hr 0 0 700 700 700 C C 0 C 0 C 500 475 525 0.64 0.H. entering A. Qg Gas quantity entering A. Qa Air quantity leaving A.62 66 .69 60 . leaving A.Tai )] VARIATION Aef A.H. Tai Air temp.H. Tao Air temp. entering A.EFFECT OF AIR BYPASSING AH ON X RATIO AND GAS TEMP. leaving A. without leakage Tgi-[ Xr*( Tao.8.71 330 330 330 35 35 35 310 311 309 143.08 134.H.H. Xr X ratio Qa*95/Qg Tgi Gas temp.

inlet Xr A.Xratio Qa Air quantity leaving A. Xr*Qg/0.95 Qat Tempering air quantity from mill heat balance Qi Air ingress quantity Qaf-Qat-Qa % Air ingress T/hr 700 T/hr 650 0.H.inlet Qaf Air quantity based on excess air at A.7 T/hr 515.H.CALCULATING AIR INGRESS % Qg Gas quantity at A.H.H.21 5.26 .79 T/hr 100 T/hr 34.

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MILL PERFORMANCE FACTORS • P. FINENESS – CARBON LOSS – MILL POWER CONSUMPTION • COAL-AIR RATIO • MILL REJECTS .F.

5% IN CAPACITY .FINENESS • TOO COARSE – – – – – WEAR IN COAL PIPE SLOWER IGNITION POOR FIREBALL MIXING UNSTABLE FLAME FRONT AT LOW LOADS HIGH CARBON LOSS • TOO FINE – INCREASED WEAR OF PULVERISER – DECREASED PULVERISER OUTPUT – INCREASED POWER CONSUMPTION • 1% CHANGE IN FINENESS EQUALS APPROXIMATELY 1.EFFECTS OF P.F.

PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING COAL FINENESS • PERIODICALLY COLLECT COAL SAMPLE FROM ALL PIPE LINES OF A MILL IN TWO PLANES USING STANDARD PROBE • BEFORE COLLECTING SAMPLE ENSURE – MILL IS RUNNING AT MORE THAN 75% LOAD – MILL IS RUNNING AT A STEADY LOAD FOR 30 MINUTES – NO LOAD CHANGE TAKES PLACE DURING SAMPLE COLLECTION .

PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING COAL FINENESS • MIX ALL THE SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM A MILL HOMOGENEOUSLY • TAKE REQUIRED MASS OF SAMPLE BY CONING AND QUARTERING • CONDUCT SIEVE ANALYSIS ON THE SAMPLE • OPTIMUM FINENESS – 100% THROUGH 50 MESH – 90% THROUGH 100 MESH – 70% THROUGH 200 MESH .

PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING COAL FINENESS • DEPENDING ON THE RESULT ADJUST THE CLASSIFIER VANES • TO INCREASE FINENESS – MOVE THE VANES TOWARDS CLOSED POSITION • TO DECREASE FINENESS – MOVE THE VANES TOWARDS OPEN POSITION • AFTER ADJUSTING RECHECK FINENESS • IF NECESSARY – ADJUST RING TO ROLL CLEARANCE – ADJUST PRESSURE SPRING – REPLACE GRINDING ELMENTS .

EFFECTS OF COAL AIR RATIO • HIGH AIR FLOW – – – – – AFFECTS COAL CLASSIFICATION REDUCES DISCHARGE OF PYRITES INCREASES COAL PIPE EROSION AFFECTS IGNITION POINT MORE P.A. FAN POWER CONSUMPTION • LOW AIR FLOW – INCREASES COAL PIPE SPILLAGE – CAUSES DRIFTING IN COAL PIPE AND ULTIMATE COAL PIPE CHOKING .

935R.612R.791R.354R WHERE 'R' IS THE RADIUS OF PIPE IN INCHES . 0. AND 0.CLEAN AIR FLOW TEST • DETERMINES – WHETHER THERE IS ENOUGH AIR TO TRANSPORT THE COAL – AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN COAL PIPES – COAL PIPE OBSTRUCTION • METHOD P IS MEASURED BY PITOT TUBE IN COAL PIPE AT 0. 0.

4 + PS /345.275 [ ----------------------------1. .STATIC PRESSURE IN INCHES OF WC. .5 ] Ft/s PV 0.IN INCHES OF WC.0735 PS { ------------------} 460+T WHERE PV Pb PS T .326 Pb +0.BAROMETRIC PRESSURE IN mm OF Hg.PR.5 AIR VELOCITY = 5. . OF WC.STATIC PRESSURE IN mm OF WC.5702 [ ---------------------------------------.TEMPERATURE IN 0C .] 18.CLEAN AIR FLOW TEST PV AIR VELOCITY = 18.TEMPERATURE IN 0F M/s 0.IN mm.BAROMETRIC PRESSURE IN INCHES OF Hg.) 273.7113 Pb / 25.34 ( -------------------------.PITOT TUBE DIFF. . . .PITOT TUBE DIFF.PR.3 + T WHERE PV Pb PS T .

32725*D2*V* lbs/min D . OF PIPE IN INCHES V .DIA.AIR VELOCITY ft/s  -AIR DENSITY DESIRED RESULTS MEASURED AIR FLOW BETWEEN 135% AND 160% OF STANDARD AIR FLOW MEASURED AIR VELOCITIES ARE WITHIN 5% OF AVERAGE VELOCITIES .CLEAN AIR FLOW TEST AIR FLOW = 0.

CAUSES OF MILL REJECTS • LOW AIR VELOCITY – LOW AIR FLOW – AIR BYPASSING • HIGH RE CIRCULATION RATIO – WEAR OF GRINDING ELEMENTS – IMPROPER SETTING OF GRINDING ELEMENTS – IMPROPER SPRING COMPRESSION – OPERATING MILL WITH HIGHER FINENESS – HIGH MOISTURE COAL/LOW MILL OUTLET TEMPERATURE .

CAUSES OF MILL REJECTS • OVER FEEDING EXCEEDING MILL CAPACITY – MALFUNCTIONING OF FEEDER OR FEEDER HINGE GATE – HIGH RPM OF FEEDER – REDUCTION IN MILL CAPACITY • EFFECTS OF REJECTS – REDUCTION IN BOILER EFFICIENCY – DETORIARATION OF DUST GUARD SEAL – OIL CONTAMINATION RESULTING DAMAGE TO MILL DRIVE COMPONENTS .

MUST BE WITHIN DESIRED GRINDING RANGE AT ALL STABLE LOADS • WET COAL UPTO DESIGN WETNESS MUST BE ADEQUATELY DRIED WHILE FULL OUTPUT IS MAINTAINED • AT NO TIME MUST IT BE NECESSARY TO OPERATE THE MILLING PLANT IN AN UNSAFE CONDITION .MILL PLANT REQUIREMENTS • MUST BE ABLE TO HANDLE DESIGN QUANTITY COAL AND PRODUCE AN ACCEPTABLE PRODUCT EVEN WITH WORN OUT COMPONENTS • P.F.

DRYING CAPACITY
Wf = AO*(TI-TO)*4.043*10-04/MC*(1+)
WHERE

Wf - COAL THROUGHPUT Kg/s AO - AIR FLOW AT MILL OUTLET Kg/s  - LEAKAGE FACTOR =(AO-AI)/AI AI - AIR FLOW AT MILL INLET Kg/s TI - AIR TEMPERATURE AT MILL INLET 0C TO - COAL-AIR TEMP. AT MILL OUTLET 0C MC - TOTAL MOISTURE FRACTION OF COAL

MILL PLANT CONSTRAINTS
• GRINDING LIMIT
– GRINDABLITY INDEX – MILL MOTOR CAPACITY

• P.F.FALL OUT LIMIT
– MIN. VEL. OF COAL-AIR 18 TO 20Kg/s

• EROSION LIMIT
– 1.5 TIMES OF FALL OUT LIMIT

• FLAMMABLITY
– SAFE AIR/FUEL RATIO 5:1

• FLAME STABLITY
– MINIMUM THROUGHPUT NOT LESS THAN 50%

• ATTEMPERATION
– MINIMUM AIR TEMP. CONSTANT

MILL OPERATING WINDOW
BASIC DATA
COAL TYPE - BITUMINOUS TOTAL MOISTURE - 24% MAXM; 14% NOMINAL COAL FLOW -12Kg/s(MAX.);10.3Kg/s NOMINAL GRADING - 94% < 150 µm HOT AIR TO MILL TEMP. -2950C(MAX); 2000C(MIN) AIR FLOW TO MILL - 30.2Kg/s SEAL AIR FLOW TO MILL - 0.5Kg/s at 150C RATED P.A. FAN POWER - 406kw at 42.7Kg/s FLOW MINIMUM AIR FLOW - 21Kg/s EROSION LIMIT - 33 Kg/s AIR-FUEL MIXTURE TEMP. -700C

MILL OPERATING WINDOW LIMITING VALUES MAX.COAL THROUGHPUT-12Kg/s at 94%  150 m STABLITY 0.24*1.7 Wf AIR/FUEL RATIO = 2.36*AO AO = 2.33 Kg/s FOR DRYING LIMIT AT 2900C AIR TEMP. & 24% MOISTURE  = (30.043*10-04/(0.7-30.7: 1 Wf AT 2000C AIR TEMP.2 =0.017 = AO*(TI-TO)*4.017) = 0.5*12=6 Kg/s COAL FLOW EXPLOSION LIMIT AT 5:1 AIR/FUEL RATIO FAN POWER Wf +Wa =12 + 30. & 14% MOISTURE AIR/FUEL RATIO = 4.6: 1 .2 + 5 =42.7 Kg/s FALL OUT .2)/30. AIR FLOW -21 Kg/s EROSION LIMIT .MIN.043*10-04/MC*(1+) = AO*(290-70)*4.

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COSTS OF WATER • • • • • • • RAW WATER COSTS PUMPING PRETREATMENT DEMINERALISATION BOILER CHEMICALS HEAT PUMPING OUT WASTE WATER .

SOURCES OF WATER LOSSES • BOILER – – – – – – – – BLOW DOWN SOOT BLOWING INCLUDING DRAINAGE SAMPLERS PASSING DRAINS OR VENTS ATOMISING STEAM FOR OIL BURNERS DRAINS FROM OIL HEATERS DRAIN DURING START UP BOILER EMPTYING OPERATIONS .

SOURCES OF WATER LOSSES • FEED SYSTEM – PUMP GLANDS – DRAIN VESSEL OVER FLOW/DRAINS – START UP-DRAINAGE VENTING • WATER TREATMENT PLANT – – – – REGENERATION LOSSES LEAKS IN PIPE LINES PUMP GLANDS DE SLUDGING .

SOOT BLOWING LOSS STEAM FLOW RATE = 4500 Kg/Hr STEAM FLOW/BLOWER = 4500*84/3600 = 105 Kg ENTHALPY OF STEAM AT 25Kg/cm2 PR.88 TONNES HEAT LOSS WITH STEAM / BLOWER .& 3500C = 745 Kcal/Kg = 105*745 = 74025 Kcal NUMBER OF BLOWERS = 56 TOTAL HEAT LOSS FOR ONE BLOWING CYCLE = 74025*56 = 41.400 Kcal WATER LOSS FOR ONE BLOWING CYCLE = 5.45.

5 3 4.STEAM LOSS FROM TUBE PUNCTURES DIA.5 6 25 7Kg/cm 6.5 25 57 100 1615 21Kg/cm 15 60 135 240 3801 .OF HOLE IN mm STEAM LEAK RATE Kg/Hr AT 2 2 1.

WATER MAKE UP % 1% INCREASE IN MAKE UP WATER LEADS TO AN ANNUAL LOSS OF Rs 55.LOSS DUE TO HIGH WATER MAKE UP INCREASED D.83 LAKHS FOR A210MW UNIT 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 .M.

DIFF.EFFECT OF THERMAL INSULATION TEMP.BETWEEN SURFACE & AMBIENT 0 C 40 100 150 225 HEAT LOSS Kcal/m2/Hr 600 1410 2170 5430 .

.

Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler • Non-Optimum Reheat or Superheat steam temperatures. . • Higher than design Re heater or Super heater De-Superheating spray flows. • Higher than design economizer exit gas temperature or furnace exit gas temperature caused by poor combustion.

secondary air and over fire air. • High Bottom Ash Loss on Ignition. • Non-Optimum utilization or distribution of primary air.Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler • Fly ash Unburned Carbon or Loss on Ignition greater than 5% for Eastern Bituminous Coals or greater than 1% for Western or Lignite Coals. if applicable. .

. • Excessive air heater leakage. • Excessive boiler setting air in-leakage.Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler • Increased auxiliary horsepower consumption by coal pulverizers and fans • Reductions in capacity factors due to excessive furnace or convection pass slagging or fouling. • Increased cycle losses with increased sootblowing due to non-optimum combustion.

Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler
• Excessive pulverizer spillage on vertical spindle, roll and race and ball bearing type pulverizers. Reductions in capacity factors due to pulverizer or fan capacity limitations. • Reductions in capacity factors due to Superheater or Reheater tube overheating and/or coal-ash corrosion.

Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions
• Furnace exit must be oxidizing, preferably 3% excess O2. • Minimal air in-leakage between the furnace exit and economizer exit. • Pulverizer fineness of >75% passing 200 Mesh and <0.3% remaining on 50 Mesh. • Secondary (combustion) air balanced to within ±5% between burners

Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions
• Optimum windbox to furnace differential, typically 4" w.c. at full load. • Optimum Pulverizer Primary Air to Fuel Ratio. In most cases, air to fuel ratio of 1.8 to 1 on roll and race and ball bearing type pulverizers, and 1.4 to 1 on attrition and ball tube pulverizers.

• Pulverized coal line clean air velocities balanced to ±2% of the mean.Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions • Fuel balanced between each pulverizers fuel lines to within ±10% deviation from the mean. • Pulverized coal line dirty airflow balanced between each pulverizers fuel lines within ±5%. .

burner buckets stroked and synchronized to within ±2° (tangentially fired). • Burner mechanical tolerances with ±¼" (circular burners). . • Primary airflow metered and controlled to ±3% accuracy.Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions • Coal line minimum velocities of 3300 Fpm.

.

HEAT INPUT BOILER LOSSES USEFUL OUTPUT HEAT IN STEAM EFFICIENCY =  = (HEAT OUTPUT / HEAT INPUT)*100 HEAT OUTPUT = HEAT INPUT .LOSSES/ HEAT INPUT )*100 = 100-%LOSSES .LOSSES EFFICIENCY =  =[(HEAT INPUT .LOSSES)/ HEAT INPUT]*100 = (1.

HEAT INPUT Kcal/Hr QC .COAL FLOW T/Hr Hc .CALORIFICVALUE OF FUEL Kcal/Kg .HEAT INPUT Hi=Qc*Hc*1000 WHERE Hi .

H STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg Hri .H STEAM FLOW T/Hr Hro .C.R.R.HEAT OUTPUT Ho =[{(Qs*Hs)-(Qf*Hf)}+{Qr*(Hro-Hri)}]*100 Kcal/Hr WHERE Ho .H STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg .MAIN STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg Qf .H.FEED WATER FLOW T/Hr Hf .R.FEED WATER ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg Qr .HEAT OUTPUT Kcal/Hr Qs .MAIN STEAM FLOW T/Hr Hs .

STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 845.H.R. STEAM PRESSURE Kg/cm2 40 0C C.R.R. STEAM TEMPERATURE 540 Hro .15 .R.MAIN STEAM FLOW T/Hr 600 MAIN STEAM PRESSURE Kg/cm2 140 0C MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE 540 Hs .97 Qr .H.MAIN STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 819.R.H.R.H STEAM FLOW T/Hr 563 C. STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 727.BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION DIRECT METHOD Qs . STEAM TEMPERATURE 330 Hri . STEAM PRESSURE Kg/cm2 38 0C H.H.H.R.18 H.H.C.H.

FEED WATER FLOW T/Hr 610 F.63.800 [{(Qs*Hs)-(Qf*Hf)}+{Qr*(Hro-Hri)}]*1000 QC COAL FLOW T/Hr 110 Hc .W.000 Qc*Hc*1000 EFFICIENCY = Ho/Hi =87.CALORIFICVALUE OF FUEL Kcal/Kg 4300 Hi .00.3 Ho .FEED WATER ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 237.BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION DIRECT METHOD Qf .W TEMPERATURE 540 Hf . PRESSURE Kg/cm2 160 0C F.30.HEAT OUTPUT Kcal/Hr 41.HEAT INPUT Kcal/Hr 47.36.46 % .

FEEDWATER AND STEAM QUANTITIES AND OTHER PARAMETERS ARE REQUIRED • ANY ERROR IN MEASUREMENT OF THE ABOVE WILL MAGNIFY THE END RESULT BY FOUR OR FIVE TIMES .HEATING VALUE.BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION DIRECT METHOD • ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF FUEL QUANTITY.

BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION INDIRECT/LOSSES METHOD • MORE INFORMATIVE • INDIVIDUAL LOSSES ARE ESTABLISHED FOR COMPARISON • MEASUREMENTS WILL BE SIMPLE • AS TOTAL LOSSES ARE ONLY 10 TO 20% OF HEAT INPUT ANY ERROR IN SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS AFFECT THEEND RESULT ONLY MARGINALLY .

LOSSES CALCULATED • • • • • • COMBUSTIBLE IN ASH/CARBON LOSS DRY GAS LOSS LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN FUEL LOSS DUE TO HYDROGEN IN FUEL LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH • LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF FLY ASH • MILL REJECTS LOSS • RADIATION LOSS .

REQUIREMENTS FOR CALCULATING LOSSES • FUEL ANALYSIS – PROXIMATE – ULTIMATE – CALORIFIC VALUE • FLUE GAS ANALYSIS • ASH ANALYSIS FOR CARBON – BOTTOM ASH – FLY ASH • AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE • A.GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE • RATE OF MILL REJECTS .H.

14 .COMBUSTIBLE IN ASH/CARBON LOSS ASH IN COAL A% 40 FLY ASH DISTRIBUTION DF% 85 FLY ASH COMBUSTIBLES CF% 1.0045 BOTTOM ASH DISTRIBUTION DB% 15 BOTTOM ASHCOMBUSTIBLES CB% 10.0068 0.8 Kcal/Kg GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL = GCV Kcal/Kg 4267.0113 CALORIFIC VALUE OF COMBUTIBLES = 8077.2 BOTTOM ASH COMBUSTIBLES UB=A*DB*CB/{100*100*(100-CB)} Kg/Kgf TOTAL COMBUSTIBLES U = ( UF+UB ) Kg/Kgf 0.3 FLY ASH COMBUSTIBLES UF=A*DF*CF/{100*100*(100-CF)} Kg/Kgf 0.00 CARBON LOSS = U*8077.8*100/GCV % 2.

186*GCV)}*100 % 5. HEAT OF GAS Cp KJ/Kg mol 0C 32.00 CO2 IN F.00 AMBIENT TEMP.H. OUTLET CO2% 14.20 GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg 4267.00 F.G.0113 Sp. OUTLET Tg0C 156. AT A.AT A.TEMP.52 SULPHUR IN COAL S% 0.G.DRY GAS LOSS CARBON IN COAL C% 42.60 .67)-100U}/12CO2 Kgmol/Kgf 0.244 SENSIBLE HEAT OF DRY GAS SH KJ/Kg =Wd*Cp*(Tg-Ta) KJ/Kg 999. Ta0C 28.00 WEIGHT OF DRY GAS Wd {(C+S/2.42 TOTAL COMBUSTIBLES Ukg/Kgf 0.H.42 DRY GAS LOSS {SH/ (4.

Ta 0C GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg SENSIBLE HEAT OF WATER VAPOUR SW KJ/Kg SW=1. AT A.TEMP.00 2675.G.H.186*GCV) % 1. OUTLET Tg 0C AMBIENT TEMP.68 LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE=SW*M/(4.00 28.4 156.LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN FUEL MOISTURE IN FUEL M% F.00 4267.56 .88*(Tg-25)+2442+4.2*(25-Ta) KJ/Kg 10.

186*GCV) % 4.LOSS DUE TO HYDROGEN IN FUEL HYDROGEN IN FUEL H% 3.31 .2 LOSS DUE TO H2 IN FUEL 9*H*SW/(4.

88*(Tg-Ta)*100/(4. AT A.42 OXYGEN IN FUEL O% 6.8 TOTAL AIR INCL.H.52 HYDROGEN IN FUEL H% 3. OUTLET O2 % 5.186*GCV) % 0.2 Kg/Kgf 5.H.2 SULPHUR IN FUEL S% 0.66C+8H+S-O)/23.22 F.LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR CARBON IN FUEL C% 42.028 STOCHIOMETRIC AIR SA SA= (2.38 TOTAL MOISTURE IN AIR=MA=SA*EA* MWV Kg/Kgf 0.EXCESS AIR EA = 21/(21-O2) Kg/Kg SA 1. OUTLET Tg 0C 156 LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR =MA*1.3 .72 O2 AT A.TEMP.5 GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg 4267 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (DRY ) Ta 0 C 28 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (WET) TW 0 C WEIGHT OF MOISTURE (FROM CHART) MWV Kg/Kg AIR0.G.

OF BOTTOM ASH ABOVE AMBIENT TB 0C 700 SP.0 BOTTOM ASH DISTRIBUTION DB% 15 GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg 4267 LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH =A*DB*CPB*TB*100/(100*100*GCV) % 0. HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH CPB Kcal/Kg0C 0.LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH TEMP.25 .25 ASH IN COAL A% 40.

2 .LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH TEMPERATURE OF FLY ASH Tg 0 C SPECIFIC HEAT OF FLY ASH CPF Kcal/Kg 0C DISTRIBUTION OF FLY ASH DF % LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF FLY ASH =A*DF*CPF*(Tg-Ta)*100/(100*100*GCV) % 156 0.2 85 0.

35 CVR = F*GCV/100 DESIGN FUEL FLOW WFD Kg/Hr 90000 GROSS C. OF DESIGN FUEL GCVD Kcal/Kg 4500 ACTUAL FUEL FLOW WFA Kg/Hr 94910 WFA = WFD* GCVD / GCV WEIGHT OF MILL REJECTS WR = WRE/WFA Kg/Kgf WR Kg/Kgf 0.0025 .LOSS DUE TO MILL REJECTS RATE OF MILL REJECTS WRE Kg/Hr 50 FLOAT OF MILL REJECTS F% 5 CALORIFIC VALUE OF MILL REJECTS CVR Kcal/Kg 213.V.0005 HEAT LOSS DUE TO MILL REJECTS = WR*CVR*100/GCV % 0.

21 % .RADIATION AND UNACCOUNTED LOSSES PREDICTED AS 0.

21 % TOTAL LOSSES 14.56 % LOSS DUE TO H2 IN FUEL 4.ABSTRACT OF BOILER LOSSES CARBON LOSS 2.0025% RADIATION LOSSES 0.60 % LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE 1.20 % LOSS DUE TO MILL REJECTS 0.31 % LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR 0.30 % LOSS DUE TO S.14 % DRY GAS LOSS 5.57 % .25 % LOSS DUE TO S.H OF BOTTOM ASH 0.H OF FLY ASH 0.

57 = 85.BOILER EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY = 100-TOTAL LOSSES = 100-14.43 % .

052*FC+57. Dry Air [ WTA ] Kg./Mkcal.EXCESS AIR EAi (%) O2 = _____________ 21 .92 for gas .611*MOISTURE+797.1325 Gas –1300 2.746] 3. Coal –1360 Oil .QUALITY &COMPOSITION OF FUEL Higher Heating Value Kcal/Kg = [83.O2 *100 *K1 K1 =1. 0.9 for oil.178*ASH-43.992*VM-14.0 for coal.THEORITICAL DRY AIR REQUIREMENT Th.QUICK ESTIMATION OF BOILER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS 1. 0.

QUICK ESTIMATION OF BOILER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS 4./s ] = WTA*HHV*{1+(EAi / 100)}*1. 0.81 for gas 5.02*WF*10-6 WF =Fuel Quantity Kg/s Wet gas Quantity at any section can be calculated from excess air level calculated from the fluegas O2 % in that section./s ] = WF *[WTA*HHV*{1+(EAi/100)}*1. 0.9 for coal.87 for oil.AIR & GAS QUANTITY Air Quantity WAI [ Kg.02* 10-6 – (Ash/100) +1] . Gas Quantity WGI [ Kg.O2 0N DRY BASIS O2 on Dry basis % = O2 on Wet basis / K2 K2 =0.

TAI ) TGI Gas Temp.95 for coal.O2I ) / (21 . TGO Gas Temp.AIR HEATER X RATIO XR = (TGI . TAO AirTemp. AH outlet.O2O )*K3 K3 = 91 for coal. 8.QUICK ESTIMATION OF BOILER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS 6. 0. 95 for gas 7.{(XR*WGI ) / (K4*WAI)}]*100 K4 = 0. TAI Air Temp.AIR LEAKAGE AT AIR HEATER Air Heater leakage AHL % = (O2O .93 for oil. AH inlet.TGO -AHL ) / (TAO . 94 for oil. AH outlet.92 for gas .AIR BYPASSING AIR HEATER %OF AIR IN FURNACE AHBY = [ 1 . AH inlet. 0.

SPECIFIC OIL CONSUMPTION • NUMBER OF TRIPS / START UPS • START UP TIME – BRINGING MILLS QUICKLY – SYSTEMATIC START UPS • IGNITION SUPPORT – UNIT LOADS – LOW VOLATILE COALS – AIR DISTRIBUTION • FLAME SENSING DEVICES .

CAPACITY REDUCTION IN BOILER • FUEL INPUT – LOW C. FUEL – MILLING CAPACITY • • • • GRINDING CAPACITY DRYING CAPACITY CARRYING CAPACITY DRIVE CAPACITY • DRAUGHT SYSTEM – ID FAN LIMITATIONS • PRESSURE DROPS HIGH – A.H.V.CHOKING – CHIMNEY BACK PRESSUREHIGH .

CAPACITY REDUCTION IN BOILER • HIGH VOLUME – A.LEAKAGE – DUCT LEAKAGES – HIGH GAS TEMPERATURES • WORN OUT IMPELLERS • METAL TEMPERATURES HIGH – HIGH SPRAY REQUIREMENTS – FOULING OF SURFACES .H.

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