ADINA RĂDULESCU

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ENGLISH IN KINETOTHERAPY. A PRACTICAL ENGLISH HANDBOOK

Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine 2004

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ADINA RĂDULESCU

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook

7

CONTENTS
CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE

UNIT 1
THE MAIN PARTS OF THE BODY IMPERATIVE SENTENCES USED IN RELAXATION TRAINING TECHNIQUES PREPOSITIONS

UNIT 2
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS USED BEFORE THE VERB TO BE ASKING QUESTIONS

UNIT 3
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE DESCRIBING A CERTAIN MUSCLE

UNIT 4
EXAMINING THE PACIENT POLYSEMANTIC WORDS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – GREETINGS, IDENTIFICATION AND INTRODUCTORY DIALOGUES

UNIT 5
TYPES OF INJURIES PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – PATIENT`S SYMPTOMS AND COMPLAINTS FORMAL AND INFORMAL MEDICAL TERMS

8 ADINA RĂDULESCU UNIT 6 THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – RECOMMENDING DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES UNIT 7 THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES IN HANDLING THE PATIENT PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – POSITIONING AND HANDLING THE PATIENT UNIT 8 MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS AND RECOMMENDING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES UNIT 9 POSTURAL PROBLEMS CONDITIONAL CLAUSES THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – IMPROVING COMMUNICATION UNIT 10 REVISION EXERCISES BIBLIOGRAPHY CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE .

. engleza economică. participarea studenţilor la conferinţe internaţionale. Studiul limbilor străine aplicate pe un anumit domeniu de specialitate – în cazul nostru fiind vorba de engleza în kinetoterapie. Manualul de faţă se adresează studenţilor secţiei de Kinetoterapie. din cadrul Facultăţii de Educaţie Fizică şi Sport a Universităţii Spiru Haret Bucureşti. ei vor studia. de asemenea. tehnică. A practical English handbook 9 Specificul studierii limbilor străine în cadru universitar este reprezentat de trecerea de la studierea limbii străine la modul general la aprofundarea ei pe diverse domenii de specialitate. în cazul nostru. publicarea unor materiale în revistele de specialitate şi. juridică. a unui nivel mediu de cunoştiinţe generale pe domeniul respectiv de specialitate. atât anului I cât şi anului II de studiu. El răspunde unei nevoi reale – aceea de a avea un instrument practic de lucru pentru desfăşurarea activităţii de seminar. În funcţie de specializarea pentru care studenţii optează. poate cel mai important. eliberat în cadrul Centrului de Limbi Străine al Universităţii Spiru Haret.English in Kinetotherapy. Conştientizarea avantajelor pe care le presupune stăpânirea unui limbaj de specialitate într-o limbă străină. posibilitatea de a lucra într-o clinică sau cabinet de profil cu personal şi clienţi străini fie în România fie peste hotare – a constituit motivaţia principală pentru menţinerea interesului studenţilor faţă de această disciplină de studiu şi pentru obţinerea unui certificat de competenţă lingvistică pe specialitatea engleză medicală. stăpânirea unor tehnici de muncă individuală şi. medicală etc. o ramură a englezei medicale – presupune din partea studenţilor un nivel mediu de cunoştiinţe de limba engleză. dintre care amintim: posibilitatea consultării unei bibliografii de specialitate în limba respectivă.

constituind în acelaşi timp un stimulent pentru o perfecţionare permanentă. închei prin a le mulţumi studenţilor din primele generaţii cu care am lucrat pentru ajutorul pe care mi l-au acordat. prin consultarea unei bibliografii actualizate în limba engleză. “consider yourself as a kinetotherapist” etc. care completează limbajul formal în care sunt redate textele de specialitate. Şi. efectuată în funcţie de criteriul frecvenţei anumitor structuri gramaticale în limbajul medical şi 3) un set de „discursuri” kinetoterapeut-pacient. în conturarea suportului teoretic şi practic al acestui manual. care-şi asociază diverse exerciţii de vocabular. axate pe tematica fiecărui capitol. Cu speranţa şi dorinţa că acest manual va răspunde nevoii practice a studenţilor de a aprofunda limba engleză pentru o viitoare practică kinetoterapeutică. într-un context socioprofesional artificial creat în sala de seminar. precum şi stimularea interesului studenţilor pentru consultarea unor materiale de specialitate în limba engleză. testează capacitatea studenţilor de a se exprima liber şi firesc în limbajul de specialitate asimilat. cursuri de kinetoterapie. traduceri de text şi exerciţii de redare selectivă a informaţiei prezentate. 2) o selecţie a unor probleme de gramatică a limbii engleze. exerciţiile de la fiecare sfârşit de Unit – “create your own dialogues”. informal. axându-se pe trei componente principale: 1) un corpus de texte de specialitate. etc a avut ca intenţie creearea unui cadru „profesionist” de lucru.10 ADINA RĂDULESCU Manualul este structurat pe 10 capitole (Units). având ca scop familiarizarea studenţilor cu utilizarea unui limbaj oral. prin simpla lor participare activă la seminariile de limba engleză. Selectarea acestor texte din diverse materiale – atlase de anatomie. . prin ceea ce în metodica limbii engleze se numeşte “Role playing”. nu în ultimul rând.

With these thoughts in mind.’ The procedures: ‘Make yourself as comfortable as you can… become aware of the surface underneath you… let your body settle into it… notice how it supports you… notice the points of contact between you and the floor: your head… shoulders… spine… ribs… hips… heels… elbows… forearms and hands… feel your body sinking into the surface you are lying on… feel your body getting heavier as the tension ebbs away… feel at peace…. no one will call your name. You will feel very relaxed and calm as a result. Read the following texts containing relaxation techniques and write down the new words: “Trainer’s introduction: ‘This relaxation procedure is one that has been practised for many years now. No telephone can ring for you. no doorbell disturb you. It has been studied by researchers and found to be effective. It is not the same as hypnosis and you will not lose consciousness at any point. about three feet from the centre.’ . Feel how safe it is… safe to get in touch with yourself. sirens. bangs and revs… think of them as being outside your world. You may hear sounds around you: voices.English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 11 Autoarea UNIT I THE MAIN PARTS OF THE BODY IMPERATIVE SENTENCES USED TRAINING TECHNIQUES PREPOSITIONS IN RELAXATION 1. draw an imaginary circle around yourself. Take one good breath and as you let it out. Turn your thoughts inward. horns. feel it carrying all your tensions away… then let your breathing settle into a gentle rhythm…’ ‘As you lie or sit. reflect on the idea that you are going to give the next half-hour to yourself. Create an imaginary bubble… think of the interior as your space… your own private space.

select the words that designate: a) parts of the body. Using the vocabulary practice below write the Romanian equivalents for the terms indicating parts of the body. Make a tight ‘O’ with your lips… hold it. Read the text again. b)verbal constructions expressing commands and c) prepositions or other words indicating direction and place them in three different columns. A. bare your teeth… feel the tension in the cheeks… hold it for a few seconds… and release the tension…. Pronounce and learn the names of the main parts of the human body. Payne – Relaxation Techniques) 2. Next. raise your eyebrows… feel the tension… and release the tension… frown… feel the tension… and release it… shut your eyes tightly… feel the tension… and let it go… with your eyes still closed. ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 4.12 ADINA RĂDULESCU Trainer’s termination of the procedure: ‘I am going to bring this relaxation sesssion to an end… I’d like you gradually to become aware of the room… feel the floor/chair underneath you … open your eyes… give your limbs a few gentle stretches… have the feeling that you are alert and ready to carry on with your life…’ ‘With your eyes open. 3. noticing the sensations you get from the action… hold it… and… discontinue… let your jaw drop… feel the tension leaving you… and continuing to leave you… then repeat the action…. For some notions two alternative terms have been provided: . Press your tongue against your teeth… feel the pressure and release it… Now pull the tongue back towards the throat. spend a few minutes releasing tension in this part of your face… Close the jaws firmly. Feel the muscles drawing it back and note the sensations you get from this action… and… release it… ” (R. while you register tension in the lips… and cancel the action….

breast (piept). elbow (cot). cheek bone (os maxilar). . little finger. lips (buze).shoulder. navel/umbilicus (buric). shoulder blade/scapula (omoplat).ears.teeth. chin (bărbie). eyelids (pleoape). The body: . dimple (gropiţă în obraz). arm/upper limb (braţ). stomach. finger tip (vârful degetului). fingers – thumb (degetul mare). hand. cheek (obraz). thigh (coapsă). . nipple (mamelon). .limb (membru). . crook of the arm (îndoitura braţului). waist (talie). finger pad (perniţa degetului). hollow of the throat (scobitura gâtului). wrist/carpus (încheietura mâinii). tongue (limbă). fist (pumn). armpit/axilla (subsuoară).hip (şold). leg. fingernail (unghie). forearm (antebraţ). ring finger (deget inelar). abdomen. calf . thorax/chest (torace). A practical English handbook 13 The head: . knuckle (articulaţia degetului). eyebrows (sprâncene). dimple in the chin /fossette (gropiţă în bărbie). palm. .eyes.forehead (frunte). eyelashes (gene). Adam’s apple/thyroid cartilage. tooth .English in Kinetotherapy. nape of the neck (ceafa). nostrils (nări). buttocks (fese). bottom (şezut). upper jaw /maxilla (maxilar).nose. forefinger (deget arătător). . The neck: - throat. gum (gingie). .mouth. under jaw (mandibulă). middle finger. ear lobe. jaw (falcă).biceps.

sole (talpă). a) toe b) arm c) heel d) head 10.. as he was not wearing his knee-pads when roller skating. a) fingers b) armpit c) wrist d) fists 2. tibia). heel/calcaneus (călcâi). You should not drink so much coffee on an empty ……………. a) ankles b) legs c) knees d) toes 6. a) neck b) eye c) jaw d) throat 8. The underside both of a foot and a shoe is called a …………. I ate an icecream yesterday and now I have a sore ……………. shin/cannon bone (fluierul piciorului. This old lady can’t hear you very well. she has got an ……… infection. He is walking on the tips of his ………… so as not to awake the baby. instep (scobitura gleznei). toes (degete de la picioare). knee cap (rotulă). knee (genunchi). a) fingers b) hands c) palms d) arms 3.14 ADINA RĂDULESCU (gambă)... Nobody is perfect and carelessness is his Achilles’………. It is not polite to talk to somebody when you have your ………. a) tongue b) toes c) fingers d) nails 4. He has had this nasty habit of biting his ………. ever since he was a kid. a) stomach b) waist c) abdomen d) throat 9. ankle (gleznă). in your pockets... a) feet b) toes c) fingers d) sole . a) heel b) sole c) shin d) toe 7. 5. a) ear b) throat c) tooth d) eye 5. I have problems with my ………. I can’t move my left hand. He fell and hurt his ……… really bad. Choose the right word that best completes the sentence: 1..

fleshy part of the back of the leg. hip 4. calf 6. biceps a. which bends the elbow c. the thick. wrist 2. translucent plate covering part of the dorsal surface of the end joint of each finger e. thigh 9. tongue 5. the back part of the human foot from the instep to the lower part of the ankle i. forehead 3. the small depression beneath the arm where it joins the shoulder d. A practical English handbook 15 6. the joint between the forearm and the hand h. abdomen 12. between the ankle and the knee b. a thin. organ of taste that aids the mastication and swallowing of food. part of the human leg between the knee and the hip ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE . nostril 8. part of the body below de chest and diaphragm. horny. the part of the face between the natural hairline and the eyes. either of the two external openings of the nose l. formed skeletally by the frontal bone of the skull f. fingernail 10. k. containing the stomach. heel 11. armpit 7.English in Kinetotherapy. large muscle at the front of the upper arm. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. bowels and digestive organs j. part on either side of the body below the waist where the bone of a person’s leg is joined to the trunk g.

deasupra onto = pe. străbaterea spaţiului) on = pe.16 ADINA RĂDULESCU Here is a list of the most commonly used prepositions of place and position: above = deasupra. sub (indicând contact cu suprafaţa superioară) Other words indicating movement and direction: -WARDS class (wards = spre. sub (indicând existenţa unei suprafeţe superioare de protecţie. în direcţia Upright = drept. în faţă Inward (s) = înăuntru. înapoia in front of = în faţa in = în. separare) between = între (două obiecte) behind = în spatele. către interior Leftward (s) = către stânga. către. printre under = dedesubt. în afară Towards = spre. dinspre stânga Outward (s) = către/spre exterior. sub (fără a indica contact cu suprafaţa superioară) beneath/underneath = dedesubt. către. spre partea inferioară Forward (s) = înainte. pe spate Downward (s) = descendent. de deasupra. indicând direcţia) Backward (s) = înapoi. deasupra (indicând mişcare pentru atingerea poziţiei) over = peste. înspre interior (indicând pătrunderea. mai sus de across/along = de-a lungul. în interiorul into = în. vertical . transversal around/round = de jur împrejurul below = dedesubt. deasupra through = prin. invers.

drawing them towards your palm so that your hand gradually takes on the shape of a spider… Hold the position. • Clasp both hands behind your head. • Arch your body backwards. Then. feel the tension in the hand and then let the tension . oblic. • Stretch your arms upwards. • Rest your elbows on your thighs. Pause… Roll them now in an anticlockwise direction. • Roll your eyes in a clockwise circle… Now notice the sensations of tension…. chair arm or thigh). let your hips sink forwards. turn your eyes upwards behind your closed lids. • Lift your arms above your head. • Bend your knees forwards. 8. change activities: • Place your hands around your ankles. Read the following commands to your deskmate and ask him/her to follow your indications and practise the exercises. • Place your palm downwards on a surface (table. • Bend your body sideways and give it a good stretch.English in Kinetotherapy. • Place your fingertips on your shoulder. • Raise your arms above your head and turn the palms towards the ceiling. • Hold your head forward and up. Read the following sentences and translate them into Romanian: • Without moving your head. într-o parte ►◄Pair work 7. • Lean your forearms vertically on the wall. • Spread your arms sideways and lower them to your sides. A practical English handbook 17 Upward (s) = ascendent. press your fingertips into the surface. spre partea superioară Sideways = lateral. With your heels on the ground and your knees straight.

Întindeţi-vă braţele lateral. the comfort. using the new words: 1. plasaţi-vă ambele coate pe coapse. Repetaţi mişcarea de câte ori doriţi. Translate into English. Staţi ghemuiţi pe vârfurile picioarelor. Plasaţi-vă ambele mâini pe umeri. 7. Îndoiţi-vă uşor genunchii şi apoi rotiţi-vă corpul la stânga şi la dreapta. Menţineţi poziţia cât . 4. apoi gambele. Închideţi ochii. Create your own relaxation techniques. raise your heels up in the air… Now feel the tension in your calf muscles… Relax… drop your heels to the ground and notice the relief. Simţiţi cum vi se relaxează muşchii gâtului. 2. Apoi ridicaţi mâna stângă şi îndoiţi corpul spre dreapta. • Keeping your toes firmly in contact with the floor. Plasaţi-vă ambele mâini pe şolduri. 8. cu capul aplecat şi cu mâinile atârnând pe genunchi. 9.Stând pe un scaun. la nivelul umărului. Staţi în poziţie depărtată. Repetaţi mişcarea de cinci ori. 10. 6. Reveniţi în poziţia iniţială. Îndoiţi-vă uşor trunchiul în faţă. Rotiţi-vă trunchiul alternativ la stânga apoi la dreapta. write down five examples of such exercises and then read them to your deskmates.18 ADINA RĂDULESCU go and relax the muscles. Staţi în poziţie 10 secunde şi apoi reveniţi în poziţia iniţială. Apoi îndoiţi-le din coate spre în faţă. 3. 5. ridicaţi mâinile deasupra capului şi arcuiţi-vă uşor trunchiul pe spate. Ridicaţi mâna dreaptă şi îndoiţi corpul spre stânga. Observaţi ce simţiţi la articulaţiile şoldului. Atingeţi-vă genunchii. apoi gleznele şi dacă puteţi chiar şi degetele de la picioare. the warm tingling sensation in your calves. cu mâinile pe lângă corp. întindeţi-vă antebraţele şi mişcaţi-vă degetele.

ridicând piciorul stâng. Read the following texts and write down the new words: . 9. Staţi cu picioarele depărtate şi cu mâinile pe şold. Încercaţi rotirea braţelor în ambele direcţii. 10. Rotiţi-vă simultan braţele. Apoi repetaţi în direcţia opusă. trasând un cerc mic în aer. Menţineţi poziţia pentru 5 secunde. UNIT 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS BEFORE THE VERB TO BE ASKING QUESTIONS AND ADVERBS USED 1. A practical English handbook 19 doriţi. Staţi cu picioarele depărtate şi cu mâinile întinse lateral şi cu pumnii strânşi. Observaţi ce se întâmplă cu muşchii braţelor şi pieptului. Înclinaţi-vă spre dreapta.English in Kinetotherapy.

This temporary cartilage is an exact miniature of the bone which in due course is to take its place. next in the lower jaw. the work of a joint. All the elements encountered in the joints of the newborn continue their formation and acquire the geometrical shapes of the articular surfaces characteristic of each joint of an adult. The ribs also. Descriptive and Surgical) “Almost all the elements of the joints of adults are also present in the joints of the newborn. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 2. Add more terms to the list: .e. to enclose and protect some of the most important vital organs. the parts destined to become bones consist of a congeries of cells which constitutes the simplest form of cartilage. ” (R. Bone development takes place at a very early period. until their growth is finally completed. The period of ossification varies much in different bones. and the long bones of the limbs. For a long period after birth.20 ADINA RĂDULESCU “The function of the bones is to form a hard skeleton for the softer materials of the body.D. in which the primitive point appears during the fifth week. a thin layer of unossified cartilage remains between the diaphysis and epiphyses. The next step is the ossification of the intercellular substance and of the cells composing the cartilage. Pronounce and learn the names of the main parts of the skeletal system. The development of bone articulations is directly dependent on the formation of the bony and connective-tissue structures and muscular tissue. The process of ossification is slow and not completed until adult life. appear soon after. It commences first in the clavicle. i. In embryonic life.” (Henry Gray – Gray`s Anatomy. The most active factor determining the formation of a joint after birth are the muscles which exert an action on the given joint.

shoulder girdle = centură scapulară .coccyx = coccis .sternum /breastbone = stern .thoracic cage = cuşcă toracică . scapulă . A practical English handbook 21 The skeletal system: .pelvis = pelvis .clavicle /collarbone = claviculă .the cervical.ossification = osificare . -ae /bony ring = vertebră .spine/spinal column/backbone = coloana vertebrală .fibrous joint = articulaţie fibroasă .pubis = pubis .scapula/ shoulder blade = omoplat. Complete the following sentences using the nouns in the box.sacrum = os sacral . The first one has been done for you as an example: .articulation /joint = articulaţie .knee joint = articulaţia genunchiului .cartilage = cartilaj .ankle joint = articulaţia gleznei 3.vertebra.English in Kinetotherapy.spinal cord /marrow = măduva spinării .ligament = ligament . lumbar. dorsale. lombare şi coccigiene ale coloanei vertebrale .synovial joint = articulaţie sinovială .hip joint = articulaţia şoldului .skull = craniu .rib = coastă . sacral and coccygeal sections of the spine = secţiunile cervicale. dorsal.

triangular in shape which forms the back part of each shoulder. Twelve pairs of curved bones extending . skull a. 10. The ____________ is a large. 4. 2. The ____________ is the longest. The hand is subdivided into three segments: the __________ or wrist. The ____________ is the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg. 6. 3. fibro-cartilage. Triangular bone that forms the back of the pelvis c. cartilage. breastbone 2. two parietal. The ____________ is a small triangular bone at the end of the spinal column. The ____________ is composed of eight bones: the occipital. thickest and heaviest bone in the skeleton. frontal. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. the spinal column b. sphenoid. and ethmoid. Rings placed one above the other which form a single column.22 ADINA RĂDULESCU sternum scapula tibia coccyx phalanges metacarpus carpus cranium femur calcaneus joint vertebrae 1. articulating by its base with the apex of the sacrum. articulating with the pelvis above and the knee below. the ____________ or palm and the ____________ or fingers. The ______________ or heel bone is the largest tarsal bone. 8. 5. flat vertical bone. The ____________ is a long. ligament and synovial membrane. The structures which enter the formation of a ___________ are: bone. The spine is a flexuous column. 7. formed of a series of bones called _vertebrae_. irregularly cuboidal in form and situated at the lower back part of the foot. 4. 9. two temporal. flat bone. between the knee and ankle. ligament 3. situated in front of the thorax to which are attached the collarbone and the first seven parts of ribs.

between the ribs i.) / were (pl. etc from a limited number: . Thin. ribs from the backbone round the chest d. bony and curved column – as a cable for the spinal cord e. Tough white flexible tissue attached to bones and joints g. vertical bone in the chest.) – past + object HOW HOW MANY WHAT – is used to ask somebody to specify one or more things. places. flexible tissue that connects bones and holds organs in position h.is used to ask somebody to specify one or more things. Narrow. Bone joining the breastbone and the shoulder blade j. Bony framework of the head under the skin AND ADVERBS USED ■ GRAMMAR INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS BEFORE THE VERB TO BE When forming interrogative sentences with the verb TO BE the rule to be remember is to place the words in the following order: WHAT WHICH WHERE + is (sg. A practical English handbook 23 4. Though. spine 7. people.English in Kinetotherapy. pelvis 8. vertebrae 5. cartilage 10. clavicle 6. people. flat. sacrum 9.) / are (pl. Basin-shaped framework of bones at the lower end of the body f.) – present + object WHY + was (sg. etc from an indefinite number: What are the main causes of muscular weakness? What is the shape of the spinal column? WHICH .

metatarsus and phalanges. placed in front of the knee. how many and the verb to be. The first two have been done for you as examples: 1.24 ADINA RĂDULESCU Which is the best treatment in this situation? Which is the shortest and the most curved of all the ribs? WHY . There are twelve ribs on each side of the thoracic part of the spinal column. The foot consists of three divisions: the tarsus. the tibia and fibula. Ask questions for the underlined phrases using the interrogative words what. The leg consists of three bones: the patella (knee cap). why. except the thumb? 5. How many ribs are on each side of the thoracic part of the spinal column? 2. which. triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the knee joint. The patella is a small. position. flat.means for what reason or purpose: Why is physical therapy better than surgery in my case? WHERE – means in or to what place or position: Where is the sternum situated? HOW – means in what way or manner: How is the sternum described in terms of shape. ________________________________________________________ __? 4. where. ________________________________________________________ __? . structure and development? HOW MANY – is used to inquire about the number of things: How many phalanges are for each finger. how. Which are the three divisions of the foot? 3.

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5. The scapula is situated between the first and seventh ribs. ________________________________________________________ __? 6. The sternum has the shape of an ancient sword, consisting of three parts. ________________________________________________________ __? 7. That form of cartilage which enters into the formation of the joints is called articular cartilage. ________________________________________________________ __? 8. The ligament is pliant and flexible, so as to allow perfect freedom of movement but strong, tough and inextensible, so as not to yield under a severely applied force. (ask three questions)

________________________________________________________ _? 9. There are 206 distinct bones in the entire skeleton of an adult. ________________________________________________________ _? 10. The superior extremity is the largest part of the humerus. ________________________________________________________ _?

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ADINA RĂDULESCU

6. Read the following extracts and translate them into Romanian: “Most bones of a human adult consist of a bony and cartilaginous framework, as a result of which a bony part and a cartilaginous part are distinguished in the skeletal system. The bony part makes up most of the bone. The articular cartilages, the epiphyseal cartilages and the costal cartilages form the cartilaginous part of the skeletal system. The long bones (humerus, clavicle, femur, phalanges, etc.) have a middle part, the diaphysis, and two end parts, the epiphyses. The epiphysis located closer to the axial skeleton is called the proximal epiphysis, while the epiphysis of the same bone but situated further from the axial skeleton is called the distal epiphysis. The wider parts of long bones between the diaphysis and the epiphysis are known as metaphysis. Their boundaries are visible only in the bones of children and adolescents when a cartilaginous layer, the epiphyseal cartilage still remains between the diaphysis and epiphyses. The red marrow possesses high functional activity and is capable of forming blood cells of the myeloid series. With the development and growth of the organism, the red marrow is gradually replaced by the yellow marrow. The yellow marrow is less active and plays a reserve role, but under certain conditions it may be activated.” (R.D. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) 7. Translate the following questions into English, using the new vocabulary. Providing an answer to these questions will also test your anatomy knowledge: 1. Care este ştiinţa care se ocupă cu studiul oaselor? 2. Care sunt principalele tipuri de oase? 3. Care sunt părţile constituente ale unei articulaţii? 4. Care sunt cauzele care determină traumatismele şi

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fracturile coloanei vertebrale? 5. Din câte oase este format craniul şi care sunt acestea? 6. Care articulaţie este cel mai frecvent afectată în fracturi? 7. Câte vertebre are coloana lombară? Dar coloana toracală? 8. Unde este plasat acromionul? 9. Cum este descris sternul în atlasul de anatomie? 10. De ce este intervenţia chirurgicală mai potrivită în acest caz decât fiziokinetoterapia sau balnoeterapia? ►◄ Pair work 8. Question-answer exercise: Using your anatomy courses notes, ask your deskmate questions about the skeletal system.

UNIT 3
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

structure and function.28 ADINA RĂDULESCU ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE DESCRIBING A CERTAIN MUSCLE 1. Read the following texts about the muscular system and write down the new words: “There are more than 600 skeletal muscles in the human body and their total mass accounts for up to 28-35 per cent of the body mass in females. The contraction of a muscle promotes rapid flow of blood. peculiarly susceptible to local and systemic inflamatory disorders. new capillaries form. and up to 45-55 per cent in athlets. up to 40-45 per cent in males.” .e. under conditions of motor activity the reserve capillaries open. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) “All elements of the musculoskeletal system are in dynamic equilibrum. in response to loading and mechanical demands. metabolic processes are reduced and stasis occurs. Each muscle has a developed network of blood vessels. perhaps because of continuous movement and mechanical stresses. D. generally fitter. The system is vulnerable to trauma. the muscle is a peculiar ‘pump’ which forces the blood forward. Under conditions of reduced motor activity (hypokinesia) in an active mode of life or when prolongued bed-rest is necessary. and nutrition of the skeletal muscles improves. this function of the skeletal muscles is excluded as a result of which the blood flows slower. and more health conscious. Musculoskeletal disorders are major worldwide causes of chronic pain and severe physical handicap. continually changing shape. In contrast. Up to 50 per cent of the total weight of the skeletal muscles fall to the share of the muscles of the lower limbs. particularly as population becomes older. i. up to 30 per cent to those of the upper limbs.” (R. and up to 20 per cent to the share of the muscles of the head and trunk. Acute inflammation or tissue damage often becomes chronic.

muscle bulk = masă musculară .hypotonic muscles = muşchi hipotonici . the deep ones being generally broad. Descriptive and Surgical) ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 2.” (Henry Gray – Gray’s Anatomy.diaphragm = diafragmă . In the limbs. especially the more superficial ones. In the trunk. forming the parietes of the cavities which they enclose.muscle tone = tonus muscular .fascia = fascie .muscular endurance = rezistenţă musculară .fibers = fibre .blood vessels = vase sanguine .musculature = musculatură . Pronounce and learn the main terms and collocations related to the muscular system. they surround the bones and form an important protection to the various joints. they are of considerable length. flattened and expanded.muscle fatigue = oboseală/ extenuare musculară .muscular hypertrophy = hipertrofie musculară . they are broad.nerves = nervi . A practical English handbook 29 (The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy) “Muscles vary considerably in their form.muscular contraction /cramp = contracţie musculară . Add more terms to the list: .English in Kinetotherapy.muscle = muşchi .tendon = tendon .skeletal muscle = muschi scheletic .muscular tissue = ţesut muscular .

joints and bones of the body. Muscle bulk…. a ruptured cartilage disk between vertebrae. … a progressive loss of muscle strength in a variety of muscle groups. … a muscle sprain or degenerative muscle strain. A hypertonic muscle feels e. may be spastic or rigid and resists sideways movements. a tumor or disorder characterized by …. …very firm. 6.Muscle-setting exercise…. 3. Muscular dystrophy is a c. Match the half-sentences in column A with their corresponding half-sentences in column B to form correct and complete sentences: A B 1. … gives an indication of the state of the … musculature. b. . If you have observed f…. Electromyography (EMG) d. arthritis. … of the muscles.30 ADINA RĂDULESCU - hypertonic muscles = muşchi hipertonici muscle rigidity = rigiditate musculară muscle spasm = spasm muscular spasticity = spasticitate muscle sprain = luxaţie muscle strain = întindere musculară muscle strength = forţă musculară muscular tension = tensiune musculară muscular weakness = slăbire musculară 3. a. 4. 5. an evaluation of the condition and functioning muscle weakness. weak and flabby and is easily moved is a techique… laterally. … very soft. 2.

Involuntary movements g. Strong band or cord of tissue that joins muscle to bone 2. A hypotonic muscle feels j. 8. fibres 5. Large muscle at the front of the upper arm. between the chest and the abdomen.English in Kinetotherapy. capillaries . Fibrous membranes which form linings for body cavities and cover muscles and organs f. assessment is … 10. 4. …then a detailed test will be necessary for each … muscle. tendon a. A practical English handbook 31 7. Very narrow blood vessels connecting arteries and veins in the body e. Low back pain at the base h. … is a method of contracting and relaxing a and tremors … skeletal muscle without moving that part of the body. which bends the elbow c. blood vessels 4. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. Fibre or bundle of fibres carrying impulses of sensation or of movement between the brain and all parts of the body b. that helps to control breathing d. … that records changes of the spine can be caused in the electrical potential during muscle by … contractions. fasciae 3. 9. … are signs of some neurological disorders. Musculoskeletal sysytem i. nerve 6.Wall of muscle.

shape. growing . Broad. Tubes (arteries.32 ADINA RĂDULESCU 7. Qualificative adjectives include all types of adjectives denoting quality. triangular muscle. symptoms etc) and people: Example: . diseases. biceps 10. relaxing. pectoral muscle g. situated at the upper and anterior part of the chest that draws the arm towards the body j. size. expanded or the third form of irregular verbs: cut. age and general descriptions of objects (parts of the body. Participial adjectives are participial forms used as adjectives: . veins or capillaries) through which blood flows in the body i. colour. Long-lasting illness in which the muscles become gradually weaker ■ GRAMMAR ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE Participial and qualificative adjectives Considering the frequency of certain types of adjectives in medical language we shall deal only with participial and qualificative adjectives. origin. thick. Example: This relaxing atmosphere and these stimulating exercises will have a pronounced effect on your back muscles.Present Participle forms: short infinitive + -ING: increasing. frozen. hidden. diaphragm 9. animal or plant tissues are formed h. flattened. Slender threads of which many human. muscular dystrophy 8.Past Participle forms: short infinitive + -ED (for regular verbs): reduced.

turn etc: Example: Moderate exercises have a therapeutic effect on muscles. -y and –ly which form their corresponding degrees of comparison by adding –er and –est (synthetic comparison): thick – thicker – the thickest thin –thinner – the thinnest 2) long adjectives – bisyllabic (ending in -ful and -re).(attributive position) The muscles become resistant to fatigue and the patients no longer look exhausted at the end of the session. both singular and plural (attributive position) or follow the noun. become.(predicative position) Degrees of comparison According to the way they form their degrees of comparison adjectives fall into three categories: 1) monosyllabic (or short) adjectives and bisyllabic adjectives ending in -er. having the function of predicatives for copulative verbs such as: be. seem. broad and thick above and narrowed below. look. Both participial and qualificative adjectives can either precede the noun. having the same form for all genders. A practical English handbook 33 The first piece of the sternum has a triangular form.English in Kinetotherapy. trisyllabic or plurisyllabic which form their degrees of comparison by periphrastic means: more and (the) most (analytic comparison): extensive – more extensive – the most extensive 3) adjectives with irregular degrees of comparison: good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst little – less – the least many/much – more – the most old – older – the oldest (of people and objects) .

Form derivational adjectives from the following nouns and verbs. Gradual increase or decrease is expressed by two comparatives joined by and: As your breathing becomes slower and slower you are feeling more and more relaxed. choosing the appropriate suffixes in the box. The comparative requires the specification of the second term of comparison. Reread the texts about the muscular system and extract all the adjectives. adjectives at superlative will be associated with perfect tenses: This is the most distressing pain I have ever had.34 ADINA RĂDULESCU old – elder – the eldest (of people) far – farther – the farthest (of space) far – further – the furtest (of time) Constructions with comparisons: The use of adjectives at different degrees of comparison requires the use of certain patterns. Sometimes the comparatives are placed at the beginning of the sentences: The sooner you practise the exercise. Sometimes more than one suffix can be attached to part of the words: . the greater its strength. the better you will feel. The injury was more severe than we thought. For derivational adjectives indicate the noun that they derive from and their suffix or prefix as in the following examples: systemic = system (noun) + -ic (suffix) skeletal = skelet (noun) + -al (suffix) 6. which can be either a word or a sentence: I am not as useless as my blind brother /as you think I am. The larger the muscle. For instance. 5. Group them according to their attributive or predicative position.

Activitatea fizică prelungită cum ar fi mersul sau . using the new vocabulary and grammar notes of this unit: 1. care poate duce la spasm muscular şi prin urmare la mai multă durere.English in Kinetotherapy. 4. A practical English handbook 35 -al -ish -ible -ic -ive -ed -ous -ful -ing -less -able Example: Stern + -al = sternal thorax sphere muscle abdomen stomach anomaly fibre fever cure help comfort to identify to contract access memory to connect to digest health infection pain 7. 5. Tensiunea musculară are strânsă legătură cu modul nostru de a gândi. cu atât mai mare va fi şi tensiunea noastră musculară. Tensiunea musculară prelungită poate produce durere. Ce cauzează hipertrofia musculară? 2. 3. Cu cât rezistenţa musculară este mai mare cu atât va fi mai mare numărul de contracţii musculare. Translate the following sentenses into English. astfel. cu cât suntem mai stresaţi.

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ADINA RĂDULESCU

pasul alergător poate duce la oboseală musculară. 6. Care sunt cauzele principale ale extenuării musculare? 7. Muşchiul gastrocnemian este cel mai superficial muşchi situat în partea din spate a piciorului, care formează cea mai mare parte a gambei. 8. Tendonul lui Ahile este cel mai gros şi mai puternic tendon din corpul uman. 9. Muşchiul deltoid este un muşchi lat, gros, triunghiular, situat pe partea laterală şi posterioară a umărului. 10.Muşchiul abductor al policelui este un muşchi subţire, plat, îngust, plasat imediat dedesubtul tegumentului (integument). ►◄ Pair work: 8. Using your anatomy courses notes, choose a certain muscle and ask your deskmate to describe it. 9. Guessing game: Think of a certain muscle. Your deskmate will ask you as many questions as necessary to guess the muscle. Here are some examples of possible questions: • Is it a muscle of the trunk/head/upper limb/lower limb?→ for general location (It is a muscle of the upper limb) • Is it a muscle of the shoulder girdle or of the free upper limb?→ for specific location (It is a muscle of the shoulder girdle) • Where is it situated? (It arises from the clavicle and scapula.) • What is its function? (It helps the upper arm move forward, backward and horizontally.)

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook

37

• Can you describe it? (It is a thick, triangular muscle with the base facing upwards and the apex downwards) • Is it the deltoid muscle? (Yes, it is indeed.) The following classification of muscles may prove useful for this exercise: A. The muscles of the trunk: • the muscles of the back • the muscles of the neck • the muscles of the chest • the muscles of the abdomen B. The muscles of the head: → the muscles of facial expression: • the muscles of the scalp • the muscles surrounding the eyes • the muscles surrounding the mouth • the muscles surrounding the nose → the muscles of mastication C. The muscles of the upper limb: → the muscles of the shoulder girdle → the muscles of the free upper limb: • the muscles of the upper arm • the muscles of the forearm • the muscles of the hand D. The muscles of the lower limb: → the muscles of the hip joint

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ADINA RĂDULESCU

→ the muscles of the free lower limb: • the muscles of the thigh • the muscles of the leg • the muscles of the foot 10. Complete the classifications above with all categories of muscles you have studied so far.

UNIT 4
EXAMINING THE PACIENT POLYSEMANTIC WORDS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – GREETINGS, IDENTIFICATION AND INTRODUCTORY DIALOGUES 1. Read the following text and check the glossary below to translate the unknown words. Write down other unknown words and try to approximate their meaning:

test tubes containing hot and cold water. a goniometer. . suitable coverings for the pacient. marital status. ▪ Obtaining a record of immediate past and current treatment and medication. divide your perusal into: ▪ Obtaining basic information about the pacient as a social entity: names.English in Kinetotherapy. cultural background and family circumstances.Knowledge of normal parameters should be used to decide whether any of the test records show a need for care in examination and treatment. current work. the clinical examination findings and the results of tests. adequately warmed area. verbal confidentiality. When examining the pacient some things need to be provided: a clean. in date order. It is important that current medications are noted for these may have some effect on selection of or precautions in administrating your treatments. some useful and time-saving information may be obtained by their careful perusal. sex. a pin. some cotton wool. the position of the examination couch or table in relation to the lighting and. age. former job and/or retirement status. A practical English handbook EXAMINING THE PACIENT 39 “Examination of a pacient is a continuous process that starts with your first meeting and continues until treatment ceases prior to discharge. ▪ Noting. The initial examination leads to an assessment of the pacients` needs and a decision on the early treatment. as different variables such as the subjective assessment of the previous examiner or the change in patient`s condition from the last examination may influence the course of the treatment. a reflex hammer.There are some small testing devices that the examiner needs: a tape measure. If the pacient has been previously examined by a diagnostician who provides full notes. well ventilated. To use such notes to the maximum. the medical events that are former medical history and the events that have marked the development of the current illness/disability and its progress. ▪ Reading. Any abnormalities indicated by the medical examination sheet need to be checked by the present examiner. if available. quite important. including X-rays.

Your fingers should be straight so that your nails are unlikely to be in contact. the type of gait abnormalities if any. Palpation is a skill that is acquired by practice.Hollis. Listening to the patient`s answers requires patience. în prealabil perusal = citire. P. so that only the finger pads are touching firmly enough. In neither case will you feel or find anything. and if the examination turns out to be more time-consuming than your original estimate. and aware of what is under them.40 ADINA RĂDULESCU Escorting the patient to the examination area can be an opportunity to observe his/her ability to walk unaided. Remember that too hard a pressure will feel like a drill digging in and too light a pressure will feel like a butterfly coming to rest. and listening to the silences is equally important. instant awareness and interpretation. the general mien and posture. Always allocate sufficient time for an initial examination of the patient. estimare previously = mai înainte. Successful questioning produces maximum information with the minimum of questions and is a skill that improves with practice.” (Adapted from M. complete only part of the tasks and conclude the examination at a further session.What the patient fails to say may have great relevance.The following procedures are to be used when palpating for specific anatomical features: place more of your hand than you need in contact with the area to be examined. lift your palm a little to reduce the contact. in firm comfortable contact. a se opri prior to = înainte de discharge = externare assessment = evaluare. It requires that your hands should be relaxed. lectură atentă former job = slujbă anterioară retirement = pensionare .Yung – Patient examination and assessment for therapists) GLOSSARY to cease = a înceta.

Why does the present examiner need to check the patient`s prior medical examination sheet? 4. Why is the patient`s initial examination important? 2.English in Kinetotherapy. Why does the examiner need to note the patient`s current medication? 5. Scan the text above so as to answer the following questions: 1. panglică de măsurat pin = ac cu gămălie goniometer = goniometru reflex hammer = ciocănel pentru testarea reflexelor cotton wool = vată test tube = eprubetă gait = umblet. What things need to be provided when examining the patient? 6. What testing devices does the examiner use? 7. invaliditate clinical examination findings = constatările examinării clinice medical examination sheet = foaie de observaţie clinică testing devices = instrumente de testare tape measure = ruletă. What should the examiner observe while escorting the patient to the examination area? . mers mien = ţinută. comportament posture = postură corporală instant awareness = înţelegere rapidă palpation = palpare finger pad = buricul degetului drill = burghiu to dig in = a înfige 2. A practical English handbook 41 cultural background = formaţie culturală medical history = anamneză disability = incapacitate. What should basic information about the patient include? 3.

42 ADINA RĂDULESCU 8. etc. as a polysemantic word. past and current medication. He is my heart. I think you should get to the heart of the matter.that is carried over from one example to the next: Even if his heart stopped beating for several seconds. with polysemantic words we can easily notice a semantic feature common to all the elements of a class. clinical examination findings. What should be done if the first examination takes longer than expected? 3. Create your own examiner – patient dialogues. elephant. They are polysemantic words. including questions and answers regarding the patient`s basic information. he did not die. . Polysemy is closely related to homonymy and it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between words that are homonyms and words that are polysemantic. my reason of living. When can we say that questioning the patient has been successful? 9. What procedures are to be used when palpating the patient? 10. giraffe and whale and calf as the thick fleshy part of the back of the leg between the ankle and the knee are two homonyms that have nothing in common. of one`s life or of something else . There is still a criterion that can help us distinguish one notion from the other: while with homonymy the words that have the same form do not share any semantic resemblance in their meanings. Calf as a young of cattle (viţel) or of certain other mammals such as the buffalo. semantically speaking. ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE POLYSEMANTIC WORDS Many words that are pronounced and spelt in the same way can be used in different contexts with different meanings. Here are two examples for each notion: Heart. has a semantic feature associated that of being the central part of a body. former medical history.

by looking words up in a dictionary. set to test a candidate’s knowledge and skill. b) physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body. education. launching flying weapons (arrows) 3. Choose from among the meanings of the following polysemantic words the one that has been used in the text Examining the pacient: 1. c) the formal interrogation of a person on oath (an accused or a witness) by a lawyer in a lawcourt. discharge means: a) an official permission for (sb) to leave. c) a person’s social class. lighting whose purpose is to be an unobtrusive or appropriate accompaniment to something else. training or experience. conversation or the action of a film. A practical English handbook 43 Moreover. one can also distinguish between polysemantic words and homonyms as the former are listed with different numbers under the same lexical entry. examination means: a) written exercises. in order to verify health or diagnose disease. background means: a) part of a view. 4. d) a low level of sound. b) unloading (cargo) from a ship c) firing (a gun). 2. scene or description that forms a setting for the chief objects. a patient. release a prisoner from custody).English in Kinetotherapy. people. . b) information that is needed to understand a problem. while the latter are listed and treated as separate words: calf1 and calf 2. such as a social activity. oral questions or practical tasks. after he has carried out a duty (discharge a soldier.

trick. safety device. c) a written. printed or painted design or figure. You can use the following expressions: . an explosive device etc). trademark by a noble family. b) a particular pattern of words. a scheme. except for the version of your choice. used as a heraldic sign. d) a plan or plot.44 ADINA RĂDULESCU 4. a clever or evil one. emblem. device means: a) a machine or tool adapted for a special purpose (timesaving device. Write your own contexts in which the polysemantic words above. 5. figures of speech used in literature to produce a certain effect on the reader. esp. are used with other meanings.

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 5 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • examination paper background music entrance examination working-class background to take an examination background on the company’s financial position pass/fail an examination time-saving device = aparat de uz caznic medical examination labour-saving device = dispozitiv mecanic to be under examination an explosive device = dispozitiv explozibil to stay/keep in the background stylistic device = figură de stil .

boldness. 9. foam on the top of a poured beer. ground under the sea. 15. under the laces or buckles to protect the instep. swallowing and speaking. backbone. 17. dialect or idiom. containing the eyes. A practical English handbook 5 6. the back part of a book that is visible when it is in a row on a shelf. 11. 12. tongue e.English in Kinetotherapy. head f. used in tasting. a person capable of accepting delay that can still remain calm. nose. mouth and brain. 3. any of the sharp needle-like parts on some plants (cactuses) and animals (hedgehogs). licking. 13. lake or river. below the ankle. 14. spine g. part of the body. courage. bottom c. deepest or farthest removed part of a thing. chief person of a group or organization. the lowest. part of the body on which one sits. 7. a person who is receiving medical care in hospital. 6. 16. 18. 10. 4. foot b. row of bones along the back of humans and some animals. on which a person or animal sits. the lowest part of the leg. buttocks. any of the bundle of fibres carrying sensory or motor impulses between the brain and all parts of the body. a measure of length equal to 12 inches. a language. Match each of the meanings below to one of the seven polysemantic words in the box: a. a movable organ in the mouth. 2. nerve 1. 5. a flap of leather on a shoe. 8. . patient d.

= a avea curajul/tupeul de a face ceva to strain every nerve = a-şi încorda toate puterile . rib or vein in a leaf or any of the veins of an insect`s wing. 7.6 ADINA RĂDULESCU 19. Write your own contexts for the different meanings of the polysemantic words above. figures = a avea cap de afaceri. You can make use of the following syntagms and expressions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • to be patient with sb. mental ability or natural talent for something. 20. cifre at the foot/bottom of the stairs/hill/ mountain/list/page = în partea de jos a … a 7-foot high wall = un zid înalt de 7 picioare to fall on one`s bottom = a cădea în fund the bottom of the sea/lake/river = fundul mării/lacului/râului to go to the bottom = a se scufunda to lose/regain one`s nerve = a-şi pierde/redobândi curajul to have the nerve to do smth. = a avea răbdare cu cineva mother tongue = limbă maternă to have lost/find one`s tongue = a-şi pierde/redobândi graiul the head of the family = capul familiei head office = sediu central to have a good head for business.

Thomson`s sister. Let me introduce myself. • Please come in and take a seat. Green. what can I do for you? • Tell me. aren`t you? He told me all about you. Johnson. what`s brought you here? • Well. I will be with you in a second. • My name is Dr. Mrs. I think we talked on the phone. Thomson tells me that you have been having low back pains… • I couldn`t help noticing your slight limp. Mr. A practical English handbook 7 ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Greetings. Baum. How is your recovery going on? • I understand that you have seen several therapists before. How is your back? • You are Dr.Green. • Make yourself comfortable. Redcliff. How can I help you? . Johnson. didn`t we? • I remember you. Can you tell me more about it? • I can`t tell you how sorry I am about your terrible accident. You were my patient last year. identification and introductory dialogues Here are some examples of initial greetings and introductory dialogues used before the examination takes place: The therapist: • Good morning. Dr. I am your therapist.English in Kinetotherapy. what`s troubling you? • Well. Mrs. Mrs. let`s see… what seems to be the problem? • Your brother. Dr. Inquiring about the patient`s problem: • Well.

I will have to see you twice a week. Terapeutul poate sesiza în mod indirect anumite caracteristici motrice ale pacientului. Orice informaţii cu privire la datele personale ale pacientului. 3. Recomandarea unui program de exerciţii terapeutice nu se poate face fără o examinare amănunţită a pacientului. protejat. Practise therapist-patient dialogues using the examples above. but you should have seen an orthopaedist before coming here. • I am sorry. • For the first two weeks we shall meet every day till your pain goes away. for six weeks. Translate into English. ►◄ Pair work 8.8 ADINA RĂDULESCU Programming further sessions: • Considering your diagnosis. • We shall start on Monday and see how it is going. fiind asigurat de confidenţialitatea discuţiilor sale cu terapeutul. Pe toată durata examinării pacientul trebuie să se simtă relaxat. You can as well come up with your own examples. • Bring me the X-rays and then I will schedule a meeting for you for next week. • I think we can have good results if you come to all your sessions. 4. using the new vocabulary: 1. prin simpla observare a . • I will meet you for our sessions three times a week. la un diagnostic anterior şi medicamentaţie se pot dovedi extrem de importante în recomandarea terapiei ulterioare. 2. 9. for at least three weeks.

a ţinutei generale şi a mersului acestuia. all practised under the close supervision of both the physician and the kinetotherapist. A practical English handbook 9 posturii sale corporale. Adjacent joints should be mobilized as soon as possible.” (Adapted from Thomas A. weight-bearing exercises. however. Immobilization of adjacent joints can be done by using splints.English in Kinetotherapy. Physical therapy should include active exercises for joint mobilization. 5. Then translate these texts into Romanian: Patient rehabilitation after fractures “Patient rehabilitation should begin immediately. braces or foot attachments to external fixation systems. UNIT 5 TYPES OF INJURIES PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – PATIENT`S SYMPTOMS AND COMPLAINTS FORMAL AND INFORMAL MEDICAL TERMS 1. as well as range of motion and strengthening exercises. Russell – General Principles of Fracture Treatment) . depending on the type of fracture and soft tissue stability. Read the following extracts and check the glossary below for new words. Palparea pacientului şi testarea gradului său de mobilitate sunt indicii clare în stabilirea afecţiunii prezente şi indicarea tipurilor de exerciţii corespunzătoare. in open fractures motion of musculotendinous units over fracture surfaces will irritate the soft tissues and may decrease resistance to infection.

LaVelle – Acute Dislocations) Sprains or ligamentous injuries “Most sprains or ligamentous injuries can be treated by immobilization. Phillips . the more likely is the possibility of complications.” (Adapted from Barry B. followed by a gentle stretching and progressive strengthening program as symptoms resolve. The longer the hip remains dislocated. including avascular necrosis of the femoral head and posttraumatic arthritis.” (Adapted from David G.Rupture of muscles and tendons) GLOSSARY rehabilitation = reabilitare fracture = fractură adjacent joint = articulaţie adiacentă to decrease = a reduce. many specialists report that early mobilization for these injuries produces superior results to immobilization. Terry Canale – Ankle Injuries) Rupture of muscles and tendons “The most frequent cause of partial or complete rupture of a muscle or tendon is eccentric overload of the muscle-tendon unit. Even though immobilization allows the stretching of ligaments. Muscle strains are initially treated with ice. quickly relieves pain and may be beneficial in reducing the swelling. It occurs primarily in conjunction with severe multiple trauma from high-speed motor vehicle accidents. rest and antiinflammatory medication. Failure to regain full flexibility and normal strength of the muscle-tendon unit results in increased risk of further recurrent injury.” (Adapted from S. Most dislocations of the hip can be reduced by close manipulation and this treatment should take precedence over treatment of all other skeletal injuries. diminua .10 ADINA RĂDULESCU Hip dislocation “Hip dislocation is an orthopaedic emergency and must be reduced immediately.

hernie overload = încărcare excesivă muscle strain = întindere musculară failure = eşec. must etc) and write them down. A practical English handbook 11 to increase = a mări. should. scrântire to relieve pain = a alina durerea swelling = umflătură rupture = ruptură. a avea prioritate faţă de skeletal injury = leziune a sistemului scheletic sprain = luxaţie.English in Kinetotherapy. underline the passive ones as in the examples below: Example: Should begin Should be mobilized . Scan the texts above for modal constructions (can. intensifica splint = atelă brace = orteză foot attachment = dispozitiv de fixare a piciorului weight-bearing exercise = exerciţiu de susţinere a greutăţii corporale range of motion = grad de mobilitate strengthening exercises = exerciţii de întărire musculară to occur = a se petrece. adiţional 2. may. a avea loc in conjunction with = în legătură cu avascular necrosis = necroză avasculară femoral head = cap femural arthritis = artrită to take precedence over smth = a avea loc înainte. Then. insuficienţă further = ulterior.

Here are some examples of passives constructions illustrated for modal verbs: Excessive flexion and extension of the neck should be avoided in spinal injuries. Clinical instability may be caused by trauma. avoid mentioning unknown or indefinite subjects and focus on action and effect rather than on the agent that caused them. it may prove to be useful and practical in situations when passives are preferred to active constructions. These pills must be taken twice a day. With modal verbs the transformation from active voice to passive voice is made by keeping the modal unchanged and using a passive infinitive: Active Voice → Passive Voice Should avoid → should be avoided (modal + BE + past participle – short inf. Even though the process of converting active constructions into passive ones seems to be artificial. The pathologic anatomy must be carefully defined before treatment is determined. on an empty stomach. neoplastic or infections disorders.12 ADINA RĂDULESCU ■ GRAMMAR PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS All scientific languages make use of passive constructions to express impersonal observations. Spinal alignment can be obtained by skeletal traction.+ ED ) .

The depth of the wound ……………………… with a sponge or a brush. 8. 9. 5. 4. Cleaning the wound ……………………. 3.. by direct vision. 6. immediately with a sterile dressing to prevent further contamination. 7. Sterile instruments and gloves ……………………. If bleeding continues. Rewrite the following sentences in the passive voice. The examiner …………… his attention to the circulation and skin and then to bones. Insert the following modal constructions in their corresponding context. At times it ………… helpful to elevate the arm with the patient lying supine. making the . tendons and nerves. choosing the active or passive form that best completes the sentence: must be applied should wear first direct should be confirmed must be covered should not be done should not be rubbed must be used should may be selected may be 1.. Suspected damage to tendons and nerves …………………. 4. A regional block or general anesthetic …………… depending on the patient`s age and the severity of the injury.. Both the examiner and the patient …………. Open hand wounds ………………. A practical English handbook 13 Must take → must be taken (modal + BE + past participle – the 3rd form of irregular verbs) 3. masks when the wound is examined. manual or digital pressure …………… to the wound through the dressing. 10. in a hurry.English in Kinetotherapy. 2.

The surgeons may delay the repairs of nerve and tendons. 2. Surgeons can master microsurgical techniques only after countless hours of practice. 5. 2. when necessary. After the operation the patient should begin progressive strengthening exercises. The patients should also make monthly clinical evaluations. Dacă este imperativ ca pacientul să fie mutat. 9. 4. The examiner should advise the patient as to the extent of his injuries. If suitable instruments are available and if the surgeon is rested he may undertake repair of severed nerves on the day of injury. 8. . the agent at the end of the sentence: Example: The surgeon should closely follow the progress of patient`s regeneration.14 ADINA RĂDULESCU words in italics the subject of the sentence and placing. 6. During surgical procedures the assistants should use a double binocular microscope. During weeks after nerves repair operation the patient should pay careful attention to avoid fixed contractures. 10. 5. 3. The surgeon must evaluate the extent of the skin loss from the injury. Pacientul suspectat de fractură a coloanei vertebrale nu trebuie mutat până la sosirea ajutorului calificat. The progress of patient`s regeneration should be closely followed by the surgeon (agent). 1. 7. Translate into English using passive modal constructions: 1. The surgeon must avoid coffee just before surgery.

Here are some examples of the same notions with different formal vs. vânătaie inflamed tendons tenosinovită hardening of the arteroscleroză arteries sleeping pill. informal medical terms: Formal term contusion tenosynovitis arteriosclerosis sedative analgesic Informal term bruise Translation contuzie. 5. A practical English handbook 15 capul. calmant 6. gâtul şi toracele lui trebuie susţinute în poziţia lor iniţială de către mai multe persoane. Match the formal term in column A with its corresponding informal term in column B: . Primul ajutor în caz de rănire trebuie să fie întotdeauna rapid. the scientific language of all medical texts and an informal medical language that non-specialists (patients) use to describe their symptoms or disabilities. even if they are speaking about the same things. eficient şi de preferinţă efectuat de către personal calificat. 4. 3. There is a certain difference between a formal medical language used between doctors and medical care takers. Această plagă ar trebui curăţată imediat iar fractura deschisă ar trebui imobilizată.English in Kinetotherapy. In therapist-patient communications a common informal language should be used to ensure proper communication. Programul de recuperare motorie a pacientului ar trebui început la câteva săptămâni după operaţie. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Patient`s symptoms and complaints Formal and informal medical terms Patients and therapists/doctors do not always use the same language. dope sedativ pain killer analgezic.

lower jaw d.ankylosing spondylitis 10. bad breath i. Adam`s apple g. upper jaw o.16 ADINA RĂDULESCU A 1. (Am o ruptură ligamentară la genunchiul drept. womb j. baldness Without assuming to cover at least part of the symptoms and problems that patients may have when coming to see a kinetotherapist. heart attack f. uterus 15. mandible 8. (Am o ruptură de tendon la coapsa dreaptă. (Mi-am răsucit/ luxat glezna stângă) I have strained my deltoid muscle. palpitations e.) I have pulled a hamstring muscle.) I have torn a ligament in my right knee. halitosis 3. spine 6. low blood sugar h. influenza 13. thorax 12. tachycardia 7. backbone k. myocardial infarction 9.) . dislocation n. bamboo spine c. alopecia 5. subluxation 11. some examples of common complaints are presented below: Patient`s symptoms and complaints: • • • • • I have sprained my left ankle. (Am o întindere musculară la deltoid.) I have snapped a tendon in my left thigh. flu l. (Mi-am întins un tendon muscular. maxilla 4. hypoglycaemia 14. chest m. thyroid cartilage 2. dizziness b. vertigo B a.

(Am suferit degerături la degetele de la picioare.) I feel a tingling sensation in my fingers. tore. 7. A practical English handbook 17 • • • • • • • • • I have got a cartilage problem in my left knee joint.) My fingers tremble a lot and even my hands have started shaking. (Simt furnicături în picioare tot timpul. Example: Have sprained = Present Perfect Simple. formation: the auxiliary verb have + past participle of the irregular verb tear (tear. (Am crampe la gambe. (Am o problemă la nivelul cartilajului articulaţiei genunchiului stâng. (Am degetele/picioarele amorţite când mă trezesc. (Simt o senzaţie de furnicături în degete.) I have got a severe pain in my left heel.) ■ GRAMMAR Present Perfect and Present Tense Simple are the tenses normally used to express complaints in the above sentences.(Îmi tremură degetele şi chiar şi mâinile. (Am gleznele umflate.English in Kinetotherapy. (Am o durere puternică în călcâiul stâng. torn) .) I have got chilblains in my toes. formation: the auxiliary verb have + past participle of the regular verb sprain (short infinitive + -ed) Have torn = Present Perfect Simple.) I have got numb fingers/legs when I wake up.) I get cramp in my calves. Identify each tense in the sentences above and say how they are formed.) I have pins and needles in my feet all the time.) I have got swelling of my ankles.

Am fost în spital şase săptămâni. Mi-am rupt trei coaste într-un accident de schi. 4. I ________ already _________ (practise) this stretching exercise three times. I am still in hospital. I always ______ (get) cramps in my calves in the morning. 8. Nu pot să-mi îndoi cotul drept. 2. . 5. Yes. _______ you ever ________ (sprain) your ankle? It`s not so bad but you have to stay in bed for a while. Cred că mi l-am luxat. Mi-am dislocat umărul stâng. 4.18 ADINA RĂDULESCU Present Perfect Simple is used in the above-mentioned complaints to express previous causes/injuries that still have a certain effect in the present. Mi-am fracturat şoldul şi am nevoie de exerciţii de reabilitare. sometimes modal verbs are to be used as well: 1. Translate into English using Present Perfect Simple and Present Tense Simple as in the above-presented examples of patient`s complaints. My aunt`s fingers always __________ (tremble) when she ________ (give) me my monthly allowance. the symptoms presented are something felt as usual. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Tense Simple or Present Perfect: 1. _______ it _________ (hurt) if I touch your swollen ankle? ______ you _______ (feel) a burning sensation? 3. Aş dori să am un grad mai mare de mobilitate. 2. while Present Tense Simple makes these complaints a general fact. 3. Am adesea crampe durerose în ambele gambe după terminarea meciului de fotbal. I ________________ (not recover) yet. 9. 5. but you still ___________ (not do) it right.

Read the following text and write down the new words. UNIT 6 THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – RECOMMENDING DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES 1. restoration or maintenance of strength. Când mă scol dimineaţa nu-mi simt picioarele de la genunchi în jos.Am contracţii musculare în gamba stângă iar forţa mea musculară nu mai este aceeaşi. balance and . 9. 10. THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES “The goals of therapeutic exercises include the prevention of dysfunction as well as the development. using the glossary below. coordination. relaxation. Am dureri de spate acute. 8. improvement. Am o întindere musculară supărătoare la nivelul gâtului. then translate it into Romanian. endurance and cardiovascular fitness. Am o ruptură de tendon în deltoid şi nu-mi pot continua programul de antrenament pentru Olimpiadă.English in Kinetotherapy. 10. Am nevoie de câteva exerciţii de întindere pentru a-mi redobândi flexibilitatea. stability. mobility and flexibility. Place yourself in a patient`s situation and complain about your symptoms. 7. Am fost la mulţi doctori şi m-am horătât să încerc şi nişte exerciţii terapeutice. asking your colleagues – future kinetotherapists for help and advice. A practical English handbook 19 6.

20 ADINA RĂDULESCU functional skills. To increase strength. such as walking or climbing stairs. with all body parts well supported and be taught to progressively contract and relax the musculature. the patient should be placed in a comfortable position. Thus. It is dependent upon the extensibility of muscles. Stability is usually required in more proximal structures. but for a relatively low number of repetitions. Strength is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to produce tension and a resulting force during a maximal effort.Stabilization exercises are the means by which a patient can learn to control proximal areas of the body and. Mobility of soft tissues and joints is necessary for the performance of normal functional movements. lengthen and yield to a stretch force. well-aligned position while carrying out functional activities. a high-intensity exercise (exercise performed against heavy loads) must also be used. pain-free range of motion.the major goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs.Exercises promoting relaxation are based on the therapeutic use of reflexive and conscious processes. swimming and cycling and are to be prolonged and performed for 15 to 45 minutes or more. at the same time. which allows muscles that cross a joint to relax.This . running. either dynamically or statically. It is necessary for performing repeated motor tasks in daily living. maintain a stable. To produce greater muscular tension. Relaxation refers to a conscious effort to relieve tension in muscles. Flexibility is the ability to move a single joint or series of joints through an unrestricted. Exercises are usually directed to large muscle groups. sustain that tension and resist fatigue over a prolonged period of time. as in walking. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or generate tension. for effective positioning and motion of the arms and hands or legs and feet. such as the trunk. a load that exceeds the metabolic capacity of the muscle must be used during exercise. hips and shoulder girdle. Active exercises that challenge the oxygen transport system will increase endurance . in the relation to the demands placed upon it.

restabilire maintenance = menţinere strength = forţă. use of sensory cues (tactile. A practical English handbook 21 process is often coupled with deep-breathing exercise to further promote relaxation. visual) to enhance motor performance and as the quality of movement improves. Learning functional motor tasks involves constant repetition of simple to more complex motor activities. balance and the acquisition of functional skills are all interrelated and are complex aspects of motor control. Foundations and Techniques) GLOSSARY dysfunction = disfuncţie restoration = refacere. Finally. Balance refers to the ability to maintain the center of gravity over the base of support. so should the speed and timing of movements. It is the basis of smooth and efficient movement that can occur on a voluntary or involuntary level.English in Kinetotherapy. usually while in an upright position. Coordination refers to the ability to use the right muscles at the right time with appropriate intensity. It is a dynamic phenomenon that involves a combination of stability and mobility. functional skills refer to the varied motor skills necessary to function independently in all aspects of daily living. Coordination. vigoare endurance = rezistenţă fizică cardiovascular fitness = tonus cardiovascular balance = echilibru functional skills = abilităţi funcţionale load = greutate a high-intensity exercise = exerciţiu cu intensitate crescută fatigue = oboseală motor tasks = sarcini motorii .” (Adapted from Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise.

the goals of therapeutic exercises are…………. How is strength defined in the text? Well. întinde to yield to = a ceda. if I remember corectly. Here is an example for the first paragraph: Example: What are the main goals of therapeutic exercises? Well. a nu rezista la stretch force = forţă de întindere stable = stabil well-aligned position = poziţie corect adoptată carry out = a îndeplini. strength is defined as ………. .22 ADINA RĂDULESCU to challenge = a solicita range of motion = grad de mobilitate to lengthen = a se lungi. a realiza to relieve = a destinde. intensifica motor performance = randament motoriu timing = sincronizare ►◄ Pair-work 2. Question-answer exercise: Reread the text above on paragraphs. obţinere smooth movement = mişcare lină. let my see. relaxa deep-breathing exercise = exerciţiu de respiraţie profundă acquisition = dobândire.. One student will ask his/her colleague one or two questions for each paragraph and he/she should answer it either by reproducing fragments from the text or by freely expressing a summary of that fragment. fără întreruperi upright position = poziţie verticală sensory cues = indici senzoriali to enhance = a mări.

Muscular endurance is not my stong point. my strength is quite bad/ is not so bad/ is actually quite good/ is excellent…. As for my mobility and flexibility. Well. daily. it says here that a high-intensity exercise…. I have always had problems with balance. there are some typical noun/ adjective/ adverb/ verb – forming suffixes and prefixes.). usually). in your answers you can make use of the following assessment patterns or come up with new ones: • • • • • Well. as a noun (Walking can sometimes be very relaxing.). it goes without saying that all I need is a little practice. The suffix – ing is used to form the present participle that can be used as a verbal category (She came walking across the field. proposal and adjectives like in functional. For instance the suffix –al is used to form both nouns like in arrival.). but there are cases when the same prefix or suffix is used to form different categories. refusal. Generally. my stability depends a lot on my mental stability.English in Kinetotherapy. Still. Question-answer exercise: Try to find out how much you really know about your physical abilities. educational. you either have it or not. to me. A practical English handbook 23 What should be done to produce greater muscular tension? Well. to get back into shape. The suffix –ly is the most common adverbforming suffix (rapidly. if you get my meaning. 3. a state of nervousness will certainly be detrimental to my stability. muscular endurance etc.) or as an adjective (He was reading a very amusing novel. it is sometimes that does not improve with practice. there are some adjectives . Ask your deskmate to make a self-evaluation of his/her physical abilities (strength. WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION Derivation with suffixes and prefixes is one of the means of word formation.

24 ADINA RĂDULESCU that contain the –ly suffix: daily schedule. adjectives) and the corresponding suffixes for every derivational noun in the same text: Example: prevention ← prevent (verb) + -ion (suffix) mobility ← mobil (adjective) + -ity (suffix) 6. 4. Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational adjectives and include them into their corresponding suffix category: Example: -ic: therapeutic -al: functional -ing: resulting -ed: prolongued -ive: effective -ly: daily -(i)ous: conscious -able: comfortable . Find the corresponding base forms (verbs. monthly payment. Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational nouns and include them into their corresponding suffix category as shown in the example: Example: -ion: prevention -ment: development -ance: maintenance -ness: fitness -ity: mobility -ing:walking 5. The following exercises are meant as forms of practising the word formation process.

Find the corresponding base forms (nouns. verbs) and the corresponding suffixes for every adjective in the text: Example: therapeutic ← therapeut (noun) + -ic (suffix) 8.English in Kinetotherapy. sometimes there are some slight spelling differences between the noun and its corresponding verb that can easily pass unnoticed: Verbs To practise To respond Nouns practice response . Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational adverbs and include them into their corresponding suffix category: Example: -ly: relatively -ally: dynamically 9. A practical English handbook 25 -y: sensory 7. Find the corresponding base forms (adjectives) and the corresponding suffixes for every adverb: Example: relatively ← relative (adjective) + -ly (suffix) There are many nouns in English that have an identical form with their corresponding verbs: Verbs to pressure to question to estimate to exercise Nouns pressure question estimate exercise Yet.

8. Write in the second column the corresponding nouns for the verbs listed in the first column. 9. 4. 12. Dean`s inclusion in our clinical study was more than vital.26 ADINA RĂDULESCU 10. 7. examine prescribe operate assess decide retire interpret confirm immobilize rehabilitate swell treat dislocate inclusion_ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 12. 6. 3. 11. 2. Give other examples of nouns that have the same form as their corresponding verbs and write contexts in which the same word functions both as a noun and as a verb. The first one has been done for you as an example: include 1. 10. Mr. . Rewrite the sentences below using the nouns in the second column (exercise 11) instead of their corresponding verbs. 5. 11. 1. Dean in our clinical study. Do not change the meaning of the sentences: Example: It was more than vital to include Mr. I will be able to tell you more after I examine the patient. 13.

8.English in Kinetotherapy. What can I do if my ankle swells over night? 10. Here are some examples of such kinetotherapy exercises that therapists may recommend to their patients: Kinetotherapist`s recommandations: • • You should start with a very simple relaxation technique. he will also decide a further treatment. The surgeons operated on the injured man immediately. A practical English handbook 27 2. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Recommending different therapeutic exercises Listening to the patients`complains and symptoms will normally be followed by the therapist`s recommandations regarding different therapeutic techniques and exercises. 5. 3. After the doctor interprets the results of your X-rays. I cannot treat patients without their full consent and cooperation. A deep-breathing exercise will help you relax. As Mrs. she will have more time for her therapy. an emergency intervention is needed. Strauss retires next month. To immobilize the patient`s fractured leg is one of the first aid measures to be taken. 11. he will probably confirm your need for surgery. Our clinic is specialized in rehabilitating patients who suffered severe injuries. 6. 7. . You should not take these pills if the doctore did not prescribe them. 9. After the therapist assesses the patient`s needs. If the patient`s shoulder is dislocated. 4.

give examples of such types of exercises. traction techniques are a good option. Translate the above sentences into Romanian and say whether you are familiar with these exercises. 16. . 15. In treating your spine injury. do not forget to practise your overstretching exercises. As a gymnast. you need to practise strengthening exercises every day. Este foarte important să-ţi alegi un program de exerciţii care să-ţi fie cu adevărat de ajutor. You can practise these self-stretching exercises as part of your home exercise program. Consider yourself as a kinetotherapist. Translate into English using the new vocabulary: 1. 13.28 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • • • • • • • Some massage sessions will be good for your local circulation. choose one type of the exercises above and explain the basic procedure to a colleaguepatient of yours. Considering your long-term immobilization. I recommend you to continue with joint mobilization techniques to treat your muscular stiffness. Passive stretching exercises will lengthen your shortened tissues. 14. The best solution for you to regain your balance is to practise weight-bearing exercises. Consider yourself as a patient with a certain dysfunction (you can choose one of the symtoms presented in Unit 5) and ask your colleague-therapist what exercises he would recommend you.

5.m. rezistenţa şi stabilitatea coloanei vertebrale. 7.a. Poţi să-ţi menţii echilibrul timp îndelungat pe o suprafaţă îngustă şi fiind legat la ochi? 9. forţa.d. Rezistenţa musculară nu este intotdeauna rezultatul antrenamentelor susţinute. Tehnicile de mobilizare a articulaţiilor sunt folosite în tratarea atrofiei cartilajului articular. a hipomobilităţii articulare ş. a slăbirii ligamentoase. 6. Urcatul şi coborâtul scărilor într-un bloc fără lift. Creşterea rezistenţei musculare va duce implicit la îmbunătăţirea tonusului cardiovascular. Exerciţiile de menţinere a greutăţii corporale ar trebui să înceapă cu reînvăţarea schimbării greutăţii corporale. Dacă vrei să-ţi corectezi postura corporală defectuoasă ar trebui să începi cu exerciţii de întărire a musculaturii slăbite. 3.Toate capacităţile noastre fizice pot fi perturbate atunci când sunt nevoiţi să fim imobilizaţi la pat pentru o perioadă prelungită de timp. Exerciţiile de întindere sunt recomandate persoanelor în vârstă. A practical English handbook 29 2. Tehnicile de tracţiune sunt practicate pentru a se redobândi flexibilitatea. indivizilor sedentari şi persoanelor care se refac după operaţii sau o imobilizare prelungită. 8.English in Kinetotherapy. UNIT 7 THERAPEUTIC PATIENT PROCEDURES IN HANDLING THE . 10. alergatul după autobuz sau mersul pe jos ne ţin în formă în fiecare zi. 4.

support the patient`s lower leg with your arm or shoulder. For instances. side to side. in which case the movement is made in the frontal plane. rotation about the vertical axis including pronation (medial rotation) and supination (lateral rotation). and finally.” To increase flexion of the hip with the knee extended Hand placement: “With the patient`s knee fully extended. begin in the parallel bars with part of the weight borne on the hands.30 ADINA RĂDULESCU PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – positioning and handling the patient 1. D. and obliquely. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) Weight-bearing control and stability “Develop ability to shift the body weight. with the movement occurring in the horizontal plane. With the knee in maximum extension. If the patient cannot bear full weight. Kneel on the mat and place the patient`s heel against your shoulder. Place both of your hands along the anterior aspect of the distal femur .” (R. the following movements are possible at the shoulder joint: flexion and extention about the transverse axis with the movements occurring in the saggital plane. Stabilize the opposite extremity along the anterior aspect of the thigh with your other hand or a belt or with the assistance of another person. flex the hip as far as possible. Manual resistance to the motion is added with pressure against the patient`s pelvis. Read the following extracts and then solve the tasks that follow them: “Movements at a joint are determined by the shape of the articular surfaces. abduction and adduction about the anteroposterior axis. The patient shifts anteriorly. Alternate position.

3. Alternate position: Support the patient`s forearm on the table but allow the hand to drop over the edge of the table. The opposite extremity is stabilized in extension by a belt or towel and held in place by the therapist`s knee.” To increase dorsiflexion of the ankle with the knee extended Hand placement “Grasp the patient`s heel (calcaneus) with one hand.English in Kinetotherapy.” To increase wrist extension Hand placement “Pronate the forearm and grasp the patient at the palmar aspect of the hand. extend the patient`s wrist. Enumerate the movements that are possible at the shoulder joint. Stabilize the forearm. What is recommended if the patient has a severe wrist flexion . allowing the fingers to passively flex. 2. To lengthen the wrist flexors. A practical English handbook 31 to keep the knee extended. Stabilize the anterior aspect of the tibia with your other hand. Name the type of therapeutic exercise that deals with controlling body weight. Foundations and Techniques) TASKS 1. Pull the calcaneus downward with your thumb and fingers and gently push upward on the heads of the metatarsals. This may be more comfortable for the therapist or necessary if the patient has a severe wrist flexion contracture. Then passively extend the wrist. What should the therapist do to to lengthen the wrist flexors? 6. ankle dorsiflexion and wrist extension? 5. What is hand placement? 4.” (Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise. Which parts needs to be stabilized in: hip flexion.

2. Invent one type of exercise for a certain purpose. this time with the therapist describing the procedure (in his /her own words) while illustrating it in front of the class. describe it to your audience. What objects does the therapist use in handling the patient? 8. Complete the missing correspondent in the following adjectiveadverb pairs: ADJECTIVE possible manual ADVERB anteriorly to pronate to supinate . Pair work: Repeat the task at point 8. respecting the indications offered in the texts. Pair work: Choose one of the last three therapeutic procedures and illustrate them. first practise it with your deskmate and then. 10. 9.32 ADINA RĂDULESCU contracture? 7. Complete the missing correspondent in the following verb-noun pairs: VERBS NOUNS flexion extension abduction adduction rotation resistance pressure to stabilize to lengthen to support 3.

As a general rule. A practical English handbook 33 obliquely comfortable necessary gently passively fully horizontal severe ■ GRAMMAR PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS In Unit 5 we have already introduced the issue of Passive Voice and exemplified its use in dealing with passive modal constructions. ↓ ↓ subject agent Read the chart below to see how the active to passive .English in Kinetotherapy. The direct object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb. while the subject of the active verb becomes the agent of the passive verb. Learning how to use the passive forms of the most frequently used verbal tenses is the objective of this unit. the passive voice is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the verb in the active voice and adding the past participle of the active verb. Example: Therapists sometimes hypnotize their patients. ↓ ↓ subject direct object The patients are sometimes hypnotized by their therapists.

34 ADINA RĂDULESCU transformation works for the main verbal tenses: TENSES Present Tense Simple Present Tense Continuous Past Tense Simple Past Tense Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Simple Future Perfect Conditional Perfect Conditional Gerund ACTIVE VOICE treat PASSIVE VOICE am/is/are treated is/are being examined was/were injured was/were being transported has/have been found had been discharged will/shall be included will/shall have been healed would be recovered would have been saved being practised is/are examining injured was/were transporting has/have found had discharged will/shall include will/shall have healed would recover would have saved practising 4. 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the passive voice of the tense indicated: Example: The range of motion of the ankle is restored (restore – Present Tense Simple) by performing stretching exercises. 2. The patient`s lower leg ___________________ (elevate – . The ankle ___________________ (immobilize – Present Tense Simple) in a short cast for 3 to 4 weeks.

9. 10. The same motion ____ now ____________ (repeat – Present Tense Continuous) with the patient in alternate position. . Pain from muscle spasm is sometimes described as a headache. If a disk lesion is the cause of the acute back pain. Ankle and foot motions ________ previously ____________ (perform – Past Perfect) by the patient. Change the following sentences from Active Voice into Passive Voice. 5. the underlined direct objects will become the subjects of the passive sentences: Example: The patient sometimes describes pain from muscle spasm as a headache. If the patient is experiencing acute inflammation. Successive weight-bearing stresses ________________ (impose – Past Tense Simple) on the feet.English in Kinetotherapy. 8. The rehabilitation program ________________ (start – Future Tense Simple) as soon as possible. 3. Little effort _______________ (require – Present Tense Simple) to maintain this position for extended periods. 7. 4. 2. he should be placed in a less irritating position. 5. Muscular endurance _________________ (increase – Present Perfect) by performing the same exercises for a repeated number of times. the therapist will first take measures to alleviate the pain. Many balance activities _________________ (practise – Past Tense Simple) but without any result. 3. Injury or degeneration of the disk affects spinal mechanics in general. These faulty foot postures __________________ (cause – Present Perfect) by the excessive adduction of the forefoot. A practical English handbook 35 Present Tense Continuous) now. 1. 6.

The patient with acute disk lesions has avoided sitting with the hips and knees flexed or leaning forward. The patient performs elongation exercises only within tolerance during the early healing phase. with hands placed under the shoulders. traction exercises temporarily relieved the pressure. Many patients have often expressed emotional stresses as increased tension in their lumbar region. The patient is hook-lying. The patient is side-lying. The patient is prone. The patient is supine. . 5. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Positioning and handling the patient ►◄ Pair work 6. with the foot pointing upright to keep the hip neutral to rotation. wrist over the edge of the table. with the forearm supported on the treatment table. Read the following positioning indications to your colleaguepatient who will then illustrate them in front of the classs: • • • • • • • • • The patient is supine. Imbalances in the shoulder girdle will perpetuate faulty postures. 9. with the affected hip up. 8. The patient is heel-sitting. 10. The patient is sitting. The therapist will instruct the patient to avoid flexion activities that increase intradiskal pressure. In one of my patients with spondylosis. 7.36 ADINA RĂDULESCU 4. The patient is cross-sitting. The patient is on hands and knees. with arms in resting position. 6. The patient needs bed rest during the first 2days when symptoms are highly irritable.

Support the patient`s leg with the fingers of the top hand under the patient`s knee and the lower hand under the heel. A practical English handbook 37 • The patient is standing. Pull the foot away from the long axis of the leg in a distal direction by leaning backward. Stabilize the patient`s pelvis with the top hand or arm. Place your thumb on the anterior surface of the proximal end of the clavicle.English in Kinetotherapy. • • • • • • • Grasp the patient`s wrist with your lower hand. Stabilize the patient`s pelvis by flexing the opposite hip and holding the thigh with the hands. Flex the patient`s hip and knee to 90 degrees. stabilize the leg between your knees and place one hand on the anterior aspect of the tibia. Read the following therapeutic techniques to a therapist-patient pair who will then illustrate them in front of the classs: • • • • Perform elbow flexion and extension with the forearm pronated as well as supinated. The hip to be mobilized is in resting position. with the hands placed in the low-back area. ☺Team work 8. ☺Team work 7. Read the following hand placement and stabilization procedure indications to a therapist-patient pair who will then illustrate them in front of the classs. Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and abduct the shoulder to 90 . support the knee with the top hand. Sitting on a low stool. Place a belt around your shoulder and under the patient`s thigh to help hold the weight of the lower extremity.

Create your own therapeutic exercises. The task for the other student is to write down the content of the exercise while watching it. Plasaţi pacientul în poziţie de supinaţie. The exercise will be repeated several times. using the examples provided in this unit and read them to your colleagues. Translate into English.38 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • • degrees. Then the patient returns to the initial position. 7 and 8 above. 11. 12. One student will be given a hand out containing indications for a therapeutic exercise. The movement is repeated three times for each side. using the new vocabulary of this unit: 1. Here is an example of a hand out: Example: The patient is standing. ►◄Pair work 10. with the hands placed on the shoulders. Rotate the humerus by moving the forearm like a spoke on a wheel. Flex the patient`s knee until discomfort is experienced in the anterior thigh. At the end the teacher or a third student will compare the two texts and comment on their degree of similarity. Instruct the patient to arch the back by pressing against the floor with the back of the neck and the sacrum. cu . He or she will read the text and then start illustrating the stages of the exercise. 9. Translate into Romanian all the sentences from the exercises 6. The patient bends his body sideways with one hand over his head.

9. 5. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul este în poziţia stând pe călcâie. Prindeţi încheietura mâinii pacientului şi rotiţi-i braţul. Indicaţi-i apoi pacientului să încerce să facă aceeaşi mişcare singur. cu pacientul aşezat în poziţie simetrică. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul este aşezat pe-o parte. 8. Indicaţi-i pacientului să-şi menţină greutatea corporală pe mâini şi genunchiul stâng şi să-şi întindă uşor genunchiul drept în spate. Indicaţi-i pacientului să se aplece în faţă. cu capul între braţele întinse. 10. 3. 4. 2. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul aflat în sprijin pe mâini şi genunchi. 7. Greutatea corporală va fi apoi mutată pe mâini şi pe genunchiul drept iar piciorul stâng va fi întins. pe masa terapeutului. Poziţia trebuie menţinută pentru câteva minute. Indicaţi-i pacientului să-şi întindă mâna de deasupra peste cap.Aceeaşi mişcare se va repeta pentru braţul opus. cu capul plasat la marginea mesei.English in Kinetotherapy. Read the following definitions and match the names of the . lăsând-o să atârne pe lângă masă. A practical English handbook 39 mâinile întinse lateral. 6. UNIT 8 MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS AND RECOMMENDING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES 1. până ce abdomenul se va odihni pe coapsele anterioare.

D. progressive reduction of bone mass as bone resorption outstrips bone formation. C. E. legs. eventually. May be caused by a muscle sprain or strain. and joint hypertrophy. the entire body. Other causes are poor posture. 4. enlarged prostate gland. causing skeletal weakness and fractures. formation of new bone in subchondral areas and joint margins. a tumor. A generalized. and. A rapidly progressive. obesity. arthritis. B. 3. degenerative disease of the upper and lower motor neurons characterized by atrophy of the hands. 7. or a ruptured cartilage disk between vertebrae. arms.40 ADINA RĂDULESCU disorders listed below with their corresponding definitions: 1. sagging abdominal muscles. A systemic inflammatory disorder affecting primarily the spinal column and the large peripheral joints and eventually resulting in hardening and deformity of the affected skeleton. sitting for prolonged periods of time. 6. 5. . A chronic degenerative disease process occurring primarily in the hips and knees and characterized by deterioration of the joint cartilage. Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis Osteoporosis Low Back Pain Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis A. or excessive physical effort involving the back muscles. 2. Seventy percent of individuals die within 5 years of diagnosis.

especially in multi-syllable words. afecţiune. G. An inflammation of the tendon and lining of the tendon sheath characterized by pain on movement of the associated joint.English in Kinetotherapy. using the words in the glossary: GLOSSARY disorder = disfuncţie. lăsaţi lining = îngroşare tendon sheath = teacă/înveliş al tendonului ♦ PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS Mastering stress-emphasis is one of the keys to pronouncing multisyllable medical terms. Example: . întrece subcondral areas = zone subcondrale ruptured cartilage disk = disc cartilaginos rupt poor posture = postură defectuoasă sagging muscles = muşchi căzuţi. boală primarily = în primul rând to harden = a întări bone resorption = resorbţie osoasă to outstrip = a depăşi. 2. Translate the definitions above into Romanian. A practical English handbook 41 F. English makes use of a primarily/strong stress ( that has this graphic symbol: ') placed before the stressed syllable and of a secondary/weaker stress (that has this graphic symbol¸ ) that usually precedes the primarily stress. A chronic systemic degenerative disease characterized by inflammation of the connective tissues and manifested primarily in and around peripheral joints.

te . 3. Place the following three-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern: atrophy. acute. independent. resistance.tate 4. Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ □ a . effective. endurance. disease. cartilage. arthritis. peripheral. systemic. surgery. discharge. muscle. combination. bandage. disorder. relaxation.42 ADINA RĂDULESCU circulation [¸s∂: kju'leiſn ] inflammation [¸infl∂'meiſ∂n ] □□■□ □□■□ Note – for the following pronounciation exercises each student should make use of an English dictionary that contains phonetic transcription. weakness. . skeleton. Place the following four-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern: vaccinated. penicillin.tro – phy □■□ sys . pneumonia. fracture. Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ spi . diagnosis. formation. column.nal □■ ro . compatible. tumor. restoration. excessive. phenomenon.mic 5. reduction. posture. sclerosis. rotate. prostate. ankle. voluntary. treatment. maximum. pulmonary. progressive. circulation. deformity. tendinitis. saturated. lateral. alternative. Place the following two-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern:spinal. physical. hypertrophy. emergency. spondylitis. ability.

rehabilitation. Example: De-ge-ne-ra-tive □■□□□ AND RECOMMENDING DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES Read about the main causes and symptoms of the musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders in the following chart: The disorder 1. tenosynovitis. amyotrophic. osteoporosis. musculoskeletal. but the Symptoms early symptoms: deep. A practical English handbook 43 Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ □ □ vac-ci-na-ted third syllable stress □■□□ pneu-mo-ni-a □□■□ in-de-pen-dent 6. osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Causes The etiology is unknown but is believed to be related in some way to aging and genetics. extensibility. cardiovascular. deterioration. stiffness following inactivity. midcourse symptoms: . Find the corresponding stress-emphasis pattern for the following multi-syllable words and draw their graphic reprezentation: degenerative. individual.English in Kinetotherapy. pathophysiologic. aching joint pain that is aggravated by exercise and that worsens as the day progresses. Men and women are equally affected.

pain with passive range of motion. and ankles. A higher than expected level of HLA-B27 tissue antigen is seen in 90% of individuals with the disease. joint contractures and deformities.Rheumatoid Arthritis The etiology is unknown but the disease is often characterized as an autoimmune disorder. morning stiffness that is relieved by activity. symmetric pattern and spreads to the wrists. women are three times more likely than men to be affected. weight loss. low-grade fever.44 ADINA RĂDULESCU onset in men occurs earlier. and a familial link is suspected. limited motion of lumbar spine 2. midcourse symptoms: tenderness. reduced joint motion. joint deformity and subluxation. In women. early symptoms: recurrent pain in the lower back or large peripheral joints. grating sensation. It is three to four . flexion contractures. elbows. 3.Ankylosing Spondylitis the exact cause is unknown. diminished joint function. the incidence increases after menopause. tenderness. joint enlargement late symptoms: tenderness on palpation. increase in degree and duration of pain. malaise. stooped posture. and stiffness in affected joints (most often the fingers) that occurs in a bilateral. pain. knees. paresthesia. crepitus. early symptoms: nonspecific symptoms of fatigue. anorexia.

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook times more common in men than in women, and onset typically occurs between 20 and 40 years of age. or limited range of motion in affected joints; fatigue; fever; anorexia; weight loss; diminished chest expansion; red, painful eyes. late symptoms: kyphosis, fixed flexion of hips, vertebral fractures, impotence, incontinence, diminished bladder and rectal sensation, angina, pericarditis, pulmonary fibrosis (rare). A dull, aching, constant pain and spasm; column diminishes, lordosis leading to compression in the bones, muscle spinal mass dorsal increase, multiple fractures particularly chest; the the back

45

4. Osteoporosis

Inadequate calcium intake, early menopause, sedentary life-style, a familial hystory of the disease, endocrine disorders, prolongued immobility

kyphosis and cervical

of the spine and a 5. Low Back Pain Muscle sprain or strain, arthritis, a tumor, or a ruptured cartilage reduction in height. The pain may be accompanied by muscle weakness or spasms. It may radiate down the

46

ADINA RĂDULESCU disk between vertebrae; poor posture, obesity, enlarged prostate gland, sagging abdominal muscles, sitting for prolonged periods of time, or excessive physical effort involving the back muscles. Repetitive movements, strain, or excessive, unaccustomed exercise; underlying systemic disease (rheumatoid arthritis, gout, sclerosis); middleaged and older adults and athletes or individuals with occupations requiring repetitive motion are at greatest risk. The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown, but proposed explanations include genetics, metabolic disturbances, and back of one or both legs, as in sciatica. It may be started or increased by coughing, sneezing, rising from a seated position, lifting, stretching, bending, or turning.

6. Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis

The involved tendons usually show visible swelling; the joint may be tender and hot to the touch; motion of the joint causes pain.

7.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

early symptoms: weakness, cramps in the hands and forearms. midcourse symptoms: fatigue; dyspnea; slurred speech; dysphagia; asymmetric spread of muscle weakness to the rest of

English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook external agents. the body; spasticity; fasciculations; hyperactive deep tendon and extensor plantar reflexes. late symptoms: paralysis of vocal cords; paralysis of chest muscles, necessitating ventilatory support.

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►◄Pair work 7. Check if your deskmate has attentively read the chart by asking him/her questions like these: What are the main causes of low back pain? What are the early symptoms in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis? • What are the late symptoms in Ankylosing Spondylitis? • The symptom of which disease is the visible swelling of tendons? • Which parts of the body are affected by pain in Ankylosing Spondylitis? • In which diseases does stiffness affect various parts of the body? Take turns in asking and answering various questions. 8. Extract or create sentences using the chart above and ask your deskmate to say if they are true or false. Example: Athlets or individuals with occupations requiring repetitive movements are very likely to suffer from Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis. → True • •

Physical therapy to maintain muscle 2. Moist heat compresses to joint. The patient should sleep on a firm mattress with the knees flexed and supported. Osteoporosis 5. traction/back brace in special cases. strength. → False 9. rest of joint with controlled progressive exercise program. Match the disorders in the first column with their corresponding therapeutic exercises in the second column.Ankylosing Spondylitis 4.48 ADINA RĂDULESCU Men are three times more likely than women to be affected by Rheumatoid Arthritis. A corset or back brace may be required. exercise. Therapy and exercise to increase range of motion. The patient should use a straight-backed chair and not cross or extend the legs. When the pain subsides. Translate the content of the chart above using a medical dictionary. postural training. 10. e. muscle relaxants. b. Pain killers. and endurance. canes. Check the symptoms in the chart above so as to make the appropriate choice of the therapeutic exercises: The disorder 1. d. Physical therapy. and tranquilizers may help. as may applying dry or moist heat. Rheumatoid Arthritis 3. Low Back Pain . paraffin gloves to reduce pain and edema. splints. moist compresses. balance of activity and rest. the patient may increase activity if fatigue is avoided. Osteoarthritis Therapeutic exercises a. walkers to aid mobility. c.

use firm bed and hard chairs. isokinetic. massage. Consider yourself as a kinetotherapist and choose the best way to recommand the corresponding therapeutic exercises to your colleague . lowheeled shoes.patient who may ask you many questions regarding the duration. strengthening. Use the charts with medical information. wear sturdy. stretching. moist heat for pain. walkers to aid mobility. rest. Tendinitis Tenosynovitis and 7. range of motion. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ►◄ Pair work 11. speech therapy to aid communication. Avoid: soft chairs. including weight-bearing hyperextension and resistance exercises to slow calcium loss and strengthen musculature. symptoms and treatments above. Here are some examples to help you: Example: Therapist`s recommandations: • Considering your aggravated joint pain and your stiffness . splints for neutral joint alignment. the difficulty and the expected results of such an exercise programme. pillows under knees. A practical English handbook strength. canes.English in Kinetotherapy. canes. g. walkers to aid ambulation. isotonic. Consistent exercise regimen. recliners. balance exercise. heat and massage for muscle spasm. f. 49 6. elastic bandages for support. occupational therapy for activity of daily living support. orthopedic supports for back and neck to prevent stress fractures. Exercise: isometric. leg braces.

but I do believe that you should consider starting your physical therapy as soon as possible. Patient`s questions: • In what way will my general condition be improved after starting these therapeutic exercises? • How long will this therapy be and how many sessions a week are necessary? • Will this therapy be painful? How difficult are the exercises? • Do I have to make any changes in my diet or in my daily routine? • Will this short-term therapy prevent the disease from getting worse? . I do not want to put any pressure on you. it is to your best interest that you should start these therapeutic exercises. Your low back pain now radiates down the back of both your legs. you should really take some urgent measures and start your therapy.50 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • following inactivity. And as things are not getting better.

A practical English handbook 51 UNIT 9 POSTURAL PROBLEMS CONDITIONAL CLAUSES THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE COMMUNICATION – IMPROVING 1. consult the glossary below and translate the text into Romanian: POSTURAL PROBLEMS “Posture is a position or attitude of the body. Lordotic posture This posture is characterized by an increase in the lumbosacral angle. The postural pain symdrome refers to the pain that occurs from mechanical stress when a person maintains a faulty posture for a prolongued period. A postural fault is a posture that deviates from normal alignment but has no structural limitations. There are no abnormalities in muscle strength or flexibility. Read the following text. . the relative arrangement of body parts for a specific activity. or a characteristic manner of bearing one`s body. strength and flexibility imbalances will eventually develop. the pain is usually relieved with activity.English in Kinetotherapy. but if the faulty posture continues.

or begins talking with someone. with periodic shifting of weight to the opposite extremity. Flat low-back posture This posture is characterized by a decreased lumbosacral angle. an increased kyphosis in the lower thoracic region. a decreased lumbar lordosis. For example. When standing for prolongued periods. and an increase in the anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion. Foundations and Techniques) . the patient should be instructed to use cues throughout the day to check posture. depressed scapulae. Relaxed or slouched posture This posture is also called swayback. It is not normal for a person to always maintain good posture. Flat upper back posture This posture is characterized by a decrease in the thoracic curve. It is associated with an exaggerated military posture but is not a common postural deviation. they can be used as reminders to practise maintaining a good posture. resulting in flexion of the thorax on the upper lumbar spine. and a posterior tilting of the pelvis. This is often seen with an increased thoracic kyphosis and forward head and is called a kypholordotic posture. enters a room. depressed clavicle. sits down for a meal. hip extension. The entire pelvic segment is shifted anteriorly. and usually a forward head. waits at a red light while driving a car. resulting in hip extension and the thoracic segment is shifted posteriorly.52 ADINA RĂDULESCU an increase in the lumbar lordosis. the patient can be instructed to check the posture every time he or she walks past a mirror. the person usually assumes an asymmetric stance in which most of the weight is borne on one lower extremity. This results in an increased lordosis in the lower lumbar region. If the patient becomes aware of his/her daily routines. Therefore. and a flat-neck posture.” (Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise.

a duce flat low-back posture = postură aplatizată a zonei inferioare a spatelui flat upper-back posture = postură aplatizată a zonei superioare a spatelui thoracic curve = curbură toracică depressed scapulae = omoplaţi căzuţi. bore.English in Kinetotherapy. lăsaţi flat-neck = gât întins cues = indicii throughout the day = pe toată durata zilei 2. What postural habit does the slouched patient manifest while . borne = a purta. 3. postură bear. cocârja swayback = înclinare spre spate to shift = a deplasa. 2. try demonstrating each of them in front of the classroom. Define in your own words what a postural fault is. After reading about the four faulty postures. What are the visible signs of kypholordotic posture? 6. A practical English handbook GLOSSARY 53 to bear one`s body = a-şi susţine corpul postural fault = defect postural mechanical stress = solicitare mecanică imbalance = dezechilibru eventually = în cele din urmă pelvic tilt = înclinare/aplecare pelviană forward head = cap împins către anterior to slouch = a se gârbovi. Check your reading comprehension by solving the following tasks: 1. What happens if a patient continues to maintain a faulty posture? 5. When does postural pain syndrome occur? 4. schimba stance = poziţie.

8. Imperative take a break and then start again. Modal verbs the patient must/should see a doctor.54 ADINA RĂDULESCU 7. . 10. tense pain Main clause Future tense simple strength imbalances will develop. 9. present or future oriented Present tense simple If you get tired. in your opinion? How do you correct your faulty postures when you become aware of them? ■ GRAMMAR CONDITIONAL CLAUSES Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the subordinate clause or the if-clause and the main clause. There are three main types of conditional clauses and various mixed types. using certain pairs of tenses. There are also many exceptions from each type but students dealing with conditionals for the first time should simply concentrate on the basic rules that will be presented in the following chart: Types Type I If-clause Present tense simple If the faulty posture continues. present/past conditions. Each type is used to express different real/unreal. Meaning Real situation. standing? What are the characteristics of flat upper-back posture? What methods can a patient use to correct a faulty posture? What are the causes of faulty postures. Present simple If the increases.

past oriented (regrets. Unreal. unfulfilled plans. 2. If she did what the doctor says. ask him to corret the faulty posture. he could come to his sessions. to feel discomfort. If you were able to notice what posture causes your low back . you would have felt better. present or future oriented. A practical English handbook Type II Past tense simple/continuous would could + short should infinitive might I would try the new procedure. wishes to change the past) 55 If I were you. If he had more time. would could + have + should past might participle I could have helped the injured cyclist.English in Kinetotherapy. 3. hypothetic situation. Fill in the gaps with the verbal constructions in the box to complete the following conditional clauses: may simply disappear would not have felt had performed is begins knew check should get up cannot relax could control 1. TypeIII Past perfect simple/continuous If I had known anything about first help. If you had practised your therapeutic exercises. unlikely to happen Imaginary situation. If the patient ……………. she might have a chance to avoid surgery.

. my feet (7) ……………. so tired in the morning. 3. 8. (never meet) her. his relaxation exercises. I (3) …………………. 9. and walk every hour. (not brake) my leg. b) If this desk height (4) ………… (be) adequate. (rest) comfortably on the floor. your morning pains ……………………… .. (not be) so high. some measures (9) …………………….. 10. I would not hesitate to immediately adopt it. she …………………….. (passive – . 6. 5. you ……………. 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a) I met my wife in hospital ten years ago.56 ADINA RĂDULESCU pain. If I ………… what my ideal sleeping posture is. If you are experiencing any pain. posture. (not fall) on ice and (2) ……………. 4. Just imagine! If I (1)…………. he would not have got stiff-necked.. If the mattress is too firm. 4. She was a nurse in my orthopaedics ward.. I had fallen on ice and broken my leg. My back is killing me! Not to mention the chair! If it (6) ……. the patient sags and stresses ligaments. I should complain about all these to our personnel manager. (express) their complaints. If you have a sedentary job. too soft. some patients ………………. So I could say that there is nothing so bad as not to be good for something. (not have to) lean over my work. If she had slept in a comfortable bed. If more employees (8) …………. If the mattress ……. If he ………………. you …………………… it. …………. If you modify your sleeping posture. I (5) ………………….

If the patient suffers from osteoporosis. then he will need physical therapy. Then. I had mild low back pain for a week after. 2. 5. This injury is severe. Rewrite the following sentences. he would not have had to take pain killers and muscle relaxants for his poor back. c) You know what they say. (be able) to accept them more easily. I worked hard to finish my science project. If the patient had slept on a firm mattres. My mother has a low resistance. 3. (passive – not be) injured in that car accident last year. His heart started beating more rapidly. exercise and postural training. they (13) ……………. I (11) …………… (accept) that job offer in Paris.English in Kinetotherapy. That is why the patient may run the risk of paralysis. b) The patient did not sleep on a firm mattress. She catches diseases very easily. He had to take pain killers and muscle relaxants for his poor back. If (10) ……………. 4. He had his left leg broken. exercise and postural training. using an if construction: Example: a) The patient suffers from osteoporosis. 5. . But here I am now… working in this rehabilitation clinic… If people (12) ……… (know) how to deal with their disabilities. that it all happens for a reason… Take my example. A practical English handbook 57 take). he will need physical therapy. The old man got panic-striken. 1. He got injured in a football match..

10. 5. The family will have to evaluate their options. The diagnosis is correct. 7. nu m-aş mai fi antrenat atât de mult. Dacă aş fi ştiut că oboseala musculară măreşte riscul de accidentare. corectează-ţi imediat această tendinţă nesănătoasă. aceasta va duce la slăbire musculară şi la rezistenţă musculară redusă. 3. They prevent the patient`s condition from getting worse.58 ADINA RĂDULESCU 6. nu uitaţi să faceţi o pauză scurtă din oră-n oră şi să vă faceţi . He has the surgery right now. 8. 4. You do not spend enough time relaxing. Translate the following conditional sentences into English: 1. Nu poţi obţine stabilitate posturală dacă nu înveţi să-ţi controlezi greutatea corporală. The infection spread. Dacă vrei să-ţi uşurezi acestă durere acută. 9. Dacă eşti obosit şi te simţi mult mai relaxat într-o poziţie gârbovită. vei dobândi flexibilitatea şi rezistenţa necesare pentru menţinerea stabilităţii spinale. trebuie în primul rând să-ţi modifici obiceiurile posturale. Dacă practici aceste exerciţii regulat. Dacă persistaţi în a vă menţine defectele posturale pentru mult timp. 7. These therapeutic exercises are to be practised every day. Dacă meseria vă solicită să staţi aplecaţi pentru perioade îndelungate de timp. The chances of success may increase to about 20%. 2. That is why you are always complaing about being tired. 6. 6. That is why he needed that urgent treatment.

GETTING A POST-PRACTISE FEED-BACK FROM THE PATIENT Example: Do you see my point?→B. A practical English handbook 59 exerciţiile de întindere. ar trebui să cunoasă mai întâi foarte bine tehnicile posturale şi numai apoi să le şi execute. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Improving communication 7.Dacă pacienţii doresc ca programul lor de exerciţii să fie eficient. 10. locul de muncă etc. 9. Dacă un pacient cu handicap fizic vrea să fie independent. Lean backward and hold the stretch! . Insert the sentences below in their corresponding semantic class: A. scaunul din maşină.(CHECKING IF THE PATIENT GOT THE MESSAGE) 1. BUILDING MUTUAL TRUST F. scaunele. CHECKING IF THE PATIENT GOT THE MESSAGE C.English in Kinetotherapy. THERAPIST`S INSTRUCTIONS B. ENCOURAGING THE PATIENT E. el va trebui să înveţe cum să-şi modifice mediul înconjurător: patul. nu le-ar mai fi teamă de o nouă accidentare. OFFERING ASSISTANCE FOR THE PATIENT D. 8. Dacă pacienţii ar fi mai conştienţi de programul lor de mişcări sigure.

30. Create your own therapist-patient dialogues using the semantic classes above and the examples provided for each class. 25. 15. 18. 26. 8. 20. 12. resting your abdomen on the anterior thighs. 4. 11. 29. 9. 16. Did you take my hint? If you need a helping hand… I`m not going anywhere! Do your best! It`s worth trying! Does it still hurt when you flex your knee? You will have to learn to trust me. Did you get it right? Is this too difficult for you? I`m right here if you need me! Don`t worry! I`ll keep an eye on you! You can do it! Give it another try! Need I say this again? You have to trust me on this! Have the cramps gone away now? Lean forward.60 ADINA RĂDULESCU 2. 27. then the . Does this make any sense to you? Don`t hesitate to ask for my help! You had to deal with worse than this before! Can you manage practising this exercise by yourself now? You have to take my word for it! Are you with me on this? Don`t give up! One more try! Have you experienced any muscle spasms during this exercise? Bend your trunk laterally and hold the position. Are your fingers still numb now? 8. Tuck in your chin and lift your head. 28. 7. 10. 17. 13. 24. 22. 14. 23. 5. 3. 21. 6. Follow the logical order of asking questions (first the instructions. 19. Did you get my message? Do you still feel pins and needles in your feet? I give you my word on this! Don`t you doubt it! Lift both arms simultaneously.

English in Kinetotherapy. at 11 a. 6. I have an urgent matter. And my father suffers from osteoarthritis. B.? Mr. Secretary: Wilkinson Rehabilitation Centre. Dr. of course. Dr. please. Let me check his schedule. A practical English handbook 61 checking part and so on so forth). in case you can`t make it. it would not be the case. 3. Thomson: Well. Jones: Oh.Stiff: Yes. Er… how about 25th of September? Mr. . Stiff: Yes. Hello. hello. I `m afraid it is a bit late. Jones: Oh. 4. that`s better.m. but they are no longer living with us. who isn`t ? Dr. to see Dr. Fixing an appointment Changing an apointment Returning a call Taking a family history Taking a social history Examining a patient A. Jones: Yes. are you married? Mr. Thomson: What about your parents? Are they in good health? Mr. thank you. Thomson: Do you have any children? Mr. Stiff: My mother died last year. Thomson: I`m sorry to hear that. 5. Wilkinson. you see… Secretary: Well. Dr. what about 21st of September. Jones: Thank you. Secretary: Right. Mr. Read the following types of dialogues and match them with their corresponding titles: 1. may I help you? Mr. 9. I am calling to fix an appointment. Secretary: Call us. Bone cancer. 2.

Mr. What can I do for you? Mr. Dr. Richards: Would you. I have done this many times… Dr. Walsh: Please.62 ADINA RĂDULESCU C. Richards: Could you just take off your clothes so that I can examine you? Mr. hello. doctor? Dr. Mrs. Mr. Slender: Oh. Jones: Yes. Slender. nothing to worry about. Jones. Dr. I won`t be able to make it. you change your appointment at . E. in my left thigh. Mrs. Mrs. may I help you? Mr. I wonder if we could possibly move it to the 25th of September? Secretary: First of all. Slender: Ah. Hello. Spike: Right here. what a relief! Dr. Mrs. It is good that you returned my call. but just sprained. Walsh? Dr. Spike: Okay. lie flat on the couch for a few minutes? Can you now show me where it hurts? Mr. Dr. Secretary: Wilkinson Rehabilitation Centre. Jones. Slender here. please. Walsh: Speaking. when I return to the initial position. Mrs. Dr. hello. I`m Jones. I called you a couple of days ago… Secretary: Yes. come to see me tomorrow and we`ll discuss more about it. Jones: It is about my appointment. Slender: Is there anything wrong. Walsh: Yes. Mrs. I have just received your Xrays and it looks that your ankle is not broken. Richards: Can you raise your left leg for me? And hold it for a second? Does it hurt when you rotate it? Mr. D. Slender: Hello. Walsh: No. Spike: A little bit.

Shall I call back another time? Secretary: We have your phone number and if someone cancels an appointment we`ll let you know. Create your own dialogues. you are still working. Dr. . Otherwise…. Proposing a new experimental programme. Explaining how the devices work. Jones: Thank you for your trouble. Dealing with home exercises programme. Stiff: Yes. How to focus your effort. Recommending a better treatment. Thomson: Then. starting from the following titles: Introductory dialogues. isn`t it? Mr. Jones: I`m very sorry if I have cause you any inconvenience. Thomson: What about your working hours? Have you considered working part-time? Mr.English in Kinetotherapy. Dr. Thomson: Have you pushed yourself too hard lately? Mr. Mr. Dr. I am no longer young and keeping up with the newly hired …… Dr. The first examination. F. Thomson: Yes. two more years till my retirement. ►◄ Pair work 10.. etc. I hate to bring you the bad news. Programming the first session. A practical English handbook 63 short notice and then you want to fix the day for your future appointment? Mr. Stiff: I`m afraid this is not an option in my field. but you should consider retiring…. Stiff: You know how things are.

64 ADINA RĂDULESCU UNIT 10 REVISION EXERCISES 1. Complete the following sentences using the nouns in the box: dislocation cartilage balance postural fault muscular dystrophy fracture spinal column joints cardiovascular disease range of motion exercise .

A …………………………. Choose the right version that best completes the sentence: 1. In all forms of …………………… there is a slow loss of strength with increasing disability and deformity. ……………… is the displacement of any part of the body from its normal position. 2... is made up of 33 vertebrae that are separated by spongy disks and protects the spinal cord that runs inside of it among other things. A …………………… is a posture that deviates from normal alignment but has no structural limitations. 5.. 9. Being placed in a supine position means: a) lying flat or face downwards. that connects and supports. or synovial. The connections between bones are called ………… each being classified according to structure and movability as fibrous. 10. ………………. refers to the ability to maintain the center of gravity over the base of support. may cause problems with the heart and blood vessels. and movements in natural directions of arms and legs. joints. usually while in an upright position. 6.. A practical English handbook 65 1. A ……………… is an injury to a bone in which the tissue of the bone is broken. . ………………………. windpipe (trachea). 4. this applies most often to a bone moved from its normal position with a joint. nose. 3. 7. It is found mostly in the joints. The ………………. the chest. 2. The ………………. cartilaginous. 8. as the voicebox (larynx).. is a tissue made of cells and fibers. any body action involving the muscles. and ear.English in Kinetotherapy. and stiff tubes of all sorts.

6. endocrine disorders. b) to flex and elongate the arm successively. b) Ankylosing Spondylitis.. An abnormal. a) Osteoarthritis. a) strenghtening exercises. 5. d) flat low-back posture. c) Osteoporosis. palm.66 ADINA RĂDULESCU 2. a) kypholordotic posture. 3. b) Osteoarthritis. 4. d) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. with one arm up. a) Osteomyelitis. prolongued immobility are some of the causes of ……………. Inadequate calcium intake. causing skeletal weakness and fractures. To adduct the arm means: a) to draw or pull the arm towards the median axis of the body. etc upwards. d) to turn the arm around its own axis. reversible joint hypomobility. are necessary to treat joint dysfunctions such as stiffness. …………………………. with the face. ………………….. is a generalized. increased degree of forward curvature of any part of the spine is the characteristic of ……………. d) Osteoporosis. c) slouched posture. sedentary lifestyle. b) lordotic posture. . b) lying or resting on the back. c) to pull away the arm from the median axis of the body. early menopause. c) Rheumatoid Arthritis. progressive reduction of bone mass as bone resorption outstrips bone formation. or pain. d) side-lying. c) sitting cross-legged.

a) muscle strength . retirement. ……………………………… is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or generate tension. propose. b) muscular endurance . assessment. information. questioning. disturb. repeating. radiate. paralyse. 3. include. adjectives and adverbs from the following verbs: affect. c) weight-bearing exercises. compress. A practical English handbook 67 b) stretching exercises. contract. repeated. increase. swell. c) muscular contraction . aggravate. Example: verb repeat noun repetition. explain. Find the corresponding stress-emphasis pattern for the . treatment. suspect. function. expect. palpation Example: examination ← examine (the root-verb) 4. repeater. 7. limit. interpretation. decision. selection. d) joint mobilization exercises. d) mulcular extensibility. diminish. Derive the corresponding nouns. development. immobilize. adjective repeatable.English in Kinetotherapy. reduce. Find the root-verbs that the following nouns are derived from: examination. sustain that tension and resist fatigue over a prolonged period of time. repeat. repetitional adverb repeatedly 5. diagnostician.

contracture. It is (7) ………………… whether heating should occur prior to or during the stretching procedure. strengthening. inactivity.. EXTEND LENGTH COMFORT APPLY VIGOUR PREPARE DEBATE . A.68 ADINA RĂDULESCU following two/three/four/multi-syllable words and pronounce them accordingly: affected. the clinician and patient must always remember that an appropriate warm-up must also occur in the (6) …………………. Although stretching is often thought of as a warmup activity and performed prior to (5) …………… exercise. Warming up soft tissues prior to stretching will increase the (1) …………… of the shortened tissue. recliner. hyperextension. kypolordotic. disease. fasciculation. pericarditis. compression. 6. lumbosacral.. for the patient. duration. decrease. the amount of force required to elongate noncontractile and contractile tissues and the time the stretch force must be (4) ………………. subluxation. As the temperature of muscle increases. stiffness. alignment. more easily. Warm muscles relax and (2)……………. making stretching more (3) …………………. tranquilizer. deformity. aggravated. Complete each space with a word formed from the words in capitals. for stretching.

Read the text below and choose the version that best completes the empty spaces: Pain is often the reason why the patient has come for attention in the first place. • introducing humour at (9)…………. Pain is a/an (3)…………. as it is part of being human to make mistakes (7)……………. USE DESTRUCT PROFIT REINTERPRET EXPECT PERMIT OCCASION OBJECT SUIT RELAX 7. much anger however. • being realistic in our (5)………………. The energy that goes into its arousal could often be more (3) ………………...English in Kinetotherapy. one can try stepping back mentally to get a more (8) …………………. view. if circumstances seem to be overwhelming. experience and any measurement must . of other people. to the patient who may find that it is making his or her life (2)…………… . Always remember that pain is a/an (1) ……………. to be made.. Here are some ways in which anger can be controlled: • reinterpreting the stimulus in a more positive light.. A practical English handbook 69 B. spent in solving the problem. many situations contain ambiguities which allow (4) ………………... response takes over. moments. Some anger may serve a (1) ………… purpose.. • giving oneself (6)……………… to make a mistake. when a person smiles and laughs the (10) ……………. is purely (2)………………. • distancing oneself.

a) point 8. for example intense.. a) objectivity 5. speed of speech. the pulse may be slower and the blood pressure lower than before the pain began. but a patient can learn to live almost (15) …………. for example shooting. 1. breathing rate. burning or in terms of its affective qualities. cries. and ethnic background all affect reactions to pain. or attempts to withdraw are noted by the physician. a) group 11. many different physical and mental factors." wide pupils.a) bulk 12. or in terms of its evaluative qualities. Severe pain causes pale skin. a) or 9. When brief. or other sounds. sharp.. a) individual 4. face and body movements. unbearable. cruel. .. the (13) ………… to fight infections may be lost. a) talent b) reality b) impossible b) objective b) doubt b) among b) of b) limit b) either b) road b) relation b) tension b) rhythm b) volition c) dream d) perception c) easier d) irritating c) personal d) subjective c) subjectivity d) error c) with d) from c) in d) with c) degree d) level c) neither d) nor c) goose d) heat c) test d) pressure c) spasm d) strain c) beat d) tempo c) ability d) capacity . and muscle (11)………… . a) rate 13. the pulse (12) ……. strong pain starts to go away. and blood pressure may not go up much.70 ADINA RĂDULESCU incorporate a degree of (4) ………………. Specific diseases and injuries and the health. sickening. If pain occurs often or is long term. even with some pain. fear and anxiety.. a) illusion 2. It is hard to (14) ………… strong or long-term pain. groans. "(9)……. If pain lasts for many days. a) hen 10. a) intolerable 3.. Patients will describe pain (8) ………. cold sweat. annoying.. in terms of its sensory qualities. blood (10) ………. pain (7) …………. different people and depend (6) ……. Reactions to pain vary widely (5) …………. The patient's tone of voice. a) on 7. for example vicious. a) to 6. and higher levels of pulse. bumps.

(not stress) joints and ligaments at the end . a) usually b) patiently c) regularly d) normally 8. When performing this kind of stretch. Identify the type of the following conditional sentences and fill in the missing tenses or modal constructions to complete them: 1. 9. 5. such as toe touches. she …………………. Increase the pace of activity so that you can maintain the target heart rate for 10 to 20 minutes. you must keep your shoes on. Begin the passive sentences with the underlined words: 1. You will warm up the tissues with gentle rhythmic activities. Strengthening programs tend to overemphasize flexion exercises. 4. If pain begins while exercising. Patients should perform flexibility exercises prior to and after a strengthening program. 6. such as correct footware. 9. Patients should slightly bend their knees when performing forward-bending exercises. Total body streching. If she really wanted to protect vulnerable joints.English in Kinetotherapy. 2.. 8. Turn the following sentences from active voice into passive voice. a) relieve b) cure c) release d) solace 15. 3. 7. You would have avoided overuse symdromes if you ………………… (perform) proper warm-up. you ………………… (decrease) effort and rest between sessions. A practical English handbook 71 14. 3. 2. no gain” as the guideline for intensity of stretch. People often use inappropriately the phrase “No pain. An effective stretching or flexibility routine should not cause pain or excessive stress to tissues. may maintain or overstretch a mobile area. you should use appropriate equipment. To avoid injuries from stress. 10..

Translate intoRomanian. (keep) your knee straight. (feel) much better. If he wanted to increase his muscular endurance. leukemia. 9. she …………………. the gastrocnemius is stretched. he ……………………. if there …… (be) decreased flexibility between antagonistic muscle groups. (perform) the exercises with many repetitions and minimal resistance to the point of muscle fatigue. Localized bone pain suggests such disorders such as osteomyelitis. 7. jogging or aerobic dancing on hard surfaces such as asphalt and concrete. without using a dictionary: a) Inability to reverse the normal lumbar lordosis on flexion occurs in degenerative arthritis. 10. Concentrate on stretching the tight muscles. Over the past 30 years. primary or metastatic cancer. b) Normally. compression fracture or herniated disk. 5. 8.72 ADINA RĂDULESCU of the range. If your sister had practised aerobic activity 3 to 5 times per week. If you do not want to be injured during your aerobic program. 6. the therapeutic approach was to stretch the region with passive stretching techniques. Limited lumbar flexion is characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis.. it ………………… (be) safer to selectively stretch tight structures than the total body. If your patient were excessively mobile in a segment of his body. (be) stretched. the soleus ………. and thus they are managing dysfunctions better and with less trauma. you …………… (avoid) running. If you bend your knee. If you …………. Muscle elongation or active inhibition techniques are used to counteract the loss of flexibility in the contractile elements of . 4. therapists have identified and learned techniques that deal more directly with stretching the source of limitation. 10. when a patient had limited range of motion.

many such people then wish to quit smoking. Ar trebui să simţiţi o întindere plăcută în zona şoldului. However. Apăsaţi uşor cu coatele asupra coapselor. Apăsaţi apoi din nou. cu tălpile unite către interior şi cu genunchii îndreptaţi lateral către exterior. Plasaţi-vă mâinile în jurul gleznelor şi odihniţi-vă coatele pe coapse. eliminând tensiunea de peste zi. Quitting is associated with stress. cross-fiber massage techniques are used to increase mobility in selected ligaments and tendons. Observaţi priveliştea. în primul rând . Simţiţi cum începeţi să vă relaxaţi. Închideţi ochii. 11. Health care professional increasingly find themselves faced with groups of people who are struggling to give up cigarettes and for whom relaxation training hes been prescribed. and joint mobilization and manipulation techniques are used to safely stretch or snap structures to restore normal joint mechanics with less trauma than passive stretching. and many people become smokers because they perceive cigarettes as being a source of mental calm. c) Pentru a învăţa să conduceţi relaxaţi. c) It could be argued that smoking has more to do with relaxation than smoking abstinence has. Apoi odihniţi-vă. permiteţi-i locului dumneavoastră special să ia contur în imaginaţia dumneavoastră. încercaţi să simţiţi cum muşchii se relaxează. sunetele şi mirosurile acestui loc. A practical English handbook 73 muscles. b) Staţi aşezaţi.English in Kinetotherapy. Translate into English: a) Staţi întinşi sau aşezaţi într-o poziţie pe care o simţiţi comodă. which means that the same people may be seeking relaxation training. Pe măsură ce trupul şi mintea se calmează. Apoi.

Se pare că trupul nostru ne-o cere. Elasticitatea este una dintre proprietăţile ţesutului muscular care nu numai că permite muşchilor să funcţioneze mai bine. Ne întindem după ce dormim. dar îi şi protejează faţă de o posibliă accidentare. De multe ori. obişnuim la modul inconştient să ne întindem. după ce lucrăm aplecaţi în grădină… GLOSSARY spine/spinal column/backbone = vertebra. după ce stăm cu orele la birou. sunt relaxaţi. Verificaţi dacă şi muşchii pe care nu-i solicitaţi când conduceţi. Dacă observaţi că aceste grupe sunt tensionate.74 ADINA RĂDULESCU identificaţi grupele musculare de care aveţi nevoie pentru condus. relaxaţi-le. Nu uitaţi zona umerilor. -ae/bony ring = spinal cord/marrow = rib = articular cartilage = sternum/breastbone = thoracic cage = shoulder girdle = coloana vertebrală vertebră măduva spinării coastă cartilaj articular stern cuşcă toracică centură scapulară . d) Exerciţiile de întindere sunt atât de utile pentru că ajută la menţinerea elasticităţii. după ce am stat mult timp în aceeaşi poziţie. Menţineţi-vă relaxaţi şi atunci când viraţi sau schimbaţi viteza. cum ar fi muşchii feţei.

calves = shin/cannon bone = patella. -ae/knee cap = instep = sole = bowels = diaphysis = epiphysis = epiphyseal cartilage = blood vessels = muscle bulk = muscular contraction /cramp = omoplat. scapulă claviculă os sacral coccis articulaţie articulaţie fibroasă articulaţie sinovială articulaţia şoldului articulaţia genunchiului articulaţia gleznei craniu ţesut ţesut conjunctiv călcâi membru nară cartilaj tiroidian ceafă axilă.English in Kinetotherapy. subsuoară încheietura mâinii articulaţia degetului şold coapsă gambă. A practical English handbook 75 scapula/shoulder blade = clavicle/collarbone = sacrum = coccyx = articulation/joint = fibrous joint = synovial joint = hip joint = knee joint = ankle joint = cranium/skull = tissue = connective tissue = calcaneus/heel = limb = nostril = thyroid cartilage/Adam`s apple = nape (of the neck) = axilla/armpit = carpus/wrist = knuckle = hip = thigh = calf. fluierul piciorului rotulă scobitura gleznei talpă intestine diafiză epifiză cartilaj epifizar vase sanguine masă musculară contracţie musculară . -e tibia.

comportament . panglică de măsurat goniometru ciocănel pentru testarea reflexelor vată eprubetă umblet.76 ADINA RĂDULESCU muscular endurance = muscle fatigue = muscular hypertrophy = muscle tone = hypotonic muscles = hypertonic muscles = muscle rigidity = muscle spasm = spasticity = muscle sprain = muscle strain = muscle strength = muscular tension = muscular weakness = hypokinesia = hyperkinesia = stasis = muscular dystrophy = electromyography = cartilage disk = arthritis = medical history = medical examination sheet = testing devices = tape measure = goniometer = reflex hammer = cotton wool = test tube = gait = mien = rezistenţă musculară oboseală/extenuare musculară hipertrofie musculară tonus muscular muşchi hipotonici muşchi hipertonici rigiditate musculară spasm muscular spasticitate luxaţie întindere musculară forţă musculară tensiune musculară slăbire musculară hipokinezie hiperkinezie stază distrofie musculară electromiografie disc cartilaginos artrită anamneză foaie de observaţie clinică instrumente de testare ruletă. mers ţinută.

English in Kinetotherapy. hernie sterile dressing = pansament steril anesthetic = anestezic contuzie. vânătaie contusion/bruise = tenosynovitis/inflamed tendons = tenosinovită arteriosclerosis/hardening of the arteroscleroză arteries = sedative/sleeping pill/dope = sedativ analgesic/pain killer = analgezic. calmant myocardial infarction/heart infarct miocardic attack = halitosis/bad breath = halitoză alopecia/baldness = alopecie tachycardia/palpitations = tahicardie hypoglycaemia/low blood sugar hipoglicemie = hyperglycaemia/ high blood hiperglicemie sugar = ankylosing spondylitis/bamboo spondilită anchilozantă spine = sprain one`s ankle/wrist= a-şi luxa glezna/încheietura mâinii strain one`s muscle = a suferi o întindere musculară a-şi întinde un tendon pull one`s hamstring muscle = splint = brace = weight-bearing exercise = . A practical English handbook 77 atelă orteză exerciţiu de susţinere a greutăţii corporale range of motion = grad de mobilitate exerciţii de întărire strengthening exercises = musculară avascular necrosis = necroză avasculară skeletal injury = leziune a sistemului scheletic umflătură swelling = rupture = ruptură.

78 ADINA RĂDULESCU tear/pull a ligament = snap a tendon = chilblain/frostbite = cardiovascular fitness = plaster bandage = plaster cast = sticking plaster = muscular a suferi o ruptură ligamentară a suferi o ruptură de tendon degerătură tonus cardiovascular pansament gipsat formă/matriţă de gips leucoplast .

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. Musculoskeletal Disorders.. 2002. A practical English handbook 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY Buschbacher. L. Diagnosis Butterworth –Heinemann. Practical Guide to and Rehabilitation. Randall. R.English in Kinetotherapy. M. B.

A Workbook for . and Owens-Burkhart. Gray. . 1990. E. Human Kinetics. A.Anatomy. G. A Practical Handbook for the Health Care Profesional. ALL. Randall. . Longman. . L.English Guides. . . first published 1996. 1991. J. P. D.International Medical Communication in English. Haeper Collins Publishers. second edition. S. New York. Maher. W. S.. L. B. I. B.Effects of immobilization on the extensibility of periarticular connective tissue. Kisner. R. first published 1985. Churchill Livingstone. Greenbaum. . L. the Promotional Reprint Company Ltd. . . Payne. Bucureşti. Edinburgh University Press. Pârlog.86 ADINA RĂDULESCU Cobuild. Descriptive and Surgical. 2000. F. 1997. Word Formation. 1986. and Colby. H. Edinburgh.Vocabulary. 1996. J. Leech. 1981. Blackwell Scientific Publications. first published 1990. A. Oxford University Press. Saunders Company. Foundations and Techniques. first published 1989.. B..Check Your Vocabulary for Medicine. . Champaign.Health/Fitness Instructors Handbook. H. Davis Company.English Phonetics and Phonology.Relaxation Techniques. and Waters. D. . 1995. M. Philadelphia. Donatelli. M.Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Basics.A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. R. Oxford:Oxford University Press. Ed. Hollis.. Recipes for teaching professional and academic English.Therapeutic Exercise. Oxford Advanced Learner`s Encyclopedic Dictionary. A. Cambridge University Press.1991. . C.ESP ideas. McCarthy. A. first published 1987. R. Holme. Longman. J. . Lippincott Company. .Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Riley. Garrison. T. R. B. London. Hutchinson. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. C. . 1985.Patient Examination and Assessment for Therapists. and Franks. and Yung. T. . Howley. 1995 Quirk. C. H.. J. . Svartvik.English for Specific Purposes.

A Practical English Grammar. A. R. Merk Research Laboratories. Sinelnikov. first published 1988. Ed. and Martinet. 1986. 1994. Ligaments and Muscles. S. . Bucureşti. . Zaharia. Science and Medicine. Peter Collin Publishing. A practical English handbook 87 Users. Oxford University Press. Moscow. vol. ..J. The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. U. Sixteenth Edition. 1992. Joints. A.. Paideia. The Oxford-Duden Pictorial English Dictionary.V. . Oxford University Press. Thomson. A. C. MIR Publishers.English in Kinetotherapy.Atlas of Human Anatomy. D.Elemente de patologie a aparatului locomotor.1 – The Science of Bones.

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