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analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Introduction1. Imamiphobia is the fear of shias or the projected fear of shias. This is popularized by salafi religious literature and its attempt to view Shi'ism as not a part of Islam and it being a deviant sect that is out of the ambit of Islam. There are many angles to this induced phobia, salafi propagators project supposedly facts and figures about what shias are but appears to be based on literature which are not accurately coming from Shi'i lierature. This in itself is problematic since many ,materials considerd as heresay materials and even materials that come from non-shi'i and non-Islamic sources are being used and systematically projected as “shia” and broadcasted both on the net, on media and on religious materials. Understanding the way that Shi'as are being treated online by non-shias would require us to use negative “search words” on google to see the depth of the hatred that is espoused against shi'ism in general as well as the misconceptions associated therein. There is a nescessity of understanding why there is a pronounced fear of Shi'as and that an active vilification campaign exists with propaganda machineries being done against them. One of the major groups associated in spreading Imamiphobia in undoubtedly the Salafi's, pupularly known as the wahabbi's. What does the salafi's have that it has specifically have intistigated a series of anti-shia propaganda. Underlying the basis of Imamiphobia : Before any effort is to be done to debunk these negative propagandas against Shi'ism in the form of Imamiphobia, we may need to understand the deep-seated misconceptions that are being leveled at the Shi'as in general in order for us to fully understand the context of those engaged in it. Looking at a perjorative terms in the which popularized Imamiphobia : Of all the perjorative terms hurled against the Shias, the most emotionally inflicting was the term Rafidha. Rāfiḍah (Arabic: [ رافضةrɑːfidˤa]; pl. rawāfiḍ) is a collective noun which means "defectors" or "deserters". The word is derived from the Arabic consonantal root ,ر ف ضwhich as a verb
1 The author holds several PhD's in Religious Studies, in History and in Educational Philosophy
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) means "to desert". The non-collective singular form is رافضيrāfiḍī "a deserter". This is an Islamic term which refers in a derogatory way to those who, in the opinion of the person using the term, reject legitimate Islamic authority and leadership. To those who the term is being directed towards, rafida is a pejorative appellation, a negative affect, and an abusive nickname. The term rafida followed the Shi'a from a very early period, back to the uprising of Zayd ibn Ali against the Umayyad Caliphate. This uprising foreshadowed the collapse of the dynasty, which in turn led to the split between those Shi'i Muslims who agreed with Zayd and those who did not.2 This became a byward and a way of maligning shias whether through pamplets or online. This has been still felt up to today in Saudi Arabia. Wherein Shiites are still called Rafidha. In Iraq, anti-Shi'a material is now surfacing. A discourse was released after improvement by the name of "The Rafida in the Land of Tawhid", which included orders by a member of the Higher Council, to kill Shi'is.3 There are many other terms that speak very negatively of shias and reinforce Imamiphobia. A Historical Treatment of Imamiphobia They may have been considered to be a religious split by the mainstream ulama historically, though contrary to actual truth, Shia's have been viewed with relative suspicion by authorities due to the historical uprisings led by Saadat (singular sayyid) who are descendants of the Prophet (saw) in defense of the honor of the Ahlul Bayt 4 (as) and was considered to be political threats to the rein of both the Ummayad dynasties and Abbassid dynasties.5 This fear was more on the rulers of the period rather than on a local level since people were more busy trying to make a living in the progressive society they were in. 6 Since repression on the Shias was pronounced during the time of the Caliphate of Muawiyyah and was given a respite after the fall of the Ummayad caliphate and only to be resumed after the rise of the Abbassid Caliphate and subsequently other Sunni dynasties that were established therein.
2 Kohlberg, Etan Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 99, No.4 (Oct.- Dec., 1979), pp. 677-679 3 Jones, Toby. Middle East Report, No. 237 (Winter, 2005), pp. 20-25 4 The Ahlul Bayt (as), metioned in Quran 33:33 are the family of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) who are said to be the esoteric guardians of the knowledge passed on by the Prophet (saw). 5 Tabatabaie, Muhammad Hussein, “Shi'ah”,Ansariyan Publications Qum, Iran, 15th ed, 2009 pp pp 74-79 6 Ibid
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons)
Who are the current purveyors of Imamiphobia ? The primary promoters of Imamiphobia and hate propaganda are the salafi's who have devoted both financial resources and propagators who are not only trained in propagation methodology but resources in “shia literature” maliciously fabricated by some groups in order to cast both fear and hate of shiism manifested in what we call “Imamiphobia”. Who are the Salafi's? Salafis who are also known by the name Wahabbis are the followers of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab who was the follower of the school of Ibn Taymiyah. His student, Ibn Qayyim, established and introduced new beliefs in the Arabian Peninsula. Wahabism is one of the newly-invented Islamic sects with followers in Saudi Arabia and some other countries like Pakistan and India. According to them, turning to the Prophet (s) Awliya and the Imams (a) for help, visiting and respecting the graves of the Prophet (s) Awliya and Imams (a) are bid'ah (innovation) and idolatrous. They do not allow greeting the Prophet except in prayers because they consider his death in this world to be an end to all kinds of reverences and commemorations which may possibly be extended to him. They are opposed to all kinds of domes and structures on the graves of the Imams and religious saints considering such things as bid'ah. They believe that the Holy Prophet (s) was a human being with all physical weaknesses and vulnerabilities. According to them, the Prophet passed away; he is no longer alive and he has no knowledge of this world and what is taking place in it. Therefore, they are strictly opposed to visiting the Prophet's grave 7. According to Wahabis, no one is a monotheist and a believer of the One God unless he avoids the above. It should be noted that these extremist beliefs have been dealt with and criticized by many scholars from the Shia and Sunni sects. They focus this propaganda in various forms, before the popularization of the internet, on publications of “refutations “ and pamplets like “kitab khutoot ar-reda” which were clearly biased and not obtained from shia sources. The current enagements of salafi's in the web on Imamiphobia and shia hate propaganda is evenly distributed among different online sites such as : a. Social networking sites like myspace, facebook and twitter b. Blogs in blogger and wordpress
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) c. Web forums like www.islam.qa d. websites like www.shciiten.org e. Video sharing sites like youtube and islamtube These online sites have gone to the level of fabrication of resources and materials (fabricating shiite books, videos and graphics). Currently among the famous online personalities who are actively against shias and promoting their lectures of imamiphobia : ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ Dr Bilal Philips8 Dr Zakir Naik9 Yusuf Estes10 Abu Mussab Wajdi Aakkari11
However a look at their videos doing active criticism of Shiism would show their very limited understanding if not absolute ignorace of shi'ism, much like any other Muslim religious group that they actively criticize and attack. This maybe primarilly because they have not actually focused on philosophical and intellectual research against the shias and that most of the materials they possess are recycled materials fabricated by salafi sources. One good example is the website www.gift2shias.com wherein it describes some fatwas 12 by shia ulema , however, when you refer to the respective websites of Shia maraji that they refer to, no actual webpages or content exists, inquiries made to the administrators of the websites confirms this discovery. One site www.answering-answer.org also finds this case of intellectual dishonesty particularly amusing when the Salafi's engage in “fabricating fatawa against shias in the guise of “ exposing the Rafidhas”13 . Among the fatawas that researchers at answering-ansar have shown to be falsified are as
8 9 10 11 12 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5spUkVNU1o sample of his attacks on shias http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSc5B_pFD54 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EB6brUuaaKI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l-H4oE99KFQ&feature=related One particular clear example is http://gift2shias.com/category/various-fatwas-of-shia-scholars/ which when you compare with the actual shia website : http://english.alhakeem.com/pages/search.php?n= 13 http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/cursing_sahaba/en/chap6.php
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) follows :14 On one occasion Imaam ash-Shaafi`ee said concerning the Shias, "I have not seen among the heretics a people more famous for falsehood than the Raafidite Shias." Supposedly quoted from [Ibn Taymeeyah, Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, 1/39] On another occasion he said, "Narrate knowledge from everyone you meet except the Raafidite Shias, because they invent Hadeeths and adopt them as part of their religion." [Ibid, p. 38] It was reported that often Abu Haneefah used to repeat the following statement about the Shias, "Whoever doubts whether they are disbelievers has himself committed disbelief." Once Imaam Maalik was asked about them and he replied, "Do not speak to them nor narrate from them, for surely they are liars." [Minhaaj as-Sunnah, 1/37] During a class of Imaam Maalik, it was mentioned that the Raafidite Shias curse the Sahaabah. In reply, he quoted the Quranic verse, "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those with him are harsh with the disbelievers and gentle among themselves. So that the disbelievers may become enraged with them." He then said, "Whoever becomes enraged when the Sahaabah are mentioned is one about whom the verse speaks." [Tafseeer al-Qurtubee, Soorah al-Fath; note: That is, anyone who is enraged by the mention of the Sahaabah is a disbeliever, because the verse says, "the disbelievers may become enraged with them (Sahaabah)."] According to answering-ansar15, in the same page they posed objections to the abovementioned fabrication on four points : First point : There has been no such proof of a Fatwa by Imam Ahmad bin Hanbalon the kufr/shirk of shias clearly shows that he considered Shias as Muslims and Mohid. Second Point : Why was it despite the thousands of books written by thousands of students of Imam Abu Hanifa, that it was Ibne Taymiyyah (6th Century) the only one who "discovered "the Abu Hanifa Fatwa of Takfeer against the Shi'a?
14 Fabricated text highlighted in italics 15 ibid
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) A close look at the books written by students of Imam Abu Hanifa does not show this, one such example is Qadhi Abu Yusuf who was the student of Abu Hanifa and became the Grand-Qadhi of Abbasid Caliphate. He was the main personality who collected Fiqh of Imam Abu Hanifa. And this fiqh of Abu Hanifa was recognised as the official fiqh of Islamic Khilafah until the fall of the Ottoman Khilafah.It is notable that he didnt mention any such fatwa by Abu Hanifa that Shias are kafir;nor did Qadhi Abu Yusuf personally issue takfeer against the Shi'a during his time as jurist,as Shias were officially considered as Muslims. Third Point - The 4 Imams or Qadhi Abu Yusuf never issued a Fatwa prohibiting the Shi'a from performing Hajj, , proof of which during the times of 4 Imams of Ahle-Sunnah, hundered thousands of Shias performed Hajj annually. None of the 4 Imams, nor any of their Student not ever issue a fatwa that shias should be banned from performing Hajj. Another calssic case is the case of Qurtabi , a Mufassir of 6-7th Century. It was well known that even in Madina Shias existed in time of Imam Malik, and that such a fatawa was not found in any of Malik's books of hadith and others. This was also the case with Imam Malik's students who didnt have any fatwa or knowledge that Imam malik has released such fatwa against the Shias? What has caused the appearance of such a fatwa attributed to Imam Malik from other sources other than his circle of Muqallids but appeared in the 6th century? 16 As a rejoinder the absense of any such Fatawa, directly by these 4 Imams or their students shows clearly that Ibne Taymiyyah and Qurtabi attributed flase fatwas in their names and these Imams had no association with these edicts. Another popular salafi site www.islamawareness.net considers Shiites as parallel with unbelievers and jews based on its content and the pronouncements/ fatwa 17 that can be read there. Among the issues that this Salafi site alleges shias are the following : 1. Shiites view Jews better that Muslims, even quoting an ayah 18 to prove this but appears unrelated to their claim. 2. Shiites champion the causes of non-Muslims over Muslims 3. Cursing of the wives of the Prophet (saw) and the Companions 4. contradictions in their treatment of the family of Abu Bakr 5. Cursing of Ali ibn abi talib and his son 6. Comparison with Ali vis-avis Jesus 7. Creating a misconstruct claiming that the Aimmah of Ahlul Bayt (as) are sunnis
16 ibid 17 http://www.islamawareness.net/Deviant/Shia/shi3a.html 18 ibid
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) and are not Shias. 8. The shiites descended from Abu Lu'luah Majoosi (a Persian fire worshipper) and Abdullaah ibn Saba' If one would look at the context of the discourses described in their contentions one would either suspect the context of their contentions since most of their references are not historical but is more in enforcing their belief that a sincere evaluation of the belief system of the Shias. In another portion of the said website, there is a web based book discussing on the beliefs of the shias 19 but a look at the references appears that there is no actual research done but mere lip-service and quoting of names, and “imaginary sources” wherein there is even no actual attempt to read the materials that they are supposedly quoting. A quick look at online forums on Social networking sites would reflect the same attitude and reactions, and what is more evident is that forms of cyber bullying would accompany these sites, whether personal or religious, add to the fact that many of the materials that are pasted in these discussions against shias are either fabricated or placed out of context. This is where the actual danger lies, wherein no actual investigation of shiism but blind quoting and copy pasting of sources (which obviously are not written by shias). If one has not been reading Shia materials and not exposed to islamic intellectual thought, one would be inclined to read and accept their arguments. However if one was top ascertain anything against shias, it is more accurate to check and look into their books and consult their own scholars before accepting anything being elaborated against them Ironically researching upon selected books of Shiite history and creed written by famous scholars, among them Peshawar nights 20 by21 Sultanul Waizin Shirazi, Al-Murajaat22 by Sayyid
19 http://www.islamawareness.net/Deviant/Shia/sources_of_shia.html#_1_18 20 http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/toc.html 21According to the preface: A condition of the dialogue was that only sources acceptable to both sects would be cited. The dialogue was held in Persian, commonly understood in the city of Peshawar (Note: Persian is no longer commonly understood in Peshawar). The transcript, made by four reporters and published in the newspapers daily, was published in book form in Teheran and soon became a classic authority in the East. The present work is based on the fourth edition, published in Teheran in 1971, the year in which Sultanu'l-Wa'izin died at the age of 75 22 http://www.al-islam.org/murajaat/
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi 23, Shiah24 by Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaie, the contentions raised both by the video lectures by the four salafi scholars raised as well as the websites previously discussed would appear to be non-existent and even said to be a fallacy against them. If one would patiently read the three abaovementioned books which are in essence summary a discussions of the theological basis and historical roots of shiism, it would be more than enough to clarify the contentions raised. 1. In response to the first item of the contentions of Islamawareness.net that Shias consider Jews better than Muslims, one can read in al-Murajaat that both the Sunni scholar and Shia scholar at the end of their communication has affirmed that both the shia and four sunni schools of law/thought (madhab) are within the ambit and context of islam 25. And as such, Shias consider the Muslims as equals and have no preference over jews. 2. Likewise, the accusation that Shias champion non-Muslim's issues over Muslim issues has no basis, for no less that the Late Imam Khomeini and his successor Ayatullah Khamenei has issued fatwas and official statements over 26 Palestine , against the defamation27 of the prophet (saw) done by the writer Salman Rushdie, and even declared Unity week and made many overtures towards the unification of Muslims and tehUmmah through many initiatives. However, Shiites have always championed against the rights of the oppressed as seen in the writings of its major scholars and that it sides on the sides of the oppressed, Muslim or non-Muslim. 3. There is no authentic book or scholarly treatise that has been released condoning any blanket cursing of the wives of the prophet (saw) or his companions. Most of the materials would reflect objective criticism 28 of any personality during the Prophet's (saw) time, be they be a wife (ayesha) 29 or a companion of the Prophet (like Abu bakr and Zubayr)
23 A Shi'i-Sunni dialogue (Arabic: Al-Muraja'at), also translated as The Right Path is a book about Islam written by Sayyid Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi. In 1331 AH (ca 1913), the author visited Egypt and met Shaykh Salim alBishri, the head of Al-Azhar University. The outcome of their discussions and long correspondence resulted in this book, which is highly recognized and circulated in the Muslim world, having been translated into twenty languages.Shi'a view the book as being one of the best known books in Islamic studies due to its objective approach, depth, concise language and the strength of its arguments. 24 http://www.najaf.org/english/book/28/ 25 http://www.al-islam.org/murajaat/111.htm and http://www.al-islam.org/murajaat/112.htm 26 http://www.khamenei.de/fatwas/further.htm 27"Ayatollah sentences author to death". BBC. 14 February 1989. Retrieved 22 January 2007. 28http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/9.1.html#1 29 ibid
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) 4. There has been no partiality on the treatment with the family of Abu Bakr, since Mohammad bn Abi Bakr was personally raised and trained by Ali and was one of the effcient governors and companions of Ali during his time. There has been implicit malice on the part of the Salafis to misrepresent this. 5. There has been no proof of any evidence in any shia book of cursing against Ali ibn Abi Talib or his son in any shia references. This is an obvious misrepresentation. 6. In looking at the misconception of shiism and finding simmilarities between Ali and jesus (as) is in effect a malicious attempt to malign shiism as there exists no simmilitude mentioned in any shia scholarly discussion or material 30. 7. The allegation that the imam's of Ahlul bayt (as) from Ali ibn Abi talib to Jaafar as-Sadiq are Ahluh Sunnah, are incorrect, since they have always refered themselves as the Ahlul Bayt (as) and not otherwise. 31 8. accusing that the shias have descended from a majoos and ibn saba 32 is a clear absurdity since Shi'as have maintained sanads of transmission of their knoweldge from the Prophet, descending to the twelve Imams 33. Is there a sense in Taqreeb (rapproachment) as a methodology of unification of Shiism with other schools of Law? This has always been the perenial question posed by intellectuals in the Muslim world. One can bear inspiration from fatwas promulgated in these regard, the first is the fatwa given by Shaykh Mahmood Shaltoot on the stand of Azhar on the followers of the Ahlul Bayt (as) and considers them the fifth madhab in the Ahluh Sunnah 34. Part of the text reads : The Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shia al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e., The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought. Muslims must know this, and ought to refrain from unjust prejudice to any particular school of thought, since the religion Allah and His Divine Law (Shari'ah) was never restricted to a particular school of thought. Their jurists (Mujtahidoon) are accepted by Almighty Allah, and it is permissible to the "nonMujtahid" to follow them and to accord with their teaching whether in worship (Ibadaat) or transactions (Mu'amilaat). The above Fatwa was announced on July 6, 1959 from the Head of al-Azhar University, and was subsequently published in many publications in the Middle East which include, but are not limited to:al-Sha'ab newspaper (Egypt), issue of July 7, 1959. al-Kifah newspaper (Lebanon), issue of July 8, 1959.
30 31 32 33 34 http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/2.1.html#1 http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/3.2.html http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/2.1.html#1 ibid http://forums.understanding-islam.com/showthread.php?1462-Al-Azhar-s-Fatwa-regarding-Shias
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons)
The second Fatwa which is significant since it speaks of a virtual unification of the different schools of thought in Islam by acknowledging the differences and the plurality of understandings within the islamic tradition is the “Amman Message 35”. A message of unity amidst the confusion, it was signed by no less than 552 scholars 36 from the different Islamic schools of thought from different countries. It still continues to attract islamic scholars who upon seeing the wisdom of the declaration have ttached their signatures to confirm agreement with the statement. Basically there are three points in the statement : (1) Whosoever is an adherent to one of the four Sunni schools (Mathahib) of Islamic jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali), the two Shi’i schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Ja`fari and Zaydi), the Ibadi school of Islamic jurisprudence and the Thahiri school of Islamic jurisprudence, is a Muslim. Declaring that person an apostate is impossible and impermissible. Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property are inviolable. Moreover, in accordance with the Shaykh Al-Azhar’s fatwa, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare whosoever subscribes to the Ash`ari creed or whoever practices real Tasawwuf (Sufism) an apostate. Likewise, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare whosoever subscribes to true Salafi thought an apostate. Equally, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare as apostates any group of Muslims who believes in God, Glorified and Exalted be He, and His Messenger (may peace and blessings be upon him) and the pillars of faith, and acknowledges the five pillars of Islam, and does not deny any necessarily self-evident tenet of religion. (2) There exists more in common between the various schools of Islamic jurisprudence than there is difference between them. The adherents to the eight schools of Islamic jurisprudence are in agreement as regards the basic principles of Islam. All believe in Allah (God), Glorified and Exalted be He, the One and the Unique; that the Noble Qur’an is the Revealed Word of God; and that our master Muhammad, may blessings and peace be upon him, is a Prophet and Messenger unto all mankind. All are in agreement about the five pillars of Islam: the two testaments of faith (shahadatayn); the ritual prayer (salat); almsgiving (zakat); fasting the month of Ramadan (sawm), and the Hajj to the sacred house of God (in Mecca). All are also in agreement about the foundations of belief: belief in Allah (God), His angels, His scriptures, His messengers, and in the Day of Judgment, in Divine Providence in good and in evil. Disagreements between the ‘ulama (scholars) of the eight schools of Islamic jurisprudence are only with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu`) and not as regards the principles and fundamentals (usul) [of the religion of Islam]. Disagreement with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu`) is a mercy.
35 http://ammanmessage.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=16&Itemid=30 36 http://ammanmessage.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=31
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Long ago it was said that variance in opinion among the ‘ulama (scholars) “is a good affair”. (3) Acknowledgement of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Mathahib) within Islam means adhering to a fundamental methodology in the issuance of fatwas: no one may issue a fatwa without the requisite personal qualifications which each school of Islamic jurisprudence determines [for its own adherents]. No one may issue a fatwa without adhering to the methodology of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence. No one may claim to do unlimited Ijtihad and create a new school of Islamic jurisprudence or to issue unacceptable fatwas that take Muslims out of the principles and certainties of the Shari`ah and what has been established in respect of its schools of jurisprudence. Based on the following declaration, it is evident that there were common points of agreement reached by the Amman message and that these points are the points of unity and dialogue between the different schools of law. Despite these obvious and clear proofs of these two fatwas, why is there continous strife and conflict, much less, blood spewn over the Salafis and the Shias? According to several social and political scientists it is more of political power and influence rather than theological, Shireen Hunter, Director of the Carnegie Project on Reformist Islam at Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding believes that these arises from age-old political tensions that have simmered from the tides of struggle that shias have done rising up against the Ummayads and Abbasids 37 . This may be one but the only factor involved therein, add to this, the leading sponsors of Salafi and Shia theology stand at two opposite ends of the global political table. The Saudi's being known as the well known allies of American presence and political interests, while at the same time, the Iranians have been known to be having an anti-american and antiimperialist stand and has been known to assist and support anti-imperialist movements. The third issue is quite a novel idea, the Saudis represent a system of monarchy and a royal family unrelated to the prophet Muhammad (saw) which reflects the general state of USsponsored and allied states in the Arab world, of which many of the other salafi-oriented states in the Gulf, like Kuwait, Bahrain and UAE are allied with the United states, while on the other hand the Iranian's in the guise of the maraji's (religious authorities), excemplified by its present leader, Sayyid Ali Khamenei, represents two strands of political thought, an attempt to establish an Islamic state with a democratic system, as well as aserting the traditional moral ascendance of the saadat (sayyeds, descendants of the prophet Muhammad, salawatulahi alayhi). In essence there would be a nominal clash of political influences as the saudis would prefer a normative “status quo” political state of things,
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) while the Iranians have an active call for “listening to the will of the people” and calling for the establishment of states which reflects the true Islamic spirit. The fourth issue is more of an akhbari (literalist) and usooli (intellectual analysis) persona of Islam. Salafi Islam being more akhbari (literalist) and does not employ intellectual and philosophical tools of analysis in the normative interpretation of Islam. Present Shiism is Usooli in nature Usooli in the sense that it employs a combination of textual sources and the tools of analysis in deriving a normative interpretation of Islam. This being a clash of Moral ascendancy between the literalist Salafis and the Philosophical Shias.
In the middle of this polarization, many Muslims are confused, most especially since traditional Sunnis do not have resources that petrodollar rich Saudi arabia possesses in order to ensure that areas that are classically Sunni do not become salafi without their knowing it. Ways of Moving forward. Breaking the Salafi-Shi'i impasse : Every religious grouping has its own agendas both in th religious, political and social sphere, and each one advocates policies in the pursuit of these agendas. Petrodollar theology has been one of the leading causes of religious conflict, propagators and religious scholars must be oriented and must be personally convinced of the theological acceptability of Intrafaith dialogue and the acceptability of the Azhari fatwa and the Amman message in order to achieve intrareligious acceptance and respect. Another probability is the active engagement into intrafaith dialogue of the different Muslim schools of thought in an active and conscious attempt to accept the multiculural and plural reality of todays society and religious life. This should be done without undue bias to any grouping. The late Sheikh Ahmed Deedat in one of his monumental talks 38 speaks about the Islamicity of the shias as wella s their being adherents of the Qur'an. If a leading scholar on Comparative theology can manage to say this, then it is time for others to follow suit and engage in intrafaith dialogue. Another possible focus on unity is spirituality, known as Tasawuff or Irfan, which is considered the unifying factor between tannasnun (sunni) and Tashayu, since all Muslim groups aim for Divine proximity or nearness, one of the major areas of Intrafaith dialogue and unification should be based on this higher level of spirituality. Wahid Akhtar 39 elaborates this beautifully in the point that in all quests for approaching Allah, it being the
38 http://www.inminds.com/unity.html Shia-Sunni Unity, a Lectre by Ahmed Deedat speech given in Tehran,3 March , 1982 39www.bahaistudies.net/asma/meethingpoint.pdf and www.pageglance.com/tashayyu.org. Tasawwuf: the Meeting Point of Tashayyu' and Tasannun By Wahid Akhtar.
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) ultimate aim of all Muslims.
Other Reading Materials on Shia-Sunni Unity: A Call for Shia Sunni Dialog: Why and How, Abdul Malik Mujahidhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_call_for_shia_sunni_dial og_why_and_how/ A Charter for Muslim Unity, Isa Othman http://quranwasunnah.com/Muslim-Unity.htm A Great Step Towards Shia-Sunni Unity in India http://indianmuslims.in/a-great-steptowards-shia-sunni-unity/ A Plea for Unity, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/a_plea_for_unity/ Achieving Islamic Unity, Mohammed al-Hilli [url=http://www.shianews.com/hi/articles/islam/0000011.php] Imam Abdul-Aziz al-Hakim Calls for Unity http://www.newspress.com/Top/Article/article.jsp? Section=WORLD&ID=564687461234902802 AL-AZHAR VERDICT (Fatwa) ON THE SHIA http://www.geocities.com/ahlulbayt14/azhar.html - Summary: 1) Islam does not require a Muslim to follow a particular Madh’hab (school of thought). Rather, we say: every Muslim has the right to follow one of the schools of thought which has been correctly narrated and its verdicts have been compiled in its books. And, everyone who is following such Madhahib [schools of thought] can transfer to another school, and there shall be no crime on him for doing so. 2) The Ja’fari school of thought, which is also known as “al-Shia alImamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah” (i.e., The Twelver Imami Shi’ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought.
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Yusuf al-Qaradawi’s Approach to Shia-Sunni Dialogue, Yoginder Sikandhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/yusuf_al_qaradawis_appro ach_to_shia_sunni_dialogue/ Yusuf al-Qaradawi makes clear that Shia are Muslims http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite? cid=1119503544230&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE Yusuf al Qaradawi Makes Clear That Shia are Muslims http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite? cid=1119503544230&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE Al-Sadr calls for Sunni Shia unity http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1192296/posts American Muslims call for Sunni Shia unity http://www.arabamericannews.com/newsarticle.php?articleid=4526 American Muslim Leaders Sign ‘Code of Honor’ to Promote Intrafaith Harmonyhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/muslim_leaders_sign_co de_of_honor_to_promote_intrafaith_harmony/ American Muslims Transcend Sectarianism, Hasan Zillur Rahimhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/american_muslims_transce nd_sectarianism/ AMMAN CONFERENCE STATEMENT - Eight Schools of Islamic Law Fatwahttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/statement_of_the_internati onal_islamic_conference_in_amman/ - Summary: Based on the fatwas provided by these great scholars (who included the Shaykh Al-Azhar; Ayatollah Sistani and Sheikh Qaradawi), in July 2005 CE, H.M. King Abdullah II convened an international Islamic conference of 200 of the world’s leading Islamic scholars ‘Ulama) from 50 countries. In Amman, the scholars unanimously issued a ruling on three fundamental issues (which became known as the ‘Three Points of the Amman Message’): They specifically recognized the validity of all 8 Mathhabs (legal schools) of Sunni, Shi’a and Ibadhi Islam; of traditional Islamic Theology (Ash’arism); of Islamic Mysticism (Sufism), and of true Salafi thought, and came to a precise definition of who is a Muslim. Based upon this definition they forbade takfir (declarations of apostasy) between Muslims. Based upon the Mathahib they set forth the subjective and objective preconditions for the issuing of fatwas, thereby exposing ignorant and illegitimate edicts in the name of Islam. These Three Points were then unanimously adopted by the Islamic World’s political and temporal leaderships at the Organization of the Islamic Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005. And over a period of one year from July 2005 to July 2006, the Three Points were also unanimously adopted by six other international Islamic scholarly assemblies, culminating with the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of Jeddah, in July 2006. In total, over
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) 500 leading Muslim scholars worldwide as can be seen on this website [click here to see the entire list] unanimously endorsed the Amman Message and its Three Points. This amounts to a historical, universal and unanimous religious and political consensus (ijma’) of the Ummah (nation) of Islam in our day, and a consolidation of traditional, orthodox Islam. The significance of this is: (1) that it is the first time in over a thousand years that the Ummah has formally and specifically come to such a pluralistic mutual inter-recognition; and (2) that such a recognition is religiously legally binding on Muslims since the Prophet (may peace and blessings be upon him) said: My Ummah will not agree upon an error (Ibn Majah, Sunan, Kitab al-Fitan, Hadith no.4085). The specific item in this statement is as follows: 1) Whosoever is an adherent of one of the four Sunni Schools of Jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali), the Ja’fari (Shi’i) School of Jurisprudence, the Zaydi School of Jurisprudence, the Ibadi School of Jurisprudence, or the Thahiri School of Jurisprudence is a Muslim. Declaring that person an apostate is impossible. Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property are sacrosanct. Moreover, in accordance with what appeared in the fatwa of the Honourable and Respectable Shaykh alAzhar, it is not possible to declare whosoever subscribes to the Ash’ari creed or whoever practices true Sufism an apostate. Likewise, it is not possible to declare whosoever subscribes to true Salafi thought an apostate. Equally, it is not possible to declare as apostates any group of Muslims who believes in Allah the Mighty and Sublime and His Messenger (may Peace and Blessings be upon him) and the pillars of faith, and respects the pillars of Islam and does not deny any necessary article of religion. Are All Shia Really Going to Hell?, Dr. Robert D. Cranehttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/are_all_shia_really_going_t o_hell/ Austrian Muslims Rally for Sunni Shia Unity http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2006-02/26/article04.shtml Bahrain March for Sunni Shia Unity http://chanad.weblogs.us/?p=463 Beware: USA & Allies Stoking Shia-Sunni Divide, K Gajendra Singh http://uruknet.info/? p=m31577&s1=h1 Bombing of Golden Mosque: Information Warfare, Psy-ops and the Power of Myth, Mike Whitneyhttp://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article17078.htm BOOK REVIEW: Muqtada al-Sadr, the Shia Revival, and The Struggle For Iraq (Patrick Cockburn), Jim Mileshttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/book_review_muqtada_al_s adr_the_shia_revival_and_the_struggle_for_iraq_patr/
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) British Muslims March for Sunni Shia Unity http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200602/s1578534.htm CAIR Condemns Attack on Shia Procession in Pakistan http://www.cair-net.org/default.asp? Page=articleView&id=1988&theType=NR Call for 1st National Sunni-Shia Dialogue December 25, 2006 in Chicago, Abdul Malik Mujahidhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/1st_national_shia_sunni_ dialogue_in_america_on_december_25th_in_chicago/ Comparison Chart of Sunni and Shia Islam http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/comparison_charts/islamic_sects.htm Creating A Sunni/Shia Divide, Conn Hallinanhttp://www.tompaine.com/articles/2007/04/23/creating_a_sunnishia_divide.php Ahmed Deedat on Sunni Shiah Unity http://www.inminds.com/unity.html Destruction of Al-Askari Shia Shrine a Great Sacriledge http://www.iviews.com/Articles/articles.asp?ref=IV0602-2927 Dialogue Between Sunnis and Shias, Muhammad Zakir Khan Azmihttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/dialogue_between_shias_an d_sunnis/ Don’t Let Iraq’s Sunni-Shia Conflict Spread Through the Mideast, Ted Galen Carpenterhttp://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6355 Efforts to Provoke Sunni Shia War in Iraq http://tharwaproject.com/index.php? option=com_keywords&task=view&id=2318&Itemid=0#Editorial:_Efforts_To_Provoke_Sect arian_War Exploiting the Sunni Shia Rift [url=http://www.archives2005.ghazali.net/html/leila_montour.html] Freedom of Religion in Christian, Buddhist, Sunni, and Shi’a Jurisprudence: The Role of ‘Ilm al ‘Adl, Dr. Robert D. Cranehttp://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/freedom_of_religion_i n_christian_buddhist_sunni_and_shia_jurisprudence_the_/ German Muslims Protest Mosque Bombings, Call for Sunni Shia Unity http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/menu-234/0602250850161144.htm Great Middle East Power Games, Sumaya Ghannoushihttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_great_middle_ea st_power_games/ Historical Sunni Shia Relations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_Shi’a-Sunni_relations
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Imam Abdul-Aziz al-Hakim Calls for Unity http://www.newspress.com/Top/Article/article.jsp? Section=WORLD&ID=564687461234902802 Indonesia Hosts Sunni-Shiite Meeting http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite? c=Article_C&cid=1175008823282&pagename=Zone-English-News/NWELayout The Importance of Shia-Sunni Dialogue, Maulana Waris Mazhari (tr. Yoginder Sikand)http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_importance_of_shia_s unni_dialogue/ Interview with Maulana Wahiduddin Khan on Intra-Muslim Sectarian Dialogue, Yoginder Sikandhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/interview_with_maulana_w ahiduddin_khan_on_intra_muslim_sectarian_dialogue/ Interview with Maulana Kalbe Sadiq, VP of the All-India Muslim Personal law Board, Yoginder Sikandhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/interview_with_maulana_k albe_sadiq_vp_of_the_all_india_muslim_personal_law_/ Iraqi Religious Shiite and Sunni Religious Leaders: A Fatwa Against Sectarian Violence http://www.analyst-network.com/article.php?art_id=2592 Iraqi Sunni and Shia Hold Joint Prayers for Unity http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/5B734325-F816-4BE2-8D067E13346BCA52.html Iraqi Sunnis Helping Shias Rebuild Bombed Shrine http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2006-02/27/article01.shtml Iraq’s Most Influential Shia Leader Calls for Unity, Halt to Violence http://www.newspress.com/Top/Article/article.jsp? Section=WORLD&ID=564687461234902802 Iraq’s Real Holy War, Vali Nasr [url=http://www.geocities.com/emorseraf/iraqs_real_holy_war.htm] Imam Khomeini on Sunni Shiah Unity http://www.shiachat.com/forum/index.php?/topic/43325-imam-khomeini-onshiasunni-unity/ Let Us Understand Each Other, Abdul Hadi Abdul Hameed Saleh [url=http://www.oneummah.net/understand/]
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) MAKKAH DECLARATION on the Iraqi Sectarian Situation Fatwahttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/makkah_declaration_on_th e_iraqi_situation/ MPAC Calls on Muslim Leaders to Emphasize Unity After Attacks in Detroithttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/mpac_calls_on_us_muslim _leaders_to_emphasize_unity_after_anti_shia_attacks_/ MPAC statement on anti-Shia violence http://www.mpac.org/home_article_display.aspx? ITEM=661 Muslim Leaders Encourage Unity After Michigan Vandalism http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article? AID=/20070111/LIFESTYLE04/701110356/1003/METRO New Rand study suggests exploiting Sunni, Shia and Arab, non-Arab divides to promote US policy, Abdus Sattar Ghazzalihttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/new_rand_study_suggest s_exploiting_sunni_shiite_and_arab_non_arab_divides_t/ The Next Sunni-Shia War, Yahya Birthttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_next_sunni_shia_war/ The Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam, Hussein Abdulwaheed Amin http://www.islamfortoday.com/shia.htm Our Real Enemy, Hesham Hassaballa http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/our_real_enemy/ The Politics of a Fatwa, Yaqub Shahhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/wahhabism_in_the_service_ of_western_imperialism_the_politics_of_a_fatwa/ Pakistan’s Shia-Sunni divide http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3045122.stm Politics, Not Faith Behind Shia-sunni Divide in Iraq, Parvez Ahmedhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/politics_not_faith_behind_ shia_sunni_divide_in_iraq/ QUR’AN: - O people, We have created you from a male and a female and made you into races and tribes so that you may know each other. Surely the most honored of you in the sight of God is the one who is the most righteous of you” (49:13). RESOLUTION OF THE SUNNI SHIA DIALOGUE TO SAVE LIVES http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jgti1wvE5ac(see also: Communique of the Sunni
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Shia dialogue to Save Liveshttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/communiqu_of_the_shia_su nni_dialogue_to_save_lives/ Reviving the Shi’ah Intellectual Heritage in Islam, Christoph Marcinkowskihttp://www.isn.ethz.ch/news/sw/details.cfm?ID=16362 Maulana Kalbe Sadiq’s Theology of Islamic Ecumenism, Yoginder Sikandhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/shia_sunni_dialogue_maula na_kalbe_sadiqs_theology_of_islamic_ecumenism/ Sectarian Strife in the House of Islam, Yoginder Sikandhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sectarian_strife_in_the_ho use_of_islam/ Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot of Al Azhar on Permissibility of Following Shiah Madhabs Fatwahttp://www.ummah.com/forum/archive/index.php/t-23351.html Shia-Sunni students find common ground on campus http://www.dailyfreepress.com/news/muslims-find-common-ground-on-campus1.586702 Shia Mosque Bombing: Whose Bombs Were They?, Mike Whitneyhttp://onlinejournal.com/artman/publish/article_532.shtml Shia-Sunni Unity for World Peace, Tanveer Jafri http://www.globalpolitician.com/24665islam-sunni-shia Ayatollah Sistani calls for an end to sectarian bloodshedhttp://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/02/03/iraq.cleric.ap/index.html? section=cnn_latest Sistaining Democracy, Ibrahim Mansourhttp://www.theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sistaining_democra cy/ Split Within Islam Must End, Abdullah al Rahimhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/the_split_within_islam_mus t_end/ Shia-Sunni Dialogue: Maulana Kalbe Sadiq’s Theology of Islamic Ecumenism, Yoginder Sikandhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/shia_sunni_dialogue_maula na_kalbe_sadiqs_theology_of_islamic_ecumenism/ Shia cleric blames U.S. forces for massacre http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1448002.cms
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Shia resources collected by Abdul Haq Godlas [url=http://www.uga.edu/islam/shiism.html] Sunni-Shia and U.S. Middle East Politics http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/212B6227F9D3-445B-ACC6-61B53B2EE70A.htm Sunni & Shia: I’m “Sushi”, Dr. Hesham A. Hassaballahttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sunni_shia_im_sushi/ Sunni and Shi’a - Allied Forces, Samia van Hattumhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sunni_and_shia_allied_for ces/ Sunnis and Shias: The Battle the U.S. Wants to Provoke, Naomi Klein 2004http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1186445,00.html Sunnis and Shias Rally After Ashura Bombings http://iwpr.net/? p=icr&s=f&o=168242&apc_state=heniicr2004 Sunni misconceptions about Shias, Shahid Athar http://www.islamicity.com/articles/articles.asp?ref=IC0402-2224 Sunni or Shia, Fault Line Runs Between Haves and Have Notshttp://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,934264,00.html Sunni Shiah Unity, Sheila Musaji http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/sunni_shia_unity/ Sunni-Shiah Unity, Dr. Shahid Athar http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/shia_sunni_unity/ Sunni Shia: Divide and Rule, a Theory http://www.thestatesman.net/page.news.php? clid=4&theme=&usrsess=1&id=146068 Sunni Shia Unity Declaration http://www.islamwomen.org/EngIw/HomePage/HPDetails8.aspx?id=1270 Sunni-Shia: The Battle the U.S. Wants to Provoke, Naomi Kleinhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1186445,00.html Sunni Shia Labels Irrelevant in the U.S. http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/gwinnett/stories/0417gwxiraq.html Sunni v Shia, Zaki Chehab http://www.newstatesman.com/200702120009 Sunni Versus Shia Myth http://www.williambowles.info/ini/ini-0156.html Time to start mending the torn fabric of the Muslim Ummah: The Shia-Sunni Divide, Dr. Javeed
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Akhterhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/time_to_start_mending_th e_torn_fabric_of_the_muslim_ummah_the_shia_sunni_di/ To Save Iraqi Democracy Bush’s War Will Target Shias Too, Muqtedar Khanhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/to_save_iraqi_democracy_bu shs_war_will_target_shias_too/ Top Sunni and Shia scholars urge unity http://wpherald.com/articles/3227/1/Islamicnations-unite-to-prevent-sectarian-conflict/Top-Islamic-clerics-and-scholars-urge-Muslimunity.html Ugly Sectarianism is Getting Out of Control, Yasin Aljibourihttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/ugly_sectarianism_is_get ting_out_of_control/ Unity and Diversity: Islam, Muslims and the Challenge of Pluralism, Dr. Jeremy HenzellThomashttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/unity_and_diversity_islam _muslims_and_the_challenge_of_pluralism/ Unity between Shi‘as and Sunnis http://www.muslimnews.co.uk/paper/index.php? article=2959 U.S. Muslims Strive For Sectarian Peace http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/05/07/national/main2766596.shtml VIDEO Discussion of Sunni Shia Relations in the U.S. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Jgti1wvE5ac VIDEO: The Difference Between Sunni and Shia, Abdal Hakim Murad http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMhgt3JRqeU Wahhabism in the Service of Western Imperialism: The Politics of a Fatwa, Yaqub Shahhttp://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/wahhabism_in_the_service_ of_western_imperialism_the_politics_of_a_fatwa/ Why is the U.S. Picking a Fight With Iraqi Shias? http://www.islamonline.com/cgibin/news_service/middle_east_full_story.asp?service_id=10786 Who Benefits?, Dahr Jamail http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/who_benefits/ SHIA RESOURCES: Aga Khan Foundation http://www.akdn.org Institute of Ismaili Studies, U.K. http://www.iis.ac.uk List of Shia Organizations http://www.shia.org/framorgs.htm
Looking at Imamiphobia and Shia hate propaganda from the web based sources, a commentary on their treatment and analysis A paper prepared by Prof Yusuf Morales,PhD (Hons) Shiah Search Engine http://www.shiasearch.com/index.htm Universal Muslim Association of America http://www.umaamerica.org/
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