S0300-A6-MAN-030

0910-LP-252-3100

U.S. NAVY SHIP SALVAGE MANUAL VOLUME 3 (FIREFIGHTING AND DAMAGE CONTROL)

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEA SE AND SALE; ITS DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED.

PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER, NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS COMMAND

1 AUGUST 1991

S0300-A6-MAN-030

FOREWORD

This manual is the third in a series of six related publications that comprise the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. Each volume in the family addresses a particular aspect of salvage. The family collectively replaces the three volumes of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual issued between 1968 and 1973. The primary purpose of these volumes is to provide practical information of immediate use to Navy salvors in the field. These publications are not cook books; they are guidance. Salvors must use their imagination, intellect and experience to expand the basic information and apply it to a particular situation. A secondary purpose is to provide an educational vehicle for learning the technical and practical aspects of our business before the fact. This volume, Firefighting and Damage Control, deals with an aspect of the Navy salvor's work that has not been formally addressed until now. Historically, providing services to battle-damaged ships has been one of the most important functions of the Navy salvor, greatly increasing the survivability of fleet units when the damaged ship’s damage control organization becomes taxed or overwhelmed. This assistance inevitably involves firefighting because one of the principal effects of weapons strikes is to start large fires. Following World War II, Rear Admiral W. A. Sullivan, Chief of Navy Salvage and Supervisor of Salvage during the war, wrote: “In most cases, vessels needing assistance as a result of damage inflicted by enemy action are afire or are a fire hazard. During a fire, it is most times impossible to engage in salvage operations other than ascertaining the damage and controlling flooding and stability, since salvage as well as firefighting personnel must engage in firefighting.” Firefighting and damage control assistance are the most time-critical forms of salvage. The salvor assisting a stricken ship must understand the principles of his trade thoroughly and must think on his feet. This was aptly demonstrated during Desert Storm in the Persian Gulf when emergency support was provided following the USS PRINCETON (CG 59) and USS TRIPOLI (LPH 10) mine strikes. Rear Admiral Sullivan succinctly summarized the need for rapid information gathering and timely action: “...a conference cannot be held while the ship is sinking.”

R. P. FISKE Director of Ocean Engineering Supervisor of Salvage and Diving, USN

i (ii blank)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter/Paragraph Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Standard Navy Syntax Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Safety Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix 1 BATTLE DAMAGE 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 WEAPONS EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 AFLOAT SALVAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1-4.1 Afloat Salvage Doctrine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 1-4.1.1 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9

1-4.2 Platforms and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9 1-4.2.1 1-4.2.2 1-4.2.3 1-4.2.4 1-5 Fleet Salvage Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 SARTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Platforms of Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 Commercial Salvage Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

AFLOAT SALVAGE SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 1-5.1 Offship Firefighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11 1-5.1.1 1-5.1.2 External Firefighting Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 Internal Firefighting Assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12

1-5.2 Flooding Control and Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 1-5.3 Ship Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 1-5.4 Restoration of Vital Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 1-6 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13

2 OFFSHIP BATTLE DAMAGE CONTROL ORGANIZATION 2-1 2-2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 SALVAGE FORCE ORGANIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
iii

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Chapter/Paragraph

Page

2-2.1 Command and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-2.2 Salvage Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2-2.3 Coordination of Damage Control and Salvage Operations . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2-2.4 Salvors' Interface with Combatants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 2-2.5 Integration of Salvage Teams with Crews of Battle-damaged Ships . . . 2-4 2-2.6 Program of Ship Salvage Engineering (POSSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2-3 THE SALVAGE TEAM LEADER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 2-3.1 Before Boarding the Casualty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 2-3.2 After Boarding the Casualty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 2-3.3 Situation Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 2-4 SALVAGE ASSISTANCE RESPONSE TEAMS (SARTs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8 2-4.1 SART Composition and Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 2-4.1.1 2-4.1.2 General Qualifications for SART Members . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Additional SART Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11

2-4.2 SART Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 2-5 BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13

3 SALVAGE FIREFIGHTING PRINCIPLES 3-1 3-2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 MARINE FIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-2.1 Chemistry of Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3-2.1.1 3-2.1.2 3-2.1.3 Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

3-2.2 Fire Behavior and Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3-2.3 Fire Extinguishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3-2.4 Special Hazard Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3-2.4.1 3-2.4.2 3-2.4.3 3-2.4.4
iv

Polar Solvent Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 Pressure Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Flowing Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Uncontained Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9

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Chapter/Paragraph

Page

3-2.5 Characteristics and Hazards of Large and Unusual Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 3-2.5.1 3-2.5.2 3-2.5.3 3-2.5.4 3-2.5.5 3-2.5.6 3-2.5.7 3-2.5.8 3-2.5.9 3-3 Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Ship's Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Aspiration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Boil Over and Spill Over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Class D Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 Combustion and Hazardous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 Weapons and Explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16

EXTINGUISHING AGENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 3-3.1 Types of Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 3-3.1.1 3-3.1.2 3-3.1.3 3-3.1.4 Starving Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 Cooling Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 Smothering Agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 Disrupting Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23

3-3.2 Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24 3-3.2.1 3-3.2.2 3-3.2.3 Critical Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24 Water Fog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25 Straight Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26

3-3.3 Agent Applicability and Compatibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27 3-3.3.1 3-3.3.2 Applicability and Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27 Agent Compatibility and Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-29

3-3.4 Application Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33 3-3.4.1 3-3.4.2 3-4 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33 Foam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34

FIREFIGHTING HYDRAULICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39 3-4.1 Discharge Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-40 3-4.2 Reach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-41 3-4.3 Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-42
v

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 4-9 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3-4. . . 4-1 PERSONAL EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 . . . . . Hoses. . .2. . . . . . . . . 3-43 Friction Loss . . . . . . . . 3-48 4 FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT 4-1 4-2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 Self-contained Breathing Apparatus . . . 4-7 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Breathing Apparatus .2 4-2.3. . 4-6 Oxygen Rebreathers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fire Pumps . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 3-46 3-4. . . . . 4-1 Standard Naval Firefighting Ensemble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44 Friction Loss in Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 vi The In-line Foam Eductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Fire Stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Chapter/Paragraph 3-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Salvage Firefighting Outfit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 Navy All-Purpose Nozzles and Applicators . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3-4. . . . . 4-2 Alternative Clothing.4 3-4. .4. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 4-2 4-2. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1 4-3. . . . . . . . . . .3 Oxygen Breathing Apparatus. . . . . . . . . . 3-45 Head Pressure.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4-2. . . . .3 Nozzles and Low-velocity Fog Applicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Proximity Firefighting Suits. 4-1 4-2. . . . .1. . . .3 Communications .1 Protective Clothing . . . . . . 4-7 4-3 FLEET FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 4-2. . .1. 4-1 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 4-1 Lightweight Firefighting Outfit . . . . .2 The Vari-nozzle . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Overcoming Friction Loss . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4 4-2. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 4-3. . 4-2 Standard Shipboard Battle Dress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Portable In-line Eductors and Water Motor Proportioners . . . . . . .5 Page Supply Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4-2. . . . . . . . . . . 3-43 Friction Loss in Hose . . . . . 3-46 3-5 VENTILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3-4.

. . . . . . . . . . .1 Basic Operational Phases . . . .4 Navy Portable Firefighting Pump Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Strategies. . . . . . . . 4-22 4-4 OFFSHIP FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT . . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Chapter/Paragraph 4-3. . . .2. . . . . . . . .6 Commercial Portable Firefighting Pumps . . .7 Special Firefighting Tools and Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 4-22 4-3. . .3 Hydraulic Power Units and Pumps. 4-24 4-4. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Extinguishing Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32 4-4. . . . . . . . . 5-3 5-2. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 4-3. . . . . . . . 4-24 Portable Diesel Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30 4-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Portable Dewatering Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Portable Foam Containers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Desmoking . . 4-36 4-4. . . . 4-24 Offship Firefighting Manifolds . . . . .5 Emergency Portable Fire Pumps.1 4-4. . . . . .9 International Shore Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33 4-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Hydraulic Submersible Firefighting Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Naval Firefighter's Thermal Imager . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-34 4-4.2 4-4.1 5-2. . . . . . . .1 Fixed Fire Pumps . . . . . . 4-31 4-4. 4-33 Large Commercial Firefighting Pump Units . . . . . . . . 5-1 BATTLE DAMAGE FIREFIGHTING STRATEGIES . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 5-2. . . . . . 4-30 4-4. . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Controlling Fires . . . . . . . . . .2 Page The FP-180 Water Motor Foam Proportioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5-2. 4-17 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . 4-19 4-3. . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Offship Delivery Capability . . . . .1 4-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 4-30 Six-inch Hydraulic Submersible Pump . . . .3 Containing Fires.2. . . . 4-31 4-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Four-inch Hydraulic Submersible Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Small Commercial Firefighting Pump Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 4-4. . . . 5-4 5-2. . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 4-4. . 4-38 5 FIREFIGHTING STRATEGIES FOR ASSISTING SHIPS 5-1 5-2 INTRODUCTION . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16 5-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23 5-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Firefighting on Anchored Casualties . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 6-2 6-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2 Strategy Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Deliberate Beaching of a Battle-damaged Ship . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 viii Indiscriminate Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 6-3. 6-4 6-3 APPROACH AND POSITIONING MANEUVERS . .3 5-3. . 5-18 Getting the Tow Underway . . . . . . . 6-12 6-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21 5-4 FIREFIGHTING ON ANCHORED OR BEACHED SHIPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 Cleanup . .2. . . . . . . . . .3 Ship Control Methods for Tugs Handling Large Casualties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Pre-arrival Equipment Test . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 HANDLING AND CONTROL OF A CASUALTY'S HEADING DURING FIRE FIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28 6 SALVAGE SHIP FIREFIGHTING TACTICS 6-1 6-2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Taking the Casualty in Tow . . . . . . .4 Self-protection of Firefighting Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27 5-5 FIREFIGHTING ON MOORED SHIPS . . . . . .1 Drift and Relative Movement of the Casualty . .1 5-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Chapter/Paragraph 5-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Optimum Firefighting Position Relative to Prevailing Wind . . . . . . . . 5-9 5-3. . . . . . . . . . 5-17 The Towing Rig . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 6-2 6-2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Maneuvering Characteristics of the Salvage Ship . . . . . . . . . .1 Use of Monitors .3.2 5-3. . . . 5-19 Assisting Ship Tactics . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 PREPARATION AND TESTING OF FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT. . . . . . . . . . 5-11 5-3. . . .5 Speed and Maneuvers by the Casualty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 5-3. . . . . . . . . . .2 Firefighting on Beached Ships . 6-11 6-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 6-3. . . . . . . . . . 6-7 6-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 6-3. 6-12 .4 5-2.5 5-3 Page Flooding During Firefighting Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Casualty Drifting. . . . 5-26 5-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9 6-3. . . . . . . .1 Casualty with Complete or Partial Control of Engines and Steering . . . . . . 6-10 6-4 USE OF FIRE MONITORS ON SALVAGE SHIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21 5-4. . . . . . . .

. 7-10 Recharging Air Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Use of Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Psychological Reactions to Disaster . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Preliminary Actions . . . . . . . . . .4 Integrating with Casualty Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7-2. .2. .2 7-2. . . . . . . . . .3 FiFi Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8 7-3. . . . 7-17 Manpower and Equipment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 7-10 7-3. . . . . . 7-1 BOARDING THE CASUALTY . . . . 7-1 7-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16 Evaluating the Fire. .3 Breathing Apparatus Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Attack Team Relief. . .2 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 7-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15 6-5. . . . . . 7-1 7-2. 7-11 7-4 FIREFIGHTING TEAM TACTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 7-3 Use of Helicopters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .2 Civilian Crew/Navy Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14 6-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Positioning of Portable Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Transportation of Personnel and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Initial Survey of the Casualty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Chapter/Paragraph 6-4. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .3 7-2. . . 7-10 7-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17 Setting Fire and Smoke Boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 7-3 PERSONNEL PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15 7 SALVAGE FIREFIGHTING TEAM TACTICS 7-1 7-2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 7-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Rescue and MEDEVAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 Use of Work Boats as Pumping Tenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6-5 Page Effective Direction of Monitors. . .1.1 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . 6-14 6-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Transfer of Equipment . 7-19 ix . . . . . . . . . 7-5 7-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 7-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13 FIREFIGHTING WITH COMMERCIAL VESSELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 Use of Boats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Staging for the Attack . . . 7-8 7-3. . . . . . . .2 Changing Air Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7 7-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2 Physical Restrictions. . . . .

. . . .3. . . .3 Ancillary Services. . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Chapter/Paragraph Page 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10 Accommodation Spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 8-2 8-2. . . . 7-28 Cargo Holds and Containers . . . 8-6 8-3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STORES. . . . . 8-8 COMPLETION OF SALVAGE SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23 7-4. . . . 8-4 8-3. .3 Application of Agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .2. . 7-28 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Water Damage Protection. . .2 Toxic and Explosive Gases. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23 Application of Foam . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Battle Damage Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Immediate Temporary Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7-4. . . .3. . . . . 8-1 SURVEYING THE CASUALTY . . . . . . . . AND EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 8-2. . . . . . . . . . 7-21 7-4. 8-4 8-3. . . . .2 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35 APPENDICES Appendix/Paragraph A DOCUMENTATION MATRIX x Page . . . . . . . . . . 7-20 7-4. .4 Precautions and Tactics for Specific Locations . . . . 8-7 8-4 8-5 8-6 REMOVAL OF CARGO. . . . .2 Attack and Control of Fires .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3 8-3 ASSISTANCE WITH DAMAGE REPAIRS. . . .2 7-4. . . .4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Application of Water . . . . . . . MUNITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31 Magazines and Weapons Hazards . . . . . .5 8 SECURING THE SHIP 8-1 8-2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7-4. . . .1 Underwater Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Hand-held Hoseline Procedures. 7-28 Application of Other Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31 Engine Rooms and Machinery Spaces. . . . .1 7-4. 7-28 7-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 PREPARING FOR TOW . . . . . . 8-3 8-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29 Fuel and Cargo Oil Tanks . .

. . . . . . D-5 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4 D-3 PUMP SETUP INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pump .2 Prestarting Procedures .1 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Index INDEX Engine Will Not Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1 D-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . D-8 Overspeed. . . . D-1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION . . . . . . D-7 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . D-3 D-2. . . . . D-8 Engine Stops Running Under Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Foam Injection .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Engine . .3 Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Appendix/Paragraph B CONVERSION FACTORS APPLICABLE TO OFFSHIP FIREFIGHTING C SALVAGE FIREFIGHTING TEAM APPROACH CHECKOFF LIST Page D GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR COMMERCIAL PORTABLE FIRE FIGHTING PUMPS D-1 D-2 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Miscellaneous Operating Notes .4 Running Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Stopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8 Engine Stops While Idling . . . .1 Pre-operation Setup. . . . . . D-9 The Pump Fails to Deliver after Filling and Starting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . D-4 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3 D-2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Mounting. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Monitor(s) and Discharge Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Base and Frame. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 D-3. D-3 D-2. . . . D-3 D-2.4 D-3. . D-2 D-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Safety Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-9 Page Index-1 xi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 D-3. D-6 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . D-1 D-2. D-3 D-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4 D-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

S0300-A6-MAN-030 xii .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 P-250 Firefighting Arrangement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-48 3-10C Minimizing Friction Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19 xiii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 Relationship of Salvage Control to Typical CWC Command Structure . 2-2 The Fire Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Navy All-Purpose Nozzles and Low-Velocity Water Fog Applicator Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-47 3-10B Minimizing Friction Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-49 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 Lightweight Firefighting Outfit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 Vari-Nozzle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Temperature Effects on Aluminum (6061-T6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18 4-10B Eductor Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiation and Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Salvage Firefighting Outfits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 In-Line Foam Eductor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26 Slop Over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 The Fire Tetrahedron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-32 3-10A Minimizing Friction Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 Salvage Role in Survivability and Force Sustainability . . . . . . . . 3-3 Effects of Conduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16 4-10A Eductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Water Motor Foam Proportioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Temperature Effects on Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 Typical Fire Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1 1-2 2-1 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 Title Page Salvage Support for Ship Survivabillity Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14 4-9A P-250 (MOD 1) Pump Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Boil Over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 Thermal Layering Disrupted by Water Fog . . . . . . . . . 4-15 4-9B P-250 (MOD 2) Pump Unit . . . 3-13 Production of Foam Concentrates. . .

. 4-26 4-17 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-24 5-1 5-2 5-3 Dual-Waterway Monitor and Fog-Master Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20 Optimum Configuration for Fighting Fires on Large Oil Carrier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22 International Shore Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 Basic Evasive Maneuvers . . . . . 6-8 . 4-25 4-16B Salvage Ship Offship Firefighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30 Firefighting Connection for Salvage Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23 4-16A Salvage Ship Offship Firefighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26 Salvage Ship Positions When Assisting Drifting Casualty in Rough Weather or Otherwise Unable to Go Alongside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7 Salvage Ship Positioned to Windward for Firefighting Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 Casualty Secured on Hip for Heading Control During Firefighting Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Salvor-Imposed Fire Zone Boundaries. . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-11 4-12 4-13 4-14 4-15 Title Page Red Devil Electric Blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21 Portable Blower Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22 Change in Current Adversely Changes Heading of an Anchored Casualty . . 5-13 5-4A Typical Drift Aspects of High-Freeboard Ships in Wind Force Beaufort 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disabled Tanker to Optimum Heading . . . 4-21 Naval Firefighter’s Thermal Imager . . . . . . . 4-28 Air-Aspired Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32 Small Commercial Salvage Firefighting Pump Module. . . . . 4-29 Offship Manifold and Portable Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17 Moving Burning. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19 Emergency Towing Connections Suitable for Rigging on Disabled Burning Casualties . . . . . . 5-14 5-4B 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 6-1 6-2 xiv Typical Drift Aspects of High-Freeboard Ships in Wind Force Beaufort 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Unintentional Flooding and Loss of Stability. . . . . . . . 4-35 Large Portable Firefighting/Dewatering System . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37 Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31 Navy Portable Firefighting Pump System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20 Air-Turbine-Driven Blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27 Single-Waterway Monitor . 5-25 Effects of Major Alteration of Current on Fire Front Direction . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25 7-16A Fire-Fighting From Above through a Vertical Trunk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19 Application of Hose Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11 Some Standard Rescue and Patient Transportation Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26 7-16B Fire-Fighting From Above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-20 Cargo Hold Layout of a Typical Break Bulk Ship . . 7-23 Preferred Method-Enter Space and Attack Fire Directly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Typical Deployment of Portable Firefighting Pump Unit on Standard 35-Foot Salvage Work Boat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13 Two-Man Carries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16 FiFi-1 Requirements for Firefighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35 xv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Majority of Water Being Deflected from Fire by Superstructure that Encloses Fire . . . . . . . 7-22 Indirect Hose Attack Using Low-Velocity Applicator as a Sprinkler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14 Common Arrangement of Portable Fire Pump Units on Chartered Oilfield Tug/Supply Ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19 Relationship of Work Boat to Casualty Vessels and Staging of Portable Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12 One Man Moving a Casualty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17 FiFi-2 Requirements for Firefighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14 Preparing a Victim for Helicopter Evacuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 Title Page Ineffectual Use of Monitors on a Major Internal Fire. . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13 Effective Use of Monitors to Contain and Cool a Major “Open” Flaring Fire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-33 Dry Magazine Sprinkling System. . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Helicopter Transport of Portable Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34 Wet Magazine Sprinkling System . . . . 7-18 Analysis of the Fire Situation . . . . . . . . . 7-24 Fire Attack if High Temperature Denies Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15 Fire Ventilation . . . . . 7-30 Attacking Small Oil Fire on Deck With Foam . . . . . . . . . 6-18 FiFi-3 Requirements for Firefighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9 Breathing Apparatus Cylinder Recharging Systems . 7-5 Example of Breathing Apparatus Control Board . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 8-6 xvi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 8-1 Title Page Emergency Compressed Air Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This is done to facilitate the use of the information provided herein as a reference for issuing Fleet Directives. "Will" has been used only to indicate futurity. "Should" has been used only when application of a procedure is recommended. never to indicate any degree of requirement for application of a procedure. xvii (xviii blank) . and mandatory language. "May" and "need not" have been used only when application of a procedure is discretionary.S0300-A6-MAN-030 STANDARD NAVY SYNTAX SUMMARY Since this manual will form the technical basis of many subsequent instructions or directives. advisory. The concept of word usage and intended meaning which has been adhered to in preparing this manual is as follows: "Shall" has been used only when application of a procedure is mandatory. it utilizes the standard Navy syntax as pertains to permissive. The usage of other words has been checked against other standard nautical and naval terminology references.

Observe operating parameters of all equipment.S0300-A6-MAN-030 SAFETY SUMMARY This Safety Summary contains all specific WARNINGS and CAUTIONS appearing elsewhere in this manual. the Commanding Officer or other authority will issues orders. The officers and crew of vessels likely to be involved in salvage operations should continuously conduct safety indoctrination lectures and exercises aimed at reducing hazards and at reacting appropriately to unusual circumstances with professional understanding of their duties and the proper use of safety equipment. the following general precautions are offered as part of this Safety Summary: • All personnel responsible for salvage should read and comprehend this manual. • Follow operational procedures. xix . cautions. Definitions of warnings and cautions are as follows: WARNING A statement used to call particular attention to an action or procedural step which. as deemed necessary. and notes listed in this manual. PRECAUTIONS The WARNINGS and CAUTIONS contained in this manual and listed below are referenced by page number. if not strictly followed. if not followed. awareness. GUIDELINES Extensive guidelines for safety can be found in the OPNAV 5100 Series instruction manual. “Navy Safety Precautions. • Observe all warnings. to cover the situation. In addition.” Personnel required to perform salvage operations must be thoroughly trained and equipped not only to perform routine duties but also to react appropriately to unusual or non-routine situations. could result in the injury or death of personnel. and attention from personnel regarding an action or procedural step which. Should situations arise that are not covered by the general and specific safety precautions. could result in possible injury or equipment malfunction. CAUTION A statement used to provoke notice.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 The following warning and caution statements appear in this manual and are repeated here for emphasis: WARNING Water fog will non conduct electricity. should NEVER be battened down. Navy Ship Salvage Safety Manual. The U. but an inadvertent shift to solid stream causes severe electrocution hazards for the firefighter. (page 3-17) WARNING Inert gases will not support life and many of the vapors being displaced may be toxic. (page 4-2) WARNING Fires involving nitrates. Serious explosion may result. (page 3-18) WARNING Corfam shoes and polyester clothing are not appropriate for any form of battle dress.S. (page 7-29) CAUTION Hazardous materials are highly toxic and often difficult to detect. chlorates or other materials that produce oxygen when heated. When exposed to flame or high temperature. Familiarization with the effects and warning signs of exposure to these materials is a matter of education and training. (page 3-14) xx . provides guidance concerning hazardous materials. S0-400-AA-SAF-010. these materials melt and stick to the skin. Ensure the safety of personnel and monitor the atmosphere at all times.

(page 7-10) CAUTION Ventilation of burning compartments may serve to intensify the fire by introducing oxygen.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CAUTION Navy salvage firefighters responsible for ordering or arranging resupply of foam concentrate overseas should realize that foam container sizes are figured in Imperial gallons or liters. Venting should only be used during direct attacks. where: CAUTION The operating times for air cylinders are based on the normal breathing rate of an average person. An order for 55-gallon drums will confuse the foreign supplier who is used to an international system of “standard” drum sizes. the area must be made as airtight as possible to keep oxygen out and the extinguishing agent confined. (page 7-30) xxi . extreme heat or the psychological effect of wearing a breathing apparatus. (page 7-18) CAUTION Check all hatch covers and vent dampers to ensure no agent leaks from the hold or air leaks in. Air may be used more quickly due to exertion. Check for smoke or heat being pushed from openings and seal with sealant or tape. During indirect attacks.

7-32 secondary 3-23 selecting 3-27 smothering 3-23 starving 3-17 twinned 3-32 wetting 3-20 air aspiration D-3 banks 2-12. 731. 8-3 beach gear 1-10. 5-23 anchors beach gear 5-24. 7-17 fire and smoke 7-17 fire control 5-3. 2-6. 3-8. 3-8. 7-10 B backdrafts 3-7. 5-28 beached casualties 7-5 beaching 5-21. 7-33 boundaries 2-4. 7-16. 5-6 fire zone 5-6 primary 7-17 Index -1 . 5-21. C-1 booster suppression systems 7-31. 717. 5-28 aspiration 3-10. 5-2. 5-10. 5-7. 5-3. 5-3 . 8-3 assistance 1-1. 5-24. 5-4. 5-7. 2-13. 5-7. C-2 oxidizing 3-6. 3-13. 5-6. 5-8. 3-12.5-29 berthing services 6-2. 7-28 confinement 5-28 fire 5-1. 5-27 . 6-9. 7-15 introduction 1-1 organization 7-1 repairing 7-8 response 2-7 salvage operations 2-8 Battle Damage Assessment Teams (BDAT) 211. 1-13 receivers 3-16 storage cylinders 4-7 vent D-8 anchored casualties 5-15. 3-24. 3-31. 4-20 compressors 2-12. C-1 blowers compressed air 4-20 portable 4-19. 5-21. 2-2 control 6-4 firefighting operations 4-36. 3-9. 2-13. 3-17. 2-1 doctrine 1-8 historical perspective 1-2 organization 2-1 platforms and equipment 1-9 purpose of 1-7 services 1-11 summary 1-13 agents applicability and compatibility 3-27 application of 7-23 application of other 7-28 B 3-9 CBR 2-13 chemical 3-32 compatibility and precautions 3-29 cooling 3-17 disrupting 3-23 dry powders 3-23 extinguishing 3-4.5-5. 4-7. 8-7. 3-20. 8-10 BLEVE (Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion) 3-16. 4-20 Red Devil 4-19 boil over 3-10. 4-6 blowers 4-19 bottles 4-6 breathing apparatuses 2-12. 3-8 battle damage adapters 4-38 assessment of 2-4. 4-7 breathing devices 4-6 compressed 4-5. 4-7. 7-10 cylinders 7-10 dewatering systems 8-5 entrainment 3-25 fittings 8-6 foams 3-20 friction 3-42 locks D-8 LP 1-12. 8-1.S0300-A6-MAN-030 A afloat salvage 1-1. 7-31. 5-5. D-3 attack team 4-2. 5-8. 4-7. 41 firefighting 1-12. 5-9 fires 5-2.

7-23. 8-8 capacity 5-20 doors 5-28 holds 3-18. 3-33. 7-7 equipment 2-1. D-1. 7-21. 3-30. 2-12. 8-5 Index . 7-8. 8-10 burning 7-17 dewatering 4-17.5-26. 2-5. 5-8. 7-31 petroleum 5-6 POL 8-8 tank groups 3-38 tanks 3-19. 2-13. 3-14. 3-30. 7-6. 7-8. 2-1. 6-11 . 8-8 firefighting 1-6 forces 2-1 operations 2-1 . 1-13. 4-7. 5-16. 4-9. 8-9 organizations 1-1. 5-27. 3-3.1-3. 3-49. 8-1. 521. 4-5. 7-10. 4-34. 1-12. 7-36. 5-18. 1-9. 4-2. C-1 parties 1-10. 3-15. 521. 8-8. 4-1.7-31. 5-16. 5-16. 4-31 flooded 2-5 inaccessible 4-17 panelled 7-29 tool and equipment D-3 ventilate 3-25 watertight 5-4 weapons stowage 7-33 compressed air 4-20. 6-5. 6-9. 7-36. 6-19. 7-19. 8-2. 3-17. 5-23 . 3-50. 1-12. 8-9 C carbon dioxide 3-3. 2-5 . 4-1. 7-24. 2-12. 2-4. 1-13. 3-26. 4-38.6-13. 8-4. 3-50. D-5 . 4-5. 5-24 communications 2-10.2-3. 5-5. 317. 3-38. 3-14. 736 command and control 1-2. 5-6. 6-7. 5-9 clothing 2-12. 6-1 beached 7-5 burning 5-11.5-9. 3-23. 5-5 systems 1-6. 3-6. 7-16. 2-10. 2-4. 3-33. 5-8. 4-7. 7-16 shallow draft 6-11 cleanup 3-32. 3-24. 3-18. 5-2. 3-33. 8-9. 2-5. 7-28. D-3. 3-6. 7-3. 6-4. 5-27. 5-3. 5-28. 2-7.3-18. C-2. 6-20. 7-29 leakage 3-38 loadbinders D-4 manifests 7-31 net C-3 oil 5-7 oil tanks 3-30. 2-10 teams 1-8. 3-31. 8-6. 4-24. 6-9 D damage control 1-1. 5-5 conversion factors B-1. 4-24 patches 1-12 personnel 1-13. 4-7 carbon monoxide 3-3. 7-11 quick release 2-12 buoyancy 3-1. 5-1.B-7 cooling 2-7. 7-17 breathing apparatus 2-12. 8-5 conduction 3-5. 3-27. 5-11. 5-1. 3-14.5-9. 8-9 mats 1-10. 2-4. 2-13. 6-11. 2-1. 4-30. 3-20.D-8 crisis management services 2-1 current 1-8. 3-30. 8-7. 7-23. 5-2. 8-7 anchored 5-23 battle-damaged 5-15. 5-12. 3-8. 7-33. 7-28 . 5-7 . 7-17.3-10. 7-10. 6-9. 4-5. 3-10. 5-1. 3-18 . 5-4. 3-32. 3-6. 6-3. 7-21. 4-32 alternative 4-2 firefighting 6-4 multi-layered 4-2 polyester 4-2 protective 2-13. 5-5 convection 3-5. 3-19 cargo 3-10. 4-24. 8-5. 5-21. 3-10. 433. 2-12.3-20. 4-17. B-5 . 2-7.S0300-A6-MAN-030 secondary 7-17 smoke 7-16. 7-31 casualties 1-1 . 3-7. 7-31. 5-4 . 6-20. 3-25. 6-4. 3-23. 7-20 welding 4-2 collision 1-1. 3-8. 7-2. 3-6 . 4-19. 3-16 .2 combustion 3-1. 2-5. 5-21 commercial 3-1 human 8-3 personnel 2-4. 3-6. 3-15. C-1 UHF 4-7 VHF 4-7 WIFCON 4-7 compartments 3-7. 5-3. 8-3. 7-1.

3-15. 4-38. 7-20. 7-32 F FiFi standards 6-15. 4-2. 5-9. 5-4. 3-24 uncontained 3-9. 6-15. 6-1. 6-10. 3-6. 7-5. 5-1. 5-27. 6-1 . 6-14 casualty 5-13 dry chemicals 3-8. 3-14. 7-31 equipment firefighting 4-1. 3-7 three dimensional 3-36 triangle 3-2. 3-9. 5-2. 2-6. 5-16.6-3. 1-13 defensive/self-preservation 1-1 equipment 7-5. 5-21. D-1 disrupters 3-8. 6-19. 4-7. 4-13. 2-8. 7-17. 7-28 dry powders 3-23 E eductors 4-11. 85. 5-3. 4-33. 5-27. 6-10.3 . 5-3. 4-17.S0300-A6-MAN-030 training 7-7 unit 2-4 Damage Control Assistant (DCA) 2-7 decontamination 2-13 desmoking 4-19. 2-8. 3-50 smoke 3-7. 3-23. 5-27. 2-7. 5-28. 6-3. 5-27. 5-5. 3-27. 5-8. 3-43. 4-24. 5-6. 53. 6-9 draft tunnels 5-26 electrical 3-4 external 3-15. 6-8. 6-11. 5-8. 3-16. 3-28. 4-13. 7-20 dewatering 1-11. 7-5. 2-8. 3-36.67. 5-9. 6-15 consumables 1-10. 7-19. 6-1. 3-26. 4-8 streams 3-25 tanker 3-1. 6-10. 7-15 spilling 3-38. 6-1 stations 3-43. 3-19. 5-29. 5-18. 4-31. 3-17. 7-28 personal 4-1 portable 1-2 evasive maneuvers 5-11. 3-31. 7-2 pumps 1-10. 6-4. 2-6. 3-9. 3-50 vapor/air 3-10 explosive gases 3-10. 3-10. 614 ships 5-28. 5-29 Index . 615. 3-15. 5-7. 7-30. 5-28. 3-24. C-2 equipment 4-17. 717 marine 3-1. 8-6. 5-10. 615 portable pumps 1-4. 6-5 . 1-12. 3-30. 6-8. 5-10 chemistry 3-1 containment 5-1. 6-19 position relative to prevailing wind 6-7 protective clothing 4-1 pumps 1-4. 4-8. 5-7. 8-2. 3-23 documentation matrix A-1 drafts 2-6. 5-16 flowing 3-9. 4-24. 6-16 fire battle damage 1-1. 7-8. 5-21. 1-12 salvage 5-1 . 62. 6-5. 7-28 hydraulics 3-39 oil field 1-4. 3-9.5-5. 5-17. 2-11. 5-15. 5-5. 2-12. 6-14 . 5-9. 5-3. 3-22. 6-9 ventilation 3-50 fire plug 3-42.6-16. 6-5. C-2 drifting 5-9. 6-6. 8-1. 5-20. 4-30 in-line foam 4-11 Peri-Jet 4-17 effects 1-8 electrocution 3-17 engine rooms 3-24 EOD 2-9. 5-9. 5-2. 3-24. 7-15 monitors 1-3. 7-1. 7-19. 3-8. 3-32. 4-18. 5-10. 5-19. 4-38. 4-8. 3-46. 4-24. 5-19. 4-17. 3-36 free-flowing 3-9 growth 3-6 internal 1-12. 4-22. 3-23. 5-12. D-1 sodium bicarbonate 3-20 special hazard 3-1. 5-13 explosions 3-1. 8-5 displacement 1-10. 7-7. 6-19 boundaries 5-1. 7-7 backdraft 3-7. 6-13. 7-2. 8-3 explosives 3-6. 2-12 systems 4-37. 8-2. 4-30. 5-6 tetrahedron 3-3. 3-47 firefighting adapters 4-38 commercial vessels 6-14. 7-2. 3-49. 8-3. 7-3 pumps 1-13. 5-3. 7-19. 3-15.

3-39 Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) 3-21 blankets 1-12. 8-3 explosive 3-16 life-threatening 3-49 toxic 3-9. 4-11. 3-24 . 7-3 hydraulic submersible pump four-inch 4-30 six-inch 4-31 hydraulics 7-28 hydrocarbon-based fuels 3-14 hydrogen 3-6. 7-36 handline 3-35. 3-15. 5-23 tools 4-8. 7-17. 3-20 . 3-33 application of 7-22. 3-24. 5-28. D-5 control 1-11 dewatering 1-11 magazine 2-7. 8-8. 3-17 zone 3-14 helicopters characteristics of 7-6 overflight 7-1. 7-20. 3-22. 431. 2-3. 5-7. C-2. 6-9.1-7. 7-10. 6-11 . 4-11. 3-29. 7-29. 3-40 head pressure 3-42. 4-20. 3-27 . 49. 3-28. 6-11. 729. 5-15 . 1-5 .3-22. 4-24. 5-1. 4-9. 3-39. 3-18. 7-20.8-3. 5-2. 5-14. 7-8. 7-24 high-velocity 3-24. 4-6.3-29. 3-39 3-43. 7-23. 6-13. 4-39 eductor systems 4-39 expansion rate 3-20 high-expansion 3-20 low-expansion 3-20. 3-10. 8-3 H halon 3-8. 7-33 application time 3-37. 340. 7-28. 7-31. 5-5 unintentional 5-9.S0300-A6-MAN-030 strategies 3-1. 6-9 free surface effects 5-9 freeboard 4-33. 3-10. 3-46 heading 5-9. 3-30. 7-21 . 5-8 . 5-18 . 3-15. 3-15.3-43. 4-36 water 5-1. 3-21 mechanical 3-20 medium-expansion 3-20 protein 3-20. 5-23 casualty’s 5-2 control 5-13. 4-11 nozzles 3-40 .5-17 heat balance 3-4. 3-42 . 6-3. 3-24. 1-2. 5-1. 3-31. 5-10 flow rate 3-24. 7-22. 3-14. 5-13. 3-14. 7-20 . 3-40.3-39. 1-11 . 7-28.procedures 7-21 hydraulic firefighting 3-39 hydraulic power units 1-10. 7-21. 5-1. 3-39.3-46.1-13. 3-25. 3-15. 3-39. B-3 foam air 3-20 application density 3-24.724. 4-30. 4-31 streams 3-25.3-30. 3-26. 6-20. 3-7. 3-50. 6-19. 8-1 . 3-37. 4-9.3-49 in appliances 3-45 in hose 3-43. 7-31. 3-44 Index . 8-5. 3-25. 5-28 flashover 3-6. 7-32 hydrogen chloride 3-14. 7-28 flooding 1-1. 5-5. 8-10. 5-8. 3-24. 7-33. 3-23. 6-10 chemical 3-20 concentrates 1-13.5-20. 7-31. 3-37 . 3-34. 3-25. 5-24.3-16. 3-24. 2-12. 7-36 hand-held. 5-10. 4-27. 3-37.4 overcoming 3-46 G gas pockets 3-10 gases 3-14.6-13. 4-24 low-velocity 3-24. 3-22. 5-4. 26 . 3-6. 4-17. 7-35. 4-9. 3-7. 3-26 transfer 3-5.7-22. 4-20. 7-16 payload 7-6 transport of portable equipment 7-5 use of 7-5 hose heavy 2-3 lines 1-3 stream 3-50 hoseline 6-9. 6-2. 3-14 . 8-2 friction loss 3-42 . 333.5-10. 7-29. 3-31 storage tanks 4-38 fog 3-17. 5-12. 3-26 . 5-4.2-8. 6-9. 4-9.

8-8 P patching 1-10. 4-18. 3-28. 4-31 . 4-36. 4-28 munitions 1-1. 3-19. 7-19 off-loading 1-1. 4-30. 3-47 all-purpose 3-26. 521. 6-2.5 N Naval Firefighter’s Thermal Imager (NFTI) 422 nozzles 2-12. 1-11. 2-11. 1-12. C-3 . 4-31. 3-45 Index . 5-18. 3-41. 6-1. 6-15 portable inert gas systems 3-19 POSSE 2-3. 8-1. 4-30 . 2-3 offshore supply vessels 4-38. 4-31. 6-1. 2-1 Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) 3-19 offship firefighting equipment 6-1. 3-50. 5-7. 7-3 M machinery spaces 3-38. 1-6. C-2 personnel protection 7-7. 4-24. 4-6. 4-1. 719. 7-1 polar solvent fires 3-8. 3-20. 8-3. 610. 5-10 . 5-15. 7-31. 4-31.4-33. 3-16. 3-17 radiative feedback 3-3. 8-8 R radiation 3-4.4-32. 5-28 repair battle damage 8-4 mobile 1-2. 3-39. 2-3 single-waterway 4-24. 7-10 transportation of 7-2 platforms of opportunity 1-4. 2-2. 5-13 manifolds firefighting 4-24 MEDEVAC 7-6. 3-6. 5-19. 4-9 O OBA 1-13. 5-3. 8-2. 2-5 pre-arrival equipment test 6-2 propellant 1-3. 6-9. 1-9. 5-4. A-1. 6-14 fixed and portable 4-7. 4-34. 3-40 fog 3-40. 7-20. 1-8. 7-35. 6-14 oil carriers 5-16. 2-9. 8-9. 1-11. 7-29. 5-20. 8-7. 4-24 installed 1-10.3-20 international shore connections 4-38 L liquid inert gas 3-19 listing 6-6. 7-11. 3-14.S0300-A6-MAN-030 I ignition 3-4. 1-12. 6-2 manifolds 3-43. 5-9. 4-36. 2-8. 7-14. 3-16. 8-8. 4-5. 3-6 radiological hazards 3-15 refloating 5-27. 6-10 characteristics of the salvage ship 6-5. 5-8 protective clothing 2-13. 3-16. 3-42. 7-17. 5-9. 8-1. 6-3 services 1-1. 7-23. 3-22 portable equipment 1-4. 3-22. 3-38.5-13. 6-9. 4-34 dewatering 1-10 diesel driven 1-3 portable fire 1-3. 2-7. 4-33. 6-4. 6-6 evasive 5-11. 6-9 pumps commercial 4-6. 8-10 rubber-lined hose flow rates 3-43. 4-34. 6-15 portable 1-10. 3-1.3-10. 3-25. 2-4. 4-7. 7-15 mobile groups logistics 1-9 salvage 1-6. 4-17. 3-5. 4-8 magazines 5-5 maneuvering casualty 5-7. 6-10. 6-14. 1-10. 7-11. 437 submersible 4-13. 7-31. 2-12. 5-18. 3-9. 4-24. 1-12. 2-12. 6-3. 1-9 monitors air-aspirated 4-24 dual-waterway 4-24. 3-39. 7-36 inert gas 3-18 . 4-9 pressure 3-43 vari-nozzles 3-40. 4-38. 8-5. 4-27 effective use of 6-13. A-1 logistics force 1-9. 8-7. 6-9. 4-30. 2-2 ship 1-2 rescue tugs 6-1 Rescue and Assistance (R&A) team 7-1 rigging 1-10. 3-7 .

4-31. 5-5. 3-7. 5-27 strength 3-10. 2-4. 7-7 slop over 3-31. 4-31 . 2-6. 7-16. 7-32. 7-7 sealing 5-9. 7-29 mechanical 3-50 systems 1-12. 410 ventilation 1-12. 2-8. 5-1. 6-6.6 . 5-5 VERTREP 2-6. 5-19 vital services. 8-2. 8-9 Ship Salvage Engineering. 5-26. 3-21 survivability systems 1-7 auto-ignition 3-7 effects on aluminum 3-12 effects on steel 3-10 thermal imager 4-22 towing alongside 5-15. 5-12. 2-4. 5-12. 1-4. C-2 tugs commercial salvage 1-9 fleet tugs (ATF) 1-2 U U. 7-3. 3-12. 8-7 T temperature Index . 8-5. 8-3. 65. 5-17 toxic gases 3-16. 5-27 commercial 1-3. 5-1. 7-36 stability afloat 1-2 assessments 2-3 loss of 5-8 . 2-7.S. 1-12. 6-5. 3-7 smothering agents 3-18 spill over 3-10. 1-10 commercial 1-3. 8-9 rig 5-15. 5-16. D-4 superstructure 5-5. 5-18. 1-10. 1-12 SITREP 2-4. 7-31 sprinklers 7-22. 5-2. 3-40.8-10. 8-10 assessments 2-3 degradtion 2-5 structural envelope 3-9 failure 3-9 integrity 2-6. 2-6. D-2. 6-6. 2-9 threats to surface ships 1-4 shoring 1-10. 7-2. 4-6 training damage control team 2-5 diving 2-9 firefighting basic 2-11 firefighting team 2-11 pre-deployment 2-10 underwater damage assessment/repair 2-11 trim 1-13. 6-13 surfactants 3-20. 2-6. B-1 U. 5-27. A-1 salvage ships capabilities 1-8. 5-16. 5-21. 6-14.4-34. 2-8. 7-31. Navy Ship Salvage Manual 1-2. 7-1. 7-7. Navy Towing Manual 5-15. 5-20. 1-12. 8-5. 3-10. 5-23. installation of 2-3 Submersible 4-31 suction lift 1-3. 2-7 patches. 1-4 of opportunity 2-3. 4-6 ship control 1-11.3-50. 5-23. 2-13. 6-12. 4-9. program of (POSSE) 2-3. 8-9 pendants 5-18. 1-11 salvage teams 1-9. 5-16 connections 5-19. 7-28. 3-20. 5-5. 419. 3-31. 3-48 . A-1 underwater survey 8-3 V vari-nozzle 3-18. A-1. 8-8. 4-31.5-10. 3-30. 2-5 ships beached 5-21. 2-8. 8-8. 8-8 . D-5 self-contained breathing apparatus 4-2. 5-15. 6-9 damage protection 8-6. 5-9. 3-41. 5-6. 7-17. 3-32 smoke inhalation 3-15 smoldering combustion 3-4.S0300-A6-MAN-030 S salvage engineer 2-3. 8-2. 1-13. 3-13. restoration of 1-13 W water application density rates (ADR) 3-35 application of 7-23 curtains 3-17. 89. 5-7. 8-9 emergency 5-18.S. 5-18 tactics 5-1. 3-22.

5-21 . 5-2 hazards 7-31 mines 1-4 torpedoes 1-4 weather conditions 5-9. 3-9. 3-26.7 . 5-15. 2-6.5-12. 6-2. C-3 work boats use of 7-2. 1-5 effects 1-4. 77 weight changes. 5-10. 5-9 . 1-5. effects of 2-5 distribution of 2-3 wind 1-12. 6-15. 3-28. 3-10.S0300-A6-MAN-030 high-volume 5-5 primary cooling agent 3-17 slippery 3-17. 5-14 . 6-4 . 1-8. 5-2.5-18. 3-30. 3-46 thick 3-17 wall 5-5 wet 3-17 water fog 3-25. 7-3 Y yaw 5-23 Index . 3-41.6-10. 3-50. 4-9 weapons damage 1-4.5-24. 5-5. 5-7. 6-8.

not through thoughtful analysis of their situation—there is no time. controlling and extinguishing shipboard fires. Afloat salvage is the most time-critical and reactive type of salvage. Successful offensive firefighting requires specialized equipment and training directed at confining. when the situation demands. munitions or vitally required stores and supplies before the battle-damaged ship is removed from the immediate vicinity of her combat group. However. sometimes the damage is beyond the capacity of the ship’s damage control organization Assistance to battle-damaged ships is a principal mission of Navy salvage forces who have special training and equipment to augment the damage control efforts of Navy ships in battle. vary procedures logically and sensibly. 1-1 . Navy salvage ships and personnel deliver offensive battle damage assistance to battle-damaged ships. This volume of the U. difficult fires are characteristic of battle damage and are the most common type of marine casualty. Firefighting is emphasized in this volume because large. Just as combatant Navy ships deliver ordnance on target in their offensive roles.S. Salvors must thoroughly understand the principles and tactics of afloat salvage. Ship fires caused by battle damage are the most difficult and dangerous of all fires to control and extinguish. accident or other casualties. Salvors may be tasked with emergency off-loading of fuel. Salvage firefighting is addressed as offensive firefighting in an offship role rather than the defensive/self-preservation firefighting normally practiced in Navy ships. The same is true of salvors responding to battle damage. The ship’s damage control organization is the first defense against loss and can often stabilize the ship and restore vital services. Similar services are also provided to ships damaged from collision.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CHAPTER 1 BATTLE DAMAGE 1-1 INTRODUCTION Ships in battle suffer damage that may cause their loss. People in battle react through training. Battle damage assistance is afloat salvage—salvage services provided to ships that are afloat. All shipboard firefighting is difficult and dangerous work. salvors must be practiced to be able to react instinctively and. Additionally. Navy Ship Salvage Manual deals with battle damage and the actions taken by salvage forces assisting battle-damaged ships. Battle damage assistance is almost entirely an offship service. undertaken to prevent the loss of a ship from fire and flooding and make her seaworthy enough to: • Return to full or partial service with her combat group. • Steam to a suitable port of repair under her own power or • Be taken under tow to a repair port.

Certain features of these ships made them suitable for direct combat support: • Excellent installed offship firefighting facilities.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Technically. well-equipped teams flew to casualties needing rapid assistance. The ATFs and ATRs provided immediate assistance to battle-damaged ships. Volume 1. In Korea and Vietnam. 1-2 . Salvage efforts supported and were coordinated with an extensive advanced base and mobile repair organization. S0300-A6-MAN-010. leaving operational commanders to the fighting. Navy. there were no huge air-sea battles as in World War II. This independence served to decrease the confusion that accompanies combat and reduced the interruption of partially completed work. salvage forces were an integral part of the combat support forces of the U. • Teams specially trained in the most modern firefighting technology and in combat salvage techniques. • Towing installations that suited them for picking up casualties at sea. were established at major naval bases. The calculations in Volume 1 are the basis for the afloat stability and strength calculations. The primary salvage ships—the fleet tugs (ATF) and the rescue tugs (ATR)—accompanied assault forces and were positioned to assist task forces striking the enemy. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. World War II also taught an important lesson in command and control of salvage forces. Salvage forces were most effective when they were nearly independent and received little direction in their work other than the location and priority of ships in distress. this volume builds upon the information provided in the U. Salvage Ships (ARS) normally were held outside the immediate combat zone to provide further assistance and repair to the ships brought in by the ATFs and to be available for major salvage operations.S. Salvage centers. Salvors who had the specialized training and expertise for the work made salvage decisions. Salvage ships or fleet tugs. 1-2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE In World War II. Salvage vessels were assigned to advanced bases. This employment used the strengths of each type of ship most effectively and provided a strong reserve. provided afloat salvage protection. along with the repair ships. A basic lesson was learned early in the war—effective salvage forces must support naval forces in combat areas to prevent unnecessary losses. The widespread use of helicopters in Vietnam led to the development of “fly-away” salvage. stopped flooding and towed the ships from the immediate combat zone. tenders and other assets of the mobile repair force. where small. operating almost interchangeably in the combat zone. The doctrine for the employment of salvage forces in direct combat support developed rapidly and was applied with refinements through later campaigns. Salvage forces provided afloat salvage in every theater of war. with stockpiles of portable salvage equipment.S. fought fires.

Because of the large number of ships damaged and the relatively long duration of the 1984–1988 Persian Gulf “tanker war. there is no substitute for properly designed and equipped salvage ships. a strong salvage force of nationalized commercial salvage ships accompanied British forces operating against the Argentines in the Falklands. even if they do. Damaged ships that received no assistance were lost. skid-mounted. 1-3 . • Was comparatively simple and readily helicopter-portable. The high incidence of attacks on commercial vessels resulted in a large commercial salvage presence that was able and willing to respond when USS STARK and USS ROBERTS were heavily damaged in separate cruise missile and mine attacks. powerful. as there was no Navy salvage ship presence. high-intensity fires blazing out of control on very large tankers. diesel-driven fire pump that: • Combined good suction lift characteristics with high-pressure outlet discharge features. • Rocket and missile propellant fires aggravating already high fire-load fuel beds. Coincidental collocation of commercial salvage assets and damaged fleet units is an exceptional circumstance.” commercial salvors gained extensive firefighting experience. flaring fires often situated at some height above sea level. To support naval operations. portable fire monitors.S0300-A6-MAN-030 In a very different combat scenario. All these fire characteristics are common threats that Navy salvage firefighters must combat and overcome in the course of rendering battle damage assistance to stricken ships. • Incorporated one or two hand-trained fire monitors integral to the pump and engine package. Central to commercial salvors’ approach to offship firefighting was a compact. those that received it survived. Salvage firefighters in that conflict had to develop and refine equipment and techniques that took account of: • Liquid-fuel-fed. ships did not receive salvage assistance because salvage ships were employed as repair ships or supply vessels and were therefore not free to assist casualties. In some cases. • Intensely hot. The two U. The contribution of salvage forces to ship survivability was dramatic. diesel-driven fire pumps. using small groups of air-deployed salvage firefighters with compact. the salvors may find the salvage of commercial vessels more lucrative and less hazardous. there can be no substitute for Navy salvage ships. At the time of a casualty. Fleet actions do not always take place in or near areas that have attracted commercial salvors. • Had several smaller discharge offtake points for hose lines or smaller.S. Navy frigates struck during the 1984–1988 Persian Gulf “tanker war” survived partially because assistance was available from commercial salvors. and.

• Had a minimum output of 2.S. • Salvage force assistance increases a battle-damaged ship’s probability of survival. Just as commercial salvors took advantage of Navy experience. As a direct result.250 to 2. experienced salvors train as fire teams. innovation and adaptation of techniques are keys to successful salvage. Navy Ship Salvage Manual stress. Commercial salvors had done nothing innovative in their salvage team strategy. Because salvors deliver multiskilled services. commercial salvors restructured their firefighting crews into eight-man teams whose operations centered around one or two pairs of portable fire pump units. 1-3 WEAPONS EFFECTS Threats to surface ships are from air. Navy salvors took advantage of recent commercial experience. Weapons cause damage by a combination of: 1-4 . air-deployable firefighting pumps and training Navy salvage personnel to operate those pumps.or underwater-delivered weapons. the concept of a firefighting team found ready acceptance. Concurrent with design and development of a new pump for offship firefighting. Primary air-delivered weapons are anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCM). is a self-contained firefighting unit. Commercial salvors typically made extensive use of offshore supply vessels as firefighting platforms of opportunity. Since each pump or pair of pumps. rather than professional firefighters training as marine salvors. Since a wide breadth and depth of salvage firefighting experience existed in commercial salvage crews. salvage forces are an important part of combat support because: • The major effects of modern weapon strikes are the same as in World War II. They had reviewed hard-learned lessons of World War II military salvors and adopted a Navy tried-andproven technique of establishing several firefighting groups to their own requirements. Salvage crews were specially trained to operate and maintain their portable equipment and cross-trained at oil field firefighting centers to learn techniques and skills commonly practiced in oil well fire control operations. self-propelled platform of opportunity.650 gpm at discharge pressures of 160 psi. As all volumes of the U. Primary underwaterdelivered weapons are mines and torpedoes. depending upon discharge pressure. a salvage group to operate that fire pump unit had to be established. Navy salvage offship firefighting methods and techniques were reviewed and scrutinized as a result of battle damage firefighting operations in both Falklands and Persian Gulf theaters.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Could be deployed from almost any comparatively low-freeboard. In modern warfare. projectiles and bombs. • The effects of even a single weapons strike can overwhelm the damage control abilities of the ship’s force. Those firefighting groups are known as Salvage Assistance Response Teams—SARTs. the Supervisor of Salvage implemented a strategy of procuring special portable. as in the past. with monitor ranges of between 85 and 100 yards.

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• Blast, • Fragments, • Fire starting, • Shock, • Flooding, • Whipping and • Penetration. Damage includes: • Large and small fires. • Flooding through hull ruptures or damaged piping. • Loss of weapons or weapons control. • Loss of maneuverability. • Structural damage. • Loss of services. • Secondary (internal) explosions. Table 1-1 provides a general and unclassified description of weapons effects and the types of damage they cause.

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Table 1-1. Threats vs. Weapon Expected. EFFECT
THREAT AIR-DELIVERED ASCM BOMBS/PROJECTILES U/W-DELIVERED TORPEDOES MINES BLAST P P P P FRAG/DEBRIS P P S S FIRE S S S S SHOCK S P P P FLOOD S S P P WHIPPING N N P P PENETRATION P P N N

P= Primary; S=Secondary; N= Negligible/None.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
BLAST Over-pressure from warhead detonation that results in ripping of internal compartment bulkheads and shell plating and personnel injury. Watertight subdivision bulkheads provide significant protection. Other internal bulkheads provide some protection depending on charge size. Expected effects include flying debris, equipment destruction and misalignment and loss of the affected compartment. Proper stowage of loose gear can reduce the amount of flying debris.

FRAG/DEBRIS High-velocity fragments of metal that can rip through unarmored superstructures and cables, causing equipment damage and personnel injury. FIRE SHOCK Fires that are ignited from explosive reactions and/or the burning of unexpended propellant (ASCM). Damage to equipment from the rapid acceleration of the ship in an upward or horizontal direction. Unhardened equipment may malfunction, short out or come adrift. Electrical power may be interrupted and false alarms may occur. Effects are generally more severe from underwater detonations in lower regions of the ship. Injury may occur to personnel not properly braced and from loose gear that may come adrift. Loss of hull strength that can lead to loss of watertight integrity in moderate sea states. Loss of watertight integrity due to holding of the hull and rupture or failure of hull penetrations or piping

WHIPPING FLOODING

PENETRATION Shaped charge jets or semi-armor-piercing warheads that penetrate deep into a ship, causing major internal damage or magazine detonation.

Salvors facing battle damage deal with all these effects. In addition, salvors evaluate the condition of the battle-damaged ship and set priorities for their efforts. 1-4 AFLOAT SALVAGE Salvage forces are part of a broad-based organization of personnel and equipment resources that enhances the survival of combatant and logistics ships and ensures their rapid return to duty. This structure includes: • Ship design and construction that incorporates resistance to Damage commensurate with ships’ mission. • Shipboard damage control systems and organization. • Ship self-repair capability. • Immediate damage control/firefighting assistance from salvage ships and mobile teams.
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• Shared battle group repair assets. • Navy and commercial towing services. • Forward repair bases, deployed tenders and mobile repair groups. • Depot-level repair facilities. The purpose of all afloat salvage is to provide prompt and sustained assistance to shipboard damage control forces to: • Prevent the loss of the ship from the immediate threats of fire and flooding. • Prevent fires and flooding from causing more than minimum damage. • Stabilize the ship for return to action or withdrawal to a repair activity. • Tow or escort powerless ships to repair activities or ports of haven. Figure 1-1 illustrates salvage interface with ship survivability systems.

Figure 1-1. Salvage Support for Ship Survivability Systems.

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Salvage forces assist battle-damaged ships by providing fresh, trained personnel to augment the ship's damage control teams or to act as a separate repair party. Salvage ships assist by applying their installed and portable equipment to the problem. Salvage ships may also tow the battledamaged ship while it is being stabilized and may tow it away from the combat zone for transfer to Navy or commercial point-to-point tugs. 1-4.1 Afloat Salvage Doctrine. The doctrine for salvage forces supporting battle groups has evolved from the hard venue of combat. Current doctrine tempers the experience of combat with consideration of the effects of modern weapons and the capabilities of modern ships and equipment. The organization and use of portion of the forces and allows an adequate reserve for unexpected emergencies. Figure 1-2 illustrates the interface between the various elements of the Navy “survivability/damage repair” organization.

Figure 1-2. Salvage Role in Survivability and Force Sustainability.

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1-4.1.1 Scenario. In the following generalized scenario, salvage forces providing direct combat support consist of: • A battle group operating at sea against an enemy equipped with air- and underwaterdelivered weapons. • A mobile logistics group supporting the battle group at sea, from a nearby base or both. • Salvage ships specially equipped for afloat salvage that accompany or lie along the expected route of withdrawal of the battle group. • Air-mobile salvage teams located aboard major combatants, amphibious warfare ships, auxiliaries or at forward bases. • General-purpose salvage ships and tugs accompanying the logistics force. When a ship of the battle group is damaged, the following general events occur: a. Air-mobile salvage teams deploy by helicopter to the battle-damaged ship. b. Salvage ships with or near the battle group are dispatched to the casualty. c. Salvage forces working with the ship’s damage control team control the damage and stabilize the ship. d. A salvage ship takes the battle-damaged ship in tow to the logistics base. e. The salvage ship passes her tow to another salvage ship or tug dispatched from the logistics base and returns to support the battle group. f. The battle-damaged ship is delivered to a repair ship, tender or depot maintenance activity for repairs. In practice, the generic scenario described above is changed to suit the tactical sItuation and the assets on hand. 1-4.2 Platforms and Equipment. Afloat salvage to battle-damaged ships is provided by: • Fleet salvage ships and tugs. • Air-mobile SARTs embarked in major combatants or auxiliaries. • Navy platforms of opportunity with or without SARTs. • Commercial salvage tugs under contract to the area commander or the Supervisor of Salvage.
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000 4 17.000 Diesel-Elec 2 Screws 4.8 3. Table 1-2 gives a summary of Navy salvage ships with their characteristics and some of their capabilities.000 15 7. Storage (gal) 2 -- 2 -- 2 -- 3 3. These ships provide direct salvage support to battle-damaged ships. Salvage ships may accompany the battle group or the logistics force or may be stationed along expected routes of withdrawal.5 15. • Rigging and placing of patches.675 10.000 Diesel 2 Screws 5.400 20 crew 20 transient Complement Portable Dewatering Pump Capacity (gpm) Beach Gear Sets Note: (1) (2) (3) 85 96 85 15.400 14.500 ATS 1 283.000 6 Note (3) Note (3) Formast monitor removal from some ARS-50 Class.500 2 17.500 ARS 50 255.0 42 15 2. All salvage ships can embark additional gear from shore bases or major logistics ships. hydraulic power units and a large store of patching. Monitor throw is enough to allow salvage ships to stand off while fighting very hot fires.260 10.0 52 17. Programmed SHIPALT will reconfigure ATS-1 Class with 5 monitors.700 9.000 Diesel-Elec 1 Screw 4.000 6 3.282 8. • Dewatering pumps. Table 1-2.000 15. CHARACTERISTICS Length (ft) Beam (ft) Draft (ft) Displacement (tons) Cruising Range (nm) Speed.0 38.400 14. AFTs carry only a limited allowance.S0300-A6-MAN-030 1-4.000 Diesel-Elec 2 Screws 4. Salvage ships are powerful oceangoing tugs fitted with a variety of installed and portable salvage equipment and machinery. compressors.500 ARS 38 213.1 Fleet Salvage Ships.5 1. shoring and collision mats. ARS and ATS ships carry an extensive onboard allowance of salvage equipment and consumables that includes portable pumps.000 Propulsion Total Fire Pump Capacity (gpm) Monitors Foam Conc.0 50 18 3.5 43 14.5 2. generators. T-ATFs have no onboard allowance but may embark a salvage team and gear. Salvage Ship Capabilities.5 3.200 Diesel 2 Screws 4.5 39 13 1.650 10.000 15 4. max (kts) Shaft Horsepower ARS 6 213. shoring and rigging supplies.5 3.5 3.000 102 crew 20 transient T-ATF 225.2.000 3 5 Note (2) 2.100 9.000 16 6. 1-10 . • Salvage teams to augment ships’ damage control parties. Salvage ships can provide the following assistance: • Large quantities of water or AFFF foam via a combination of portable and installed monitors to combat fires.200 Diesel 2 Screws 3.600 94 crew 16 transient ATF 76 205.000 4 15.500 4 3 Note (1) 3.

4 Commercial Salvage Ships. SARTs can respond more rapidly than salvage ships and bring immediate help. Salvage firefighting teams board the ship to integrate into or supplement the ship’s firefighters. Because of the speed and geographical dispersal of battle groups. Relatively small. • Flooding control and dewatering. flooding control and stabilization or towing out of the combat zone. • Ship control and • Restoration of vital services. The ship of opportunity is a much less capable salvage vessel than a specialized salvage ship and is less effective in the assistance it can provide. 1-5 AFLOAT SALVAGE SERVICES Afloat salvage services are generally of four types: • Offship firefighting. amphibious warfare ships or auxiliaries to battle-damaged ships. 1-4. • Essential services through shore connections or portable equipment. a salvage ship may be some time in reaching a battle-damaged ship. a salvage officer or may merely exercise her rescue and assistance bill. A platform of opportunity is any ship assigned by the battle group commander or officer in tactical command (OTC) to assist a battle-damaged ship. equipment and training. Salvage firefighters provide both external and internal offship firefighting assistance to the stricken ship.2. a ship of opportunity providing salvage assistance is unable to perform her primary mission.2 SARTs.1 Offship Firefighting.2. but are limited in the amount of equipment they can transport to the scene. maneuverable combatants or LSTs are preferred to larger ships. More importantly. Commercial salvage ships will not accompany the battle group and doctrine should not depend on their availability. The assignment of ships of opportunity to assist battle-damaged ships is governed by the tactical situation. Air-mobile SARTs or SARTs embarked in platforms of opportunity. Paragraph 2-4 describes SART composition. 1-5. Helicopters can transfer SARTs embarked in major combatants. is much more vulnerable to attack and is lost to the mission of the battle group. 1-11 . External firefighting is the assistance provided directly from a salvage ship or platform of opportunity. 1-4. The ship of opportunity may carry a salvage team.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Towing the ship to the best heading for firefighting.2. Commercial salvage ships with capabilities similar to Navy salvage ships may be under contract to the Navy or may be operating independently near the combat zone.3 Platforms of Opportunity. 1-4. can reach the scene before salvage ships arrive and provide immediate assistance.

salvage teams form the nucleus for a reorganized attack on the fire. • Haul the ship out of an oil slick or other dangerous situation. install shoring and to dewater flooded spaces with portable pumps and hoses. 1-5. 1-5.1. • Reduce rolling and other ship motions. Platforms of opportunity do not have the ability to deliver large quantities of water or firefighting agents unless salvage teams with portable firefighting pumps and monitors are embarked. If the ship’s firefighters are still relatively fresh and the damage control organization intact and effective. 1-5. such as a burning oil slick. Salvage teams.4 Restoration of Vital Services. A salvage ship or ship of opportunity may assist immediate salvage efforts by taking the ship in tow to: • Adjust the relative wind to limit the spread of topside fires and to prevent smoke from being drawn into ventilation supply systems. flooded spaces must be dewatered by lowcapacity portable pumps and liquids cannot be transferred to mitigate hull stress or alter list and 1-12 . integrated with the ship’s repair parties or functioning as an intact team. When ship’s firefighters are exhausted or weakened. Similarly. the salvage team may either be integrated into the existing teams or function as an additional party.2 Internal Firefighting Assistance.S0300-A6-MAN-030 1-5.2 Flooding Control and Dewatering. augment the ship’s flooding control and dewatering efforts. hampering damage control efforts or may be unable to extricate itself from a dangerous situation.1 External Firefighting Assistance.1. even if the original fire is relatively minor. firemain and LP air may leave a casualty’s crew essentially helpless to check the spread of fire. • To cool hot spots and internal fires and. Salvors assisting battle-damaged ships to control flooding initially apply damage control patches rather than the more elaborate and secure patches that will be installed when the immediate danger is past. Salvage ships provide external firefighting assistance by directing large quantities of firefighting water or foam to areas inaccessible from within the ship. A ship without propulsion or the ability to maneuver may wallow in the swell. Loss of electrical power. Chapter 8 describes steps to be taken to secure a casualty for sea or return it to service after dealing with immediate threats. Salvage teams are equipped to apply damage control patches.3 Ship Control. • To keep munitions or other flammables from igniting. Foam blankets are laid more quickly with monitors than with handlines. The method of integration is the option of the ship's commanding officer with the concurrence of the salvage officer. The high-volume flow from monitors is directed: • Against fires too intense to be controlled with hose lines. Salvage teams boarding a battle-damaged ship must be integrated quickly into the overall firefighting effort. 1-5. without power to pumps.

The rewards of assisting battle-damaged ships are great. by alongside or helicopter transfer. There is less planning in afloat salvage than in other types of salvage. Services are restored by one of two methods: • An assisting vessel makes up alongside the casualty and connects shore power leads. fire pumps or compressors and their operators are transferred from ships alongside or by helicopter. Experience has shown that afloat salvage enables ships to fight again and saves valuable cargoes and military payloads for immediate use. firehose jumpers. Full or partial restoration of vital services can enable the casualty crew to deal with the situation and can increase the flexibility of embarked rescue and assistance teams or SARTS to fight fire or flooding and make emergency structural repairs. 1-13 . especially wounded. Salvors must know their business well and instinctively react correctly every time. Assisting ships can also replenish. knowledge of the principles is just the beginning. The salvor must understand the principles well and make every effort to learn all he can. LP air lines. etc. assisting vessels should provide prepared rations and hot/cold drinks for damage control teams and watchstanders. The following chapters delineate the principles of afloat salvage. If the casualty’s galley or potable water system is out of commission. as necessary. As with all types of salvage. 1-6 SUMMARY Afloat salvage—assisting battle-damaged ships—is a hard and dangerous business. By doing so. can greatly decrease the burden on the casualty’s damage control organization and/or embarked salvage teams. firefighting consumables such as OBA canisters and AFFF concentrate.. • Portable generators. remaining medical personnel can direct their efforts to supporting damage control personnel and injured personnel can be treated in a clean and safe environment.S0300-A6-MAN-030 trim. Removal of nonessential personnel.

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CHAPTER 2 OFFSHIP BATTLE DAMAGE CONTROL ORGANIZATION

2-1 INTRODUCTION Fleet salvage forces exist as part of the Navy’s total war-fighting effort. Salvage is an essential logistics service; salvage ships and teams should be integrated into the battle group, mobile logistics force or amphibious task force organization. Navy salvors are highly trained specialists who provide offship damage control and crisis management services to assist the crews of stricken ships. Salvors arriving to assist critically damaged ships bring with them experience and objective detachment that enables them to assess a stricken ship’s situation and take corrective action. For a salvage force to function well under combat conditions, it must be organized for effective command and control and integrated into the operation and the battle damage reporting structure. This chapter describes how Navy salvors are integrated and coordinated into combat group organizations to provide battle damage and afloat salvage services. NOTE Throughout this manual, the word casualty means primarily a battle-damaged ship. Casualty is a generic term historically used by salvors of all nationalities and backgrounds to mean the ship being assisted by salvors. 2-2 SALVAGE FORCE ORGANIZATION The U.S. Navy salvage organization’s response to offship fires is structured around offensive firefighting and damage control operations conducted by: • Navy salvage ships of ARS, ATS, ATF and T-ATF Classes and, where available, commercial salvage units. • Specially trained, air-mobile salvage assistance response teams (SARTs) with specially designed and adapted firefighting and damage control equipment. Salvors accompanying a naval force provide immediate offship firefighting and battle damage response to augment the damage control forces of any ship that sustains combat damage. 2-2.1 Command and Control. Salvage forces supporting a deployed battle group or task force are under the overall control of the force salvage coordinator (FSC). The role of the FSC is similar in concept to that of anti-air warfare coordinator (AAWC), surface action group commander (SAGC) or antisubmarine warfare commander (ASWC). Figure 2-1 illustrates the typical afloat

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Figure 2-1. Relationship of Salvage Control to Typical CWC Command Structure.

salvage organization. This organization is modified as necessary to fit different tactical or geographic conditions. The FSC is normally aboard the battle or amphibious group flagship where he has direct access to the battle or task group commander. The force salvage coordinator communicates with subordinate commanders and units via dedicated salvage circuits. As the senior salvage and battle damage assessment officer afloat, the FSC receives both general and detailed reports from his subordinate commanders and salvage units attending battle-damaged ships. Based on these reports and, in some instances, personal inspection and supervision of major battle damage assistance operations, the FSC makes recommendations to the battle group commander about: • Extent of battle damage sustained and the requirements for additional support and salvage facilities to control that damage. • Ability of the battle-damaged ship to rejoin her combat group after damage control operations as an effective, mission-capable ship.
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• Extent of temporary repairs and/or patching and sealing necessary to make a battledamaged ship seaworthy enough to steam or be towed to a mobile tender or repair base. • Redeployment or bringing forward additional salvage ships, units and equipment required to cope with developing military situations. • Capability of attached salvage units to recover and offload—either partially or completely—fuel, ammunition and combat stores from battle-damaged ships. 2-2.2 Salvage Engineer. The FSC is assisted by a salvage engineer—an experienced, salvagetrained engineering duty officer or similarly qualified line officer, specifically trained in the use of the NAVSEA Program of Ship Salvage Engineering (POSSE). The salvage engineer provides detailed strength and stability assessments for damaged ships, based on salvage team reports or personal inspection and recommends corrective action. Where necessary, the salvage engineer designs and supervises the installation of structural patches and reinforcement and directs weight distribution and other involved measures to see the casualty safely afloat. 2-2.3 Coordination of Damage Control and Salvage Operations. The senior salvage ship commanding officer reports to the commanding officer of the casualty and coordinates assistance to that battle-damaged ship. Where no salvage ship is in attendance at the casualty, the senior salvage officer or SART leader is responsible for overall coordination. A large-scale salvage firefighting and damage control operation arising from a weapons strike on a combatant would typically involve coordinating the efforts of: • Initial assistance given by a specially detached Navy platform of opportunity (Paragraph 1-4.2.3) that responds by: (1) Dispatching her rescue and assistance (R&A) party to work on board the casualty. (2) Taking the casualty in tow to maintain an optimum heading for firefighting operations. • Backup firefighting assistance provided by SARTs deployed by helicopter to the battledamaged ship. SARTs arrive on board with one high-capacity diesel-driven pump, portable monitors and a limited foam supply. SARTs work with the stricken ship’s crew and the platform of opportunity to confine and control fires and flooding. • Major offship firefighting services given by a salvage ship brought up from a position close behind the battle group, that may consist of: (1) Fighting fires from alongside with monitors and heavy hose streams. (2) Boarding salvage and R&A teams from alongside or by helicopter or small boat transfer.
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(3) Providing vital services (firemain, electrical, power, etc.) from alongside. (4) Taking the casualty in tow to maintain an optimum heading. (5) Relieving a platform of opportunity of the above actions, enabling her to return to her primary duties. As each new firefighting and damage control unit is deployed on or about the stricken ship, some reorganization and coordination of firefighting assets is vital. Salvage officers or commanding officers of salvage ships are specially trained to coordinate assistance to battle-damaged ships. 2-2.4 Salvors’ Interface with Combatants. Salvors assisting battle-damaged ships add to the ship’s damage control organization. Salvors report to and take direction from the stricken ship’s commanding officer. The first salvors deployed on board a battle-damaged ship usually consist of a SART, with air-portable firefighting and pumping assets. The SART leader assesses battle damage through the eyes of a specially trained offship salvage firefighter. Fire loads, boundaries and fire threats are evaluated rapidly and the SART equipment is deployed to reinforce and assist the stricken ship’s own damage control activities. The SART leader reports to the FSC with a verbal situation report (SITREP). The SITREP gives the extent of fire and damage, status of present firefighting activities and a brief summary of relevant casualty conditions in salvage terms. From this SITREP, the FSC may deploy additional SARTs or call forward a salvage ship or rescue tug to provide further assistance. Timely and objective SITREPs and battle damage control assessments from the salvage officer are vitally important to the battle group commander in deciding to provide an assisting ship of opportunity. The ship of opportunity is lost to the battle group’s mission while assisting a battledamaged ship. Platforms of opportunity will not be permitted to remain indefinitely with the casualty unless there are threats that require armed combatants to protect the casualty and salvage forces. Stricken ships’ organizations may break down through no inherent fault when the stress of battle combines with the shock of severe battle damage, major fires and extensive personnel casualties. Salvage officers aboard battle-damaged ships should be alert to the possibility of such breakdowns and tailor their actions and recommendations accordingly. Ships’ crews are often depleted in numbers and physically and mentally exhausted by the time offship firefighters arrive on board in force. Exhaustion and severe discomfort often focus the attention of ship's damage control parties on one or two main threats, allowing apparently minor secondary effects to exist or develop into serious hazards. Salvage officers and SART leaders attending damaged ships must evaluate all threats to ship survivability and assign priorities for control of both immediate and longer term threats. 2-2.5 Integration of Salvage Teams with Crews of Battle-damaged Ships. Salvage teams, especially those who deploy as SARTs, provide stricken ships with fresh personnel, special training and extensive damage control knowledge. The combination of a background in offensive firefighting and high-capacity, air-deployable equipment enables SARTs to make a valuable
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POSSE can also analyze the 2-5 . separate party. Navy Salvage Engineer’s Handbook. service speed and full load draft. but is capable of performing afloat stability and strength assessments for damaged ships. The NAVSEA Program of Ship Salvage Engineering is a microcomputer-based program for ship salvage calculations. S0300-A8-HBK-020. • If the stricken ship’s damage control parties are exhausted. it is usually best for the salvage team to form one main damage control team to tackle the most serious threat first. it is usually best to split the salvage team into two nucleus groups about which reorganized damage control parties are formed. The current version is designed primarily to support the salvage of stranded ships. Volume 2. POSSE use and capabilities are described in the U. Timely and accurate stability and strength analyses allow the force salvage coordinator and the salvage team leader to assess the effects of accumulating firefighting water or additional damage. POSSE operates in either a Detailed Analysis Mode that utilizes detailed. Load case files for ships in company are prepared and updated daily by the force salvage engineer and his staff. so that tactics appropriate to the situation can be adopted. The initial assessment can be revised and updated by the FSC or salvage engineer. depth. When POSSE is run in the Detailed Analysis Mode. Optimum integration and utilization of the salvage team in damage control efforts depend upon the particular situation: • If the stricken ship’s damage control parties are still relatively fresh and intact and have been able to confine fire and/or flooding. an updated load case file can be created in either Detailed or Rapid Analysis Mode. Exactly how this is achieved is decided by the offending salvage team or SART leader. approximate size (length. • If the extent of battle damage is such that it threatens to overwhelm existing damage control parties. the salvage team leader need provide only the compartment numbers of flooded spaces to the POSSE operator to get an updated stability analysis. it is usually best for the salvage team to function as an additional.6 Program of Ship Salvage Engineering (POSSE). By entering details of a ship’s current loading condition.S. previously stored. Detailed data files have been developed for ship classes representing approximately 70 percent of the fleet. Salvage teams that board a stricken ship must be integrated quickly into the overall damage control effort if they are to be useful and beneficial. POSSE should be used to give the salvage team leader an initial situation assessment. If POSSE is being run in the Rapid Analysis Mode. ship data files or a Rapid Analysis Mode that approximates stability and hydrostatic characteristics from ship length. in consultation with the damaged ship’s commanding officer. beam. 2-2. breadth and depth) and location of flooded compartments must be provided. It is unlikely that a salvage team leader will have time or a suitable location to run POSSE calculations after boarding the casualty.S0300-A6-MAN-030 contribution to ship survivability. weakened or not holding their own. based on reports from the casualty. based on verbal reports from the salvage team leader on the casualty.

as it is often the first external examination of the battledamaged ship to be made by a salvage-trained mind and may be the last opportunity the STL has for external observation. 2-3 THE SALVAGE TEAM LEADER The salvage team leader (STL) is the officer in charge of salvage response to a battle damage incident. apparent boundaries of present fire(s) and apparent structural integrity of the casualty in salvage terms. preferably by making a helicopter overflight. This initial survey is vitally important. etc.S0300-A6-MAN-030 effects of weight changes caused by the jettisoning or shifting of weights. port and starboard midships. • Potential flooding apertures. their availability and proximity to main fire front(s). • FSC or salvage engineer. in the case of an especially difficult or complex task. • Most suitable location for landing and operating salvage fire pumps and salvage equipment. Before boarding the battle-damaged ship. • Salvage officer detached to act as team leader. aft and where possible. The STL may be any one of the individuals named below in charge of salvage team or salvage ship activities on a battle-damaged ship: • SART leader. consumption of flammables by fire. • Drafts fore. 2-3. • Helicopter landing or VERTREP locations. taking particular note of: • Size. nature and extent of hull damage are provided. • Drift and/or present heading of the ship. 2-6 . together with estimates of list.1 Before Boarding the Casualty. • Team leader of a R&A team from an attending salvage ship or platform of opportunity. their relationship to present waterline and urgency of need to raise them by dewatering or counterflooding. location. the STL must assess the casualty’s situation. Longitudinal strength degradation can be assessed if the location. • Commanding officer of attending salvage ship. relative to prevailing wind and her present position and speed. trim and roll period/characteristics.

so that you’ve got to be trained for battle and you will react just exactly the way you do in training. On a stranding. • Condition and status of onboard systems. the STL must locate her commanding officer or officer exercising command and obtain a general overview of the ship’s situation. particularly where offship firefighting operations are a primary task. by mutual agreement between the commanding officer and the STL. based upon a salvage analysis of the stricken ship’s condition. • Availability and status of ship’s main and auxiliary power and her ability to maneuver. cooling/boundary control operations in progress and magazine flooding status. • Immediate threats to casualty survivability. together with status of damage control organization and repair party personnel.2 After Boarding the Casualty. STLs have only a limited time to gather. which is really training. That SITREP must also describe actions taken and specify any 2-7 . including fire pumps. • Where. the salvage personnel and their equipment can be deployed to provide the most effective firefighting and damage control assistance.3 Situation Reports. Typically. You act by instinct. salvors do not have the luxury of time to reflect on options or possible permutations of each course of action. the STL needs up-to-date information on: • Current extent of fire and estimates of damage. including specific details of agents. After ascertaining the broad aspects of battle damage sustained by the ship. The STL’s first SITREP to the FSC must accurately summarize the battle-damaged ship's condition. the STL orders deployment of salvage personnel and equipment into position and consults with the casualty’s damage control assistant (DCA) to establish the order of damage control priorities based upon analysis of: • Locations and sizes of hull penetrations and flooding rate. firemains and firefighting systems.” 2-3. Burke: “In the heat of battle you don’t remember very much. When assisting a casualty. • Stability and structural integrity of casualty. absorb and act upon information received about the casualty. You don’t really think very fast. with the STL’s observations as a benchmark check on the DCA’s damage control plots. salvage crews have at least a little time to analyze and assess a casualty’s situation before starting salvage operations.S0300-A6-MAN-030 2-3. After boarding the casualty. • Firefighting and damage control actions in progress. if any. Much of their assessment of the casualty under battle damage response conditions must follow the dictum stated by Commodore Arleigh A.

verbal reports via radio circuits. a SITREP to the FSC would include: • Casualty’s drafts: forward. allowing them to prosecute offensive firefighting when operating: 2-8 . trim. • Special hazard fires. • Present foam status in gallons and proposed usage rates of foam compounds. displacement. • Fires of long duration and intensity. salvage ships or ocean tugs and SARTs. together with their equipment. with projected resupply requirements. Their specialized training addresses fighting: • Very large fires. List.to 18-man teams of salvage specialists with intensive and significant firefighting training beyond basic firefighting schools. SARTs undergo frequent firefighting refresher training. • Generalized plan of attack. • Name and designation of attending platforms of opportunity. period of roll and a flooding summary could be included. Most information is passed to the FSC or battle group commander as concise. 2-4 SALVAGE ASSISTANCE RESPONSE TEAMS (SARTs) SARTs are 10. with the STL’s assessment of the casualty’s survivability and future disposition—will the casualty: (1) Be able to rejoin battle group? (2) Have to be steamed or towed to an intermediate repair location? (3) Require major dewatering. it is unlikely that STLs have either time or opportunity to draft detailed SITREPs. Typically.S0300-A6-MAN-030 logistic or resupply items that must be brought forward immediately to platforms of opportunity or salvage units attending the casualty. control and extinguish fires. damage control repairs and extensive pre-tow preparations before being capable of movement out of area? Because of the circumstances and urgency of battle damage salvage operations. both as a team and as individuals. SARTs are trained in battle damage control methods. • Casualty assessment and estimate of time and level of effort necessary to contain. midships and aft—port and starboard.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 • As stand-alone. SARTs deploy with four-man Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units to form a multi-skilled response group. sinkings. • From and with Navy salvage ships. including. 2-9 . • Recovery of lost articles. 2-4. Table 2-1 defines a nominal 18-man SART. Coordinated training between SARTs and EOD units is carried out regularly to ensure that deployed units are cohesive. but not limited to the following: • Routine underwater hull inspection. salvage platforms of opportunity or chartered salvage craft. aircraft recovery or other major operations. Fleet doctrines may vary the number and specific training of SART members based on operational experience and available manpower.1 SART Composition and Qualifications. first-response teams deployed from Navy salvage ships. Frequently. major logistics or amphibious ships or forward bases. • Initial response and survey for strandings. • Rescue swimmer services. • Hull security swims. Deployed SARTs also provide diving and salvage services to the battle group. maintenance and minor repair.

first class diver HT2/DC2. second class diver. independent duty diving medical technician with advanced training in trauma management. qualified nozzleman BM2. repair locker leader. first class diver. SARTs will tour all ships of the group to become familiar with general layout and firemain. experienced rigger EM3 NO 2 HOSE TEAM: Nozzleman No 1 Hoseman No 2 Hoseman No 1 Access No 2 Access Pump Operator Assistant Pump Operator Communications Specialist/Plotter Medical Support HT1/DC1. 61XX/71XX/1140. advanced life support. The teams are normally organized and assembled six months before deployment. Senior team members have more extensive sea time.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table 2-1. second class diver. DCA or Engineer tour HTC/DCC. All team members are qualified first class or rescue swimmers and hold current CPR/basic first aid certification. qualified nozzleman EM3 EN2/MM2/BT2/MR2 EN1. qualified nozzleman BM1. SART members are familiar with the general layout of Navy ships and have access to damage control plates. CWO-4/LT. 2-4. qualified nozzleman BM2. command tour on ARS/ATS/ATF.1. machinery space supervisor qualified NO 1 HOSE TEAM: Nozzleman No 1 Hoseman No 2 Hoseman No 1 Access No 2 Access HT1/DC1. drainage and other damage control systems.1 General Qualifications for SART Members. Team members should be SWO/ESWSqualified and have served at least one sea tour. general plans and other ship documentation at their permanent training/operating bases. initial burn treatment and triage. Pre-deployment training includes: 2-10 . Recommended SART Composition and Qualifications BILLET Team Leader Assistant Team Leader Chief Petty Officer Leading Petty Officer SPECIALIZATION/QUALIFICATIONS Special Operations (1140) LCDR/CDR holding Ship Salvage Operations Officer NOBC (9375). DCA or F/F School instructor tour Engineer rate E-6. may be salvage diving officer (NOBC 9314). first class diver EN3/MM3 IC1/EM1. emergency medicine. Prior to and during battle group deployment. An extensive period of team training precedes planned SART deployments. qualified to operate and maintain UDATS HM2/1. first/second class diver. qualified scene leader HT2/DC2.

• Diving training and underwater damage assessment/repair exercises. • All EMs qualified as electrical control/switchboard operators and repair party electrician. engineer. Battle Damage Assessment Team (BDAT) and EOD Team. • Fire at sea exercises with the Combat Support Squadrons FIVE and EIGHT training hulks with several platforms. • Participate in joint firefighting/mass conflagration exercises.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Attendance at shipboard firefighting training (basic and advanced). advanced and aviation) and DC team training. LCM and RIB) and boat davit supervisors.1. • 2 qualified LSOs and 2 qualified LSEs. 2-11 . • Coordination and planning with the FSC. salvage vessels assigned to battle group or operating area. • Participation in tow-and-be-towed exercises as deck rigging party with selected units of the battle group. repair locker leaders. firefighting team training (basic.2 Additional SART Qualifications. Visits to ships assigned to the battle group are conducted for the following purposes: • “Get acquainted” visits between SART leader and senior members and ship CO/XO. the SART will include the following qualifications (by PQS or applicable directive) among its members: • All BMs qualified as boat coxswains (small boat. DCA. • 2 qualified dive supervisors. • 3 qualified emergency medical technicians (EMT) in addition to the Hospital Corpsman. including T-ATF and commercial tugs. • Obtain DC plates and other ship information. • 2 qualified gas-free engineers. • Familiarization tours for SART members. • All EN/MM and pump operators qualified as diesel machinery space supervisors (topwatch) and boat engineer (small boats and LCM). • 2 qualified shipboard and mobile crane operators. 2-4. In addition to the above qualifications.

etc. SARTs integrate rapidly with crews of battle-damaged ships. including: • Portable. SART leaders offer objective. Since time is critical to effective control and extinguishing of fires.2 SART Operations. spare clothing and emergency rations. monitors. • Shoring and patching materials. submersible fire pumps with portable hydraulic power units. • Other portable damage control equipment suitable for the type of damage expected.500. • Diving equipment and underwater tools. SARTs are attached to a battle. • Wireless communications. diesel-driven firefighting pumps of 2. with associated suction and discharge hoses. As Navy-trained salvors. tools. Transferring between ships by helicopter or small boat—often under adverse conditions and long periods on “immediate standby” status—requires a lightweight. yet fully protective suit. SARTs deploy with helicopter-portable equipment and supplies. comfortable. One or more SARTs deploy aboard vessels with flight deck and staging areas and embarked-helicopter capability. reliable and easily interchangeable. • Portable dewatering pumps and hoses. including high-capacity hydraulic submersibles.S0300-A6-MAN-030 2-4. logistics or amphibious group to be placed in forward positions where they can respond rapidly to major battle damage and fires. • Limited quantities of three-percent AFFF concentrate in 300/500-gallon containers designed for underslung carriage by helicopters and/or 55-gallon drums. such as major underway replenishment and amphibious ships. Quick-release breathing apparatus and inflatable lifejackets increase SART members’ chances of survival if lost or forced overboard. 2-12 .000-gpm capacity. high-pressure air compressors or portable air banks carried by the team. SART members have special outfitting that differs from the standard shipboard firefighter. SARTs must board the casualty to control and possibly extinguish a fire before the arrival of a salvage ship. nozzles. Survivability in water is an important factor. Personal protection equipment is light. • Equipment boxes for fire hoses. assisting and encouraging damage control efforts and giving vigor to casualty personnel.to 3. • Self-contained air breathing apparati that are recharged from portable. professional advice and a salvor's dedication to preserving the casualty if at all possible. breathing and rescue equipment. • 500-gpm hydraulic.

monitor or defend against CBR agents than do other fleet units. All jobs on both teams are full-time for all hands. the salvage officer briefs the battle damage assessment officer on the situation. Both the salvage teams and battle assessment teams report to the force salvage commander. The salvage team and battle damage assessment team share information freely. Salvage teams are exposed to CBR agents during transit to casualties. especially for tasks such as firefighting that require heavy physical exertion and freedom of movement. salvage teams must rely on personal protective clothing and equipment to defend against CBR threats. 2-13 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Chemical. 2-5 BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT Battle damage assessment teams also board casualties and assist the ship’s force in determining the extent of the damage and the repairs required. any particular dangers and any observations about the ship’s condition. There are no personnel that occupy positions on both salvage and battle damage assessment teams. biological or radiological (CBR) warfare environments pose special threats to SARTs. Protective clothing degrades mission capability. when firefighting and damage control operations must be conducted outside the skin of the ship or when damage has breached the ship’s protective envelope. nor do they have greater training or organic assets to assist with decontamination. Because of the requirements of mobility and operations in exposed locations. When the ship is stabilized. Navy salvage forces have no greater ability to detect.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 2-14 .

that govern the basic firefighting approach. The term oxidation also includes certain chemical reactions that do not 3-1 . tactics and use of equipment. assistance must come quickly before the fire gains a good hold and the casualty crew becomes exhausted. Fires on military and commercial ships in the Persian Gulf and the Falkland Islands have shown clearly that the effects from a single. S. In all fires. Combustion is oxidation a chemical reaction in which oxygen combines with other elements. • A ship has finite dimensions and special hazards munitions.1 Chemistry of Fire. etc. anticipating what will happen before it happens. Navy publications. Effective firefighting assistance is both rapid and sustained. This chapter contains a brief overview and refresher of fire chemistry and characteristics. such as NSTM 555 and NWP 62-1. They must react quickly and read a fire.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CHAPTER 3 SALVAGE FIREFIGHTING PRINCIPLES 3-1 INTRODUCTION Salvors play a major role in ship survivability. highlight the extremely difficult firefighting problems these ships present. 3-2. as in fires and explosions. To do so they must be proficient in firefightingstrategies. The tanker fires in the Persian Gulf war and commercial casualties. as in the corrosion of metals or at very high rates. • Resupplying firefighting consumables is often difficult and may require a high airmobile or helicopter logistics priority. • Materials and storage methods aboard ship make firefighting difficult. • A burning ship has a limited capacity to sustain buoyancy losses caused by the accumulation of large quantities of firefighting water. 3-2 MARINE FIRES Several elements of marine fires impede salvage firefighters: • What is seen from a salvage ship alongside a burning vessel is not always representative of the total fire situation aboard the casualty. fuel. usually with the liberation of energy in the form of heat and sometimes light. U. Oxidation may occur at a very slow rate. have detailed explanations of the nature of fires and firefighting. modern weapon can tax the ability of the crew to control damage and survive. such as the 1990 explosion and fire on the T/S MEGA BORG.

even in the absence of oxygen. 3-2 . liberate large quantities of heat and may even produce flames in short. proceed very rapidly. oxygen and heat the fire cannot start or burn. they exhibit all the characteristics and hazards of fire. illustrated in Figure 3-1. Some of these reactions. particularly those involving fluorine or chlorine.S0300-A6-MAN-030 involve oxygen. Figure 3-1. The Fire Triangle. Without all three sides of the triangle fuel. All fires have the elements of the fire triangle.

A firecan burn in either mode or both modes simultaneously. The interplay of these products is necessary to support flaming combustion. Surface combustion occurs at a much slower rate than flaming combustion and consequently evolves heat at a lower rate. In surface combustion or smoldering. without the formation of intermediate products. where surface combustion is essentially two-dimensional. oxygen and fuel combine directly. A number of intermediate combustion products are both formed and consumed before the final products of oxidation carbon dioxide. Flaming combustion is sustained by an uninhibited chemical chain reaction and is represented by the fire tetrahedron.S0300-A6-MAN-030 There are two basic modes of combustion flaming and surface (smoldering) combustion. Surface combustion can continue at very low oxygen levels. free ions and electrons and molecular fragments called free radicals. The Fire Tetrahedron. The chain reaction consists of several separate reactions that occur one after another in the rising flames and combustion gases. carbon monoxide. with the chemical chain reaction forming the fourth side. The chemical chain reaction takes place in and around the flames and starts with the heated. A self-sustaining combustion reaction of solid or liquid fuel depends on radiative feedback radiant heat from the flames and hot combus3-3 . as shown in Figure 3-2. are formed. Flaming combustion proceeds at a high rate and is three-dimensional. water. confined to a relatively thin layer of the fuel. The intermediate products include flammable gases. Figure 3-2. vaporized fuel gases that are given off by the solid or liquid fuel. in some cases as low as three percent. etc.

There are four classes A through D recognized by the Navy and the firefighting community: • Class A Fires.1. paper. the fire becomes a Class A fire. Gaseous fuels do not require vaporization to support flaming combustion. including water and liberate oxygen and flammable gases. If heat is dissipated faster than it is generated.1. electrical cables and switchboards. The fuel bed may contain a combination of fuels and other materials that affect reactivity and extinguishing options. The heat of metal fires may break down surrounding substances.025.S0300-A6-MAN-030 tion products providing energy for the continued vaporization and heating of the fuel. Solid (ash-producing) materials. • Class B Fires. rope. Liquids with a specific gravity less than the extinguishing agent will float on top of the agent and may continue to burn. Heat may be transferred to a fuel source by three mechanisms: • Radiation transfer through the air. In the solid form. If a flammable liquid is soluble in water. motors.1 Fuels. Petroleum fuels. these metals must be heated above their ignition temperature to support combustion.2 Heat. The specific gravity of seawater is 1. Any material that gives off flammable vapors when heated or that burns when its ignition temperature is reached is fuel. so less radiative feedback is required to maintain a positive heat balance. but alcohols and some solvents are. Hydrocarbon fuels are not soluble in water. grease. Fuels for Class C fires are the circuitry and components of generators. As a powder or fine shavings. acetylene or liquefied natural or petroleum gas (LNG. a negative heat balance exists and the fire will eventually burn out (gaseous or liquid fuels) or shift to smoldering combustion (solid fuel). metals are capable of self-ignition. the structure containing it and other materials nearby. lubricating oils. The specific gravity and solubility of liquid fuels are important factors in adopting an extinguishment strategy. a positive heat balance exists and the fire will remain constant or grow. • Class C Fires. Most flammable liquids have specific gravities of less than 1. Combustible metal fires most often magnesium in aircraft. Only solid fuels can support smoldering combustion.0. When there is sufficient heat to maintain the feedback. LPG) are common fuels for Class B fires. Fuels are solid. The ease with which a fuel vaporizes is its volatility. The class of the fire determines the extinguishing agents. titanium. Electrical fires. 3-2. When power is secured. Fires are classified by the type of fuel. cloth. • Class D Fires. sodium. it may be possible to dilute the liquid to the point that it cannot burn. The fuel bed is the fuel. The category includes items such as wood. 3-2. liquid or gaseous. Liquid fuels generally vaporize more readily than solid fuels. Extreme heat and structural disintegration may result from a thermite reaction the ignited mixture of aluminum powder and a metal oxide. rubber and some plastics. 3-4 . Flammable or combustible liquids and gases. potassium and aluminum.

heat transfer by convection is principally upward and outward. Figure 3-3. Radiation and Convection. • Convection transfer by hot air or gases. Because hot gases tend to rise and expand. including downward. convection and conduction. 3-5 . Effects of Conduction. Radiation and conduction spread heat outward from the source in all directions. Figure 3-3 illustrates the effects of radiation.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Conduction transfer through a solid object. but circumstances often arise that force heated gases downward and outward.

300 degrees Fahrenheit. In confined spaces. The expanding heated gases will eventually ignite all flammable material in the upper levels of the space. At this point.1. Air surrounding the fire supplies oxygen. At this point.S0300-A6-MAN-030 3-2. This is possible because it is the vapors from both solid and liquid fuels. 3-6 . As the fire burns. the energy emitted also increases. Air contains about 21-percent oxygen. A large volume air supply keeps the fire hot because oxygen is replaced as rapidly as it is consumed. chlorates (gunpowder. If air flow is sufficient to balance the available fuel supply. Flame temperature may be above 1. until flames cover the overhead and shoot out of doors. explosives). but with increasing velocity. it begins to expand laterally. conduction and radiation. rather than in it. fire size increases as surrounding fuel is heated by convection. In open fires. The fire will continue to spread upward and outward until combustion reaches a rate that is limited by the rate of fuel vapor production or air flow. pyrotechnics). 3-2. such as bleaches. The heated combustion products rise. air ports or other openings. The fire expands upward first. forcing cooler air downward to be drawn into the fire. Flashover occurs when an enclosed space is heated to the point where flames flash over the entire space. • Oxidizing agents. etc. a natural draft forms. may dissociate water molecules to release oxygen and hydrogen. fire intensity increases in a linear fashion until the flashover point is reached.000 degrees Fahrenheit. The flames begin to spread laterally. depending on the fuel.3 Oxygen. Flashover often occurs at about the same time flames begin to impinge on the overhead. the heated gases spread out at the overhead. producing carbon dioxide.2 Fire Behavior and Growth. the rate of sustained combustion is limited by air flow. As the fire heats its surroundings. such as Class D fires. nitrates (fertilizers. that burn. creating a low-pressure zone at the base of the fire that draws air. In the initial or incipient phase of fire growth. Excess oxygen from ruptured oxygen systems. The fire burns above the fuel. from the surrounding fuel bed into the fire. Some of the fuel vapors and oxygen rise before they are burned and the fire expands vertically. Metal oxides release oxygen when burned. often without any initial lateral spread. oxygen content of the surrounding air has not been reduced significantly and the fire is burning cleanly. initially at about six inches per second. • Some missile and torpedo fuels include oxidizers. combustion rate is limited by fuel vaporization rate. the space is said to be fully involved with fire. chemical reactions or other sources causes hotter fires and explosions. 14 to 16 percent is necessary to support flaming combustion. intensifying the ongoing heat transfer and radiative feedback in essence. release oxygen when heated. such as tank fires.. along with combustible vapors. After ignition. rather than the fuels themselves. but space temperature may be only slightly elevated. As fire size increases in the free-burning phase. water vapor and small amounts of carbon monoxide and other gases. Some fires generate their own oxygen supply during combustion: • Very intense fires. temperatures in the upper levels of the space may reach 1. In most enclosed space fires. the fire feeds on itself.

000 degrees Fahrenheit. the fire will normally continue in the smoldering combustion mode. As the fire continues to smolder. fire intensity fluctuates. to the flashover point at 1. however and the unburned carbon particles and flammable gases need only be mixed with sufficient oxygen to burst into almost instantaneous combustion. If the air supply is limited. Warning signs of possible backdrafts are: • Smoke under pressure. Improper ventilation supplies the missing side of the fire tetrahedron oxygen causing a smoke explosion or backdraft as the mass of hot gases and smoke bursts into flame with devastating speed and violence.burning combustion remains.300 degrees Fahrenheit. such as hydrogen and methane from combustible materials in the space. without fluctuation. If there are sufficient solid fuels present. A slowly developing fire or a heat source may gradually transmit enough energy to cause materials near decks or bulkheads of adjacent compartments to emit combustible gases. 3-7 . Flashover occurs when the flammable mixture reaches the auto. • Smoke leaving the fire area or structure in puffs or at intervals.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Flashover was originally believed to result from combustible gases collecting at the overhead and mixing with air until they reached the flammable range. It is now believed that while this may occur. Burning is reduced to glowing embers and the space fills with dense smoke and gases. the temperature at the overhead reaches about 800 degrees Fahrenheit and then increases rapidly. The smoldering combustion is incomplete oxidation. causing near simultaneous ignition and fire involvement.000 to 1. The heat from the free. • Little or no visible flame. The combustible vapor that is released mixes with surrounding air. the expanding gases may pressurize the space or force smoke out of small openings and the temperature in the space can exceed 1. The smoke and gases do not burst into flame because there is not enough oxygen to support flaming combustion. but overall follows an increasing trend. Confined fires in the free-burning phase will continue to burn until there is not enough oxygen to support flaming combustion. as well as any liquid fuel. the collection and ignition of combustible gases in the overhead precedes the actual flashover. The intense heat will vaporize the lighter fuel gases. Flashover is attributed to the buildup of heat from the fire that eventually heats all the contents of the fire area to their ignition temperatures. Flashover may occur with explosive violence if any unignited flammable vapor mixture has collected in the overhead. Flashover can sometimes occur in spaces where no fire is burning.ignition temperature or a source of ignition is introduced. • Dense black smoke or black smoke becoming dense gray-yellow. Eventually. The smoke and gases produced will include large quantities of flammable free carbon and carbon monoxide. The entire mass ignites almost instantly. because there is not enough oxygen present to completely combine with the fuel. Proper ventilation can remove smoke and hot gases from the space.

paints. paint thinners. rocket and torpedo fuels. 3-8 . B. • Disrupting—Interfering with the chemical chain reaction that supports flaming combustion. • Smothering—reducing the oxygen content of the atmosphere immediately adjacent to the fuel below 15 percent to stop flaming combustion or below three percent to stop surface combustion. Dry chemicals and Halon are the most common disrupters. sometimes requiring several agents to extinguish the blaze. Many agents may smother. When polar solvents are burning. but require special tactics and. 3-2. in some cases.. Since the chain reaction takes place throughout the flames. Polar solvents are water-soluble. Liquid fuels cannot truly smolder. disrupters can be effective even if they do not reach the seat of the fire. Backdrafts can occur whenever combustible gases collect in a location where they can be heated to their ignition point in the absence of sufficient oxygen to support combustion. so most Class A fires are extinguished by a combination of smothering and cooling. the cooling agent should be applied to the fuel at the point where it is being vaporized. The solubility of a liquid in water determines which firefighting agents and techniques will be effective. Common polar solvents are alcohols. special extinguishing agents.3 Fire Extinguishment. i. 3-2. To be most effective. depending upon the material that is afire. Carbon dioxide is a common smothering agent. but can still create the conditions required for a backdraft. A Class B fire will produce large quantities of smoke just before extinguishing from lack of oxygen. Fires are extinguished by breaking the triangle or tetrahedron by: • Cooling—applying an agent that lowers the fuel temperature to the point that it does not produce enough flammable vapor to support combustion.1 Polar Solvent Fires. either in fireinvolved spaces or adjacent spaces. water is absorbed into the fuel with little extinguishing effect.4 Special Hazard Fires.4. cleaning solvents and some missile. C or D classes. 3-2. Water is the most common cooling agent. The liquid fuel or surrounding structure may be hot enough to ignite the smoke and vapors if the space is aspirated. flammable liquids that attract water. Situations arise in marine fires outside the scope of the basic classifications. The hot fuel will continue to give off flammable vapors.e. Small amounts of polar solvents in a Class A fire may cause the entire fuel bed to act as a polar solvent.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Sounds muffled by smoke. • Starving—removing or securing all fuel sources or allowing a fire to burn until all fuel is consumed. Special hazard fires are of the basic A. the seat or base of the fire. It is very difficult to reduce oxygen content to less than 3 percent. • Sudden rapid inward movement of air when an opening is made.

Fuel quantity and ignition sources combine to increase not only the difficulty of extinguishing the fire. Large fires on large ships have great quantities of fuel heated near the flash point with many potential ignition sources. 3-2. Changes in the physical properties of materials weaken the structural envelope and expose the firefighters to toxic fumes. Wind velocities may be high enough to move large objects.4.4 Uncontained Fires. caused by the rising of hot combustion gases. in a tank next to a heat source or from the uncontained release of rocket propellants. such as flooding. are proportionately more severe than in small fires. uncontained fires can create firestorms high winds drawn into the fire by a lowpressure zone around the fire. blocked accesses and. A fire that partially or fully engulfs a ship is uncontained. but also the explosion and reflash hazard. 3-2. damage. unplanned attack may be a wasted and dangerous effort. When a hull is open. Chemicals released by combustion may react with materials. Uncontained fires are not constrained by established boundaries.5. Flowing fires are Class B fires and are extinguishable with standard B agents. a direct. These fires occur when burning fuel oil flows from one deck to another. With flowing fires especially. The pressure may be from a mechanical source. 3-2.4.5. or failure. in a pressurized tank or receiver.2 Pressure Fires. There may be pressure fires at piping system flanges or ruptures. possibly. surrounding structures often must be cooled and isolated before attacking the seat of the fire. 3-9 . toxic or irritating gases and particles from large marine fires sometimes engulf assisting vessels Smoke and radiant heat can damage equipment or injure personnel some distance from the fire. result in the breakup of the entire vessel. Marine fires are often very large and present unusual conditions and hazards to firefighters. but fuel motion makes control difficult. Very large. explosions often result in damage to structural members and prolonged exposure to extreme heat may cause the material to become plastic (melt) or wasted. Ship’s structure around a fire becomes so hot that it acts as a heat source and assists in sustaining the fire. Detrimental side effects.S0300-A6-MAN-030 3-2. Some tanker fires have defeated all extinguishing attempts and have required weeks to burn themselves out. increasing its intensity. either through design. A fire with a flowing fuel is a free-flowing fire. Smoke. Fuels under pressure produce pressure fires. such as a pump or pressure vessel or may be generated by heat-induced expansion and boiling.2 Ship’s Structure.5 Characteristics and Hazards of Large and Unusual Fires. In fighting Large fires. Large fires generate great heat and may burn for long periods. Vast quantities of water are applied to cool and extinguish large fires.3 Flowing Fires.1 Size. Extreme heat or mechanical damage may cause structural failure. conditions are suitable for an uncontained fire.4. The fire winds provide oxygen to the fire at a high rate. Pressure fires are difficult and dangerous to control. There is no effective method of extinguishing burning rocket propellent. the extinguishing agent must be chosen carefully and the attack planned. endangering personnel. the fire must be contained and controlled until the propellent is exhausted. 3-2. serious open-air explosions may result. 3-2.

While pockets may lack either enough oxygen to support combustion or an ignition source. Premature venting of a space may cause a reflash or a vapor/air explosion. the second most common material.000 1.175 1. Explosive gases may concentrate or pocket in any confined space before.000 3-10 . In a ship fire. light red Temperature 1. firefighters can unintentionally breathe the gas pockets or expose them to ignition sources.975 2. appearing to breathe in and out or puff out of the openings. One telltale sign that an explosion may occur is panting smoke a body of smoke that alternately expands and contracts. low red Dark cherry red Medium cherry red Cherry.050 1. suffers significant strength loss at temperatures greater than 600 degrees Fahrenheit.2-0 1.5. This zone may exceed 212 degrees Fahrenheit. Figures 3-4 and 3-5 illustrate temperature effects on steel and aluminum. Panting smoke a precursor of explosion is also typical of a fire that has burned for a considerable length of time.650 1. shipbuilding steels melt at about 2. 3-2.825 1. flows at 1. Explosions can occur under all conditions common to marine fires.375 1. As the fire progresses. Steel that is glowing red is already hotter than 1. Cooling must be rapid to maintain structural integrity. Large fires generate explosive gases more rapidly than the gases they can dissipate. There is invariably water at the bottom of oil tanks from humidity or water that has settled out of the oil.3 Explosion.700 degrees Fahrenheit. blood red.5 Boil Over and Spill Over. Salvors must consider the potential results of aspiration in their attack plan. has become oxygen-starved and is smoldering. as shown in Table 3-1. Most oils are lighter than water.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Comparatively low temperatures cause changes that reduce overall strength. during and after a fire. When it does. Vapor/air explosions cannot always be avoided. in cofferdams or in individual compartments. Panting smoke often indicates the buildup of explosive gases. the water flashes to steam. especially in large cargo or fuel tanks. but they are predictable. Aspiration often increases the fire's intensity or causes it to spread. black red Dark red.725 1.220 degrees Fahrenheit. A contained fire is probably oxygen-starved. Aluminum.4 Aspiration. full red Light cherry.550 Color Orange. winds generated as a result of the fire. Color Dark blood red. Table 3-1. Fuel or cargo oil storage tanks are formidable hazards in large fires. 3-2. expands as much as 2.5.000 degrees Fahrenheit. the zone expands downward through the oil until it reaches the water. improper ventilation systems. Color Scale of Temperature for Iron or Steel. free-scaling heat Light orange Yellow Light yellow White Temperature 1. A fire may be aspirated fed oxygen by natural winds.5. an extremely hot zone of oil forms at the top of the tank. broken air or oxygen piping or by inadvertently opening confined spaces. Steel.220 3-2. Steel temperature can be estimated from its color. explosions can occur between deep web frames. the most common ship structural material. When a tank is afire.

3-11 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-4. Temperature Effects on Steel.

to 1 and produces enough force to rupture the tank and throw burning oil over considerable distances. There is a second type of boil over that does not involve water. Boil over is illustrated in Figure 3-6. A distinctive whir commonly indicates that a spill over is about to occur. 3-12 . the tank is vented sufficiently so that as the oil heats and expands. When the second front overtakes the first. Firefighters should back up and prepare to redirect efforts when a spill over is imminent. the liquid is agitated and may be ejected from the tank. Boil over usually results in serious structural damage to the ship and a massive. violent outflow of burning oil. In spill over.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-5. Temperature Effects on Aluminum (6061-T6). it spills from tank vents under considerably less pressure. after the first heat front begins to move downward. faster moving front forms. a second. Sometimes. Spill over is a less disastrous effect of the same phenomenon.

The theoretical speed of expansion of the heated zone is about 1 foot per hour.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-6. a tank 30 feet deep would boil over in about 30 hours. However. Boil Over. This shoreside method may 3-13 . Extreme caution should be taken in the investigation. In reality. the time varies with the severity of the fire. especially when the fire has been burning for a significant time. time of fire impingement on the tank and the tank contents. There is no guaranteed method to observe the progress of the phenomenon. feeling the side of the tank at low levels can determine how far the heat zone has traveled. Therefore.

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not be practical aboard ship. Another method is to spray water lightly on the tank side, which should create a definite wet-dry line along the boundary of the heated zone. 3-2.5.6 Class D Fires. The preferred method of fighting Class D fires is jettisoning the fuel bed. If this is not possible, Class D fires (other than sodium fires) can be cooled with water before a smothering agent is introduced. However, water may splatter the molten metal or react with the metal to generate oxygen. Firefighters must know the kind of metal that is burning and how it reacts when exposed to heat and water. Careful application of a fine water spray can accelerate the combustion of some metals so the fire burns out sooner. A solid stream can break up the fuel or push it overboard or away from hazards and uninvolved areas.

CAUTION
Hazardous materials are highly toxic and often difficult to detect. Familiarization with the effects and warning signs of exposure to these materials is a matter of education and training. The U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Safety Manual, S0-400-AA-SAF-010, provides guidance concerning hazardous materials.

3-2.5.7 Combustion and Hazardous Materials. All fires produce flame, heat, gases and smoke that are potentially hazardous to the firefighter. Plastics, rubber, chlorine- or bromine-based refrigerants and most hydrocarbon-based fuels, propellants and lubricants are hazardous in fires. These products may be toxic or carcinogenic or reactive in the presence of heat and, in some cases, water. Many of these materials increase the intensity of a fire, while others may generate explosive gases or ignite spontaneously. Some potential hazards are: • Smoke, soot particles and partially burned or unburned solid particles of fuel and other materials in the fire. • Carbon dioxide from combustion or released as a firefighting agent. • Carbon monoxide from incomplete combustion. • Hydrogen cyanide from acrylic plastic. • Hydrogen chloride from PVC plastic. • Hydrogen fluoride from Halon 1301. • Sulphur dioxide from rubber and rubber-based products. • Hydrogen sulfide (sewer gas) from marine sanitation devices.
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• Hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and phosgene, from TFE coatings (Teflon®), refrigerant gases (Freon) and Halon 1211. • Dioxins from the breakdown of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). • Any of the above gases from the breakdown of explosives. Any and all of these hazardous materials can be carried in smoke and heated gases, steam from firefighting water or water containing solids and liquids or in fuel and water run-off. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas, present in smoke from virtually all shipboard fires, is especially dangerous. The gas itself is not toxic, but forms hydrochloric acid on contact with water, such as moisture in the respiratory passages or wet skin. Severe burns to the lungs, nasal passages, throat and exposed skin may result. Smoke inhalation is a particular hazard to firefighters because the initial symptoms of mild to moderate exposures coughing, watering eyes, respiratory discomfort, etc. pass quickly and the victim may think that no harm was done. However, the symptoms of edema and other lung damage caused by inhaled combustion products may not become noticeable until 24 to 48 hours after the incident. Treatment for the effects of smoke-inhalation-caused lung damage must begin within six hours of the incident in order to be effective. For many cases, where smoke inhalation is not diagnosed until lung edema becomes obvious, there is little to be done except to make the patient comfortable and hope for the best. The lessons firefighters should learn from these facts are: • Fire atmospheres are inherently hazardous to human life and breathing apparatus is always required when fighting internal fires, working close to external fires or when otherwise exposed to combustion products. • All cases of smoke inhalation must be reported so that prompt medical attention can be provided. Toxic and explosive gases can also evolve in spaces where heat has been great enough to cause materials to break down and exude these gases, but not great enough to leave obvious evidence, such as charred or blistered paint. This is particularly true of spaces where explosives and propellants are stored or spaces that contain chlorinated plastics (PVC). These gases may remain in poorly ventilated spaces long after the fire is extinguished. Charred plastics will continue to exude toxic vapors for many days. Radiological hazards may be found in the cargoes of logistics vessels or as propulsion and weapons systems in combatants. In a major fire, the protective containers for radioactive materials may be damaged and the ship and personnel contaminated.
3-15

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3-2.5.8 Weapons and Explosives. Explosives, in bulk or as munitions, are inherently dangerous. In a fire, explosives dramatically increase the potential for detonations, the introduction of toxic gases and the prospect of deflagration free-burning of explosives. Most military and commercial explosives except primers, fuses and detonators are somewhat resistant to heat and shock. They burn violently, but do not detonate unless confined. However, in a large, hot fire, explosives or munitions stored in confined spaces can absorb enough heat to detonate. Heat causes many explosives, particularly glycerine-based explosives, to become unstable and susceptible to shock detonation. The most stable explosives may be detonated sympathetically from a nearby explosion. Because of the sensitivity of primers and detonators, armed munitions are extremely hazardous in a fire: • Pyrotechnic or incendiary munitions greatly increase the intensity of a fire, often introducing burning metals to the fuel bed. Missiles and rockets on launchers, aircraft or on deck are a dual hazard. The warhead may detonate or the propellant may ignite, creating a large danger area behind the missile and possibly launching it. Launching may lead to warhead detonation or ignite fires behind firefighters. Unevenly burning solid propellants can create jets of flame along the sides of the missile or spew large masses of burning fuel. Because of the danger areas ahead, behind and to the side of rockets and missiles, the safest position for firefighters cooling the weapon or attacking nearby fires is ahead of the weapon at a 45-degree angle to its long axis.

3-2.5.9 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is the rapid and violent release of gases from the rupture of a closed container. A BLEVE can occur whenever closed containers e.g., tanks, air receivers, nonshattering bottles, etc., are damaged or exposed to fire. Liquid in containers exposed to heat will flash to vapor and expand rapidly; the vessel ruptures violently and completely. The rupture usually within 60 degrees of the longitudinal axis or the ends of a cylindrical tank creates a shock wave, flame front and airborne fragments. While the material in the container need not be flammable for a BLEVE to occur, the flammability and other properties of the stored material are important in the explosion. For example, a high- pressure air receiver without a relief valve may contain moisture that boils and ruptures the receiver during a fire, showering fragments without bursting into flame. Alternatively, the BLEVE of a 55-gallon drum of lubricating oil sends out fragments along with a fireball, toxic gases and a flowing oil fire. The most serious BLEVEs are those of flammable and toxic materials. Gas cylinders, storage drums, hydraulic accumulators, day tanks, air receivers, vehicle and portable equipment fuel tanks and LPG and LNG tank vessels are the most common sources of BLEVEs. The Department of Transportation (DOT) requires most compressed gas cylinders to be fitted with rupture discs to prevent fragmentation of the cylinder. Tanks or containers susceptible to BLEVEs should be cooled immediately.
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3-3 EXTINGUISHING AGENTS Understanding fire extinguishing agents, their properties and their effects on the fire triangle is basic to marine firefighting. Because Navy salvors may fight fires on merchant vessels and foreign warships, as well as U.S. Navy ships, they must be familiar with all extinguishing agents commonly found at sea. Most agents attack one or more sides of the fire triangle by cooling, smothering and starving. Some agents disrupt the chemical reaction of combustion. Proper application of the right agent fights the fire effectively. 3-3.1 Types of Agents. Extinguishing agents are usually categorized by their effectiveness on a particular class of fire. Agents that are effective on one class may be useless or even detrimental, on other classes. In this section, agents are grouped by their method of attacking the fire and their effectiveness on particular classes. Later discussion addresses the disadvantages and hazards of choosing incorrect extinguishing agents. 3-3.1.1 Starving Agents. As the fuel source can seldom be removed from the fuel bed during a fire, no agent completely starves a fire. Typically, starving keeps free oxygen away from the fuel bed or prevents the introduction of additional fuel. 3-3.1.2 Cooling Agents. Cooling removes the heat leg of the fire triangle. Without a source of heat, fire cannot burn. Water is the primary cooling agent for several reasons. It absorbs heat and cools burning material better than any other common agent; it is effective, to some extent, on all classes of fire; and it is always available in the marine environment. The cooling agent reduces the temperature by absorbing heat and moving it away from the burning material. In fine droplet form as low-velocity fog, water protects firefighters from the effects of heat and dilutes many fumes and smoke. Water curtains not only cool but help contain fires and protect equipment by blocking heat transfer by radiation and convection. It is possible to make water more effective by adding certain chemicals. Wet water is treated to lower the surface tension of the water, increasing its ability to penetrate the surface of porous materials, such as bedding. Thick water is treated to increase the viscosity of the water, allowing it to remain in place on the material longer and absorb more heat. Slippery water is treated to reduce viscosity, which reduces resistance to flow and pressure drop in long hose lays.

WARNING
Water fog will non conduct electricity, but an inadvertent shift to solid stream causes severe electrocution hazards for the firefighter.

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Water is most effective on Class A fires, but can be effective when applied as a fog on Class B fires. Water is effective as a secondary extinguishing medium and as a primary boundary cooling medium for Class C and D fires. Before applying water to a Class C fire, power should be secured to the affected circuit. If power cannot be secured, water can be applied with minimum risk if the firefighter applies highvelocity fog (from a vari-nozzle or all-purpose nozzle) and keeps the nozzle at least four feet from the energized source. 3-3.1.3 Smothering Agents. To smother a fire, the agent must be effective at either separating the fuel source from its oxygen supply or reducing the oxygen content of the space below that necessary to support combustion. Several agents fill these requirements for different classes of fires. Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is extremely effective in diluting air and displacing oxygen. CO2 is stored as a gas, liquid or solid; above 87.8 degrees Fahrenheit, it is always a gas. In its gaseous form, CO2 is 1.5 times heavier than air, so that it falls through air and blankets a fire. Its weight makes it less likely to dissipate after application. The agent does not conduct electricity and leaves little or no residue. CO2 is available in portable (hand-held bottles), semi-portable (fixed bottles with hose reel) and fixed flooding systems. CO2 is applied primarily to Class C and B fires, but can knock down Class A fires. It is the agent of choice on electrical and electronic equipment and hazardous and semi-hazardous materials that do not contain oxygen. CO2 is particularly effective in confined spaces that may be flooded. The limitations of CO2 are discussed later. Both steam and sand are adequate smothering agents for Class B fires under some conditions. Boiler rooms in merchant ships have sand for smothering small Class B fires. In Navy ships, repair lockers have sand for shoring and extinguishing small sodium fires. Sand is effective as a smothering agent for shallow oil spill fires, however, because it sinks to the bottom of deep oil pools (more than one inch deep), sand is generally ineffective in preventing the hot surface oil from reflashing. Steam forces air away from a fire and dilutes the surrounding atmosphere. As long as the steam blanket remains intact, it prevents reignition. Several disadvantages of steam, based on its physical properties, i.e., high temperatures and hazard to personnel, limit its use as a first line agent. On Navy ships, steam smothering systems are found only in boiler casings. Fixed steam smothering systems installed on older ships usually in fireroom bilges, boiler casings and cargo holds should be used as designed.

WARNING
Inert gases will not support life and many of the vapors being displaced may be toxic. Ensure the safety of personnel and monitor the atmosphere at all times.

3-18

Inert gases. such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. Inerting is effective in container fires when explosives or chemicals are exposed to fires in adjacent cells. in pressurized bulk containers. CO and H2. 3-19 . portable inert gas systems may: • Fill ullage spaces of cargo tanks to prevent the tank atmosphere from entering the flammable range during transfer operations. can also be used to inert or smother fires in enclosed spaces. The result is often a vapor/air explosion. can inert large spaces rapidly. The foam smothers the fuel bed. Ullage spaces in tanks are routinely inerted on many merchant vessels to make tank atmospheres inflammable and to separate incompatible cargoes. inerted spaces may lose their inertion. traces of carbon monoxide and no measurable soot. Liquid inert gas. Because there is combustion in the inert gas generator. Tanks can be inerted by admitting gas through the tank vent gooseneck after the ball valve is removed. The space must be made as fume-tight as possible and the inerting gas admitted slowly to prevent a buildup of static electricity that may ignite the mixture. Portable inert gas generators burn marine diesel oil and produce inert gas with only . In salvage firefighting operations. The generator should be located on the forecastle or stern well clear of areas where flammable gases collect. An inert gas reduces the oxygen content of a vapor mixture below the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL).50 percent oxygen by volume. • Negligible traces of SO2 . Once the fire is extinguished. the tank or space should be reinerted. Bulk CO2 and nitrogen are supplied by tank trucks or specialized portable tanks from a pier or support vessel and by generating systems deployed by ship or aircraft. • No solid particles in suspension. it is an ignition source for flammable vapors. Some salvage firefighting systems employ portable inert gas systems. Inerting over a foam blanket to achieve an inert environment may be necessary. preventing the release of vapor while the atmosphere is being inerted.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Tank or space inertion can be an effective smothering process. Good inert gas should have: • No soot. • Minimum residues of O2 . Compressed CO2 or nitrogen in small 15-pound bottles can inert small and medium-sized spaces or ullage spaces in a ship's fuel tanks. • Reduce the oxygen content in holds already afire or where cargo has been heating and extinguish fires by smothering. become open to the environment and aspirate. NO and NO2. In a fire.

Unlike conventional foam blankets. HX foam produces a frothy. • Chemical foam is produced by mixing an alkali usually sodium bicarbonate with an acid usually aluminum sulfate in water. The foams are produced from proteins.or synthetic-based. Foams may be employed alone or in combination with agents that disrupt the chemical reaction of the fire while the foam removes the oxygen supply. The most common mechanical foams are: 3-20 . Navy Ship Salvage Manual. gasoline.S0300-A6-MAN-030 The Navy does not maintain portable inert gas generators in its inventory. but each has particular firefighting capabilities. The ability to float on top of oil.500:1. medium-expansion [MX] 50:1 to 500:1 and high-expansion [HX] 500:1 to 1. Mechanical foams are either protein. Foams are formed by mixing water. to smother the fire. Surfactants are a group of compounds. Figure 3-7 illustrates the production and action of chemical and mechanical foams. Appendix C of the U. S0300-A6-MAN-050. Mechanical foams are similar.S. The foam generated is a froth of bubbles containing carbon dioxide. Specific types are discussed separately. such as a cargo hold or engine room. particularly those in oil. Some foams require special nozzles to aspirate properly. for example. describes a common commercial inert gas generator. Foam concentrates are often identified by the required percentage of concentrate in the water-concentrate mixture. that produce an aqueous film on the surface of the burning material. jet fuels and other Class B materials. Foams are very effective extinguishing agents for smothering large fires. flow around obstacles and adhere to itself and solid surfaces allows the agent to separate the fuel bed from its oxygen supply. Foams are categorized by the makeup of the concentrate mechanical or chemical method of generation and by their expansion rates. Classification by makeup and production is: • Mechanical foams (sometimes called air foams) are generated by mixing a foam concentrate with water at a specified concentrate to water ratio. threedimensional foam that quickly fills an entire space. Synthetic foam concentrates are detergent-based solutions that foam more rapidly than protein foams. Several varieties of mechanical foams are in service. Because of their wetness. a six-percent concentrate is mixed with water in the ratio six parts concentrate to 94 parts water. The three basic categories of expansion rate are: low. These systems are being phased out and replaced with mechanical systems and are not discussed in this chapter. but the Supervisor of Salvage can arrange for generators.expansion [LX] up to 50:1. foams are effective against Class A fires. detergents and surfactants. High-expansion foams are useful in extinguishing fires in confined or inaccessible areas that can be closed off and flooded with the agent. air and a foammaking concentrate to produce a bubbly solution that is lighter than most oils. Protein foam consists of protein-rich animal and vegetable matter. The water-concentrate mixture is aspirated by the nozzle to blend in air and form the bubbles that make up most of the volume of the mixed foam. Volume 5. Most military and commercial salvors employ low-expansion foam. such as wetting agents and synthetic soaps.

while 3-21 . The lowviscosity film spreads rapidly and evenly over the surface of the fuel and creates a vapor seal.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-7. Production of Foam Concentrates. • Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) or light water is a low-expansion (8:1) synthetic foam made from complex chemical surfactants that produce a thin film of polarized water with low surface tension between the fuel source and the foam blanket. One end of each polarized AFFF molecule bonds to a fuel molecule.

expanding about 8:1 when mixed.or six-percent concentration for water-insoluble hydrocarbons and polar-solvent-type concentrate (called alcohol-resistant concentrate. by most manufacturers). When mixed with water and aerated. The obnoxioussmelling compound is mostly protein-rich animal and vegetable matter. AFFF-water mixtures are adequately aspirated by vari-nozzles and by foam nozzles designed for protein foam. 3-22 . Polar solvents may also deteriorate standard AFFF foam rapidly. Fleet units other than salvage forces are provided with standard six-percent AFFF concentrate. ATC. Most foam concentrates have a shelf life of from five to 20 years at temperatures between 35 degrees Fahrenheit and 120 degrees Fahrenheit. AFFF/ATC applied to a polar solvent first creates a membrane over the fuel that separates the water in the foam blanket from attack by the solvent. Special formulations are required for polar solvent fires because water soluble solvents are not bonded by the oil bonding end of normal AFFF molecules. • Protein foam is the oldest type of foam and has been in the fleet since World War II. Salvage ships and SART teams are supplied with three-percent AFFF concentrate to gain maximum coverage from low storage volumes at low cost. The most common method of generating protein foam is with an assortment of hose line pickup systems. AFFF is applied by hose line pickup systems or from fixed tanks that supply the agent directly to a firemain. limiting reflash. Some manufacturers produce dual-purpose concentrates (AFFF/ATC) that can be applied to water-soluble polar solvent fires when mixed in a six-percent concentration and are effective against hydrocarbon fires when mixed in a three-percent solution. the solution is hydrolyzed. with mineral salts added to reduce withering of the blanket. (2) Restricting the breakdown of the foam by water-soluble liquids. creating a weak acid that mixes with the water to form a frothy foam.S0300-A6-MAN-030 the other end bonds to the water in the mixed foam. Protein foam is an LX foam. These characteristics make AFFF a suitable agent for all Class A and B fires and in combination with other agents. AFFF can be applied in combination with some dry chemicals and halons. Chapter 5 describes some of these devices. ARC or alcohol-type concentrate. Protein foam is no longer found in Navy ships other than the T-ATF Class and SHIPALTS are in progress to convert these ships to AFFF concentrate. The polarized bonding enhances foam performance by: (1) Promoting regeneration of the aqueous film. The blanket then performs in the same manner as standard AFFF. Manufacturers’ and fleet directives for testing and replacement must be followed. (3) Penetrating porous materials with its low surface tension. AFFF is manufactured in two types: standard AFFF in a three.

specifically for sodium fires.S. PKP is likely to allow reflash. foam smothers the fuel and controls reflash. sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and urea potassium bicarbonate. fires extinguished with dry chemicals may reflash if cooling or smothering agents (typically foam) are not applied. Navy ships. but is blended with an insoluble soap that allows it to be employed on water-soluble organic flammable liquids. Both types of dry powder form a crust over the burning material. At fire temperatures.4 Disrupting Agents. but can extinguish fires without assistance. While there are several different chemical powders available. Purple-K-Powder (PKP). They neither smother nor cool the fire. Navy ships. 3-3. but may be used on commercial vessels. PKP acts to control and extinguish Class B fires primarily by disrupting the chain reaction and driving back flames. Instead. Disrupting agents extinguish by acting on a fire's chemical reaction. are available. PKP knocks down the flames. Alone. Its basic attack is twofold. Originally developed to be combined with AFFF foam. Under normal circumstances. Alcohol foams are not found in Navy ships. Dry chemicals are the most common disrupting agents. backup with a hose. While ABC chemical is a good “first aid” treatment. also smothers by separating solid fuels from air and by flashing to steam in the heat of the fire. Multipurpose ABC (Monoammonium phosphate) is a multipurpose dry chemical effective on Class A. ethers and aldehydes. both chiefly graphite.S. 3-23 . for general metals or sodium carbonate. Complete extinguishment may require and should include. smothering the fire. Dry powders smother the metal and have some cooling effects. The ammonium salts interrupt the combustion reaction while the phosphate changes to metaphosphoric acid. in addition to cooling. Dry Powders are formulated specifically for Class D burning metals. it may not completely extinguish a deep-seated fire.1. dry potassium bicarbonate. ketones. the water-soluble liquids would break down ordinary protein foam. Either sodium chloride. such as alcohol. but are common in foreign navy and merchant ships. These agents are not found in U. The graphite cools the fire and creates large amounts of heavy smoke to aid in smothering. Two forms of dry powder. Water. Because dry chemicals do not cool the fuel bed or exclude oxygen. Monammonium phosphate extinguishers are no longer found in U. are combined with the graphite. reel systems or fixed systems in galley exhaust hoods and ranges. the acid becomes a glassy. B and C fires. only the two normally found at sea are discussed. is the most common dry chemical.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Alcohol foam is similar to protein foam. fusible material that covers the fuel source with a fire-retardant coating. Other commonly used dry chemicals include potassium chloride. Dry chemicals normally are delivered to a fire in portable extinguishers. they interrupt the chemical reaction by suspending fine particles or molecules as a temporary screen between the sides of the fire triangle. They are not the same as the dry chemicals discussed later. Disrupters are often combined with secondary agents.

Halons are not effective on Class D metals or materials that generate oxygen. make Halons fast. act by disrupting the reaction of fuel and oxygen. Explosives are a disrupting agent. there is a critical flow rate required for extinguishment. The ability to disrupt the reaction rapidly. Both Halon 1301 and 1211 have the same basic firefighting capabilities they extinguish the fire rapidly. The two most common Halons are Halon 1301 and Halon 1211.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Halogenated extinguishing agents. Halon is effective on all Class A. The difference is in 1211 containing the chlorine atom.1 Critical Flow Rate. three fluorine. B or C fires. Water is applied as a solid or straight stream. are described in Paragraph 3-3. Systems are most often fitted in engine rooms. high-velocity fog or low-velocity fog. Water extinguishes fire by the combined effects of smothering and cooling. are electrically nonconductive and leave no residue. at about 900 degrees Fahrenheit. the water expands its volume more than 1. moderately toxic by-products. Fixed systems aboard naval and commercial vessels are fitted only with 1301. Halon 1301 bromotrifluoromethane is one carbon atom. Water cools most efficiently when converted to steam it takes more than five times as much heat to convert water to steam as it does to heat the same amount of water from 32 degrees Fahrenheit to 212 degrees Fahrenheit. no chlorine and one bromine.2.2 Water. Higher flow rates will also extinguish the fire. B and C fires. The number designations describe the chemical makeup of the Halon molecule. Halon is particularly suited to electronics or other delicate equipment and cargoes since it does not damage components or leave a residue. safe. low-velocity fog or a straight stream. clean agents for most Class A.4. carrying the absorbed heat away from the fire and displacing oxygen. 3-3.700 times. fluorine. with little hazardous effect on personnel. 3-3. flammable storage lockers and electronic and computer spaces. but lower rates will not. with each digit indicating the number of carbon. Controlled explosions have been used successfully in oil field and tank fires to create a vacuum around a flame orifice to remove the oxygen leg of the fire triangle instantly. in that order. Usually. known as Halons. 1211 also produces hydrogen chloride gas that is more toxic than the by-products of 1301. When flashing to steam. How best to ensure that applied water flashes to steam depends on the characteristics of the fire. Portable extinguishers for use in selected vital electronic spaces use Halon 1211. one chlorine and one bromine. For any fire. Fixed systems on some foreign warships and commercial vessels use Halon 1211 (BCF). Halon 1211 bromochlorodifluoromethane is one carbon atom with two fluorine. but its effectiveness on deep-seated Class A fires is limited and a hose backup may be required. Critical flow rate or required application density rate calculations. Both 1301 and 1211 give off hydrogen bromide and hydrogen fluoride. 3-24 . Each form has different advantages and disadvantages and each is more applicable to some fire situations than others. Halon is deployed from fixed systems. chlorine and bromine atoms. For example. regardless of whether the water is applied as high-velocity fog.

improving visibility and providing fresh air to the firefighters. where steam production is high and the steam cannot dissipate rapidly. where water droplets striking hot surfaces (bulkheads.) and passing through the heated atmosphere generate enough steam to smother the fire.). However. fog can sometimes induce an airflow from behind.000 degrees Fahrenheit) in confined spaces.000 degrees higher than at the deck. especially if there are openings through which the steam can escape. Water fog's principal advantage is that it offers protection from heat to the advancing fire party. fixtures. Air entrainment is a serious disadvantage when a fogstream does not reach the fire. etc. Flammable liquid fires extinguished by fog will usually not rekindle as the steam dissipates. Fog is used in indirect attacks. Low-velocity fog is primarily used for indirect attacks and personnel protection. the entrained airflow away from the nozzle creates a low-pressure area at the nozzle that pulls smoke and heat toward the firefighter. as the fire retreats into a smoldering phase. After heavy fog application. unless the fuel contacts a hot surface or source of ignition. Low-velocity fog presents water in a very finely divided form that can absorb heat efficiently. smoke. the extinguishing effect of steam is limited. often in conjunction with high-velocity fog. usually along the overhead. It is usually necessary to apply water or other agents directly to the involved fuels to complete the extinguishment. Reach is limited and low-velocity fog devices (applicators) typically have very low flow rates of about 30 to 50 gallons per minute. Air entrainment can be an advantage or disadvantage. As air replaces escaping steam. because liquids do not retain heat as well as solids. as shown in Figure 3-8. with heat intensity too low to produce steam efficiently. A fog stream directed through an opening into a space with no outlet through which the entrained air can escape will force the fire back towards the opening.2 Water Fog.2. Heat characteristically banks down from the overhead in layers the temperature at the overhead is commonly more than 1. but the air driven ahead of the fog stream does. as humans can tolerate dry area temperatures of 300 degrees Fahrenheit without much difficulty. Fog streams can be used to desmoke or ventilate compartments. combustion gases. Where there is no source of fresh air. The hot embers can rekindle if air is introduced. The air feeds and fans the fire. Fog is most effective against intense fires (overhead temperatures greater Than 1.S0300-A6-MAN-030 3-3. the fog droplets must strike hot surfaces. burning firefighters who are standing instead of crouching or kneeling. Fog entrains far more air than straight or solid streams. To generate large quantities of steam. produce more steam. Fog also upsets the thermal balance in a fire-involved space. Fog streams expose a greater surface area to the fire's heat and consequently. When advancing down a narrow passage or ladderway. hot solid fuels will rekindle and burn intensely within a few minutes if the steam concentration is not maintained. etc. Vigorous clockwise rotation of the nozzle can overcome this effect. increasing its intensity and driving it into uninvolved areas. Flames often shoot out through the tops of doorways. depending on the situation. The layering of heat enables firefighters to enter. the temperature of the now very moist air is about 200 degrees Fahr3-25 . Extinguishment will not usually be complete in solid fuel fires. although some of the water will evaporate as it passes through the hot gases and flames around the fire. however. Flowing water streams entrain surrounding gases and particulates (air.

3-26 . Straight streams can also be used to push burning materials overboard or move them away from sensitive items. will penetrate deeper into the fuel bed than fog streams and can apply the cooling effect of water where it is needed the most. so burning fuel can be reached and extinguished. Moist air transmits heat more effectively than dry air. Thermal Layering Disrupted by Water Fog. The water then falls in large drops. enheit throughout the space. reaching the seat of the fire in a fairly well-divided form. absorbing heat and producing steam. The disruption of thermal balance can drive firefighters out of the space or prohibit their entry. straight streams can be bounced off the overhead or solid bulkheads to reach fires behind obstructions.2. 3-3. lowering the maximum tolerable temperature below 200 degrees.3 Straight Streams. Straight streams are used to break up and scatter solid fuel beds. Solid streams from all-purpose nozzles and straight streams from variable-pattern nozzles have greater reach. An often effective use of straight streams on internal fires is to bounce the stream off the overhead above the fire. There is little evaporation of the solid stream as it passes through the hot gases. The heat balance disruption can be mitigated to some extent by not allowing the fog stream to strike the overhead and upper parts of the bulkhead.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-8. In the same way. so the heat layering in the space is not disrupted.

The selection of agents and equipment to extinguish a fire depend primarily on the types and quantities of equipment and agents available. (3) Solid water stream. (4) AFFF.3 Agent Applicability and Compatibility. salvage firefighters must be able to change their attack to suit the changing situation. In some cases. straight streams should not be applied to liquid fuels because they will scatter the burning fuel without extinguishing it. Procedures vary with the circumstances.1 Applicability and Decision Making. clothing and similar kinds of combustibles: (1) Fixed water sprinkling.S0300-A6-MAN-030 At short range. (2) High-velocity fog. liquid fuel fires can be attacked from a distance by lofting straight streams above the fire to fall as a rain of heavy droplets.3. several basic questions must be answered: • Where is the fire? • What is burning? • What class of fire is the primary target? • Is there more than one type of combustible material? • What is the extent of the fire? • What other combustible materials are located nearby and what special problems do they present? With this information. 3-3. (5) PKP. as well as the class of fire. straight streams can be used to wash shallow spilling or flowing fires overboard. the scene leader or salvage officer selects the agents and methods to fight the fire. multiple-source ship fires. straight streams may scatter solid fuels with such violence that embers and ash clouds are thrown into the faces of the firefighters. In selecting agents for an attack. In most situations. 3-27 . Navy doctrine on priorities for agents to extinguish different classes of fires is delineated below: • Class A fires in woodwork. 3-3. bedding. It may be necessary to combine agents and methods to combat large.

(4) PKP. (2) AFFF (and/or ATC). (3) Solid water stream and high-velocity fog. 3-28 . • Class B fires in paints. (2) AFFF and PKP applied together. • Class A fires in explosives or propellants: (1) Magazine sprinkling or flooding. diesel oil and kerosene: (1) Fixed Halon 1301 or CO2 systems. (5) Water sprinkling systems. (4) PKP. spirits and flammable liquid stores: (1) Fixed CO2 or Halon 1301 systems. • Class B fires in fuel oil. JP-5. (5) High-velocity fog. (3) Installed water sprinkling. (2) AFFF. (6) Portable Halon 1211 extinguishers. (3) AFFF.S0300-A6-MAN-030 (6) CO2 extinguishers. (6) CO2 extinguishers. (7) Water fog. • Class B fires in gasoline: (1) Fixed Halon 1301 or CO2 systems. (7) Halon 1301.

firefighters should understand the characteristics of each. if possible. (7) Portable Halon 1211 extinguishers. (3) PKP. Water: • Solid streams are accurate in reaching the base of the fire. 3-29 .3.S0300-A6-MAN-030 (2) AFFF and PKP applied together. (5) Water sprinkling systems. (2) Halon 1301 or 1211. (3) AFFF. (2) Dry powder extinguishers. (4) PKP. (6) High-velocity fog. 3-3. The firefighting team leader must know the fire and the agents and methods available. (3) High-velocity fog in large quantities except on sodium. In considering the agents to select. all have limitations and side effects.2 Agent Compatibility and Precautions. but may splash or propel fuel into nonburning areas. (4) Sand. • Class D fires in combustible metals: (1) Jettison to the sea. • Class C fires in electrical and electronic equipment after de-energizing affected circuits: (1) Portable CO2 extinguishers or hose reel CO2 systems. It is usually better to conduct a holding battle with available resources until sufficient quantities of compatible agents are on hand than to rush for a quick solution with inadequate tools. All extinguishing agents have preferred application. (4) High-velocity fog.

Personnel exposed to such concentrations suffer dizziness. • Liquid CO2 effectiveness is limited on uncontained fires. • Improperly applied fogs can cause the fire to blow back on the firefighter. CO2 tends to dissipate rapidly into the atmosphere. • Fogs are less accurate. reflash is common. the net result of fog application can be a larger fire. because the reaction between the metal and CO2 produces oxygen. At a minimum. • Outside a confined space. Foams: 3-30 . The entrained air may aid combustion. Carbon dioxide: • CO2 is not effective on most metal fires that generate oxygen. bulkheads and shell plating must be cooled continuously. If the water flow rate is too low to extinguish the fire. the space should not be disturbed for 15 minutes. • Water fogs entrain air that ventilates the space and drives the smoke and flames away from the firefighter. the agent must remain confined. When liquid CO2 is applied. This precaution applies particularly to ships that carry JP-5 and other static accumulator oils in bulk.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Fogs absorb heat more efficiently than solid/straight streams and can protect firefighters and exposures from radiant and convective heat. Magnesium is of special concern. To be effective. unconsciousness and death. Steam: • Fires in large cargo oil tanks should NOT be smothered with steam. • Water fog can disrupt the thermal balance. increasing the chance of explosion. carbon and magnesium oxide to fuel the fire. Large charges of static electricity may be built up when steam is introduced into the tank. Periodic backup applications may be required to maintain the concentration. • CO2 is suffocating in concentrations that extinguish a fire. the surrounding decks. have less reach and are less effective in penetrating dense fuel beds than solid/straight streams. driving firefighters from the space. • As CO2 has little cooling effect and may be disturbed by ventilation of the space. The operator must be within the five-foot effective range of the agent.

Slop over may result in a flowing fire. The basic rules of compatibility are: (1) Never mix different types of foam concentrate in the same equipment. (2) Do not mix different brands of the same type of concentrate in the same equipment. in general. protein foam may be combined with AFFF on the same blaze if they are discharged from different generating systems. • Water may dissociate and add oxygen to a Class D fire. causing spattering or slop over. When foam is scarce. • Foams.5. • When applied to a surface exceeding 212 degrees Fahrenheit. (3) Avoid mixing different batches of the same brand and type of concentrate in bulk storage tanks. • Foams are not effective on cryogenic liquids such as LNG. described in Paragraph 3-2. The precautions for water should be enforced when foams are applied to electrical circuits. Foam applied with a vari-nozzle presents little risk.5. care must be taken to prevent water streams from disturbing or washing the foam blanket away. the water in foam boils with frothing of the blanket. as shown in Figure 3-9. 3-31 . The water in the foam is rapidly frozen and breaks down the blanket. • Foam blankets may be difficult to maintain on steeply inclined surfaces and may be lost if a blanketed liquid overflows its container as a ship lists or trims. creating an expanding emulsion with the liquid. are fully compatible when applied to the fire. The expanding emulsion slops over the sides of tank hatches or out the vents of the tank. Incompatibility may occur if different types or concentrations are mixed in the same system. • Enough foam concentrate must be on hand to cover the fire completely and to replace the blanket as it deteriorates.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Foams contain water that makes them electrically conductive. the fire should be cooled and contained until enough foam is available to complete the job. For instance. • When a foam attack is conducted in conjunction with water cooling. Slop over occurs as the water on top of the flammable liquid boils. Foams are NOT suitable for water-reactive metals. Slop over should not be confused with boil over.

When mixed. • While chemical agents are compatible on a fire. they tend to lump and may clog the extinguisher. Dry chemicals: • The cloud developed in large discharges of dry chemicals can impair visibility and cause breathing difficulty. The coating may damage delicate electrical or electronic equipment and turbine blades. A breathing apparatus should be worn in confined spaces or when large quantities are discharged.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-9. • Dry chemicals often break down foams. • Dry chemicals are not effective on materials that generate oxygen and may cause a violent reaction if applied. The exception to this rule is in the mating of AFFF and PKP. Many chemicals (particularly potassium chloride) are extremely corrosive in the presence of moisture. • The chemicals coat the surface of the material leaving a cleanup problem. mixing should be avoided. they may not be when mixed in the same container. Some chemicals are acid-based while others are alkali. 3-32 . These products were developed as twinned agents and are fully compatible. Slop Over.

one gallon of water will absorb all the heat that 200 cubic feet of air can produce. These two factors lead to the assumption that volume of the fire in cubic feet divided by 200 equals the number of gallons of water required to control the fire. Thus. Seven percent of 535 is 37 btu.4.330 divided by 37 is 252. they may cause dizziness and impair coordination when inhaled in large quantities. absorbs all the heat that is produced by the normal combustion of 252 cubic feet of air. 9. water extinguishes fire chiefly by cooling. leading to a rule of thumb formula: F W V = -------100 3-33 . one gallon of water. • Halons begin to decompose at about 900 degrees Fahrenheit. Assuming that water can be applied so that at least 80 percent of it is vaporized. • Although Halon vapors are not immediately toxic. Most common solid fuels produce about 535 btu when burned completely with one cubic foot of oxygen at atmospheric pressure. prevents reflash. 3-3. approximately seven percent of normal air is oxygen that can combine with fuel in a fire. The vapors given off during decomposition may be hazardous in high concentrations. Breathing apparatus must be worn to enter flooded with Halon. 3-3.. Ideal firefighting water flow rate formulas are based on two facts: • In a direct attack. The fire is extinguished only if the water applied removes heat faster than it is produced.4 Application Density. Application density is applied primarily to water and foam. Repeated exposure to low concentrations is a potential health risk. One gallon of water converted to steam at 212 degrees Fahrenheit absorbs 9. Normal air contains 21-percent oxygen. but open (flaming) combustion is arrested at oxygen levels of less than 14 percent. but more importantly. One gallon of water will produce approximately 240 cubic feet of steam at 212 degrees Fahrenheit and atmospheric pressure.1 Water. one gallon of water applied to a fire will produce approximately 200 cubic feet of steam. Assuming that water can be applied so that more than 83 percent of it is vaporized. i.e. completely vaporized. but there is no corrosive residue. Experiments have shown that best results are obtained when flow rate is sufficient to introduce the required amount of water into the involved area in 30 seconds. Heating the steam above 212 degrees will cause it to expand and occupy greater volume. Application density describes the quantity of extinguishing agent applied and the rate of application.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Halon: • Halon effectiveness is comparable to PKP.330 btu. This effect helps extinguish the fire. • The steam produced by firefighting water dilutes the oxygen content. each 100-degree increase in temperature increasing steam volume by approximately 25 cubic feet per gallon of water.

approximately twice as much heat as commonsolid fuels. At what rate should water be applied to this fire to extinguish it? As a Class B fire requires twice as much water as a Class A fire. it must be applied so quickly that it is not burned off or splashed away before it is effective. 25 feet wide and 12 feet high is involved in a Class A fire. Water that is not converted to steam may collect in inconvenient locations and have to be removed. Enough foam must be applied to blanket the fire completely. the application density rate for water is 2 × 105 or 210 gallons per minute. If water cannot be applied so that it is vaporized effectively.4. more water is required. 3-3. on average. The flow rate given by this rule of thumb is for nearly ideal conditions. 500 F W = ----------------100 FW = 105 gallons per minute Water should be applied to the fire at 105 gallons per minute.S0300-A6-MAN-030 where: Fw = water flow in gallons per minute (gpm) for Class A fires V = volume of the fire in cubic feet (ft3) Petroleum-based liquid fuels produce. For Class B fires. The amount of foam required to extinguish a fire is determined by the surface area of the fire and an application density rate that in turn is determined by the characteristics of the foam and the fuel bed F f = A × ADR 3-34 .2 Foam. (b) The same space is involved in a Class B Fire. the flow rate is twice that for Class A fires. EXAMPLE 3-1 WATER APPLICATION DENSITY RATE (a) A space 35 feet long. At what rate should water be applied to this fire to extinguish it? V F W = -------100 ( 35 ) ( 25 ) ( 12 ) ------------FW = ------------------100 10.

Type II outlets do not deliver foam gently onto the liquid surface but are designed for low foam submergence and surface agitation.16 Methyl and ethyl alcohol.16 ADR gpm/ft 2 0.18 or greater 0. isopropyl ether 0. methyl and ethyl alcohol.10 0. butyl alcohol.24 Installed sprinkler system Machinery space bilges Enclosed tanks or deep pools of hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with narrow range of boiling points greater than 100°F Shallow spills of hydrocarbons or nonpolar-flammable liquids in open areas 0.15 Note: 1.S0300-A6-MAN-030 where: Ff A ADR = foam solution flow in gallons per minute to extinguish a Class B fire = area to be covered in square feet = application density from Table 3-2 Table 3-2. Type I outlets are defined as those that deliver foam gently onto the liquid surface without foam submergence or agitation of the surface. methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Acetone.10 0. ethyl acetate.10 (AFFF) (protein or flouroprotein) (alcohol-resistant concentrate)1 (alcohol-resistant concentrate)1 Gasohols with more than 10% alcohol.16 (AFFF) (protein or flouroprotein) (AFFF) (protein or flouroprotein) (alcohol-resistant concentrate) (alcohol-resistant concentrate) 0. 3-35 .10 0. butyl alcohol.10 0. isopropyl ether 0. Foam Application Density Rates (ADR) Application Method Handline or monitor stream Type of Liquid Machinery space bilges Tanks or deep pools of hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with narrow range of boiling points greater than 100°F Tanks or deep pools of hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with wide range of boiling points Tanks or deep pools of hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with boiling points greater than 100°F Shallow spills of hydrocarbons or nonpolar-flammable liquids in open areas 0. Alcohol-resistant foams require gentle surface application. acrylontrile.16 0. methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Acetone. acrylontrile.08 0. ethyl acetate.20 (after formation of surface heated zone) 0.20 0.

Higher application rates are required for: • Very intense fires. some solvents.). Foam life is increased by minimizing foam submergence and surface agitation. etc.2 ) F = 175 gpm where 0. • Fires attacked with a small number of high-volume foam streams. amines. anhydrides and mixtures of polar solvents in general (typical components of paint thinners. • Flowing fires. Foam application should continue for the run times given in Table 3-3. higher application rates near the hot structure can cool the structure and replace burned-off foam. • Fires screened by obstructions. liquid rocket and torpedo fuels. are particularly foam-destructive. leaving a gap in the vapor seal over the liquid surface. 3-36 .2 is obtained from Table 3-2 as the value appropriate for machinery space bilge fires. • Fires near maximum stream reach. Very high application rates (0. Increasing the application rate will usually decrease the time to extinguish the fire. Certain polar solvents. If the structure cannot be cooled before foam is applied. At what rate should foam be applied to the fire to extinguish it? Ff = ( A ) ( ADR ) F = ( 35 × 25 ) ( 0. The application density rates given in Table 3-2 are minimums. • Three-dimensional fires.S0300-A6-MAN-030 EXAMPLE 3-2 FOAM APPLICATION DENSITY An area of machinery space bilge 25 feet by 35 feet is involved in a Class B fire. • Uncontained fires. such as isopropyl alcohol.3 .5 gpm/ft2) and/or gentle application may be necessary to extinguish fires fueled by foamdestructive liquids. Foam may burn back from hot structure. even to alcohol-resistant foams.0. Decreasing the application rate usually increases the time to extinguish the fire or makes it impossible to do so.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 The stocks of foam concentrate required for a particular fire can be determined with the flow rateand the run time: Vf = Ff × C × t where: Vf = volume of foam concentrate in gallons Ff = foam solution flow C = foam concentration percent expressed as a decimal t = run time in minutes Table 3-3. 2. With properly designed systems. Type I outlets are defined as those that deliver foam gently onto the liquid surface without foam submergence or agitation of the surface. 3-37 . Foam Application Time Application Method Handline or monitor stream Type of Liquid Machinery space bilges Hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with flash points greater than 100°F Hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with flash points less than 100°F Crude petroleum Shallow spills of hydrocarbons or nonpolar-flammable liquids in open areas Polar solvents and other liquids extinguished with alcohol-resistant foams Installed sprinkler system Machinery space bilges Hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with flash points greater than 100°F Hydrocarbons and other nonpolar-flammable liquids with flash points less than 100°F Crude petroleum Shallow spills of hydrocarbons or nonpolar-flammable liquids in open areas Polar solvents and other liquids extinguished with alcohol-resistant foams Notes: 1. Alcohol-resistant foams require gentle surface application. 4 minute discharge will create uniform 6” foam layer. Type II outlets do not deliver foam gently onto the liquid surface but are designed for low foam submergence and surface agitation.62 20 30 30 55 30 55 10 30 55 Type I discharge outlet Type II discharge outlet Type I discharge outlet3 Type II discharge outlet3 Type I discharge outlet Type II discharge outlet Type I discharge outlet Type II discharge outlet Sufficient to establish uniform 6” foam layer over exposed flammable liquids and cost fire involved machinery. variable 50 Minimum Run Time min 1 65 65 15 65 4 . 3.

750 square feet (a) Spilling fire area = L × B ~ approx. The salvage officer estimates that fires cover approximately 250 feet of AOE's length. has taken serious battle damage and is on fire. have extended into boiler and machinery spaces and are being fed by cargo leakage.25 gallons of foam concentrate where ADR is from Table 3-2 and t is from Table 3-3 A reserve of foam should be on hand before attacking the fire. = 100 × 60 = 6. measured from aft and her entire breadth of 107 feet.S0300-A6-MAN-030 EXAMPLE 3-3 FOAM CONCENTRATE REQUIREMENTS A 25-foot by 35-foot tank of crude oil is afire. gasoline and munitions. The size of the reserve will vary with the nature of the fire but should be large enough to: • Allow for locally high application density. Fires have burned long enough to heat a thick surface zone. How much foam concentrate is required to attack this fire if a 6-percent concentration is to be applied? Vf Vf Vf Vf = Ff × C × t = ( A × ADR ) × C × t = ( 35 × 25 × 0. The most serious fires are concentrated in the two aftermost cargo tank groups. • Replenish the foam blanket after the fire is extinguished.000 square feet (b) Total (estimated) fire area = 32. JP-5.06 × 65 = 614. loaded with a mixed cargo of DFM. Ship fire area = L×B = 250 × 107 = 26.18 ) × 0.750 square feet 3-38 . • Allow for the development of unanticipated conditions and errors in estimating the fire. EXAMPLE 3-4 An AOE Class ship.

To be effective. Thus 0. apparatus can be selected to provide the required flow. Unless a sprinkler system is used.760 gallons of concentrate 3-4 FIREFIGHTING HYDRAULICS Once the required flow rate of water or foam has been determined.25 = 8.200 gpm.5 gallons per minute 8.× Contentrate percentage = foam concentrate/minute 100 8. The quantities of gasoline are likely to be small compared to those of JP-5 and DFM foam quantity based on a 60minute application time should give enough foam to apply foam to JP-5/DFM tanks for 50 minutes and to gasoline tanks for 65 minutes. a prudent salvage officer would allow a 25% margin on theoretical ADR. variable for machinery spaces (but generally less than 20 minutes) and 65 minutes for gasoline (flash point < 100 ºF).× 3 = 246 gallons foam concentrate/minute --------100 and Foam concentrate/minute × minutes of firefighting = quantity of concentrate 246 gpm (inducting foam) × 60 minutes = 14. The characteristics of a fire 3-39 .20 × 1. Revised MFR then becomes: 32.750 x 0. the required foam quantity is based on application time. Minimum foam requirement (MFR) for an oil fire of this nature is calculated by multiplying total square area on fire by ADR: Total area on fire × ADR 32.20 = MFR in gallons per minute = 6. application density rate for machinery spaces and deep oil tanks is 0.187. MFR -----------.750 × 0..550 gallons per minute Allowing for loss of foam and difficulties in directing foam into some spaces and tanks. It must have sufficient velocity to overcome gravity and air friction and sufficient volume to penetrate the heat field and reach the burning materials without being vaporized. a fire stream must deliver water or foam into the body of the fire from a safe distance.S0300-A6-MAN-030 From Table 3-2. application time is 50 minutes for DFM or JP-5 (flash point > 100 ºF).200 gpm With a 3% concentrate and an MFR of 8.20 gpm/ ft2.200 ----------------.25 gpm/ft2.25 = 0. the required agent flow is provided by one or more fire streams (the stream of water or foam solution extending from the nozzle to its point of intended use or its projection limit) from nozzles on handlines or monitors. From Table 3-3.

72 = a constant. The volume flow of solid streams depends on nozzle orifice size and nozzle pressure and can be determined from the following formula with reasonable accuracy: ND = 29. Most fog nozzles are designed for a 100 psi operating pressure. including its horizontal and vertical reach. gpm 29. Discharge from fog nozzles depends on design. Nozzle pressure should be 50 psi or greater for handlines and 80 psi or greater for monitors. as well as nozzle pressure. Smooth-bore nozzles are not carried by Navy ships for handline use. straight or fog streams: Solid streams are produced by smooth-bore. adjustment and condition. Fog streams of varying patterns are produced by vari-nozzles set in their fog range. internal use) 1-1/2" vari-nozzle (fixed flow rate. commonly rounded to 30 for field calculations D P = nozzle tip (orifice) diameter. in = nozzle pressure. Fire streams are either solid.S0300-A6-MAN-030 stream. depend on discharge pressure and nozzle design. but may be used on installed or portable monitors. external use) 1-1/2" vari-nozzle (adjustable flow rate) 95 gpm 125 gpm 60/95/125 gpm 3-40 . nonadjustable fog streams are produced by Navy all-purpose nozzles in the fog setting. Straight streams are produced by variable-pattern fog nozzles (vari-nozzles) set to the straightstream position.1 Discharge Rate. psi Straight stream orifice diameter for Navy all-purpose nozzles is 5/8-inch for 1-1/2-inch nozzles and 1-inch for 2-1/2-inch nozzles. but most operate satisfactorily at 80 psi without significant reduction in discharge. tapered nozzles (suicide nozzles) or Navy all-purpose nozzles in the solid stream setting.72 × D × P = 30 × D × P 2 2 where: ND = nozzle discharge. Discharge at 100 psi for Navy fog nozzles are: 1-1/2" vari-nozzle (fixed flow rate. 3-4. applicators and installed sprinkler heads.

Effective vertical and horizontal reach for solid streams can be predicted by the following empirical relationships: NP SH = ------. if nozzle pressure is adequate. Appears to shoot nine-tenths of its water inside a 15-inch circle and three-quarters of it inside a 10-inch circle. ft. Vari-nozzles discharge their rated capacity regardless of whether they are set to fog or straight stream. vertical factor 90 for a 5/8" tip. increased by 5 for each 1/8" increase in tip size The relationships give approximate effective reach in still air and tend to become increasingly conservative for nozzle pressures greater than 100 psi and tip diameters greater than 1-3/4-inch.+ C H 2 S = C V × NP where: NP SH CH SV CV = = = = = = = nozzle pressure. 3-41 . An effective stream is arbitrarily defined as having the following characteristics: Has not lost continuity by breaking into showers of spray. increased by 5 for each 1/8" increase in tip size vertical reach for a stream projected 70 above the horizontal. ft. 3-4. Is stiff enough to attain the height required even though a moderate breeze is blowing. Assisting winds can extend horizontal reach.S0300-A6-MAN-030 2-1/2" vari-nozzle (fixed flow rate) 1-1/2" APN (fog setting) 2-1/2" APN (fog setting) 250 gpm 52 gpm 132 gpm Since the minimum diameter in a fog nozzle is always smaller than the hose diameter. In other words. the nozzle limits discharge.2 Reach. psi horizontal reach for a stream projected 35 above the horizontal. Opposing winds will shorten the reach of horizontal streams and may scatter vertical streams. flow to the nozzle will also be adequate. Effective reach is not total reach. but may also break the stream. as long as the desired discharge is within the capacity of the pump or pumps supplying the hose lay. horizontal factor 21 for a 5/8" tip.

The maximum practical elevation angle for a vertical stream is 70 to 75 degrees. In the absence of air friction. experiments have shown that maximum reach is obtained from streams elevated 30 to 35 degrees above the horizontal. if the nozzle is lower. Hollow straight streams from fog nozzles generally have less reach than an equivalent flow smoothbore nozzle operating from the same monitor or hose. psi friction loss. Distance traveled by a ballistic projectile is directly related to its initial velocity. nozzle pressure is decreased. If the nozzle is higher than the pump. The ability of a nozzle to create an effective fire stream depends on water arriving at the nozzle with sufficient pressure and flow rate. reach at various settings is usually included in the manufacturers data. psi head pressure.3 Pressure Drop. It is very difficult to define the breakover point in terms of precise distance from the nozzle or even within 5 or 10 feet. Nozzle pressure is thus calculated by: NP = SP . The hollow stream has a higher surface area to volume ratio than a solid stream. nozzle pressure is increased. psi . The pressure drop is commonly called friction loss. Differences in height between the nozzle and pump or fire plug also cause differences in pressure. Nozzle pressure is not the same as pump or firemain pressure. Fog patterns have much shorter reach than straight or solid streams because of the greater effect of air friction on the small water droplets. But air friction also increases with velocity and air friction breaks up and scatters the stream.FP ± HP where: NP SP FL HP 3-42 = = = = nozzle pressure. so increasing velocity increases reach. Increasing pressure increases reach to a point. 3-4. Water flowing through hoses. heavier streams generally have greater reach than lighter streams. psi supply pressure. but generally in the form of a heavy rain. air friction acting over a greater area has a greater retarding effect. however. wye-gates and other appliances experiences friction that causes pressure to drop continuously as it moves farther from the pump. that is easily carried away by wind or violent flames. as some horizontal reach is required for the stream to be effectively employed. The velocity of the stream exiting the nozzle is directly related to nozzle pressure. The change in pressure caused by the relative heights of pump and nozzle is called head pressure. where further pressure increase will accelerate stream breakup and shorten reach. There are no relationships for predicting reach of straight streams or fog patterns from fog nozzles. a point of diminishing returns is reached.S0300-A6-MAN-030 The point at which a solid stream becomes “ineffective” is called the breakover point. Because only the outer layer of the stream is exposed to air friction. As nozzle pressure is increased. The exiting water stream can be likened to a series of projectiles. maximum horizontal reach would be obtained with a stream elevation of 45 degrees. Water is thrown farther than the breakover point.

friction loss is doubled. • For constant flow rate. synthetic-jacket hose (recognizable by its vinyl. Friction loss through closed channels. longitudinally ribbed. halving hose diameter increases friction loss 32 times. If hose diameter increases. Lightweight. Since a 100-foot length of 1-1/2-inch double-jacketed firehose has a friction loss of approximately 40 psi. Hose kinks greatly increase flow turbulence because each kink is both a sharp bend and two sudden changes in flow 3-43 . if flow rate is doubled. friction loss is essentially independent of pressure. If pressure is known at a point downstream from the pump (at a gaged manifold. Flow velocity (which determines volume flow rate). rubber-lined hose. There may be as much as 50-percent difference in the friction loss of hoses of similar construction by different manufacturers. such as hose. Doubling hose diameter reduces friction loss to 1/32 of its former value. 3-4. friction loss varies approximately as the square of the flow rate. so flow rate and pressure are related. for example). flow velocity is directly related to volume flow rate for a given diameter hose. friction loss is directly proportional to the length of the flow path. Nozzle pressure determines discharge through solid stream nozzles. Friction loss in hose laid in a snakelike course is 5 to 6 percent greater than when the hose is laid perfectly straight.1 Supply Pressure. doublejacketed. Discharge through fog nozzles is not affected by nozzle pressure.3. determines friction loss. This principle lends itself to the common practice of basing friction loss calculations on standard lengths of hose (usually 100 feet). Friction loss in old hose is typically 50 percent greater than in identical new hose. not pressure.2 Friction Loss. this pressure can be used as supply pressure and pressure drop calculated from that point on to determine nozzle pressure. Navy fire stations and offship firefighting manifolds can be assumed to supply water at 110 psi. friction loss is inversely proportional to the fifth power of flow path diameter. but pressure does not directly affect friction loss.S0300-A6-MAN-030 3-4. Fire main piping on Navy ships is designed to ensure that fire plug pressure is sufficient to provide a 70-psi nozzle pressure through a 100-foot length of hose. • For constant flow path diameter. outer surface) has significantly lower friction loss than the standard. friction loss is increased four times. friction loss is greatly reduced. sudden changes in flow path diameter and changes of direction contribute to flow turbulence. Friction loss increases more rapidly than the flow rate. Internal roughness. • Friction loss is directly related to the internal roughness of the flow path and the number and sharpness of bends in the flow path.3. pipe and firefighting appliances. is governed by five fundamental principles: • If all other factors are held constant. If hose length is doubled. the greater the resistance to flow (friction). Friction increases as flow velocity increases. Supply pressure is normally the pump discharge pressure when working with portable pumps. • For constant velocity flow. The more turbulent the flow.

5 7.3 Friction Loss in Hose. Hose Correction Factor for Friction Loss Formula FL = (2Q2+Q)LC.76 4.09 = 1/11 0. 3-4. from Table 3-4 Table 3-4. protruding gaskets and similar conditions all increase flow turbulence and friction loss. Hose Diameter in.5 1 0.S0300-A6-MAN-030 diameter.38 = 1/2.17 = 1/5. psi flow rate in hundreds of gpm = gpm/100 length of hose in hundreds of feet = length/100 hose diameter coefficient. Friction loss for lightweight.5 0. Improperly designed or damaged appliances.4 = 1/2. 1 1/2” 1 3/4” with 1 1/2” couplings 2” with 1 1/2” couplings 2 1/2” 3” with 2 1/2” couplings 3” 3 1/2” 4” 4 1/2” 5” Correction Factor C 13. rubber-lined fire hose is calculated by: FL = (2Q2 + Q) x L x C where: FL Q L C = = = = friction loss. Friction loss for standard double-jacketed. psi = flow rate in hundreds of gpm = gpm/100 3-44 .6 0.03 = 1/32 Equivalent fractions for the decimal factors are included in Table 3-4 to ease mental calculations. some may find it easier to divide by a whole number or nearly whole number than to multiply by an odd decimal equivalent.05 = 1/20 0.3.8 0. synthetic-jacket hose is calculated by a slightly different formula: FL = Q2 x L x C where: FL Q = friction loss.

such as monitors. the following values can be used: Portable monitor Wye gate. tri-gate 25 psi 15 psi 3-45 . which is directly related to volume flow.5 0. all cause friction loss.2 = 1/5 0. Correction Factor C 24 15. Maximum Efficient Flow Rates for Rubber-lined Hose. Appliances. Hose Diameter in.800 3-4.8 2 0.8 = 1/1. rubber-lined hose. Hose Correction Friction Loss Formula FL = Q2LC. Manufacturers data should be consulted to determine friction loss for appliances in use. Table 3-6.34 = 1/2. as loss depends greatly on internal roughness and flow path. Nominal Hose Diameter in 1 1/2” 1 3/4” with 1 1/2” couplings 2 1/2” 3” 3 1/2” 5” Maximum Efficient Flow gpm 100 135 250 500 750 1. gates and siamese fittings.08 = 1/12. from Table 3-5 Table 3-5.94 0.68=1/1. a maximum practical flow that can be carried without excessive friction loss (greater than 20 psi) can be identified for each hose size. In the absence of better information.5 0.4 Friction Loss in Appliances.S0300-A6-MAN-030 L C = length of hose in hundreds of feet = length/100 = hose diameter coefficient. Table 3-6 gives maximum practical flow rates for some standard sizes of Navy double-jacketed.25 0.05 = 1/20 1 1/2” 1 3/4” with 1 1/2” couplings 2” with 1 1/2” couplings 2 1/2” 3” with 2 1/2” couplings 3” 3 1/2” 4” 4 1/2” 5” 6” As friction loss increases with flow velocity.3.1 = 1/10 0.

There are three ways to overcome friction loss: • Increasing supply pressure.434 = -----. Even when the ability to increase supply pressure exists. 3-46 . After accounting for head pressure and friction loss in appliances. The additives are best introduced by an in-line eductor or metering system on the inlet side of the pump. Navy portable pumps can vary pressure within only a limited range.5 Head Pressure. for a given supply pressure and hose diameter. psi 3-4. ft. No Navy salvage ship has the ability to vary fire pump discharge pressure. Polymer-based additives in very low concentrations create a low-viscosity “slippery water” with friction as much as 50 percent lower than equivalent flow rates with untreated water.5 Overcoming Friction Loss. Relative difference in height or head.3.25 h = h × 0. Fire hose and appliance operating pressures cannot be exceeded most are limited to 250 psi or less. between pump and nozzle is converted to pressure by: h HP = h × 0. there are definite limits to its effectiveness. Viscosityreducing additives are not currently stocked by the Navy for use by afloat forces. Greater friction losses may occur when energizing through a deck manifold or fire station.445 = --------. This effectively limits the firefighters reach from the supply point. = pressure. there is a maximum length of hose that will provide the minimum required nozzle pressure.(seawater) 2.3 where: h HP = vertical difference in elevation between pump and nozzle. Pump capacity decreases as pressure increases. This option has limited application for the Navy salvage firefighter. Commercial or municipal fire boats may have the ability to vary supply pressure.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Clappered siamese 10 psi A friction loss of 15 to 20 percent can be expected when energizing a ship's firemain through her shore connection. but may be available to the salvage firefighter through commercial sources (open purchase). Pumps rated at 150 psi develop only 70 percent of their capacity at 200 psi.(freshwater) 2. • Using a viscosity-reducing water additive. 3-4.

a 3-inch hose with 2-1/2-inch couplings has only about five percent greater loss than a 3-inch hose. A 1-3/4-inch hose with 1-1/2-inch couplings has about 40 percent less friction loss than a 1-1/2-inch hose. but 60 percent less than 2-1/2-inch hose. 3-47 . • Reducing flow rate in all or part of the hose lay. as shown in Figures 3-10A.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-10A. (5) Accepting reduced nozzle pressure in solid stream nozzles. Using a larger hose with the next smaller size couplings greatly reduces friction loss without forcing the use of adapters or seriously affecting mobility. Minimizing Friction Loss. 3-10B and 3-10C. Flow rate is reduced by: (1) Laying parallel hose lines and re-combining the flow through a siamese fitting near the nozzle. (4) Using hose and appliances designed to minimize friction loss and keeping them in good repair. avoiding sharp bends and kinks. (3) Laying hose in as straight a line as possible. For example. (2) Using larger hose (reduced to a size to match the nozzle for the last 50 or 100 feet if necessary).

. Proper ventilation: • Allows firefighters to approach and attack fires in closed spaces and to extinguish the fires quickly. e. Properly executed and timed ventilation can greatly increase firefighting effectiveness.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-10B. • Supplying from a pump or fire plug closer to the nozzle. gases and heat from fireeffected spaces. Ventilation is performed for several reasons.g. accelerate fire spread or cause explosion. 3-5 VENTILATION Fire ventilation is the planned and systematic removal of smoke. 3-48 . while improper ventilation may increase fire intensity. substituting a 1-1/2-inch APN with a 5/8inch solid stream orifice for a 2-1/2-inch APN with its 1-inch orifice. Minimizing Friction Loss. (6) Using smaller solid stream nozzles. It may be necessary to move portable pumps about the ship or relocate assisting vessels to shorten hose lays.

• Controls and limits fire spread. • Properly applied firefighting agents are drawn into the fire by the natural draft. rather than repulsed by expanding and escaping gases. • Prevents explosions of accumulated smoke and gases. The air allows combustion to continue but has several favorable effects: • Visibility is improved. but 3-49 . The sudden loss of heat when a space is ventilated may reduce the fire intensity momentarily. Escaping combustion products are replaced immediately by air. hot gases and flames are drawn away from the firefighters. • Smoke. • Removes life-threatening gases. • Clears the atmosphere of smoke-filled spaces so firefighters can search for fire extension or trapped or injured personnel. but not before. • Toxicity of the atmosphere around the fire is reduced. Minimizing Friction Loss. Fires are ventilated when firefighters are ready to approach and attack a fire. • Heat escapes from the space and is dispersed over a large volume.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 3-10C.

If the deck above the fire is an interior deck. an updraft is created that draws the fire in on itself and limits its spread. The fire may spread into uninvolved areas and flames. Ventilation as a part of direct fire attack takes precedence behind only agent application and boundary establishment. Cutting holes in the hull just below the deck above the fire sometimes ventilates a space well. Smoke and other combustion products that accumulate above and around a fire are flammable and usually are heated to above their flash point. Usually. Openings away from the fire draw the fire through uninvolved areas. preferably directly above the fire. Openings below permit air and firefighters to enter. The first openings must be above the fire. Hose streams applied to ventilation openings often do more harm than good. especially in the case of openings above the fire. Small compartments can serve as smoke ducts. Not all fires should be ventilated. Openings above the fire are created by cutting holes in the deck above or opening scuttles. The fire team must be prepared for a fire larger than estimated and must be prepared to back out and reseal the space. Mechanical ventilation can assist smoke removal or maintain positive pressure outside the smoke duct. horizontal smoke movement requires mechanical ventilation or natural winds. To ventilate a fire is to take a calculated risk.S0300-A6-MAN-030 burning accelerates as air reaches the fire. The hose stream blocks the escape of smoke and gases and/or cools them so they spread laterally instead of rising. smoke must be ducted clear through doors and hatches. heat and combustion products may be forced into the face of the advancing fire party. Openings above the fire ventilate the fire space and permit smoke and gases to escape. the fire often cannot be observed directly until the space is opened. Machinery spaces are ventilated most effectively through the uptakes. The decision to ventilate must consider the effects of ventilation. If the openings are directly above the fire. hatches and ventilation covers. so decisions are based upon estimates of fire size and intensity. the relative advantages and difficulties of direct versus indirect attacks and how the arrangement of the ship affects ventilation and smoke clearance. a backdraft or smoke explosion may occur. passageways may be closed off with smoke curtains. If air is introduced while flammable gases are still trapped. perhaps violently. An aggressive attack must begin as soon as ventilation begins. Fires cannot be ventilated in a haphazard manner. 3-50 .

damage control/firefighter’s 4-1 . This chapter contains only a brief overview and refresher for this equipment and concentrates on the equipment of the salvage firefighter. Rubber boots and an Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA) complete the suit. Publications such as NSTM 555 provide detailed descriptions and instructions for general firefighting equipment. 4-2. The suit consists of a two-piece trouser and coat outfit. 4-2 PERSONAL EQUIPMENT Firefighters’ personal equipment protects them from fire and enables them to work in or near fires. The following paragraphs discuss advantages and disadvantages of Navy protective clothing for firefighting. Proximity firefighting suits give thermal protection to firefighters who must approach large fires closely. The ensemble consists of multilayered firefighter's coveralls. is the best choice for all fire situations. beginning with the clothing that offers the most protection.1. The standard naval firefighting ensemble. the proximity suit has been removed from repair lockers and is limited to flight deck fire teams. The equipment must not only deliver the agent effectively in a marine environment. hood and gloves of ARAMID fabric. is standard fleet-wide issue. This section addresses only the personal equipment that has a function in firefighting. This clothing varies in the degree of protection offered. The choice of clothing must weigh the protection gained against restrictions accepted and consider the threats posed by fire. Salvage firefighters are trained and equipped especially for offship firefighting services. Firefighter’s clothing must protect against radiant heat and hot gases and surfaces. with an aluminized exterior. No one firefighting outfit or ensemble.1 Protective Clothing. Since the introduction of the standard naval firefighting ensemble. loss of mobility and internal heat stress.1 Proximity Firefighting Suits. Combatants and auxiliaries have both installed systems and portable equipment with which the crews fight fires. it must also simultaneously protect the Delivery platform or firefighting team and be simple and reliable. enabling them to work close to the fire. cool and extinguish a shipboard fire. The suit is worn most often during rescue of personnel from crashed aircraft. the best available protection from external heat and flames. 4-2.2 Standard Naval Firefighting Ensemble. anti-flash hood. The outfits that give the most protection usually have some restrictions that limit their utility. there is a range of personal firefighting equipment. The choice of clothing is dictated by the situation and must be made by firefighters and team leaders on-scene. rather than by set doctrine. Just as there is a wide range of fire types and conditions.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CHAPTER 4 FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT 4-1 INTRODUCTION Firefighting equipment must deliver extinguishing agents in sufficient quantity with enough pressure to contain.1. 4-2.

also slows the escape of the wearers’ body heat. particularly those performing strenuous work. a lightly protected firefighter would absorb heat from his surroundings faster than his body heat is dissipated. multilayered clothing should be worn as alternative protection.3 Lightweight Firefighting Outfit. Additionally. fireman’s gloves and boots and an OBA. Standard shipboard battle dress is the minimum protection worn for firefighting. rain gear.1. as an effective heat barrier. WARNING Corfam shoes and polyester clothing are not appropriate for any form of battle dress. Like the lightweight firefighting outfit. such as machinery space fires. the salvage firefighting outfit affords more mobility and less internal heat buildup than the standard ensemble. 4-2 . fully involved internal spaces and areas directly exposed to the radiant heat of large external fires.6 Standard Shipboard Battle Dress. 4-2. flight deck jerseys and welding clothing.1. 4-2. The salvage firefighting outfit. 4-2. nozzlemen. The outfit consists of fire-retardant engineering coveralls. The ensemble is worn by the principal members of firefighting teams: the scene leader. Salvage firefighters should don the standard ensemble coveralls before attacking intense fires.4 Alternative Clothing. The coverall. with the addition of long Nomex or Polyaramid (PBI®. firefighters can spray water under the tunic to enhance cooling. is recommended for members of firefighting teams who do not enter high-heat environments. boots and gloves. The flexibility of the outfit allows easy personnel transfer from ships and aircraft and better survivability for personnel who may fall overboard. The outfit includes a personal flotation device. The protective coverall provides an extremely effective heat barrier and is recommended for use in high-heat environments. in low-heat environments. decreases his stay time and increases internal heat stress. NSTM 077 gives procedures for employment of the firefighting ensemble and discusses heat stress considerations. radio and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). A lightweight firefighting outfit.1. The lightweight outfit protects personnel without inducing the internal heat buildup of the standard ensemble. the heavy coverall limits the wearer’s ability to stay cool.1.S0300-A6-MAN-030 helmet. This is of no consequence in high heat environments. Kevlar®) underwear for added protection. attack team leaders. Navy (Type X) rain gear worn over coveralls or standard battle dress gives fair radiant heat protection and is an excellent vapor barrier. However. When the naval standard firefighter’s ensemble or lightweight firefighting outfits are not available or appropriate. anti-flash hood. is a variation of the lightweight firefighting outfit. these materials melt and stick to the skin. Choices available to the fleet include fire-retardant or cotton coveralls. shown in Figure 4-2. hosemen and accessmen. 4-2. as shown in Figure 4-1. cold weather gear. firefighter’s helmet and may include an OBA.5 Salvage Firefighting Outfit. When exposed to flame or high temperature. Firefighters waiting to enter the fire area should don the coveralls only to the waist (tying the arms around the waist) to prevent premature heat stress. Battle dress consists of: • Long-sleeve shirts and full-length trousers.

Lightweight Firefighting Outfit.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-1. 4-3 .

Salvage Firefighting Outfits. 4-4 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-2.

dust. • Open-circuit compressed air breathing apparatus supplying air from back-mounted high pressure cylinders or • Closed-circuit oxygen rebreathers supplying pure oxygen from high-pressure cylinders that is recirculated through a carbon dioxide scrubbing system. Each type of breathing apparatus has distinct advantages and disadvantages for shipboard firefighting and damage control work. • Anti-flash hood and gloves.2 Breathing Apparatus. • CBR mask. heavy work load. 4-2. The safe setting for OBA timers is 30 minutes. 4-5 . such as firefighting. The OBA has several disadvantages for firefighting: • The duration of canisters depends upon the wearer’s activity. A stressful. • Safety shoes. There are three basic types of SCBAs: • Closed-circuit oxygen breathing apparatus supplying pure oxygen generated by chemical reaction. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show firefighters wearing typical examples of each type of breathing apparatus. 4-2. • Helmet. trousers tucked into socks. fire or an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. limits safe oxygen production time to about 30 minutes.1 Oxygen Breathing Apparatus. The duration of the canister varies with the activity and breathing habits of the wearer.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Sleeves and collars buttoned. the canisters are inert and have no special storage requirements. A removable canister contains chemicals that are activated by the discharge of CO2 and moisture in the breath. The OBA is a self-contained oxygen generation system that allows the wearer to breathe in compartments. The Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA) is the standard firefighting breathing apparatus used throughout the Navy.2. Firefighters require SCBAs to provide them a respirable atmosphere (air or oxygen). The primary advantages of the OBA are its compactness and the close body fit that allows wearers to pass through scuttles and other tight areas. Prior to activation. the canister generates enough oxygen for comfortable breathing for up to 45 minutes. When the wearer has a light work load. • Lifejacket. voids or tanks that contain smoke. producing oxygen for respiration. Fires deplete oxygen from the atmosphere and produce noxious and toxic fumes.

There are also combination respirators that include an SCBA and a Type C positive-pressure or continuous-flow airline. • Quick-charging of air bottles from diving air banks or portable compressors during firefighting operations. the canister creates heat. Typical endurance with standard air bottles is 30 to 45 minutes. The SCBA is a convenient source of clean. The positive pressure feature keeps air pressure slightly higher than ambient pressure. firefighting while holding the hose at arm’s length is awkward and fatiguing. in this manual and most usage.2. depending on work level. depending on their individual demand. • Firefighters cannot cradle firehoses close to their bodies without deflating the breathing bags. marine firefighters and foreign navies because of their advantages: • Ease of donning. • Air bottles can be changed in contaminated atmospheres. similar in appearance and operation to a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). While the OBA is a self-contained breathing apparatus. if leaks develop. 4-2. often distracting the wearer. SCBA refers specifically to compressed air breathing devices. air will flow out and toxic gases or smoke will not be drawn into the mask. commercial vessels. • Canisters must be changed outside the work area. long-duration fire. • During oxygen generation. • OBAs do not maintain positive pressure within the face mask—toxic gases can be drawn into the mask through small leaks in the seal or mask. cool fresh air.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • A ship’s allowance may not have enough canisters needed for a large. • Inadvertent activation of the breathing bag relief valve deflates the bag. SCBAs find widespread use with shore-based fire departments. • Some SCBAs are equipped with “buddy breathing” or rescue connections. • No heat-generating reaction to restrict use in flammable atmospheres.2 Self-contained Breathing Apparatus. • Spent canisters are hazardous waste. 4-6 . Wearers are supplied air at different rates. so that two masks can be rigged to one bottle. The most common SCBA is the positive-pressure demand-type that provides air to the wearer through a regulator. The OBA should not be worn in atmospheres containing flammable or combustible gases.

3 Communications. The chemical scrubber should be refilled when the oxygen bottle is recharged or changed. In the typical closed-circuit oxygen rebreather. NSTM 555 (Rev. As a consequence. oxygen is supplied by a small high-pressure bottle. wireless communications are proving more effective.2.3 Oxygen Rebreathers. Some foreign navies have adopted elongated scuttles to accommodate personnel wearing SCBAs. A demand regulator maintains oxygen pressure at slightly more than ambient pressure. very compact packages can give long endurance. Normally. The system is compatible with the WIFCOM wireless communications system on combatants.S0300-A6-MAN-030 The principle disadvantage of compressed air breathing apparatus is the requirement for extensive compressed air storage or portable air compressors. However. salvage firefighters have wireless VHF or UHF communications built into their firefighters’ helmet. While SCBAs are not a standard item in fleet repair lockers. Lower profile (smaller diameter) bottles can be used with most SCBAs. The firefighting equipment found in all Navy repair lockers is standardized. One manufacturer provides units with breathing endurances of 45. 4-3 FLEET FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Combatant ships and auxiliaries carry a wide variety of fixed and portable equipment to fight fires of limited size and duration. especially in emergencies when wire-dependent communications can be disrupted and messenger access denied. Salvage firefighters may be outfitted with SCBAs.3. Fixed systems are specific to the needs and designs of particular classes of vessel. 5/88) provides detailed information 4-7 .2. Bulk air storage cylinders and compressors must be tested to the same standards and at the same frequency as diving air systems. some are found aboard ships. The wearer’s exhaled breath is routed through a scrubber where sodasorb or a similar chemical absorbs carbon dioxide. the backpack must be removed to pass through the Navy standard 18-inch-diameter scuttle. The amount of equipment depends on the size and specific needs of each ship. The radio has a suspended boom microphone for hands-free communications. Scrubber chemical canisters or cartridges are typically sized to last as long as the oxygen Cylinder. Information may be transmitted directly from scene leaders to repair lockers. but endurance is severely limited by the reduced air volume. 4-2. between attack teams or between ships. SCBAs are bulkier than either OBAs or the low-profile oxygen rebreathers described in Paragraph 4-2. 60 and 240 minutes. Wireless communications save valuable time and eliminate the need for messengers that may be better employed as team members. 4-2. Existing firefighting communications depend primarily on sound-powered phone circuits within the ship and verbal communication between firefighters at the scene. Those ships armed with Mk-46 torpedoes have SCBAs near the torpedo magazine because of the hazardous nature of the torpedo propellent (OTTO Fuel). Communications are vital to the success of firefighting. Because the exhaled breath is not exhausted and the demand regulator permits oxygen flow from the cylinder only as required to maintain pressure within the mask and breathing hoses. Firefighting equipment is itemized in the ship's Allowance Equipage List (AEL). Portable VHF communications are very effective for salvage firefighting. oxygen usage is only enough to match the wearer’s metabolic oxygen consumption.

Hoses and Accessories. The pumps are normally centrifugal and may be driven by steam turbines. connecting fittings.—to direct water from the firemain to the fire. 4-8 . nozzles.S0300-A6-MAN-030 on standard fleet firefighting equipment and its maintenance and operation. The equipment at each station is sized for the hose. Typical Fire Station.1 Fire Pumps. Navy ships. Figure 4-3. Figure 4-3 shows a standard fire station. Spreading the pumps out enables firemain flow and pressure to be maintained if some pumps are destroyed or inaccessible or if firemain sections are taken out of service. Fire stations are outlets from the firemain. etc. The principal firefighting tools at fire stations are fire hoses. This section provides an overview of some standard items found in all U. fire pumps are located in maIn or auxiliary machinery spaces and in other spaces throughout the ship. electric motors or diesel engines. 4-3.S. 4-3. U. All fire stations on frigates and smaller ships are equipped with 1-1/2-inch hose.S. Usually.2 Fire Stations. Fire pumps provide seawater to the firemain in quantities tailored to the firemain capacity and the mission of the ship. Navy ships are equipped with two sizes of fire hose for own ship firefighting—1-1/2-inch and 2-1/2-inch. located throughout the ship and fitted with accessories—hoses. larger vessels have 2-1/2-inch hose at weather deck stations and 1-1/2-inch hose at interior stations.

10. producing a lower quality. as illustrated in Figure 4-4: a trigger-operated nozzle for 1-1/2inch hoses and a bail-operated version for both 1-1/2. high-velocity fog stream for self-protection. • A straight stream that provides a long reach. 1-1/2-inch and 2-1/2-inch nozzles and various size applicators are held in repair lockers. • Fire stations serving 3-inch and larger guns are equipped with an appropriately sized APN and applicator for hot gun cooling. almost radial. piercing applicators can be driven through sheet metal and light plate with mauls or pneumatic hammers. The APN can deliver AFFF foam in the fog position but does not aspirate the solution as well as the vari-nozzle.and 2-1/2-inch hoses. The vari-nozzle can be adjusted to deliver three basic types of water or foam streams: • A wide. Certain fire stations are equipped with an applicator and APN in addition to the vari-nozzle on the hose: • Fire stations serving galleys are equipped with a 1-1/2-inch APN and a 4.3 Nozzles and Low-Velocity Fog Applicators. Each size is for different parts of the ship. The 4-foot model is for interior spaces.S0300-A6-MAN-030 4-3.2 Navy All-Purpose Nozzles and Applicators. The 4. the 10-foot model is for weather decks on frigates and smaller ships and the 12-foot applicator is for weather decks on ships larger than frigates and flight deck firefighting on all ships. depending on the position of the firefighter-controlled bail. Standard fire stations are equipped with variable-pattern fog nozzles or vari-nozzles. Standard fire stations are no longer equipped with all-purpose nozzles or applicators. All provide a wide. straight.1 The Vari-Nozzle. Applicators are useful for applying water fog around corners and through small openings and for projecting wide fog patterns. Firefighting nozzles are sized to fit the hose and shape the water stream for delivery from the hose to the fire. The Navy all-purpose nozzle (APN) can deliver either high-velocity fog or a solid stream. There are three sizes of low-velocity fog applicators—4-.and 10-foot applicators mate with the 1 1/2-inch APN.or 10-foot applicator for fighting deep-fat fryer fires. There are two types of vari-nozzle. • Fire stations serving ASROC launchers are equipped with an appropriately sized APN and piercing applicator. fine water spray to cool fires and protect personnel. quick-acting Marine strainers are not required at fire stations using vari-nozzles. less expanded foam. Figure 4-5 shows the possible combinations. 4-9 . Applicators supplement some types of nozzles by extending their reach and converting the solid water stream into low-velocity fog. 4-3. The APN mates with an applicator to deliver low-velocity fog. • Fog cones of various widths to optimize coverage or.and 12-foot. 4-3. Specially designed.3. 12-foot applicators mate with the 2-1/2-inch APN. Because of the varinozzle’s self-flushing feature.3.

4-10 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-4. Vari-Nozzle.

4-3. Navy All-Purpose Nozzles and Low-Velocity Water Fog Applicator Combinations.4. shown in Figure 4-6. The in-line foam eductor. is a venturioperated unit with an attached foam pickup tube.1 The In-line Foam Eductor. Water from the firemain feeds the unit and creates a suction in the tube that draws foam concentrate from a portable container.4 Portable In-line Eductors and Water Motor Proportioners. Two in-line 4-11 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-5. In-line eductors and proportioners meter foam and water for application to fires. 4-3.

In-Line Foam Eductor. 4-12 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-6.

2 The FP-180 Water Motor Foam Proportioner. The FP-180 can meter protein foam but must be cleaned thoroughly afterwards to ensure continued proper operation.and 12-percent foam solution. Portable pumps provide firefighting water and dewatering capabilities to augment installed equipment. but its primary fuel is JP-5. nozzles and in-line eductors to provide water or foam to a fire. The in-line eductor is replacing the FP-180 water motor foam proportioner. 4-3. Figures 4-9A and 4-9B provide details and specifications for the P-250 (Mod 1 and Mod 2) pumps. Continuous operation requires about five gallons of AFFF concentrate per minute for each 100 gallons of water. 6. the pump can operate on gasoline. positive-displacement pump that injects a metered solution of foam into the water stream by attached pickup tubes. The P-250 (Mod 1 and Mod 2) pumps can be fitted with hydraulic power modules that can power electrical generators and submersible hydraulic pumps.5 Emergency Portable Fire Pumps. Water Motor Foam Proportioner. All models are self-contained. The P-250 (Mod 1) is the fleet standard. 3-. enginedriven. The designed solution is six-percent AFFF at pressures from 75 to 175 psi. the P-250 (Mod 2) is a recent development and some P-250 and PE-250 models are still in service. Figure 4-8 shows several hookup combinations that are possible with P-250 pumps with tri-gates. To maintain a six-percent solution. Several portable pumps are part of ships' allowances. The P-250 (Mod 2) is essentially the same as the P-250 (Mod 1).4. The FP-180. All other models are fueled with gasoline.S0300-A6-MAN-030 eductors models are in service: a fixed-orifice model set for a 6-percent foam solution and a dialvalve selector unit that meters 1-. Figure 4-7. illustrated in Figure 4-7. centrifugal pumps that provide 250 gpm at 100 to 125 psi. inlet pressure must be 95 to 100 psi. 4-3. 4-13 . is a water-driven. In an emergency.

4-14 . P-250 Firefighting Arrangement.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-8.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-9A. P-250 (MOD 1) Pump Unit. 4-15 .

4-16 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-9B. P-250 (MOD 2) Pump Unit.

The 500-gpm water-turbine pumps are designed for operation from portable pumps or the ship’s firemain and like eductors. hydraulic pumps can be used to pump flammable liquids or water contaminated with flammable liquids. engine-driven pumps. including the P-250 pumps and the portable firefighting module described in Paragraph 4-4.3. Eductors allow the passage of small particles of debris and rags and may be placed in a compartment and operated unattended while firefighting efforts continue.and 800-gpm pumps are designed to operate from the P-250 (Mod 1 and Mod 2) hydraulic power module.4. Firefighting operations introduce large volumes of water into the casualty. Eductors are operated from portable pumps or the ship’s firemain and are particularly suited for dewatering compartments that are contaminated with oils or other liquids that may not be pumped by other means. floodwater must be removed from the vessel in coordination with firefighting. Numerous portable tools are available for this purpose: • The P-250 series or other portable.6 Portable Dewatering Equipment. 4-17 . The pumps should be operated totally submerged to avoid igniting flammable vapors. The P-250 (Mod 1 and Mod 2) pumps use an oil meter system. SARTs and R&A teams may be equipped with different model pomposity the casualty. described in Paragraph 4-4. • Portable S-type and Peri-jet eductors. Fuel cans should be marked for the applicable pump model and fuel mix. • Portable electric submersible pumps. These 250. oil is mixed with the fuel in the fuel can for the P-250 and PE-250 pumps. The 2-1/2inch discharge (1-1/2-inch supply) eductor can operate from water sources that provide 44-gpm flow at 50 psi or greater. Four-inch discharge (2-1/2-inch supply) eductors can operate from water sources that provide 200-gpm flow at 60 psi or greater. Fuel to oil ratios are different for each pump model—using the wrong ratio or using fuel without oil on P-250 or PE-250 pumps can cause failure in a short time. Although electric submersible pumps are manufactured to pump flammable liquids safely. • Hydraulic submersible pumps. 4-3. shown in Figures 4-10A and 4-10B. Because they are not spark-producing. they may loose their explosion proof rating if damaged or overhauled. The 2-1/2-inch pump moves 140 gpm at a 70-foot discharge head and can operate in tandem for greater heads. Excess water in the hull adversely affects the ship’s buoyancy and stability. are particularly suited for dewatering compartments that are contaminated with oils. To maintain buoyancy and stability.S0300-A6-MAN-030 All P-250 pumps are powered by two-cycle engines that require lubricating oil in their fuel. Electric submersible pumps are used primarily in inaccessible compartments without installed pumping systems. to preclude inadvertent engine breakdown. Large-capacity pumps driven by hydraulic power units. are carried aboard salvage ships and deployed with SARTs. • Water-turbine pumps. Salvage ships also carry 1-1/2-inch and 4-inch electric submersible pumps.

The 250-gpm hydraulic submersible pump driven by the P-250 (Mod 1 and Mod 2) hydraulic power module is specifically designed to feed the P-250 pump and allow it to operate with a suction head of up to 70 feet. 4-18 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-10A. Eductors. The discharge of portable submersible pumps and eductors may be led to the suction of portable centrifugal pumps to provide a positive suction head when the suction head is more than 20 feet.

portable blowers generate air flow to remove smoke. The most common portable blower is the electrically driven “Red Devil” shown in Figure 4-11. The Red Devil has a rated capacity of 500 cfm.7 Desmoking.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-10B. explosive fumes. noxious atmospheres and other gaseous combustion products from the interior of the ship and supplement installed ventilation systems. 4-3. Eductor Operations. Usually. 4-19 . but the explosion-proof quality of the motor may be compromised during overhaul. Portable electric blowers have explosion-proof motors.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-11. water-turbine-driven blower. total air flow may range from much less than the blower-rated capacity to more than twice the rated capacity. At 100 psi and 60 gpm. The air-driven blower is the preferred unit for hazardous atmospheres. capacity may be as high as 5. 4-20 . As an alternative to portable blowers. capable of operating from a ship’s firemain or portable pump.000 cfm. fog nozzles can move air and desmoke spaces. Red Devil Electric Blower. Placement of portable blowers greatly influences the quantity of air and smoke that can be moved. a 2 1/2-inch fog nozzle can move 30. a 1 1/2-inch nozzle moves about 20. The Ramfan is a compact. Motors not re-certified as explosion-proof after overhaul should not be operated in atmospheres that may be explosive. Compressed air at 80 psi drives the air turbine-driven blower shown in Figure 4-12 to move 750 cfm of air. As shown in Figure 4-13. Depending on the model.000 cfm through a 20-square-foot opening. This type of blower finds application where electricity or compressed air blowers are unavailable or unsafe—such as in areas subject to flammable gas concentrations. The amount of air moved and smoke dissipated depends on the size of the opening.000 cfm through a 30-square-foot opening.

Air-Turbine-Driven Blower. 4-21 . Portable Blower Use. Figure 4-13.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-12.

The fitting also permits offship firefighting equipment to connect to any vessel’s firemain. shown in Figure 4-15.8 Naval Firefighter’s Thermal Imager. The unit may be purchased through the stock system or manufactured on board. indicating hot spots during overhaul and locating injured personnel.S0300-A6-MAN-030 4-3. Bolt slots on the flange connect to different bolt patterns.9 International Shore Connection. 4-3. it is a suitable firefighting connection for assisting both naval and commercial vessels. locating the seat of a fire. Figure 4-14. For the salvage ship. All Navy ships and all commercial vessels are required to carry this device. The Naval Firefighter’s Thermal Imager (NFTI). or foreign port. reduces the effectiveness of the unit until it is cleaned or cooled. is a camera-like device that allows the operator to see differences in temperature shown by infrared radiation. The NFTI responds to temperature differences as small as four degrees Fahrenheit through smoke and light steam. allows charging of the firemain from shore in any U. Naval Firefighter’s Thermal Imager.S. The device assists in investigating fires. The NFTI cannot “see” through glass. shown in Figure 4-14. The international shore connection. Prolonged exposure to excessive heat or water or dirt on the lens. 4-22 .

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-15. International Shore Connection. 4-23 .

also shown in Figure 4-17.2. 4-4.000-gpm electric fire pumps and one 2. vary in location and arrangement with ship classes. The ATS-1 Class has three 1. Delivery systems include high-capacity pumps. Offship manifolds or Christmas trees. is being replaced in all ships by the single-waterway monitor.1 Monitors. The usual configuration for offship manifolds is a 4. This section discusses the special equipment available to salvage ships and SARTs for offship firefighting. These monitors can be placed at the site on the salvage ship or on the casualty to permit the most effective use of their water streams. All classes of salvage ships have fixed fire monitors. 4-4. monitors and offship firefighting manifolds. shown in Figure 4-18.1 Fixed Fire Pumps. as shown in Figure 4-20. This and other equipment upgrades. will increase monitor throw to 250 feet or greater with 1. The air-aspirated monitor shown in Figure 4-19 is found only on the T-ATF-166 Class. The ARS-50 Class can pump 4.to 6-inch line with four or more 2-1/2-inch angle valves.S0300-A6-MAN-030 4-4 OFFSHIP FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT In addition to standard firefighting equipment. 2 1/2-inch hoses may be rigged or wye-gates can be installed for 1-1/2-inch lines. electrically driven by a main propulsion generator with two 150-gpm electric fire and flushing pumps. In addition to large-capacity pumping systems. Portable fire monitors are supplied from on-deck connections to the ship’s firemain or from portable pumps.2 Offship Firefighting Manifolds. The systems shown are representative of the systems found in salvage ships. From each angle valve. The ARS-38 and ATF-76 Classes have two 2. The water may be delivered as a solid stream for cooling a specific area or as a high-velocity fog that both cools the fire area and screens the salvage ship from the heat of the fire.2 Offship Delivery Capability.000 gpm at pressures up to 150 psi. The ARS-50 Class can furnish pre-mixed AFFF foam directly to the forward and aft offship manifolds.000-gpm salvage and fire pumps. they must be secured so the reaction from the nozzle does not upset them. shown in Figure 4-17. Specially trained firefighting teams of salvors augment casualties’ damage control parties. Those ships that still have the dual-waterway monitor are equipped with the Fog-Master nozzle. Wherever the monitors are placed.000-gpm flow on all Navy salvage ships.500 gpm at 150 psi with four 1. 4-4. Fixed fire pumps range in output from 150 to 2.000-gpm electric firefighting and tunneling pumps and two 250-gpm fire and flushing pumps. salvage ships have one or more on-deck valve manifolds. This monitor will also be replaced by the single-waterway type. Monitors allow the salvage ship to project large amounts of water or foam on the exterior of the casualty. salvage ships have specialized systems to deliver water and foam to a fire on the casualty. Figures 4-16A and 4-16B show monitor and firefighting manifold locations for Navy salvage ships. The T-ATF-166 Class has two 1. To deliver water to hoses or portable equipment for offship firefighting. salvage ships maintain an inventory of fixed and portable equipment specifically designed for offship firefighting.500-gpm diesel-driven pumps. The forward and aft offship manifolds are fitted with two 2-1/2-inch 4-24 .2. Some commercial firefighting equipment proven effective in the field is also discussed. 4-4. Salvage ships and units are outfitted with portable diesel pumps either specifically for or adaptable to firefighting. At this writing. the dual-waterway monitor.000-gpm diesel unit.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-16A. Salvage Ship Offship Firefighting Systems. 4-25 .

4-26 . Salvage Ship Offship Firefighting Systems.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-16B.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-17. Dual-Waterway Monitor and Fog-Master Nozzle. 4-27 .

4-28 . Single-Waterway Monitor.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-18.

4-29 . Air-Aspired Monitor.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-19.

described in Paragraph 4-4. 4-30 .3 Hydraulic Power Units and Pumps. Volume 2. is much more effective and efficient. Operating salvage pumps as firefighting pumps is a field improvisation—the pumps are not efficient firefighting units.8. while the midships manifolds are fitted with four 2-1/2-inch valves. Offship Manifold and Portable Equipment. The firefighting fitting can be put on the 6-inch pump discharge or on the triple 6-inch discharge fitting for 10-inch salvage pumps described in Paragraph 5-2. 4-4. The pump moves water at 700 gpm with low head pressure when driven by a Model 2 HPU. The Model delivers a hydraulic flow of 15 gpm at 2. diesel-powered pumps that provide high-pressure hydraulic fluid flow. U.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-20.500 psi from each of two output ports. With in-line eductors. and one 3-1/2-inch valve.100 gpm. S0300-A6-MAN-020.2. Figure 4-21 shows a connection that can be made up in the field for attaching four 2-1/2inch fire hoses to a 6-inch connection. The portable firefighting module.2. 4-4. The 4-inch pump is primarily used for dewatering compartments.S.3 Portable Diesel Pumps.and ten- inch salvage pumps may be rigged for firefighting in an emergency or when no other pumps are on hand. Six. skid-mounted. Salvage ships carry an assortment of salvage pumps.000 psi and powers a 4-inch submersible pump. The Model 6 HPU can drive two 4-inch pumps simultaneously. This flow is used to operate hydraulic submersible pumps that boost suction pressure and dewater spaces.3. 4-4. individual hoses or monitors may direct foam to one area while other lines supply water nearby. Both the Model 2 and Model 6 Hydraulic Power Units (HPU) are portable.1 Four-inch Hydraulic Submersible Pump. Navy Salvage Manual. The Model 6 develops 25 gpm at 2. each pumping 1. The Model 6 powers two 4-inch or one 6-inch submersible pump.4.

platforms of opportunity or shore-based warehouses. control stability and trim and offload petroleum products from stricken tankers. It may dewater compartments. NAVSEA has developed a portable firefighting pump module modeled after commercial fire pumps.3. Power for the pump is provided by the Model 6 HPU. • Monitors. Navy Emergency Ship Salvage System Catalog. The portable firefighting module consists of: • A diesel-driven pumping unit (rated 3.2 Six-inch Hydraulic Submersible Pump. 4-4. NAVSEA 0994-LP-017-3010. Volume 2. Navy Ship Salvage Manual.000 gpm at 175 psi) with a suction lift of 20 feet and a total weight of about 7.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-21. skidmounted. The six-inch pump is a high-capacity unit for pumping water or petroleum products. • A foam proportioning system. illustrated in Figure 4-22.000 pounds. firefighting package ready for deployment to a casualty from salvage ships. hose fittings. tools and adapters. 4-31 . U.4 Navy Portable Firefighting Pump Module.S. hoses. The pump has a rated output of 1. Firefighting Connection for Salvage Pumps. S0300-A6-MAN-020. Volume 5. Details and specifications for hydraulic power units and submersible pumps are found in Appendix B. and the U.S. U. Navy Ship Salvage Manual.S. 4-4.800 gpm with a 40-foot discharge head. may be set up as an independent system or tied into a salvage ship’s offship firefighting manifold. Appendix C. • Nozzles. The module. The module is a complete. • Built-in fuel storage. S0300-A6-MAN-050.

The complete module is packaged for air transport and helicopter slinging.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-22.5 Hydraulic Submersible Firefighting Pumps. The pump is driven by the Model 6 HPU. • Spare parts. reducing the length of the hose lay and attendant friction loss. 4-4. Navy Portable Firefighting Pump System. It was developed to give SART teams the ability to operate portable fire pumps from ships with freeboards greater than the effective suction lift of diesel or P-250 pumps (15-20 feet) and to increase the firefighting capacity of salvage ships equipped with installed or portable HPUs. The 6-inch hydraulic submersible pump can be rigged to the firefighting module to increase suction lift. As the pump and HPU need not be co-located. The 4-inch discharge hydraulic submersible pump provides approximately 450 gpm of firefighting water at 125 psi. the pump can be placed near the fire front. • Personnel protective devices and clothing. 4-32 .

• A single 6-inch-diameter. Engines normally are started hydraulically and are safe for operation in and around hazardous areas. Commercial fire pumps vary in design.000 to 2.S0300-A6-MAN-030 4-4. hand-trained and elevated monitor is mounted on top of the pump and engine frame. nonself-priming pump with a rated capacity between 2. developing about 500 bhp at 2. These pumps are: • Deployable in commercial jet aircraft and light enough for underslung transport by helicopter. In addition to the Navy portable firefighting module described in Paragraph 4-4.6.000 gpm with a discharge head of approximately 173 psi. • Foam-capable with one or two high-powered monitors mounted on the package frame. the suction manifold connects to five 4-inch suction hoses. 4-4. They do not perform efficiently when suction lift exceed 16 feet. • Deployed on any convenient low-freeboard platform.4. A typical small commercial salvage firefighting pump has the following characteristics: • A compact. • Single.000 liters) per minute at its rated capacity. • Operable in hazardous areas equivalent to Lloyd’s Register Zone 2 Category. On some pumps. four-stroke diesel engine.400 Imperial gpm. • An end-suction. On the underside of the monitor connection. • The 10-inch-diameter end-suction connection is fitted with a special manifold for four standard 6-inch salvage pump hose suction lines. fitted with heat exchanger cooling and a seawater-cooled exhaust manifold.100 rpm. Navy salvage firefighters may operate commercial fire pump units as assets of opportunity. The compact commercial salvage firefighting pump normally has an output of 2. The pumps are most efficient between 9.900 gpm (2. a manifold for up to six 2-1/2-inch diameter fire hoses is arranged inside the frame housing. measured from center of impeller intake and water level.800 and 3.1 Small Commercial Firefighting Pump Systems.6 Commercial Portable Firefighting Pumps. turbo-charged. high-power monitor and/or multi-hose line capable. the following paragraphs describe the general characteristics of such pumps. 11.and 15-foot suction lift. • Employable with additional suction lift booster pumps. 4-33 .

• Two six-inch monitors mounted on top of the power pack unit. pump frame: Length. The units can operate from salvage ships.645 gpm @ 200 psi or 4.6.060 lbs 5. 2 in 3 ft. 3 in 4 ft. A larger transportable unit overcomes the suction lift disadvantages of the small pumps with high-capacity. pump and suction manifold: Width: Height. 9 in 9 ft. (3) Pump POL or hydrocarbon products.830 gpm 210 psi 2. excluding suction manifold and monitor: Net weight. (2) Dewater spaces. 8 in 7 ft.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • The dimensions and weight of these units are approximately: Length. hydraulic power pack unit. including manifold and monitor: Figure 4-23 illustrates a pump of this type. • Two high-capacity hydraulic submersible pumps that can: (1) Pump water to one or both monitors. The power pack is a 620-650 bhp diesel engine coupled to dual hydraulic fluid power sources for highcapacity. 0 in 5.500 lbs 4-34 . hydraulically driven pumps. hydraulically driven submersible pumps that pump directly to monitors mounted on the power unit module. 4-4. excluding monitor: Height.2 Large Commercial Firefighting Pump Units.385 gpm @ 148 psi 7 ft. easily transportable. The modules consist of: • A self-contained. The output of the large unit is: Maximum output: Maximum pressure: Rated output & pressure: 4. platforms of opportunity or aboard casualties. with monitor: Net weight.

Small Commercial Salvage Firefighting Pump Module. 4-35 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-23.

others are solely to service the specific engine and equipment of a portable fire pump. bolt cutters and banding tools. the sheer volume and weight of water that any certified FiFi monitor can project must be treated with great caution. etc.360 lbs 10. valve wheel wrenches. tri-gates. Siamese fittings. • Heavy-duty wrenches. 4-4. Where practical.S0300-A6-MAN-030 The general dimensions of the pump unit are: Length: Width: Height: Net weight. these units are configured for both air and forklift transportation and for working in hazardous atmospheres associated with tanker and oil field operations. Every portable fire pump unit and all SART AELs include boxes of special tools that have proven their worth in firefighting operations. full: 7 ft. pry bars. adapters. 2 in 4 ft.7 Special Firefighting Tools and Adapters. • Overhaul tools (axes. Some tools are common to all salvage applications. 5 in 8. sockets. shovels). Paragraph 6-5.3 discusses use of FiFi category oil field service ships and summarizes the three FiFi categories with diagrammatic and tabular information that may be useful to Navy salvors when evaluating the firefighting capability of commercial vessels.340 lbs Like other commercial firefighting pumps.000 to 12. In terms of offship and battle damage firefighting operations. Figure 4-24 illustrates a typical large pump unit.000 gpm per monitor are not uncommon on larger FiFi ships or the more powerful “portable” FiFi package units sometimes deployed. wye-gates. • Pipe patching kits. all engine-related tools and frequently used spare parts should be stowed in lightweight boxes and transported inside the pump's protective framework. pike poles. reducers. Tools most frequently required by salvage firefighters or R&A teams include: • Tool and parts kits for particular engine and pump sets that accompany the salvage team. • Hose leak repair kits and other small quick-repair kits. cold chisels. rakes. empty: Net weight. 5 in 4 ft. hammers. Monitor outputs of 10. 4-36 .). • Hose fittings and accessories (spanners.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 4-24. Large Portable Firefighting/Dewatering System. 4-37 .

The most efficient large foam storage tanks are typically of 300-400 gallon capacities and skidmounted for transport by trucks or small trailers. • Miscellaneous adapters. The importance of carrying a good selection of fittings and adapters cannot be overstated. Experienced salvage firefighters usually carry at least two of every fitting or adapter listed below: • Double-male and double-female fittings for all hose sizes carried.S. 3. When fitted inside lightweight.8 Portable Foam Containers. pattern hose thread to British instantaneous or bayonet couplings in 2-1/2.to 2-1/2-inch. 2-1/2.. The tanks may also be loaded into 35-foot salvage workboats or landing craft for operation with embarked portable fire pumps. wyes and other fittings that experience has shown to be useful on firefighting hoses. pattern hose thread to NATO-type Storz couplings in 2-1/2and 3-inch sizes. Skid-mounted tanks are also convenient for deployment on platforms of opportunity.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Exothermic cutting equipment. Adapters and fire hose fittings are an integral part of firefighting equipment. 4-38 . • Direct adapters from U.e. nipples. When fittings or adapters are required. Salvors have successfully modified agriculturaltype pesticide spray tanks to store and transport large quantities of foam. • Direct adapters from U.and 55-gallon containers. etc. • A pair of international shore connections modified for use as battle damage adapters for damaged pipelines.to 1-1/2-inch. tubular steel frames. A capstan or deck tugger winch can move skid-mounted tanks around the supply vessel’s deck when lifting equipment is not available. these tanks may be carried as underslung cargo by larger helicopters. couplings to standard male and female hose fittings carried. i. Foam concentrate is usually supplied to Navy firefighting assets in 5.to 2inch. larger foam concentrate tanks are more efficient and require less overall storage space. 4-4. Shoreside and commercial salvage firefighting experience has shown that for many applications. valves. • Reducers from largest to smallest sizes of hose carried. • Adapters for transition from large-diameter sexless or Storz.S. there is never time to fabricate or modify them on scene. such as offshore supply vessels that have portable pump units on board. 3. • Portable hydraulic/pneumatic tools.and 3-inch sizes.

where: 44 (Imp) gal = 200 liters = 53 (US) gal 4. Fifty-five gallon drums of foam are consumed quickly. 300.or 400-gallon tanks. For more convenient transport and storage.3 (US) gal Although 55-gallon drums are more common in the Navy supply system. even at low concentrations.” 4-39 . Commercial salvage firefighters normally rig foam eductor systems to three skidmounted. stow and secure for sea transport. A backup foam crew uses a small diesel or electric pump to transfer foam concentrate from 55-gallon drums to an emptied tank.4 (Imp) gal = 20 liters = 5. they are labor-intensive to handle. An order for 55-gallon drums will confuse the foreign supplier who is used to an international system of “standard” drum sizes.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CAUTION Navy salvage firefighters responsible for ordering or arranging resupply of foam concentrate overseas should realize that foam container sizes are figured in Imperial gallons or liters. four or six 55-gallon drums can be placed in skid-mounted pipe or angle racks that resemble soft drink “six packs. A 400-gallon tank will last more than seven times as long as a single drum.

coupled with varying degrees of shock. • Difficulties in delivering firefighting equipment onto high-freeboard or limited access ships. either singly or in various combinations of: • Fire spread because of breakdown of onboard fire boundaries. firefighting and ship control capabilities. • Possible loss of propulsion and maneuvering capabilities or other vital services. • Reduced ship survivability caused by structural damage and loss of watertight integrity. but there are no magic formulae that can be fed into a series of equations to develop the correct mix of tactics and equipment to suit each individual ship fire. none of which is either correct or equally applicable in every circumstance. Salvors must implement a fire containment and control program without delay. There are several methods of controlling and extinguishing major shipboard fires. of installed firefighting equipment and capability. • Damage to and degradation. A large fire on a casualty. Like strandings.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CHAPTER 5 FIREFIGHTING STRATEGIES FOR ASSISTING SHIPS 5-1 INTRODUCTION A major fire at sea is one of the worst disasters that a seaman can encounter. Fires caused by catastrophic events. whether caused by battle damage or a catastrophic accident. with further dimensions that include: • Personnel casualties. Salvage firefighting is difficult because a freely floating casualty’s condition presents immediate problems. • Loss of buoyancy because of flooding caused by structural damage and firefighting water. encompass all the basic difficulties of shipboard firefighting. Because fire conditions vary with time-fire and firefighting water almost always worsen the casualty’s situation-rapid and effective firefighting services are time-critical. • Damage to both assisted and assisting ships caused by accidental hull contact. there are some basic rules that apply to fighting all offship fires. combinations of list and trim and stationkeeping difficulties. such as battle damage. presents salvors with a major challenge in rendering timely and effective salvage services. trauma and degradation of the command and control organization. 5-1 .

the projectile penetrates the ship's shell or deck plating and explodes inside the ship. The fire(s) usually remain within the structural containment of the ship. This is because most internal ship fires have to be attacked from the top. missile. burning upwards and away from the point of origin. Compared to shoreside buildings and industrial facilities. These factors. blast effects. shell. The design and fire defense characteristics of ships make it difficult for smoke. The ultimate purpose of any battle damage firefighting operation is to extinguish the fire(s) and to limit fire damage. In many cases. a battle damage fire may also spread sideways and ignite secondary fires below the ignition point. In most cases. combined with the limited ability of any freely floating ship to remain stable or afloat when large quantities of water are pumped on board. heat and combustion products to escape from inside ships. a ship may sustain rocket. the initial fire caused by a mine or torpedo that ruptures hull plating below the waterline is swamped or extinguished by floodwater entering the damaged compartment. However. structural misalignment 5-2 . Strategies are plans and procedures developed to answer the questions: • What is to be done? • What is needed to do it? • Who is to do it? Tactics answer the question “How is it to be done?” Firefighting tactics are addressed in Chapters 6 and 7. present salvage firefighters with a difficult problem. 5-2 BATTLE DAMAGE FIREFIGHTING STRATEGIES Battle damage fires usually result from direct or secondary effects of weapons strikes on a ship. Since fire-spread physics are governed by many factors. working downwards to the seat of the fire.S0300-A6-MAN-030 This chapter addresses principles that affect salvage firefighting on battle-damaged ships and provides general guidance for the development of salvage firefighting strategies. • Positioning and handling of assisting salvage ships working close to or alongside the casualty. The salvage firefighter must consider and tailor his actions around the facts that fire extinguishing and maintenance of buoyancy and stability are interrelated aspects of the same problem. access to ship fires is usually restricted and working areas are cramped. including: • General concepts of the phases through which most offship firefighting operations progress from arrival of salvage forces until completion of firefighting. mine or torpedo damage that either directly or indirectly ignites a major fire adjacent to the weapon-struck area. • Drift characteristics of disabled ships in relation to wind and the handling and control of casualty’s heading with regard to wind effects on firefighting. Typically. Most professional shore-based firefighters and fire engineers regard ship fires as generally difficult and dangerous to extinguish.

such as flames. modern weapons cause internal fires. dangerous street fighting and building clearances. These circumstances do not occur very often on small combatants.1 Basic Operational Phases. access and overhaul main fire and damage areas. 5-3 . cool and suppress external fires and areas adjacent to internal fires. Salvage firefighters should never base their tactics on being able to attack a battle damage fire through the initial strike rupture. Water and foam streams from monitors cannot be made to turn corners or penetrate intact bulkheads or shell plating. but as soldiers and marines are well aware. unless a burning interior space has large openings in the shell plating due to primary or secondary blast effects. Control fires inside the imposed boundaries and secure all adjacent areas from threat of fire. Controlling and extinguishing ship fires by salvage forces depend upon salvage firefighters boarding the casualty to attack contained fires with portable monitors and hand-held hose lines. Monitors may contain. 5-2. may be both visible and accessible to firefighters through weapon entry and blast damage holes.S0300-A6-MAN-030 and damage to shipboard fittings and services can ignite major fires adjacent to the breached and flooded primary strike area. and complete temporary repairs. On most smaller combatant ships. Clean up debris. Fixed and portable fire monitors are the salvors’ heavy artillery. it is the combat infantryman who performs the bulk of dirty. as when a section of deck plating has been blasted away. but subsidiary phase of: • CLEANUP. heat and combustion products. It is the same with salvage firefighters. Ship fires that have broken out of the ship’s structural envelope. Some debris removal may be necessary during active firefighting to clear drains for dewatering and allow access to the seat of the fire. Contain fires within existing structural or salvor-imposed horizontal and vertical boundaries. Extinguish fires with concerted and systematic attacks by firefighting teams moving through the fire control boundaries and attacking the fire fronts. with the associated. may occasionally present a clear line of attack that leads directly from monitor nozzle to fire front. • CONTROL. Some fire effects. that burn within the structural confines of the damaged ship. Fighting internal fires from long ranges with monitors is rarely successful. • EXTINGUISH. Uncontained fire can spread to engulf the entire casualty. Successful extinguishment of most battle damage fires is carried out in three basic operational phases that can be grouped under the headings of: • CONTAIN. but eventually salvage firefighters must go in to extinguish most fires with hand-held hose lines and portable monitors. patching or dewatering to render the ship safely afloat.

S. decks and boundary closures having specified resistance to heat transfer and fire spread. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Assess fire and flooding condition and present firefighting/dewatering status. Shipboard fires should be confined within these structural boundaries to limit spread of fire and allow firefighters to control fire within predetermined boundaries. Vent excess smoke and heat when practical and safe. Fire bound- 5-4 . 5-2. Position fire teams at designated attack front(s). control and extinguish as applied to battle damage firefighting. Prepare line of approach for firefighters. Firefighting methods and equipment vary with tasks and are based on fire type and intensity. Navy (GENSPECS) mandate that all U. Prepare lines of approach to fire edge through boundary cooling. Check fire source. 5-2. Commence debris removal and increase or deploy dewatering operations. Extinguish fire. Maintain self-protection and cooling sprays on attack teams.2. reinforce or reset boundaries. Make all-out foam. an expanding and uncontained fire may reach a structural or physical boundary that it cannot penetrate. fire. Establish adequate foam stocks at fire perimeter. Place ship under control on optimum speed and heading to minimize fire spread.S. the three basic strategies of containing. Table 5-1. Salvage Battle Damage Firefighting Strategies. maintenance of adequate buoyancy and the availability of personnel and appliances. the basic salvage firefighting strategies of contain. General Specifications for Ships of the U. controlling and extinguishing remain as the foundation stones of successful firefighting. Alternately. Carry out temporary plugging and patching where necessary to render ship safely afloat. Pass fresh or rested attack firefighting team(s) through fire control teams. Establish foam compound stockpile. water or applicable agent attack or. In theory and to some extent in practice. Verify cooling. redirect or reinforce dewatering operations.2 Strategies. set reflash and cooling watches with charged hoses. However. shipboard fires should be confined to the fire zone in which fire occurs. Commence. Ensure heading control and boundary cooling. boundary control and optimum heading are maintained. generating its own momentum and in worst situations can engulf the entire ship.1 Containing Fires. in a generalized form. The same GENSPECS also require that Navy ships be subdivided into Fire Zones with lengths less than 131 feet by bulkheads.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table 5-1 illustrates. Establish. Uncontained fire spreads rapidly. Navy ships be divided into watertight compartments that extend vertically upwards from keel to main deck.

• Protecting exposures (structures and objects not involved in the fire. 5-5 . (3) Cooling bulkheads or structures exposed to radiant heat from a large fire for example.S0300-A6-MAN-030 aries confine fire to one specific area of the ship and prevent that fire from spreading longitudinally. superstructure bulkheads exposed to a flight deck fire. A boundary may be: • An intact structural bulkhead that is being actively cooled by damage control personnel on the other side. speed. convection or conduction) by: (1) Flooding/sprinkling magazines within the fire boundaries. battle-damaged ships. • Establishing and cooling fire boundaries to confine fires within a specified area of the ship. list and trim to prevent the spread of the fire and to allow fire and combustion products to clear the casualty without sweeping uninvolved areas or assisting ships. • Boarding or mustering and deploying sufficient firefighting equipment and consumables to enable fire control efforts to be mounted with a high level of personnel protection and sustainability.” Battle damage caused by weapon strikes and shock or whipping effects can degrade or destroy both fire zone and watertight bulkheads. • Change in direction of relative wind because of an alteration of ship's heading that directionalizes fire travel patterns. For this reason. but exposed to its heat through radiation. firefighters must establish fire containment zones or boundaries as a first priority when dealing with burning. • Securing ventilation and liquid circulating systems inside fire boundaries and verifying that systems left operating can have no adverse effects on fire control and extinguishing operations. transversely or vertically. • A temporary high-volume water screen that deflects fire spread because the fire cannot penetrate this “water wall. Ship fires are contained by salvage firefighting teams and salvage ships performing some or all of the following actions: • Adjusting ship’s heading. (2) Removing ordnance and flammable materials adjacent to or in contact with fire boundaries to safer locations away from the fire or cooling them if they cannot be removed. allowing fires to spread outside their zone of origin.

Design. Extinguishing major fuel oil fires should not be attempted if the steel structures around the fuel bed are above the fuel’s flash point or if 5-6 . Control of a major tanker fire involves continuous cooling of the fire and tank or hull to break down thermocycle processes and reduce fire intensity. However. On large fleet auxiliary-type ships carrying petroleum cargoes.and Salvor-Imposed Fire Zone Boundaries.2. Figure 5-1 shows differences between design fire zone boundaries and the fire control boundaries created by salvors.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Operating or establishing dewatering systems to ensure that adequate reserve buoyancy is maintained and list and trim control are available.2 Controlling Fires. in major battle damage fires. Figure 5-1. the control phase is vitally important if petroleum cargo is on fire. it is quite possible that the work of extinguishing a fire proceeds almost in parallel with preventing the spread of that fire. 5-2. On smaller combatants with battle damage fires. there is often an intermediate phase where all minor or peripheral fires are extinguished and the main fire is isolated or beaten back. Shipboard firefighting does not always follow a direct path from containing or confining a fire to an all-out assault aimed at extinguishing that fire.

5-7 . water or other agents. the foam blanket will probably be burned off. With fire temperatures in excess of 1. • Controlling the heading of the casualty to ensure that ship motions or wind-induced aspiration of fire is minimal. Venting also enhances possibilities of successful direct attacks by reducing firefighters' exposure to heat and combustion products. A confined fire that does not have a self-sustaining fuel bed. • Establishing adequate foam stocks on board the casualty and attending salvage ships and arranging to bring additional foam forward when dealing with a large tanker fire. such as one being fed by a ruptured fuel oil tank. 5-2.3 Extinguishing Fires. Commercial diesel fuels may have flash points as low as 125 degrees. • Venting excess combustion products trapped within the ship—if this can be accomplished safely. it is deflected or stopped by firefighter-imposed boundaries. the control and cooling period extended to six days before a foam attack could be mounted with reasonable prospects of success. The speed and rate of combustion in this type of fire is such that major combustible materials are consumed rapidly during early phases of the fire’s development. A foam attack on an oil tank that is too hot usually results in a violent re-ignition of combustible gases by contact with residual heat as the foam blanket breaks down. it is obvious that a prolonged control and cooling period may be necessary to reduce steel temperature around the fuel bed. As that fire expands out of its original zone. contained within both structural or firefighter-imposed boundaries. Venting a fire properly can divert smoke. there is little to be gained by projecting foam on surfaces where the temperature significantly exceeds 212 degrees Fahrenheit. A fire that is contained and controlled can be extinguished by: • Allowing it to burn itself out by consuming all combustible materials within the fire boundaries. The nature of many shipboard fires is such that the salvage firefighters’ strategy is primarily containing and controlling a fire within boundaries. JP-5 and diesel fuels (DFM. F-76) that meet Navy standards for shipboard fuels have flash points of 140 degrees or slightly higher.S0300-A6-MAN-030 foam supplies are limited. The degree of cooling depends on the intensity of the fire. If foam attacks on oil cargoes are mounted too early. heat and gases away from firefighters. eventually runs out of combustible material within the fire boundary perimeters.200 degrees Fahrenheit. the type of foam used and the nature of oil cargo. • Forcibly extinguishing it with foam. because foam is primarily a smothering rather than a cooling agent. This is particularly true of fires that occur in large accommodation or superstructure blocks. Other important activities that are part of the control phase include: • Rigging attack hose and monitor lines and positioning equipment for extinguishing operations. Since water is the major component of fire extinguishing foams and as water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit.2. On some occasions during the 1984-88 Persian Gulf tanker war.

particularly missile propellant fuels. Flooding is a major hazard to any battledamaged ship. In such instances. • It may drain down.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Without anywhere to spread horizontally and with only vertical development possible. • A large percentage of combustible material and fire fuel is consumed in the early stages of fire development. because it can lead to loss of ship through: • Loss of reserve buoyancy that. particularly those involving large liquid fuel beds. careful attention must be paid to where those liquids go. 5-2. if extensive enough. For these reasons. both during and after the fire. The free surface effect of loose water is often more damaging to stability than the weight of the water. • Fuels with a low flash point can re-ignite rapidly and violently if surrounding steel is not cooled adequately before foam attacks. projects liquid inside the watertight envelope of the ship. must be extinguished by coordinated. aggressive firefighting. Flooding from firefighting water can be particularly dangerous because: • It may be high in the ship and collect in spaces to create high. off center weights. present salvage firefighters with a particular set of problems to overcome. Salvage firefighters’ most valuable service in such cases is establishing efficient fire boundaries because: • A contained and controlled fire cannot spread to unaffected areas of the ship. • Final extinguishing attacks with foam cannot be started until an adequate quantity of foam is on site. • Some fuel bed material. affecting several levels and creating a free surface in each space. fire extinguishing is largely a matter of knocking down small isolated fires that are burning on residual fuel bed material. applied as either boundary cooling. Fires burning in fuel or cargo tanks or fed by leakages of liquid fuel. is susceptible to chemical and physical breakdown caused by heat. Firefighting water. Other fires. These problems usually arise out of combinations of: • The primary fire extinguishing agent. can cause a ship to sink.4 Flooding During Firefighting Operations. • Loss of stability that may lead to capsizing. it is essential to establish and maintain adequate dewatering systems during the fire containment stage. Whenever fires are fought with water or other liquids. such fires are usually best left to burn themselves out under the watchful control of firefighters. fire control or fire extinguishing water. foam. defy all known firefighting agents during uncontrolled combustion.2. As firefighting opera5-8 .

S0300A6-MAN-010. cleaning. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. Section 3-3.S. 5-9 .S. a number of subsidiary and termination operations are performed.S0300-A6-MAN-030 tions increase in tempo. including: • General surface and debris cooling that includes turning over fire debris and searching out local hot-spots and patches of smoldering material. discusses dewatering by salvage pumping systems. Volume 2. sealing. 5-3 HANDLING AND CONTROL OF A CASUALTY’S HEADING DURING FIREFIGHTING Wind and weather conditions may have a major effect on how a shipboard fire is contained and controlled. stabilizing the casualty. Handling and control of the casualty’s heading relative to wind and fire location are considered under two principal categories in shipboard firefighting: • Casualty with complete or partial use of engine(s) and steering facilities. the natural human trait of total involvement with the immediate threat must be anticipated and dewatering problems accounted for early in the operations. Alterations of ship's heading and speed may greatly assist in containment and control of shipboard fires by forcing fires and combustion products to be blown downwind of the casualty. moving from containment into control and then extinguishing phases.5 Cleanup. smoke dispersal and gas-freeing. • Search for and removal of unexploded ordnance in conjunction with EOD personnel. Firefighting is intensive and dangerous work. • Dewatering of any spaces flooded by either battle damage or firefighting operations.” of the U. “Impaired Stability. Section 5-2. totally immobilized and drifting dead in the water. even the best trained firefighters can easily concentrate all their attention on fire extinction to the exclusion of dewatering considerations. “Pumps and Pumping. where appropriate. Volume 1. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. 5-2.” of the U. • Removal. • Casualty without engines or steering. • Setting of reflash watches and boundary patrols to guard against further outbreaks of fire. Passage of wind or motion-generated relative wind and drafts can either increase spreading rate and area of a shipboard fire or can slow the fire’s spread. • Gas testing and. contains a detailed discussion and analysis of flooding and free surface effects. After a shipboard fire is extinguished. Figure 5-2 illustrates the effects of unintentional flooding and loss of stability caused by firefighting operations. S0300-A6-MAN-020.2. making watertight and assisting with debris removal. • Local patching. maintenance and repair of salvage firefighting equipment.

Establishing early and positive control of a burning casualty’s heading and speed relative to wind is a critical factor in checking fire spread and establishing fire boundaries. 5-10 . in many situations orient their casualty’s heading and relative direction to make wind and weather conditions contribute positively to fire containment and control operations. Shore-based firefighters cannot alter wind or weather patterns around a fire that they are fighting.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-2. Unintentional Flooding and Loss of Stability. Salvage firefighters can.

The basic principles that apply to all evasive maneuvers intended to contain shipboard fires include: • Rapidly assessing fire extent and the areas wherein the fire can be contained. The result of the maneuver should be a relative wind of not more than 12 to 15 knots across the fire-affected area. The object of the maneuver is to adjust the ship's heading and speed to: • Prevent the spread of fire to unaffected areas. • Fire Aft. There are three basic maneuvers in these situations. 5-11 . regulate speed to avoid unnecessary fanning of the fire. The key factor in limiting fire spread through maneuvering is a rapid assessment of the fire location and relative wind direction and velocity across the ship. Bring the ship beam onto wind or with wind opposite the burning area and adjust speed to avoid creating a relative wind that forces fire towards stern of the ship. heat and combustion products from sweeping assisting ships.S0300-A6-MAN-030 5-3. While mobile salvage teams would rarely if ever be in a position to initiate the maneuvers described in this paragraph. heat and combustion products away from the ship by the most direct line and • Prevent flames.1 Casualty with Complete or Partial Control of Engines and Steering. The type of maneuver is governed by the location of fire. • Improve firefighters’ ability to control and attack fire. The casualty that retains control of her engines and steering is often able to take early and effective action that greatly restricts fire spread. while still ensuring that most flames and combustion products are blown clear of the ship. Other matters including searoom. the tactical situation and presence or amount of other ship traffic have some bearing on the ship's ability to execute these maneuvers. to create a suitable relative wind for directing flames and fire spread astern. Maneuvering a ship to facilitate firefighting and damage control is a matter of skilled seamanship and judgement of relative risks. • Fire Midships. all salvors should understand the basic principles that apply to such maneuvers because they may board burning casualties where such maneuvers could spell the difference between success and failure in a major offship firefighting operation. • Executing the maneuver and evaluating its effects. • Disperse flames. • Appreciating that the situation may change continually as the wind shifts and as firefighters alter their tactics from initial defensive to offensive operations at fire fronts. Ship's speed must be regulated to avoid fanning fires. Bring the ship directly into the wind or with wind fine on the appropriate bow.

the basic principles are frequently applied during operations on disabled or immobilized ships. 5-3. Drift aspect of a ship may hamper firefighting operations because: • The drifting ship takes a drift angle that permits the resultant wind to fan fires towards previously undamaged areas of the ship. the drift characteristics of any disabled. the ship loses headway and begins to drift under prevailing weather. • Trim and list. These maneuvers are not applicable to every fire situation. • The ship may lie beam to the seas and roll heavily. Salvors must quickly establish some degree of control over the casualty’s heading as part of rendering firefighting services. burning ship are important factors for marine firefighting and ocean rescue towage operations. particularly where one or the other is extreme. Bring the wind astern and adjust speed to keep fire tending over one bow. The exact angle and wind aspect ratio that any drifting ship assumes is governed by several factors. As a result of power loss. heat and combustion products into areas where they hamper fire containment and control operations. the greater angles between wind and wave directions result in greater angles of drift. 5-12 . Battle damage that causes major fires may also immobilize propulsion and ship control systems. However. • Additional underwater resistance or drag created by underwater damage. • The ship may be partially surrounded by large areas of oil burning on the sea surface.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Fire Forward. The relationship between these factors is complex and beyond the scope of this manual. • Relative angle between direction of wind and waves. However. The basic maneuvers are shown in Figure 5-3. Any one threatens the survivability of a burning ship. • Resistance offered by immersed hull area in terms of form and amount and arrangement of appendages. These difficulties may be present singly or in various combinations.2 Casualty Drifting. • The resultant wind drives flames. making embarkation of firefighting personnel and equipment by boat or helicopter extremely difficult. including: • Sail area and distribution. where a ship is depicted originally steaming on a course of 270 degrees true at a speed of 20 knots with wind from northeast at 20 knots. Speed is usually reduced to a minimum in this case and astern bells are sometimes necessary to prevent fires from blowing back.

Depending on initial heading. the reciprocal heading is equally probable. Salvors assisting a disabled drifting casualty generally have two options available to establish heading control on a casualty. Drift headings are shown to identify casualty orientation.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-3. Typical drift aspects for high-freeboard ships are shown in Figures 5-4A and 5-4B. Basic Evasive Maneuvers. They can: 5-13 . The Coriolos effect is zero at the equator and increases with increasing latitude. Differences in drift direction and aspect between northern and southern hemispheres result from the opposite direction of the Coriolos effect in the two hemispheres.

Typical Drift Aspects of High-Freeboard Ships in Wind Force Beaufort 9. 5-14 . Typical Drift Aspects of High-Freeboard Ships in Wind Force Beaufort 9.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-4A. Figure 5-4B.

Chapter 6 discusses positioning and handling of salvage ships and tugs assisting or working close alongside battle-damaged casualties. Navy ocean tug or salvage ship making a hawser tow in ocean rescue circumstances and making a ship-control tow for firefighting. “Single Tug. Navy Towing Manual. However. doubled-up as appropriate. • Anchor the casualty. if weather. • Suitable high-energy absorption fenders are deployed and heavy synthetic mooring hawsers. sea and swell are suitable. • The salvage ship does not intend to “tow” the casualty and utilizes her power at low power to provide only heading or relative wind control of casualty. The U. there is some difference in the towing rig of a U. Single Tow.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Take the casualty under tow with a salvage ship or a platform of opportunity. Section 4-10 of that manual addresses “Tow and be Towed” practices relative to emergency tows where a combatant ship assists a disabled Navy or NATO ship. An assisting salvage ship or ocean tug can make up on the casualty’s windward side for firefighting. SL-740AA-MAN-010. In such cases.S.1(c). alongside towing may be a practical means to control casualty heading while fighting fires. twin-screwed salvage ships may secure alongside the casualty and can provide heading control with a modified “towing-on-the-hip” rig. This action enables the casualty to be removed from immediate dangers of oil burning on sea surface. 5-15 . Under certain conditions. alongside towing offers excellent control if: • Sea. Where only one salvage ship or large tug is deployed for firefighting assistance to disabled small combatants. Under the special circumstances that exist when one salvage ship is assisting and providing firefighting services to a disabled small combatant. In terms of ocean towing practice. are rigged from the salvage ship.” of the U. swell and weather conditions are suitable for the salvage ship to lie safely alongside the disabled ship. provided sufficient searoom exists and there are no navigational or tactical reasons to prevent it.S.1 addresses fighting fire on anchored ships. SL740-AA-MAN-010. if water depths are suitable for anchoring and the casualty's anchored heading does not create a relative wind that hampers firefighting operations. Paragraph 5-4. does not recommend towing alongside for open ocean because of motion between tug and tow in a seaway. • The assisting salvage ship secures a position that permits both ship control and firefighting. Paragraph 3-5. salvors may find that a burning. it is usually preferable to allow the casualty to drift slowly to leeward. describes Navy towing practices and towing components. Towing also allows firefighters to put the casualty on an optimum heading relative to prevailing wind direction. drifting casualty takes up a beam-on or near beam-on drift heading that does not aggravate fires. without damage to either ship.S. Navy Towing Manual.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Alongside towing in the context of this paragraph does not contemplate any attempt to make distance with the casualty. presents salvage firefighters with particular difficulties in ship control and firefighting. Rudder angle and engine orders can be balanced against the drag of the casualty to maintain a steady heading. With low power settings and good seamanship. The method would not give any heading control on large deep-draft combatants. • Severe radiant heat is generated. self-sustaining because oil leakage rates increase as compartmentation degrades with time. It would not be appropriate for a single salvage ship assisting a large disabled casualty that had major petroleum-fed fires burning out of control. lessening the chance and severity of contact. fires move to other compartments and burning oil may partially surround the tanker. with internal and spilling fires in her immediate vicinity. • The combination of internal and external fires increases the probability of serious hull strength loss on the casualty. Typical firefighting and ship control difficulties created when a large oil-carrying ship is struck by a weapon and immobilized and on fire are: • A liquid hydrocarbon fire that burns with severe intensity and usually affects tanks and spaces adjacent to the initial blast area. Heavy contact is limited to a short length at the quarter. Figure 5-5 shows a T-ATF-166 Class fleet tug secured on the hip to a disabled casualty for heading control and firefighting operations. A large. to some extent. while the bow strains against the head line. there is less surging and boarding from the fantail is safer because the fantail is less able to move away from the casualty. • The fuel bed is. 5-16 . Hydrodynamic pressure against the tug’s inboard side helps hold this position. • A loaded tanker drifts slowly downwind. it is possible to relax the rudder angle. immobilized. 5-3. a salvage ship’s commanding officer can “wind” a casualty to port or starboard in small increments as required by firefighting ship control operations.3 Ship Control Methods for Tugs Handling Large Casualties. • Breached tanks leak or spill oil cargo or fuel into other spaces or the sea and that oil ignites. particularly when light oil products are the primary fuel. particularly an AOE or other large oil-carrying ship class. Once the position is attained. burning casualty. Separation at bow and midships is increased. logistic ships or amphibious ships. By adjusting lines so the bow is allowed to move further from the casualty than the stern and turning away from the casualty with slight rudder (and/or running the inboard screw slightly faster). As a result. Navy salvage firefighting experience with these problems in World War II has been validated by numerous major ship fires on missile hit commercial oil carriers during the Persian Gulf tanker war. the after quarter is brought hard against the casualty. Because there is tension on all lines. The method is applicable to combatant ships up to DDG-51 Class and could be used with reasonable prospects of success for CG Class ships in moderate winds.

Experience has shown that fighting oil-fed fires on large ships drifting before the wind is rarely successful. Single assisting salvage ship or tug tactics that attempt to combat this risk by conducting standoff cooling and firefighting seldom succeed. Casualty Secured on Hip for Heading Control During Firefighting Operations.1 Taking the Casualty in Tow. It is a very dangerous practice to place one salvage vessel alongside a drifting casualty that is spilling burning oil. assisting salvage ships and firefighters cannot give effective assistance until positive control over the casualty’s heading is established.3. An assisting ship moored alongside a drifting casualty may not see local weather changes until it is too late and flames surround the assisting ship. Changes in wind direction or casualty 5-17 . Under these circumstances.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-5. 5-3. Small wind shifts and comparatively minor changes in sea state can alter drift patterns of spilled burning oil.

A short length of chain between a long (100. A close watch must be kept on the tug’s crew connecting or supervising connection of the towing gear on board the casualty. Procedures for taking the casualty under tow are described in Paragraphs 4. A spray or jet monitor should be manned at all times to set up a protective curtain around or behind crews working on a casualty during tow rigging. The most important and critical first stage of salvage firefighting services to a badly burning and immobilized oil carrier is to take the ship under tow to: • Move the casualty away from burning surface oil fires in its immediate vicinity. when fighting fire on an oil-carrying ship with burning cargo. However.to 300-foot) pendant connected to the tow and the main tow wire makes it possible to disconnect quickly at sea by bringing the chain on deck.11 and Appendix K of the U.2 The Towing Rig. Figure 5-7 shows two emergency towing connections that have been frequently used by commercial salvors to take large burning tankers in tow. The figures are representative only. optimum towing rig connections at the casualty’s bow or stern might consist of: • A 2.S0300-A6-MAN-030 heading rearrange fire fronts and usually defeat most of the salvors’ cooling and containment efforts.10 through 4. a conventional towing rig connection may be both unwise and impractical. SL-740-AA-MAN-010. speed is the most important element in connecting tows. burning oil carrier in tow for two generalized drift patterns. Because taking the casualty in tow is time-critical and the presence of burning surface oil endangers the salvage ship.3. • Bring casualty head either stern or beam on to wind as appropriate to establish suitable relative cross winds at the fire fronts. self-protection and drenching spray curtains should be rigged. As the directional control tug may be working in close proximity to burning surface oil.or 2-1/4-inch wire rope towing pendant led inboard through the casualty's bullnose chock and secured on two or three sets of bitts. Navy Towing Manual. • The salvage ship’s own main towing wire shackled into the heavy wire pendant. Thus. slacking and disconnecting the tow wire and releasing the pendant by tripping the chain stopper. The primary purpose of towing the casualty is to move it away from burning oil and establish a relative wind flow to limit fire spread. Drift patterns and casualty aspects vary with wind velocity and sea state. Both the tug’s and boarding crew’s approach to the 5-18 . Figure 5-6 shows the relative casualty and towing ship positions and sequence of events for taking a large.S. This towing connection does not have a high degree of resistance to chafe and would not be acceptable for ocean rescue or point-to-point towage of the casualty. disabled. holding it with a quick-release-type (pelican hook) chain stopper. 5-3.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-6. the assisting ship tows the casualty clear of burning surface oil and turns her onto the heading that gives the optimum relative wind. Moving Burning. 5-19 . Disabled Tanker to Optimum Heading. Power must be applied slowly and in progressive increments that put way on the casualty gradually. After completing the towing connection. loaded auxiliary or merchant oil carriers have high displacement tonnages and correspondingly high inertia to overcome.3. casualty must be carefully assessed to ensure that an “escape route” is open if drifting. Commanding officers should be aware that large. When available. burning oil endangers the towing ship or her personnel.3 Getting the Tow Underway. 5-3. helicopter assistance to VERTREP underslung towing connection components and the boarding party may save valuable time and reduce dangers.

By comparison.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-7. T-AO-105 Class oilers have a full load displacement of 35.000 to 275. AOE-1 Class ships have full load displacement of 53. but getting the tow underway and changing its heading cannot be rushed and requires skilled seamanship and patience on board the towing ship. 5-20 .000 tons loaded displacement.000 tons.000 tons.000 to 91. Thus. overcoming the casualty’s inertia and getting the tow under way are not particularly easy and should not be hurried.000 tons and CV/CVN displacements vary from 81.000 tons displaces somewhere in the vicinity of 115. Speed in connecting the tow is vital. Emergency Towing Connections Suitable for Rigging on Disabled Burning Casualties.500 tons.000 tons in fully laden condition and very large crude carriers (VLCCs) average 250. A medium-sized merchant tanker with a cargo capacity of 100. BB-61 Class ships displace 59.

9 dealing with tank boil over fires and BLEVEs.5. reserve buoyancy or both dictate that beaching is the only option available to prevent a casualty from capsizing or sinking. a cooling period of three to four days would not be unusual for the AOE Class ship fire described in the example.600 + 3. maintain continuous monitor streams of cooling and minor fire control water on the casualty’s deck. Weather permitting. Time spent cooling is not wasted because it allows additional foam stocks to be brought on site to stockpile enough for extinguishing operations. One common condition that occurs in these various scenarios is a limiting of salvage firefighters’ ability to control or alter environmental effects on burning casualties. Given that light oil fires generate massive radiant heat. Large fires of the magnitude and intensity of those in battle-damaged oilers and tankers are most successfully fought by three assisting salvage ships or tugs. It is normal firefighting practice to bring forward all the foam concentrate required during the cooling down period. Stranded. The total foam concentrate requirement was calculated to be 14.4 Assisting Ship Tactics. shortfall in foam quantity does not present an immediate threat to the casualty’s survival. Because control over a burning casualty’s heading 5-21 . Wind and other environmental forces dictate much of salvage firefighting strategy. Because of the fuel beds involved in the example calculation and the necessity for major boundary cooling. commercial experience dealing with large crude oil fires during the Persian Gulf tanker war indicates that cooling periods of between four and six days were not unusual. In other cases. If an attending ARS50 Class ship and an attending T-ATF-166 Class ship have only their normal allowance of foam concentrate on board (3. the other two salvage ships or tugs moor on each side of the casualty. The additional foam and cooling requirements can be demonstrated by reexamining. The history of marine firefighting has many examples of unsuccessful foam attacks on inadequately prepared and pre-cooled casualties. As stated earlier. Ships loaded with low flash point oil cargoes that have burned for more than a few hours must be properly cooled before foam attacks can be successful.760 gallons. Figure 5-8 shows a large oiler under tow with two firefighting salvage vessels alongside providing cooling and boundary control services. casualty crews might deliberately anchor a disabled ship to prevent it from being driven ashore by sea or wind actions. 5-4 FIREFIGHTING ON ANCHORED OR BEACHED SHIPS Battle damage may ignite fires aboard ships that are anchored or deliberately beached as part of their amphibious assault or military support missions. there is an insufficient amount of foam available to mount a successful fire extinguishing operation.400 = 7. One ship usually the least capable firefighting craft is assigned to towage and ship control duty. No attempt is made to extinguish major fuel-fed fires until steel surfaces are cooled enough to ensure that an all-out foam attack can be successful. positioning themselves forward and to windward of the main fire fronts.3.000 gallons). Ships may also be impaled on rocks or other fixed objects or structures that limit movement of the burning casualty.S0300-A6-MAN-030 5-3. These two firefighting ships. Example 3-4. augmented with portable fire pumps where appropriate. Salvors sometimes have to beach burning ships when deficiencies in stability. See paragraph 3-2. anchored or impaled burning casualties can impose on salvage firefighters some of the disadvantages that shore-based firefighters work under.

Optimum Configuration for Fighting Fires on Large Oil Carrier. and aspect relative to wind is basic marine firefighting strategy. this section examines some of the more common difficulties created by a casualty in a position that cannot be adjusted freely relative to prevailing weather.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-8. 5-22 . Fires aboard ships berthed alongside fixed piers or military installations are discussed in Paragraph 5-5 as a separate aspect of battle damage firefighting.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 5-4. heat and fume dispersion and firefighting efforts. Yaw characteristics depend on ship form. The effect that each has on an anchored ship is generally governed by: • Relationship of the exposed sail area to the submerged underwater body of the ship.1 Firefighting on Anchored Casualties. Deep draft relative to water depth leads to strong current effects. The ship may roll violently during part of the yaw cycle. • Anchored casualties swinging to regular changes in current direction that reverse wind effects complicating boundary control. • Casualties responding to wind or current influences and lying beam-on or nearly beamon to sea or ground swell. resulting in casualty lying head—or stern—to current with a disadvantageous wind across or down her decks. • Wind strength relative to current velocity and duration of flow of tidal currents. Typical difficulties encountered include: • Current effects being generally greater than those of the wind. assisting ships or firefighters. • Ships at anchor in moderate seas or wind often yaw through 60 to 90 degrees of heading. 5-23 . even if the winds and seas remain constant. aggravates sloshing and free surface water effects and makes it hard for firefighters to maintain footing. Rolling of the casualty creates difficulties in laying down foam. The constant change of heading relative to wind direction may cause the fire to spread in several directions along a broad front and may fan fire and smoke into ventilation intakes. • Currents—tidal or drift. Anchored casualties are affected by three principal environmental phenomena: • Wind direction and force. • Height and direction of the prevailing sea and ground swell in the anchorage area that may cause the ship to lie to sea and swell. • Depth of water in anchorage area in relation to the draft of the casualty. • Sea and swell. Salvors fighting fires on a casualty burning at anchor or planning to bring a burning ship to anchor for firefighting. should evaluate all the above conditions when developing their firefighting strategies.

as a unit. Under some circumstances. ST) are typically equipped with a 500. by either recovering or cutting loose her anchors. most firefighting officers are reluctant to place their personnel directly under the command of other units. If firefighting operations are hindered by wind as a result of current changes. fires must be fought on board the anchored ship. Commercial and municipal fire boats’ pump capacities typically range from 5. Coast Guard and Army harbor tugs (YTB.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-9 shows how an anchored ship. one or two monitors. YTM. These limitations should be reviewed before the final decision to beach a casualty solely for firefighting convenience. under the command of the firefighting unit first on the scene—the “first-in” unit. professional firefighters are used to establishing loose alliances on short order and will readily place themselves. Heading can also be adjusted by tensioning a hawser led from the fantail to the anchor chain. Such anchors may be planted by an attending salvage ship or tug. It is important to establish an effective command and control organization to coordinate the efforts of units from several organizations. WTGB. • Laying out heavy stay or beach gear anchors and tensioning those anchors against the casualty to align onto an optimum heading. deploying firefighting personnel to new areas or onto new lines of attack as dictated by wind flow and fire direction. harbor authority or commercial harbor tugs and fire boats may be available to assist firefighting efforts. can be swung onto a disadvantageous heading by a current change.000 gpm with several monitors. either because of lack of salvage and towing assets or because of the tactical situation. but tensioning can be performed by any medium harbor tug of opportunity. military. • Reposition firefighting ships to windward or more appropriate positions. Certain firefighting limitations may apply in beaching. There is also the risk that forcing a casualty to a broad angle against a strong current may cause her anchor to break out. Some Coast Guard patrol boats are also equipped with monitors and offship manifolds. and one or two offship. In such cases. beaching that casualty may be a practical option if constant opposing wind and currents create a difficult firefighting situation. In general. because of differences in training 5-24 . However. In developed ports. Where the casualty can be freed from her anchorage. WYTM. Some naval stations maintain fire boats converted from large landing craft (LCM) or work boats. Navy. salvors cannot remove a burning casualty from her anchorage. Figure 5-10 shows the effects of an approximate 180-degree change in casualty heading caused by a change from a flooding to an ebbing current.to 750-gpm fire pump. salvors may: • Attempt to hold or tow the casualty with harbor tugs. initially well-positioned head-to-wind for firefighting purposes. towboats or smaller landing craft onto a better heading.000 to 17. four-valve (2-1/2-inch) manifolds. Salvors must keep a very close seaman’s eye on both wind and current changes. this option may be dangerous or impossible to execute. In strong currents.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-9. Change in Current Adversely Changes Heading of an Anchored Casualty. 5-25 .

5-26 . Experience in World War II and other conflicts has shown that when tank.2 Firefighting on Beached Ships. as dedicated firefighting circuits among various agencies will most likely use different frequencies. and standard procedures and their sense of responsibility for their personnel's safety. resulting in intense fire and heat. some of them sustain fire-causing battle damage. Effects of Major Alteration of Current on Fire Front Direction. including: • Large salvage ships and tugs may not be able to get alongside the beached ship because of the available depth of water. 5-4. comparatively high vehicle decks that may be partially open tend to create natural fire draft tunnels. • Long. It may be necessary to assign additional radio operators to relay messages from circuit to circuit.and heavy-vehicle-carrying ships are beached during amphibious operations. Communication between different firefighting agencies is best conducted via marine bridge-to-bridge VHF. Fires aboard deliberately beached assault landing ships present salvors with a number of problems.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 5-10.

Army logistics support vessels (LSV) and LCU 2000 Class landing craft are currently equipped with fire monitors and medium. Refloating in conjunction with increased ship control may be the only reasonable possibility of extinguishing fires and saving the ship. clay or mud bottom. Portable salvage fire pump units in LCM/LCU and similar small craft can supply fire control and firefighting services with offship firefighting teams. combat-loaded with ammunition and fuel. Specialized landing craft salvage groups were part of area salvage groups during World War II. Harbor Clearance Unit One operated LCM(6)s specially modified as Combat Salvage Boats and outfitted with firefighting equipment. • Salvage firefighting pumps. may present their own special hazards and fire loadings when stowed on a damaged vehicle deck. • Freedom from rocks.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Wheeled or tracked vehicles. • Shelter from prevailing seasonal weather. causing delayed response. Firefighting on beached amphibious ships initially may be secondary to evacuating Army and Marine infantry or support personnel from the casualty. Potential beaching areas should be assessed for: • Proximity to casualty’s present position—the closer the better. Ships should be beached with their deepest draft end. 5-4. When loss of stability. either bow or stern. refloating may be necessary. beach obstructions and industrial or military facilities. special equipment and firefighters may have to be deployed by and from landing craft or work boats. salvors usually decide to beach the ship. A deliberately beached ship set afire as a result of battle damage is in a different category from a ship beached as part of the salvage action. loss of reserve buoyancy or combinations of both threaten a burning casualty's survival. Salvage ships and ocean tugs. • Gently shelving beach with a sand. may provide valuable cooling. When beachhead space is limited and the burning ship obstructs or occupies valuable areas. • Freedom from heavy surf. Rapid evaluation of firefighting options is essential. Bow-first beaching is preferable but is not always practical if the casualty is heavily damaged forward and 5-27 . Beaching a burning ship always includes plans for effective firefighting services after the beaching.3 Deliberate Beaching of a Battle-damaged Ship.to high-capacity pumps. without longshore currents. The feasibility of refloating the burning ship should always be investigated. water barrier and heat deterrent water with their installed monitors during evacuation operations. to seaward. firefighting considerations are major factors in beaching planning. accordingly. During the Vietnam conflict. The LCS groups carried firefighting equipment aboard their dedicated salvage version LCM(4)s and LCIs. although not necessarily able to get alongside the burning ship properly.

• The possibility that the best firefighting tactic was to let the fire burn itself out between confinement boundaries. Excessive movement of the casualty is not usually a problem during the immediate post-beaching phase. In many instances. when firefighting. 1942. when weight of excessive flood and firefighting water tend to keep the casualty very firmly on the bottom. beach gear should be rigged or tugs secured to the casualty to prevent broaching or uncontrolled refloating. However. if possible. shortly before low water. Efficient beaching may require the salvage ship or attending ocean tug to push or tow on the hip if the casualty is powerless. fires aboard ships moored to piers and wharfs caused difficult and unnecessary situations to arise between those responsible for the stability and survivability of ships and those attempting to extinguish fires. the casualty usually is scheduled to beach on an ebb tide. portlights and cargo doors.S Navy Ship Salvage Manual. incorrect firefighting did not take account of: • Free surface prevention and reduction of entrapped water. to the exclusion of measures to reduce or prevent free surface development and stability loss due to flooding from firefighting water. • Suitable methods and timely operation of dewatering systems. The U. Before any largescale dewatering commences. stay or beach gear anchors and cables should be laid out from the casualty to prevent broaching and the ship should be ballasted. Ideally. In general. 5-28 . After beaching. salvors may not have time to wait for the optimum tidal phase. • Boundary establishment and fire confinement procedures. A well-known case of moored ship fire that lead to capsizing and sinking and a major refloating task was that of USS LAFAYETTE (ex-NORMANDIE) that sank at Pier 88. New York on February 9. Problems occur because firefighting tactics have not taken proper account of deterioration in buoyancy and stability caused by firefighting. dewatering should commence on a falling tide if practical.S0300-A6-MAN-030 trimmed by the head. 5-5 FIREFIGHTING ON MOORED SHIPS Historically. the casualty's seaward end should touch bottom first. Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010) describes ship debeaching operations in detail. Attention has focused on firefighting. • Possible flooding from external openings such as side doors. This timing allows the ship to settle gently on the seafloor while tidal rise assists in refloating. In planned beachings. Any beaching ground should have sufficient depth for at least one firefighting ship to lie alongside the beached casualty.

There is a very strong case to be made under these circumstances for immediate removal of the burning ship from the pier or wharf.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Under combat conditions. Where a ship moored in a harbor of strategic importance catches fire due to battle damage or other causes. moored ships that sustain battle damage and catch fire requiring salvage firefighting assistance are: • Merchant ships trapped in port. The ship should be towed to a beaching ground or an isolated anchorage area where salvage firefighters can deal with fire control and extinguishment unhampered by concern over possible blockage of berth or harbor entrance channels. There have been several well-known cases of merchant and military ships catching fire and causing extensive damage to wharf or entire harbor installations as a result of poor command decisions or complete inaction during early stages of ship fire. 5-29 . In either case. Navy salvage ships and firefighters may find that getting the burning vessel away from the dock or out of harbor is far more important than an all-out pierside firefighting operation. however. Such decisions are made for the safety and overall continuation of port activities and reflect long-term strategic thought. circumstances may arise that necessitate Navy salvors themselves suggesting such a course of action after evaluation of the relative importance of a strategic berth and one burning ship that may block that berth. It may go against Navy salvage firefighters' instincts and training to drag a burning ship away from a wharf. • Military amphibious support or supply ships unloading supplies and equipment to support operations. ship fires usually develop rapidly with the added risk that vital berths could be blocked or destroyed if firefighting operations are only partially successful.

Coast Guard or commercial ships when used as platforms of opportunity. The employment of firefighting equipment must be coordinated with ship maneuvering and the weather. ATS-1. • Transfers of equipment between salvage ships and the casualty. skilled maneuvering and correct deployment of men and materials from the assisting salvage ship in a logical series of actions. • Coordination between salvage ships and firefighters deployed on board the casualty. as well as commercial salvage ships and tugs with similar capabilities. • Self-protection of salvage ships from fire and drifting burning oil hazards associated with spilling fires. T-ATF 166 and Army LT-128 Class ships. Many of the tactics described also apply to less-capable Navy. a successful firefighting operation must involve the same aspects. • Use of fire monitors and equipment on board salvage ships and platforms of opportunity. equipment deployment and ship maneuvering that maximizes safety and optimize firefighting effectiveness should be standard operational procedures in salvage ship offship firefighting tactics. salvage ship describes any U. Offship firefighting requires rapid response and correctly deployed equipment during the early phases of the emergency. it applies to ARS-38.S. ARS-50. • Optimum approach and working positions for salvage ships assisting battle-damaged ships. Firefighting preparations. Flexibility of approach. Salvage ships and rescue tugs carry fire monitors and a large offship firefighting equipment inventory to assist battle-damaged casualties. No two marine firefighting operations are ever exactly the same and tactics that worked well on one job may be inappropriate or even dangerous on the next one. Army.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CHAPTER 6 SALVAGE SHIP FIREFIGHTING TACTICS 6-1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter. This chapter discusses offship firefighting preparations and some of the maneuvering principles that apply to the offship firefighting missions of salvage ships relative to: • Preparation and deployment of own-ship and embarked salvage firefighting equipment. combined with intelligent evaluation of the fire situation and knowledge of 6-1 . A successful refloating requires preparation of equipment. Navy salvage or ocean towing ship with offship firefighting equipment. ATF-76.

Foam blankets can be laid more quickly with monitors than with handlines. Pre-arrival equipment tests should include: • Test-operating. Adequate preparation of salvage ships for firefighting is an essential part of protecting them and their crews from unnecessary exposure to hazards. deploying and physically testing all offship firefighting equipment during passage to the casualty and as part of their offship firefighting bill. 6-2. Most U. A salvage team embarked on that platform can increase water flow rates by using portable firefighting modules with monitors. where fires are directly accessible to monitor streams. auxiliary or combatant.S. individually and in groups. When the salvage ship is in company with the battle-damaged casualty. an item of equipment that functioned perfectly well during its last routine test may not work properly when it is deployed against a fire. towing assistance and berthing services for firefighters.1 The Pre-arrival Equipment Test. All firefighting salvage ships should have a pre-arrival equipment test routine that mandates preparing. The pre-arrival equipment test is part of the salvage ship's offship firefighting bill and ensures that all equipment is functioning correctly or that defects or damage to equipment are known to the commanding officer before arrival at the casualty. 6-2 PREPARATION AND TESTING OF FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT All equipment required for offship firefighting must be staged and ready for operation before the salvage ship arrives at the casualty. logistic support. Pumps should be started one at a time and put on line to a monitor or the offship firefighting manifold. a platform of opportunity. Because machinery and human nature are what they are. may be able to direct water at inaccessible locations with handlines. the equipment tests may have to be completed very quickly. but a check-off list should be completed to verify that all equipment has been exercised or prepared. A salvage ship or tug can direct firefighting water and/or AFFF streams to locations inaccessible by the stricken ship’s force. Salvage ships are small enough for OODs and the commanding officer to observe most major equipment functional tests from the bridge. The highvolume flow of the salvage ship’s monitors can be directed against fires too intense to be controlled by handlines or against external bulkheads to cool hot spots and protect flammables or explosives. Subject to sea and weather conditions and her maneuvering characteristics. Discovering a malfunction in vital firefighting equipment as the salvage ship makes her final approach to a battle-damaged casualty can be both embarrassing and potentially very dangerous. 6-2 . Navy ships can also provide some external firefighting assistance.S0300-A6-MAN-030 one's ship’s limitations are critical to successful offship firefighting. as in a convoy or amphibious task group. all shipboard main firefighting pumps. Assisting ships should be positioned with due regard for weather and maneuverability and water/ foam streams directed as specified by an embarked salvage officer or as requested by the stricken ship.

All five-gallon and 55-gallon drums of foam should be inventoried (and contents verified) and a number of ready-use drums brought on deck for immediate service. Large. As the salvage ship is probably steaming at flank speed. such as pelican hooks. If it is known that the casualty has lost power and requires towing. Changing fire situations on board the casualty may require R&A party deployment midway through offship firefighting operations. salvage firefighting pump and monitor units may be test-run at very light loads taking suction from offship firefighting or tunneling manifolds. The quantity of foam concentrate available in drummed containers should be entered on the checklist. Hoses should be connected to designated outlets and made up ready for instant use in the ship's side cooling and washdown positions. • Briefly test-operating the foam system on one monitor. • Testing specialized. Monitors should be checked for rotation and elevation. Deployment of the R&A party is subject to the commanding officer’s evaluation of the firefighting services required on board the casualty. (3) Messenger lines and suitable wire messengers available on the towing deck and (4) Any other equipment. portable monitors should not be set up on the fantail caprail. rigging and testing portable monitors. The bulk foam storage tank should be sounded and the exact quantity of bulk foam on board logged on the check list. an R&A party muster is an essential element of prearrival checks. • Mustering the rescue and assistance (R&A) party and breaking out and preparing their equipment for deployment. (2) A suitable long-wire towing pendant made ready in the vicinity of the caprail. • Attaching hoses to offship firefighting manifolds and faking them out ready for immediate operation. joining shackles. 6-3 . Equipment that should be available on the towing deck includes: (1) Main tow wire with appropriate shackles rigged aft close to the caprail. • Breaking out. it is possible that elements of the R&A party may deploy to reinforce or assist SART personnel. • Preparing to make a towing connection immediately upon arrival when it is known or suspected that the casualty has lost power. For these reasons.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Test-operating all permanently mounted monitors with both solid stream and fog projection from each water source. If a SART is embarked on the salvage ship. it is neither wise nor practical to deploy suction hoses. portable firefighting equipment. diesel. tool kits and miscellaneous hardware. Embarked skid or cell tanks loaded with foam concentrate for portable firefighting pump units should be fitted with slings for immediate deployment to the casualty.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Rigging the salvage ship’s fenders inboard with all necessary fender lines and lanyards. portable fire pump and fire pump monitor units may have to be loaded into the workboat after the salvage ship arrives off the casualty. equipment and materials are to be loaded into the boat. A SART embarked in a salvage ship has its own equipment and personal protection equipment checks to make during transit to the casualty or before helicopter embarkation..2 Strategy Formulation. is ready for immediate service. Offship firefighting. saving valuable time and effort on the salvage ship. • Connecting slings. In some instances. is conducted within the restraints set by sea and wind conditions and the physical status of the casualty. The offship firefighting bill should assign sufficient personnel so that the equipment tests and preparations should not take longer than one hour to accomplish in reasonable weather. The period in which pre-arrival checks are made is usually a time when SITREPs on the casualty’s condition are received. Approaching and mooring a salvage ship alongside the casualty calls for good 6-4 . firefighting clothing. The boat’s crew should be advised of what personnel. Not all of these variables are apparent to those on the casualty and may not be mentioned in SITREPs. 6-3 APPROACH AND POSITIONING MANEUVERS Selecting the best position for a salvage ship to lie alongside a burning casualty requires an intelligent evaluation of the relative advantages and disadvantages of any proposed offship firefighting position. balanced against known damage and the extent of fire reported by the casualty. The strategy will be based upon the prevailing weather at the casualty and the capabilities of the salvage ship and her equipment. etc. the fenders are ready for immediate launching as the salvage ship slows or heaves to off the casualty. connected. Although a basic strategy for assisting the casualty is decided by the commanding officer. Equipment transfers may be made by helicopter or workboat. The SITREPs and general intelligence obtained from radio traffic and other ships enables the commanding officer to formulate a basic casualty assistance strategy. Where a SART has been deployed to the casualty. Where it is necessary to go alongside the casualty. including breathing apparatus. SART SITREPs can facilitate commanding officer’s preparations. nets and other lifting and rigging gear equipment that is known or expected to be required immediately on the casualty. implementing tactics are subject to many variables. the salvage ship’s commanding officer should receive the salvors’ assessments of likely firefighting and battle damage control operations from the SART leader. • Readying the workboat for immediate launching on arrival at the casualty. • Checking that personal protection equipment. boots and radios. 6-2. like ocean rescue towing.

S. Paragraph 4-8.” of the U. Before committing his ship to a final course of firefighting action. while noting drafts.1 Drift and Relative Movement of the Casualty. Navy Towing Manual. trim.S0300-A6-MAN-030 seamanship and shiphandling. enables a salvage ship’s commanding officer to make a final decision about what position and firefighting method offers the best chance of success. contains information on salvage and towing ship maneuvers and should be consulted for a more extensive discussion of this subject. speed and intentions of a burning casualty that retains effective control of propulsion and steering and requires standoff firefighting. Headway or headreaching cannot be accurately predicted for every type and class of ship. including: • Drift. 6-3. relative motion and aspect of the casualty to the prevailing wind and sea. it is important to appreciate that there are differences in terms of overall time in close proximity to casualty between salvage ships connecting towing gear and salvage ships engaged in firefighting. “Approaching the Drifting Tow. There are several aspects to be evaluated before committing to an offship firefighting position.2. flames. the drift of any ship has two components: the downwind or sideways drift and the headway or sternway. smoke and other products of combustion. this is the time when fenders are launched. If the salvage ship is going alongside the casualty. A visual examination of the casualty. SL 740-AAMAN-010. The salvage ship that is passing her towing gear may be close to the casualty for only a few minutes. • General preference of salvage firefighting to take a windward position relative to the main fire front. The relationship between drift angle and relative winds across the fire front on a casualty were discussed in Paragraph 5-3. circumstances may not allow the salvage ship to moor alongside. Drift angle and relative movement of a drifting casualty is also important in the context of assisting salvage ships approaching the casualty to go alongside or to connect towing gear. 6-5 . • Maneuvering characteristics of the salvage ship and her ability to maintain close proximity to the casualty. self-protection sprays activated and final briefings are given to offship firefighting team and R&A party leaders. Under most sea and wind conditions. also addressed was the importance of maintaining casualty heading to ensure that wind assists in controlling of fires rather than spreading or aggravating fires. • Assessment of and protection from hazards created by radiant heat. steam around the casualty and observe the situation from all sides. A salvage ship engaged in firefighting may be working very close in to a casualty for many hours. However. • Course. the commanding officer should. but it should not be ignored when a salvage ship is firefighting in close proximity to a casualty. list and extent of fire. where circumstances permit.

• Hull damage or other projections make it impractical to moor on the high side of the casualty.S0300-A6-MAN-030 The casualty’s attitude. can: • Use stern bells or reverse pitch to back close to the casualty for firefighting. changing her relative heading with either propellers or her bow thruster. 6-3. • Use ahead bells or pitch to move slightly downwind of the casualty if the desired gap closes too much. This characteristic is caused by the unbalanced profile: • Most of the superstructure and forecastle are located forward of amidships. it may also be possible for the salvage ship to pass up a short. large-diameter synthetic line from one of her quarter fairleads. lying almost stern to wind. Lying stern to the wind can be advantageous in some standoff firefighting operations when one salvage ship is attending a drifting casualty. The salvage ship can match the casualty’s downwind drift rate with very easy engine or propeller pitch movements. It is not good practice for a salvage ship to go alongside a listing ship on the low side. unless: • The casualty’s list is minor and does not appear to present any hazard to the salvage ship. particularly trim. Lying stern to the wind downwind or to leeward of a drifting casualty can be equally valid and applicable. have some influence on drift direction and rate. the same basic principles apply.2 Maneuvering Characteristics of the Salvage Ship. while keeping herself almost bow on to the casualty. The salvage ship. • The casualty is listing to windward—the more desirable side for a firefighting ship. When lying in the positions designated by the letters A and B. the salvage ship’s maneuvering characteristics are important in how a fire is fought. • Salvage ships generally have deeper drafts aft than forward and their rudders and propellers have considerable hydrodynamic drag when stopped. 6-6 . When it is impractical or dangerous for a salvage ship to go alongside a drifting casualty. If the casualty’s drift angle alters or the salvage ship gets too close. Almost all large ocean tug and salvage ships tend to lie with their sterns either close to or into the wind when drifting in a moderate to strong breeze. list and projecting hull damage. Although it would be unusual for a salvage ship’s drift rate and direction to match exactly the particular drift of a casualty. These maneuvers are illustrated in Figure 6-1. the relative gap between casualty and salvage ship can be opened with an astern bell. The salvage ship can then maintain an exact distance from the casualty. providing a comparatively large sail area forward.

6-7 .3 Optimum Firefighting Position Relative to Prevailing Wind. smoke and combustion products. windward positioning enables the salvage ship to: • Remain upwind and clear of flames. The optimum position for offship firefighting is usually with the salvage ship lying alongside the windward side of a drifting casualty. Salvage Ship Positions When Assisting Drifting Casualty in Rough Weather or Otherwise Unable to Go Alongside. radiant heat. 6-3. • Move rapidly away from the casualty if the situation deteriorates on board the battledamaged ship. Providing seas permit. a great deal of unnecessary maneuvering can be avoided. By taking advantage of the salvage ship’s natural tendency to lie stern to the wind. Knowledge of a salvage ship’s drift patterns can make any offship firefighting or open ocean towage connection easier. A salvage ship’s individual drift characteristics are found only by practical experiments performed in various wind and sea conditions.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 6-1.

• Use monitors more effectively for self-protection. using both monitors and offship fire hoses for fire control and extinguishing. flames and smoke. Salvage Ship Positioned to Windward for Firefighting Operations. fire control and fire extinguishing.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Transfer personnel. Figure 6-2. 6-8 . Figure 6-2 shows a salvage ship moored alongside the windward side of a freely drifting small combatant. If the casualty’s speed is too high. The casualty’s speed should be reduced to give bare steerage way and to maintain optimum wind across the fire. Where the casualty retains even limited propulsion and steering and weather conditions permit. a salvage ship should moor to windward and upwind of the firefront. the salvage ship will have some difficulty remaining securely moored alongside or there may be damage caused by unsynchronized surging of both ships. hoses and other firefighting equipment unhampered by radiant heat.

the salvage ship. In more extreme cases. (3) Rotate to less-exposed firefighting stations on a regularly controlled basis. they can protect themselves with wide-pattern fog streams from high-capacity monitors or with deluge spray from chemical-biological-radiological (CBR) warfare washdown countermeasures (WDCM) systems. causing severe damage and injury or death of crew members. • Minimizing the number of personnel deployed on deck and ensuring that all personnel whose duties require them to man exposed stations are: (1) Wearing suitable protective clothing and headgear. Salvage ships and their personnel can be protected from these effects by: • Activating self-defense water curtains and drenching sprays. (2) Have SCBA or OBA available at their workstation.S0300-A6-MAN-030 In cases where a disabled burning casualty has to be taken in tow for fire containment and control. The WDCM systems on some ships can be energized by sections to reduce demand on the firemain. fires may engulf part or all of the salvage ship. one main monitor should be kept available for own-ship cooling and self-defense when high radiant heat loads are likely. Burning oil on the sea surface. the high volume demand of the WDCM system may prevent simultaneous operation of monitors or hoselines from the ships firemain. rather than alongside approach. On salvage ships. Large. sparks or other foreign material from entering internal spaces. • Not making up to or making up with only one line that can be cast off quickly and positioning the ship so she can clear the casualty quickly when fires are very intense or may increase rapidly. • Positioning the ship so as to expose minimum surface area to radiant heat from the fire. On platforms of opportunity. where explosions. Very intense fires may dictate a bow or stern to. Navy salvage ships and platforms of opportunity are not equipped with firefighting self-protection spray systems. the same principles of upwind positioning apply. However. Changes in wind or current direction can fan flames and hot gases across or sweep burning oil onto. is a particularly serious hazard. 6-3. A common method of positioning salvage ships alongside a burning casualty under tow is shown in Figure 5-8. boil over or sudden change in fire direction are likely. uncontained fires generate intense radiant heat. from damaged tanks on bulk oil carriers or large combatants. • Maintaining the salvage ship in a closed-up condition to keep heat.4 Self-Protection of Firefighting Ships. Standards for civilianoperated fireboats require a self-protection drenching spray system. along with smoke and noxious gases. • Maintaining a windward position relative to the main fire front and avoiding entry into areas of severe radiant heat and combustion gases. 6-9 .

Provided adequate suction arrangements could be improvised or provided to supply water to the large. A casualty that retains complete or partial control of her propulsion or steering systems with a major fire aboard may create an unsatisfactory situation for assisting salvage ships. • Ability to spot and correct for continuous deflection of monitor streams caused by both actual and relative winds created over casualty’s decks. some degree of high-speed platform stand-off firefighting may be possible. • Maintaining a close watch on drifting. 6-10 . roll and heave of the salvage ship are magnified along the stream path from the monitors. • Avoiding deliberately steaming salvage ship into or through burning oil concentrations unless absolutely necessary for personnel rescue. burning patches of oil. such a casualty may request firefighting assistance and also try to fulfill her mission with the battle group. When burning oil is present on the sea or spilling from the casualty. In some cases. Side spray systems can be “jury-rigged” from hoses and nozzles lashed in place along the rail. portable fire pump units. In such cases. At that speed. it is dangerous and unseamanlike for an assisting salvage ship to remain alongside a large vessel even if the casualty is heavily fendered. It may be possible to provide intake water from installed seawater service systems. assistance that can be given by firefighting salvage ships may be limited. Monitor usage is described in greater detail in Paragraph 6-4. firefighting monitor units are embarked on a relatively high-speed combatant casualty that can maintain speed and station. Pitch. Degradation is not as severe when SARTs and portable. additional measures should be employed: • Rigging and activating of self-defense spray nozzles along both sides of the ship to drive oil away from the sides of the ship. remaining in company with the casualty to conduct a stand-off firefighting operation with her main monitor systems. diesel. 6-3. but the effectiveness of monitor streams are greatly downgraded by: • Difficulties in laying and tracking monitors with any real degree of sustained or useful accuracy. a salvage ship might be capable of sustaining a speed of 15 knots. At best. in addition to the spray protecting topside surfaces. On some occasions.5 Speed and Maneuvers by the Casualty. particularly if the casualty is steaming at speeds in excess of 8 to 10 knots. • Difficulty in laying down accurate foam blankets at long range and the potential waste of foam concentrate resulting from such tactics. The relative position of the salvage ship and the casualty can be maintained by basic replenishment-atsea (RAS) maneuvers. dispersing or deflecting small floating oil fires away from salvage ships.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Observing wind speed and changes and evaluating any potential threat before it develops into a major hazard for the salvage ship or its personnel. propellers and monitors can break up patches of oil.

Large monitors have a number of advantages: • High-volume. • The reaction force of heavy monitor streams may push the assisting vessel away from the casualty or push shallow-draft casualties away from the assisting vessel. • Generally. Large free surface and flooding problems sometimes can be directly traced to excessive use of high-volume monitors. 6-11 . This is particularly valuable when cooling the decks and structures of casualties with burning oil cargoes. thought must be given to the advantages and disadvantages of firing against every target that presents itself. Large monitors also have significant disadvantages: • The relative ease with which they are employed may encourage stand-off firefighting tactics when those tactics are inappropriate or inefficient. high-capacity foam and water monitors permanently mounted on board salvage ships and the same type of monitor incorporated in the portable diesel firefighting modules are the salvage firefighters’ main battery. as with all main batteries. • Indiscriminate use may result from and foster a belief that merely “throwing” large volumes of water in the general direction of a shipboard fire is benefiting the casualty. In many instances. monitors may project far more water on board a casualty than is required or desirable. • Monitor operators cannot always see if their streams are striking an area that assists fire control or extinguishing efforts. • Because of their high capacity. • High-volume fog or spray streams can be shifted very quickly for salvage ship selfdefense. • Large volumes of cooling water can be applied effectively over wide areas of steelwork. freeing up firefighters for other tasks. • Salvage ships can stand off and project cooling or extinguishing water on very hot fires. comparatively high-pressure water or foam streams can be projected over greater distances and to greater heights than is possible with handlines. fewer personnel are required for operations. this is not efficient firefighting. Straight or fog streams can play over a selected area. • Water streams can be directed with reasonable precision. However. High-capacity monitors have advantages and disadvantages that must be weighed on each occasion that they are brought into action.S0300-A6-MAN-030 6-4 USE OF FIRE MONITORS ON SALVAGE SHIPS The dual-purpose.

However. (2) direct firefighting or (3) wastage in the form of deflected waterstreams.1 Indiscriminate Use. Like any other tool. it is not entirely wasted. 1 Auxiliary Machinery Room of an FFG-7 Class frigate. as well as some of the pitfalls to be avoided when fighting fires with monitors. large firefighting monitors.375. High-capacity monitors are a valuable and powerful firefighting tool if they are used intelligently and as required by the circumstances. Observing the amount of runoff from the casualty decks can give a subjective idea of how much water may be accumulating within the casualty. their limitations must be understood and worked within if the firefighting effort is to succeed. their combined throughput is 1. approximately 226 tons of water may be trapped in the casualty.64 tons of water per minute or 458. If this deflected water fulfills some useful cooling function. Therefore. there remain 687 tons of water that may be trapped inside the casualty.000 gpm or more. with outputs of 2. onto or into a target area. Great quantities of firefighting water from monitors are deflected by steel bulkheads and decks. Used indiscriminately. a monitor stream should impact directly on the fire area for extinguishing or adjacent to the fire area for cooling. can create threats to ship survivability.1. 6-4. On a lesser scale.4 tons of water per hour.000-gpm monitors are all working at rated output. This amounts to totally flooding a space equivalent in size to the No. to be effective. with one 2. some caution is necessary when monitors are the primary appliance for fighting fires on small combatants.6 tons) was expended by (1) boundary cooling. If three 2.2 tons per hour. a monitor projects approximately 7.1 Use of Monitors.S0300-A6-MAN-030 6-4. 6-12 . Figure 6-3 shows how a large percentage of water stream projected by monitors is wasted against steel superstructures and impenetrable barriers on a smaller combatant. In the event that half this quantity of water (687.000-gpm monitor at its maximum output of 458 tons per hour and applying the same utilization factor. At 2.000 gpm. The following paragraphs describe how monitors may be effective.

mounted on the towing or forecastle deck of the assisting ship at the same level as the hull damage. Ineffectual Use of Monitors on a Major Internal Fire. By keeping the “line-of-sight” between monitor nozzle and hull damage and fire 6-13 . etc. blast holes. monitor operators and salvage ship officers should be on the lookout for downflooding openings (open doors. A more effective use of powerful monitors is shown in Figure 6-4. large. Better results are obtained by operating a portable monitor nozzle. High-capacity monitors must be directed effectively to gain maximum benefit from their water flow.or housetop-mounted monitors are not very efficient. monitor operators do not have direct line-ofsight vision to the fire front and must be given radio instructions by salvage personnel on the casualty. where monitors are employed for deck and boundary cooling against an open.) that allow water entry into nonfireinvolved areas and direct streams away from them where possible. Where firefighting crews are working around the edges of fire fronts. Equally important.1. scuttles. Hoseline nozzlemen. 6-4. is that monitor directors are able to call in and direct monitor streams to protect salvage firefighters from spill-overs and sudden flare-ups.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 6-3. flaring fire on an oil carrying auxiliary. supplied from an offship manifold or a portable pump unit. Where it is necessary to project a monitor stream through hull damage comparatively low down in the casualty's hull.2 Effective Direction of Monitors. mast. Water accumulation within the casualty will show itself in a larger roll period as increasing displacement and free surface lower the casualty's metacentric height (GM). Often. monitor directors must take special care not to allow monitor streams to become a hazard to firefighters. Majority of Water Being Deflected from Fire by Superstructure that Encloses Fire. from a safety aspect.

on almost the same horizontal level. The optimum position for portable fire pump units on such ships is at or close to the tailgate or stern roller with the suction hoses led through the stern gate. these vessels will be requisitioned. monitor operators generally obtain better results. chartered or otherwise made available. It is also probable that Navy firefighting teams and equipment will work from these ships.1 Positioning of Portable Equipment. Deployment of portable units in this position allows the ship to bring monitors close to fire fronts without exposing the more vulnerable accommodations or ship control areas to fire or radiant heat. Monitor operators are usually best left to direct their equipment’s water or foam streams through the hull damage with minimum interference or distraction. It is probable that in a major conflict. The presence of multiple suction hoses hung over the stern of such ships places some restrictions on rapid maneuvers—except in an escape situation. Most firefighting is performed with the casualty either drifting or under a slow speed tow. 6-5 FIREFIGHTING WITH COMMERCIAL VESSELS There are large numbers of commercial vessels that are either designed for or suitable for use as firefighting vessels. Commercial salvage firefighting experience indicates that offshore supply vessels are excellent platforms for portable firefighting pump units. Effective Use of Monitors to Contain and Cool a Major “Open” Flaring Fire.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 6-4. 6-5. so that rapid maneuvers by assisting ships are rarely 6-14 .

Successful oil field firefighting generally requires large volumes of water that are projected over a considerable distance at a flaring oil or gas fire. • The radiant heat generated by flaring oil and gas fires is extreme and it is very difficult for crews to work portable. 6-5. although SART members may operate monitors and handle hose lines. the vessel crew must place the team in a position to do so effectively. vessel operation remains the responsibility of the crew. foam compound storage tanks and other firefighting equipment on board a chartered offshore supply vessel. the SART leader should offer advice on vessel positioning. In some cases. Commercial vessels will not be able to dispatch a firefighting team to the casualty unless a SART or similar team is embarked. FiFi standards are based on several facts: • Fire monitors with a capacity of less than 5. FiFi standards were developed for ships fighting large pressure-fed fires on offshore oil drilling rigs and production platforms. delivered at very high pressures.3 FiFi Standards. where massive quantities of water are an appropriate firefighting tool and the rigs or platforms are not subject to the same constraints as freely floating. these ships are fitted with dynamic-positioning systems that allow a supply ship to hold herself continuously on station for hours.000 gpm suffer from stream velocity and delivery loss in the high wind and moderate sea conditions usually associated with oil field fires. supply boats and fire boats are small—seldom more than 20 and in some cases as few as 5. for both portable and permanently mounted firefighting monitors. self-protection and monitor use. 6-15 . It is also likely that the crew will operate any installed firefighting equipment. • Great volumes of water.S0300-A6-MAN-030 necessary. When a SART or other Navy team is embarked. SART members will operate their own portable equipment. If the civilian master and crew lack experience in marine firefighting. 6-5. These ships have wide and unencumbered deck space that permits large quantities of firefighting equipment and foam to be loaded aboard in an orderly manner.2 Civilian Crew/Navy Interface. The offshore oil industry has accepted output and capacity standards known as Fire Fighting Classifications (FiFi). manually controlled monitor units under such conditions. While it is the SART’s responsibility to operate their portable gear. Figure 6-5 shows a common arrangement of portable fire pump units. Most offshore supply vessel personnel are experienced and well-versed in maneuvering techniques to hold station close to a fire front. Crew sizes on most tugs. are essential to reach fires that may be 100 feet above sea level. The layout of drums and portable skid-tanks of foam can be planned in conjunction with the firefighting team leader to ensure that all required material is readily accessible. ship-shaped bodies.

This capacity is equivalent to two monitors with an output of 5.283 gpm each.S. The minimum outputs specified for FiFi categories are: • FiFi-1 category requires 2. There are no salvage ships or ocean tugs in the U.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 6-5. each 1. Common Arrangement of Portable Fire Pump Units on Chartered Oilfield Tug/Supply Ship. divided between two monitors.200 tons per hour projected a minimum distance of 70 meters (230 feet) at a height of 45 meters (148 feet).400 tons per hour. 6-16 . Navy with single monitors that approach FiFi standard categories.

200 tons per hour (31. FiFi-1 Requirements for Firefighting Systems. FiFi requirements and typical installations are summarized in Figures 6-6 through 6-8.700 gpm).265 gpm. with an output of 9. with an independent 600 m3/hr (2. Figure 6-6. 6-17 .600 tons of water per hour or 42.460-gpm) foam system. • FiFi-3 category is higher again. projected a minimum distance and height of 70 meters (230 feet).S0300-A6-MAN-030 • FiFi-2 category requires an approximate output of 7.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 6-7. 6-18 . FiFi-2 Requirements for Firefighting Systems.

The flooding effects that 6-19 . FiFi-3 Requirements for Firefighting Systems. caution is necessary.1 discussed flooding rates and precautions for comparatively low monitor outputs of 2. Even a FiFi-1 ship fighting marine or battle damage fires has extremely powerful monitor systems that must be employed carefully. These techniques are not totally applicable to battle damage firefighting.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 6-8.1. When using firefighting tools developed for the oil field’s specialized applications.000 gpm against internal fires. Paragraph 6-4. Massive cooling and drenching is an integral part of oil field firefighting techniques.

oil carrying auxiliaries. If approximately 50 percent of a FiFi-1 system operating at full output is expended in cooling and firefighting work. On small combatants. On large.S0300-A6-MAN-030 could occur when using a FiFi-1 category. to flood the casualty. ship-mounted system are proportionately more serious. this quantity of floodwater can be accepted for several hours. an unintentional flooding rate of 1. 6-20 .200 tons per hour is not acceptable and could quickly cause a dangerous loss of buoyancy or stability. with some deflection and overside losses. there is a potential for the remaining 50 percent or 1.200 tons per hour.

Teams must be able to deploy their equipment and personnel. Before boarding the casualty. either by ship or aircraft. The information required is essentially the same for any deployed asset. • By the lead helicopter (with SART embarked). board the casualty. prior to deploying assets. These assets may include: • Dedicated naval or commercial salvage ships. whether a salvage ship rescue and assistance (R&A) team or a deployed SART. Information collected is important for making a safe approach and for transferring equipment and personnel. The salvage team. Chapter 2 of this volume discusses battle damage organization in detail. Special hazards common aboard battle-damaged ships require special techniques and precautions. professional manner.S0300-A6-MAN-030 CHAPTER 7 SALVAGE FIREFIGHTING TEAM TACTICS 7-1 INTRODUCTION Fires must be systematically attacked by firefighters with sufficient equipment to accomplish the task. This chapter provides guidance and techniques as they apply to the salvage firefighter.1 Initial Survey of the Casualty. • Platforms of opportunity with embarked SARTs. Basic firefighting techniques may not be sufficient for combatting large marine fires. The general format of the initial survey is contained in Appendix C—Salvage Firefighting Team Approach Checkoff List. quickly integrate with the casualty crew and extinguish fires. appropriate or available salvage assets are dispatched to the scene. an accurate assessment of the casualty's condition must be made through a salvor’s eyes. en route to the casualty. must respond in a timely. 7-2 BOARDING THE CASUALTY Based on preliminary information from the casualty. • Air-lifted SARTs. Initial surveys may be conducted in several ways: • A dedicated overflight by a salvage officer. • By radio communications between casualty and salvage vessel or platform of opportunity while enroute. 7-2. A synopsis of this checkoff list should be included in the STL’s first SITREP to the FSC. 7-1 .

FUNCTION Officer in Charge Scene Leader Team Leader Nozzlemen Hosemen P-250 Operator P-250 Assist (1) Shoring Pipe Repair Communication First Aid (2) Electrician Utilitymen (3) Boat Crew (4) Note: NUMBER OF PERSONNEL 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 As required CASUALTY All All Fire Fire Fire Fire/Flood Fire/Flood As required As required All All All As required As required (1) P-250 assist personnel may perform firefighting or dewatering duties after pump is rigged. Methods of transporting teams will depend on assets deployed. Heavy landing craft (LCM/LCU) and salvage work boats are best suited to this task. 7-2. (3) Utilitymen may be utilized to handle supplies. Personnel support is made easier by the presence of an assisting ship capable of staging large quantities of supplies.2 Use of Boats. Each transport vehicle may play additional support roles before.2. All team members must be Firs Aid qualified. (2) Ships may assign a corpsman as required. Small boats may play an important role in transporting personnel and equipment.S0300-A6-MAN-030 7-2. Transferring larger fire pump units and heavy dewatering equipment may be difficult without hoisting equipment. 7-2 . during and after delivering the salvage assistance team to the casualty. Logistics of providing sufficient additional supplies to the team may be a large element of firefighting efforts. the boat engineer may operate the P-250 from the boat. Personnel transfers may be conducted via accommodation or Jacob’s ladders. A salvage ship or platform of opportunity may be deployed directly to the casualty.2.2 Transportation of Personnel and Equipment. Rescue and Assistance Team Composition. (4) When feasible. Table 7-1. Table 7-1 identifies the basic shipboard R&A Team. It is recommended that one member be a storekeeper with access to storerooms.1 Use of Ships. Offship firefighting efforts may be conducted by the ship’s R&A teams or embarked salvage teams (SARTs) or a combination of both. feeding and resting firefighting teams or attending to personnel casualties. 7-2.

Work boats from salvage ships or landing craft deployed from auxiliaries and amphibious warfare ships may also serve as staging platforms for embarked teams. Figure 7-1 shows a suction lift height for a large. hydraulic power units or P-250 pumps may be left to operate in the boat while hoses are taken aboard the casualty or monitors directed for cooling purposes. portable salvage fire pump deployed in a work boat compared to an FFG-7 Class frigate and an AOE-1 Class combat support ship. specially designed. It will be seen from Figure 7-1 that a large.S0300-A6-MAN-030 7-2. salvors should operate the fire pump unit from an LCM or 35-foot salvage work boat. Salvors— SART STLs in particular—must ensure that casualty personnel are made aware of this characteristic of most high-powered portable pump units. Circumstances may occur when large. high-powered fire pump units only have effective lifts of 10 to 15 feet. portable firefighting pump units cannot be positioned on board a casualty because: • The attending salvage ship cannot go alongside the casualty due to sea. it may be necessary to deploy the portable firefighting pump unit from a salvage work boat or LCM-type craft. Pump modules.2). However.3 Use of Work Boats as Pumping Tenders. Lifeboats or work boats on the casualty can be used to reduce the suction lift for portable pumps. • No helicopters are available to airlift the pump unit onto the casualty. Pump capacity is reduced as suction lift increases. swell or casualty damage situations. In some cases. For any one or a combination of the above reasons. portable fire pump unit would be operating at maximum suction lift when positioned on the main deck of the FFG-7 and could not pick up a suction from the main deck of the AOE-1. the pump unit may be “boosted” by a submersible pump on the suction hose.2. • The height from the lowest suitable deck of the casualty on which the pump is placed exceeds 15 feet. Figure 7-2 shows a 7-3 . pumps are placed in the boat. • No suitable or operational lifting gear is available on the casualty to hoist the pumps aboard and portable hydraulic or pneumatic lifting gear cannot be rigged. In cases where a boosted suction is not available and suction lift height appears marginal. suctions over the side and the boat lowered on its falls until hoses are immersed. • The casualty is beached in water that is too shallow to permit a salvage ship alongside (see also Paragraph 5-4. NOTE P-250 and other general-issue centrifugal salvage pumps have effective suction lifts of about 20 feet. but this option is not always readily available.

Relationship of Work Boat to Casualty Vessels and Staging of Portable Pumps.S0300-A6-MAN-030 typical fire pump placement in a 35-foot salvage work boat where the suction hoses are lead over the bow ramp of the work boat. Figure 7-2. Typical Deployment of Portable Firefighting Pump Unit on Standard 35-Foot Salvage Work Boat. Figure 7-1. 7-4 .

7-5 . Helicopters are the fastest method of transporting salvage firefighting teams to a casualty. Fires that are only accessible through hull damage may be easier to attack using a work boat as a mini fire boat. 7-2. as required. One or both of the helicopters can then shuttle additional equipment and consumables to the casualty. particularly large containers of foam concentrate. Helicopter Transport of Portable Equipment.2. such as: • Airlifting extra firefighting equipment or supplies.4 Use of Helicopters. • Passing towlines between vessels. Figure 7-3.S0300-A6-MAN-030 A work boat operating in this configuration cannot load or carry much foam concentrate and is mainly used as a convenient platform to supply one high-pressure monitor or several handlines to firefighters working on board the casualty. as shown in Figure 7-3. The first helicopter transports the STL and other SART personnel while the second helicopter transports the team’s equipment—small equipment carried internally with the team’s portable firefighting module slung underneath. Two helicopters also allow the STL and team to board the casualty first and prepare a landing site for equipment. Beached casualties may also be dealt with more effectively by fire pumps deployed in work boats. two helicopters should be provided for the SART. Ideally. Helicopters assist in rapid deployment of a SART and all its equipment and can make transfers directly aboard the casualty. if circumstances permit. and provide support services.

000 36. including smoke dispersal over landing and evacuation zones.000 External 30.049 External 8.000 + 4. (2) MCM.049 External 20. (5) Cargo.120 150 MH-53E USN Sea Dragon SH-3/SH-3H USN Sea King (3) HH-3E USAF Jolly Green Giant (4) Ch-3C/E USAF Sea Train (5) HH-3F USCG Pelican (6) 4 4 4 4 4 16-18/37 6/10 6/10 6/10 6/10 99/79 72/62 72/62 72/62 72/62 1.5/25 99/72 99/60 610 30/100 135 152 CH-53D USMC Sea Stallion (1) 3 11. (4) Rescue.000 Overload 8.5/21 88/72 540 173 CH-53E USA Super Stallion 3 16-18/37 99/79 1.000 28. Table 7-2 describes general characteristics of selected military helicopters.120 150 CH-53D USMC (Modified) 3 16-18/37 99/79 1.5/26 11.000 36.200 Internal 23. (3) ASW.55 11.000 External 32. Ref: Jane’s Aircraft and Polmar’s Ships and Aircraft 7-6 . (6) SAR Commercial. Helicopter Characteristics and Payload. • Rescue and MEDEVAC operations.000 External 23. Table 7-2.000 36.5/11.120 625 625 625 625 150 136 136 136 136 NOTE: (1) Assault.5/27 DIMENSION FT LOA/ ROTOR 84/51 99/72 PAYLOAD (LBS) 4.5/21 88/72 540 173 RH-53D USN Sea Stallion (2) 7 11.000 Overload 30.000 + 4.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Removing exhausted crews and deploying fresh firefighters. WEIGHT TONS EMPTY/FULL 6.000 External Limited Limited Limited Limited TYPE/NAME H-46 USN Sea Knight CH-47 USA Chinook CREW 3 3 RANGE NM 100 30/100 SPEED (KTS) 140 161 Commercial Chinook CH-46E USMC Sea Knight 3 3 13.

Once on scene. The STL is responsible for safe and efficient transfer of the team and its equipment. Salvage teams that board a stricken ship must be quickly integrated into overall damage control efforts. • Impact. trim and list and accessibility for boarding personnel. 7-3. The method of transfer will depend on original transportation methods used to arrive at the casualty and other considerations. 7-7 . The underlying effects of uncertainty—risk of follow-up attack. explosions—create additional problems that further tax the firefighter. winds. there will be several distinct periods. 7-3 PERSONNEL PROTECTION Salvage firefighting personnel may face serious hazards and working conditions may be appalling. confusion and fatigue affect individuals differently and may have an impact on the overall performance of the casualty crew. Shock. The FSC should be kept generally advised of the casualty's status through SITREPs. 7-2. How this is to be done will be decided by the STL and the casualty’s commanding officer in accordance with the guidelines presented in Paragraph 2-2. • Warning. In fighting large marine fires. Damage control training prepares for the severity of these reactions. including: • Condition of the casualty—location of fires. • Combat conditions in the area—may require support from a combatant. Salvors must be prepared to fight a fire for long periods without reinforcement.1 Psychological Reactions to Disaster. when a disaster occurs. updated as circumstances permit. but “real life” situations cannot always be simulated. the casualty’s crew is subjected to stresses beyond those generally encountered. Generally speaking. gangways.3 Transfer of Equipment. • On-scene weather conditions—seas.S0300-A6-MAN-030 7-2. Physical and psychological demands may be high. Decisions on the optimum method of transfer should be made during initial survey of the casualty. • Condition of the casualty crew—ability to assist. boil-overs. Add a combat scenario and the reactions of personnel may be quite different from their usual behavior. • Availability of unimpeded boarding accesses—flight deck.4 Integrating with Casualty Crew. the salvage team must be able to transfer personnel and equipment from their transport to the casualty.4 Foremost in a smooth transition will be the STL’s interface with the casualty’s DCA or senior repair party officer and his ability to rapidly assess the situation. ladders.

The period immediately following the disaster is crucial. Spending long periods of time in firefighting outfits under extreme heat conditions dehydrates the body rapidly. Many persons function at incredibly high levels of effectiveness. disciplined reaction reduce this period of uncontrolled activity and restore control to the situation.3 Breathing Apparatus Control. Some may panic. • Drinking plenty of fluids—preferably water. Tools. rather than by the duration of the air supply. • Donning breathing apparatus before entering spaces and allow sufficient time for the body to adjust. Fighting marine fires and repairing battle damage is an extremely physical job. 7-3. The duration of the SCBA cylinder—usually 30 to 45 minutes—is only one of several factors governing the amount of time a firefighter may remain on scene. To accomplish this task. however.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Immediate reaction. In combat or during salvage firefighting operations. 7-8 . 7-3. function and air supply duration of all members is vital to personal safety. stopping and cooling the surrounding area (without disrupting the natural heat layering) until temperature-comfortable enough to continue. By keeping his weight on the rear foot. In addition to providing team members with reliable breathing devices and adequate training. Knowing the location. while others become almost or completely useless. it is necessary to provide a system to safeguard firefighters during operations. Drill exercises and actual cases reinforce the value of having a firefighting force that is in top physical condition. • When heat becomes extreme. • Delayed reaction. Methods for reducing physical strains on firefighters include: • Leaving firefighting suits loosely attached while waiting for call-up or during relief.2 Physical Restrictions. Training and a strong. These periods govern how individuals handle themselves in a crisis. Heat and smoke from the fire itself strain physical stamina. move or be concerned about others. many commercial and military fire departments have developed breathing apparatus (BA) control systems. • Shuffling—not walking—when working in smoke or in confined spaces. Some individuals may be momentarily unable to think. there is usually no warning period. equipment and hoselines must be carried to the fire front by fully outfitted firefighters equipped with SCBAs—a demanding task. The amount of time a person can actually work wearing a breathing apparatus and firefighting outfit is often controlled by heat and humidity factors. the firefighter can feel for obstructions by sliding the other foot forward.

An example of a BA control board is shown in Figure 7-4. Example of Breathing Apparatus Control Board.S0300-A6-MAN-030 A status board is maintained to track the safety of each member of the team. For SCBAs not so equipped. The system shown utilizes key-controlled alarm devices. Figure 7-4. 7-9 . a written status board will suffice.

He will take names. Even short periods—30 to 45 minutes—of carrying and operating equipment. Cylinders. Smaller and larger cylinders exist. but are generally used for special locations.” This air supply time is the same as for the standard SCBA cylinder 7-10 . stretching hoselines. In fires of long duration. using high-pressure diver's air compressors or high-pressure cylinder banks or.3. firefighters must be relieved and replaced at regular intervals.should be based on OBA canister onstation time (30 minutes).200 psi (30 minutes) on the pressure gage. Although cylinders of pressure-demand SCBAs can be changed while in a smoke-filled compartment. NSTM 077 states that the frequency of rotating personnel “. Safety practices require that the firefighter exits to an uncontaminated area to change tanks. if available. destinations and times—after setting the alarm/timer—and record them on the control board. Fighting marine fires quickly takes its toll on firefighters. indicate approximately 1. by salvage ship compressed air systems. 7-3. spare cylinders are part of the SART's equipment list. On most SCBAs. extreme heat or the psychological effect of wearing a breathing apparatus. Air may be used more quickly due to exertion.3. a four. Heat stress is a major factor in relief scheduling for firefighters. NOT a standard evolution.to five-minute supply (about 500 psi) remains. When his alarm sounds. The controller must also be aware of members overdue to return and notify the STL to begin emergency procedures. 7-3. The BA controller is then responsible for updating the board as necessary.2 Recharging Air Cylinders.1 Changing Air Cylinders. Fully charged. Air supply durations for a SCBA are usually 30 to 45 minutes. Figure 7-5 shows typical SCBA cylinder recharging systems. The added external protection provided by the standard ensemble reduces the body’s ability to dissipate internal heat. 7-3. all while using breathing apparatus in hot and humid conditions. the firefighter changes cylinders as outlined by the manufacturer and team policy. lightweight outfits worn by salvage firefighters. Regardless of the type of outfit employed. This is more noticeable when wearing a standard shipboard firefighting ensemble than with the multi-layered. rather than a timer.4 Attack Team Relief. cylinders may need to be recharged either on the casualty. this should be regarded and trained for as an emergency procedure. the firefighter should immediately leave the area. After reporting to the BA controller. the alarm is sounded by a pressure sensor. One controller should not be responsible for more than 12 men. CAUTION The operating times for air cylinders are based on the normal breathing rate of an average person. when full. When the alarm bell/horn sounds. such as emergency escapes.S0300-A6-MAN-030 A person is designated as BA controller by the STL to check each team member prior to beginning operations.. keeping the STL informed of crew rotation times and checking members upon exiting a space or ending a shift. can rapidly exhaust even very fit persons..

depending on the magnitude of the fire and physical effort required. 7-3. 30 minutes may be too long to expect firefighters to remain at the fire front of an enclosed shipboard fire. worn by salvage firefighters and provides an equivalent margin of safety.5 Rescue and MEDEVAC. dimly lit stairwells or ladders can be a formidable task for the rescue team. STLs may limit time to between 15 and 45 minutes as the situation dictates.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-5. Breathing Apparatus Cylinder Recharging Systems. NOTE Firefighter’s on-scene rotation time should be governed by the particular situation and NOT by the amount of air in the breathing apparatus. The removal of injured personnel up narrow. Team members may need to rescue fallen victims from various parts of the ship. 7-11 . However. Injuries are often an unfortunate result of firefighting.

Firefighters should leave personnel transport to assigned bearers. In emergencies. 7-12 . In some cases. Some Standard Rescue and Patient Transportation Devices. Figure 7-6. one-man rescue methods. Figure 7-6 shows some standard rescue equipment. two men are required to move a victim Figure 7-8 demonstrates various techniques. firefighters may be called on to move injured personnel to out of fireinvolved areas to safe locations. Figure 7-7 shows some simple. Stretcher teams are assigned for General Quarters on all ships and are trained and equipped to transport injured personnel. ship or SART medical personnel may begin medical assistance.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Injured personnel must be moved to a safe location. Once in a safe location.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-7. One Man Moving a Casualty. 7-13 .

• High-line between ships or • Helicopters. using applicable Navy MEDEVAC practices: • Small boat. Major injuries that require a doctor’s skill generally must be evacuated from the casualty. 7-14 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-8. MEDEVAC may be accomplished by any of the following methods. Two-Man Carries.

STLs must make a rapid assessment of the casualty’s condition and take determined action to bring fires under control. Policies and tactics contained herein address situations specific to offship battle damage firefighting. missile propellent and ammunition create battle damage fires that are often unpredictable and always dangerous. Experience has shown the salvage community that battle damage fires do not always behave as those in training courses. Special-hazard fires require special techniques and strategies to contain and extinguish. Figure 7-9. battle damage fire requires skill. This section will build on techniques learned from basic firefighting training and publications such as NSTM 555 and NWP 62-1. In general. Preparing a Victim for Helicopter Evacuation. Fuel beds such as oils. 7-4 FIREFIGHTING TEAM TACTICS Special hazards common to marine fires have been identified in Chapter 3 of this volume. Attacking a large. 7-15 . coordination and a fair amount of courage.1 Preliminary Actions.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-9 demonstrates techniques for preparing victims for MEDEVAC transport. the basic rules of shipboard firefighting remain the same. 7-4.

secondary strikes or expansion of the base fire to include special-hazard material may overwhelm or negate any actions previously taken by onboard fire parties. Confine and control the fire. protecting and setting boundaries should already be accomplished by the casualty repair parties by the time salvage firefighting teams arrive. midships. The STL must determine the most advantageous location during his preliminary assessment during overflight or approach. The location of the staging area will depend on numerous factors including. Protect exposures. Set fire and smoke boundaries. The area chosen/available should also provide for the safe evacuation of the team should the loss of the ship become imminent. based on information received from the casualty DCA and his own assessment of threats to the casualty. During battle. but not limited to: • Location and size of the fire(s)—forward. • Adequate room for firefighters and their equipment. • On-going combat operations. 7-4. b. Attack and extinguish the main fire(s) in a systematic manner. Preliminary steps of isolating. e. c. The staging area should include the following characteristics: • Communications capability with repair lockers and team support units. • Accessibility for team support units. f. the steps are the same: a. Salvage firefighting teams arrive on board the casualty with large pieces of special equipment. The STL must reevaluate the situation at the time his team arrives. Size up the fire(s). Personnel casualties. this may not be the case. 7-16 . It is important that the team have an adequate staging area from which to conduct their operations. however.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Whether one team or multiple teams attack a fire. • Stability—list and trim—of the casualty. d. • A smoke-free safe haven for firefighters. aft. Isolate equipment/systems/spaces.1 Staging for the Attack.1.

teams can concentrate on smaller. As fires tend to spread faster in a vertically upward direction. Internal fires in ships may travel in any of six directions: • Vertically—up or down from the base fire. For large internal fires. the fire must go out. internally seated fires will require investigators with thermal imagers. In emergencies. After containing large. extinguishable fires that threaten to spread. The STL must determine a logical approach. desmoking on the non-fire side will improve visibility and lower the temperature.1. either naturally or with mechanical assistance. venting the space and cooling the surrounding area to keep the fire from spreading may be preferable to mounting a direct attack on the fire. vise grips or magnets. Cooling water may then be applied to all sides of the compartment prior to entry. Smoke boundaries are generally set along with fire boundaries. C-clamps. Figure 7-10 shows several ventilation schemes. wool blankets or canvas may be used by attaching them to door frames or hatch combings with spring clamps. fire-resistent blankets. may require special actions or several agents to control. decide on appropriate agents and set fire boundaries at reasonably controllable points. 7-4. For large fires involving significant smoke spread. Secondary boundaries. Once curtains are installed. welding curtains. control and extinguish sequence may include a lengthy control/cool phase. Decks are easier to cool than bulkheads and a continuous thin film of water running over the deck is one useful technique. 7-17 . should be set at the next bulkhead deck or overhead outside the primary boundaries. The location of the fire(s) should be determined.1. • Horizontally—outward on all four sides. as no additional cooling is provided and stability may be jeopardized by excess water. will help move heat. This tactic is often used and basically allows the fire to burn itself out. the contain. if required. Salvors must determine what is burning and what other combustibles are at risk of igniting. well-established internal fires. Smoke curtains should be placed at doors and hatches used for firefighting access or where damaged doors are no longer tight. Multiple-source fires. Water depth should not exceed one inch. When the fuel bed is eliminated. boundaries above the fire should be set first.3 Setting Fire and Smoke Boundaries. Primary fire boundaries should be set using fire zone or watertight bulkheads and decks immediately surrounding the area. often only a general location can be initially identified. where more than one class of fire contributes to the fuel bed. smoke and gases away from firefighters and potential ignition sources.2 Evaluating the Fire. More precise definitions of small. Venting of burning compartments.S0300-A6-MAN-030 7-4. In the meantime.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-10. 7-18 . the area must be made as airtight as possible to keep oxygen out and the extinguishing agent confined. CAUTION Ventilation of burning compartments may serve to intensify the fire by introducing oxygen. During indirect attacks. Venting should only be used during direct attacks. Fire Ventilation.

Figure 7-11 illustrates the fire analysis and decision-making progress. SARTs should be augmented by an EOD team. A single SART with its standard equipment inventory may be sufficient to assist the casualty's crew in combatting fires. Figure 7-11. If the R&A party boards from a ship that remains alongside. Shipboard R&A teams carry a less-extensive equipment inventory. For example.S0300-A6-MAN-030 7-4. Large ships or casualties with major. there is no point in wasting time transferring patching kits if the 7-19 . when it is likely that unexploded ordnance remains in fire-involved areas. out-of-control fires may require assistance from more than one SART or backup from a salvage ship R&A team. This standard equipment inventory can and should be modified to suit the situation. equipment not required for the problem at hand can be left behind.4 Manpower and Equipment Requirements. capable of augmenting the casualty’s firefighting systems or to stand alone. STLs must determine the size of the firefighting force early and request necessary assistance. Table 7-3 is a standard R&A team equipment list. if not already attached.1. Greater quantities of some items may be required (firehose and OBA canisters. Analysis of the Fire Situation. The number of personnel and types of equipment deployed to a casualty will depend on the size of the fire(s) and type of casualty. Portable firefighting equipment deployed with the SART is designed as a self-sufficient system. for example).

Helmet. (2) PKP. 3" (10) Foot Valve * Tri-Gate (1). A self-contained fire pump should always be transferred to a powerless casualty. 18) Tending Lines (2)* Emergency Lighting Wet Cell Flood Lamp (2) Portable Battle Lanterns (2)* Yellow Chem-lights. 30 min (1 box)* Eductors Portable Eductor "S" type (1) In-line Foam Eductor (1)* Eductor Reducer 4" x 3" (1)* Atmospheric Test Equipment O2 Analyzer (1) Explosimeter (1) Draeger Kit (1) NOTE: ( ) * The number in parentheses indicates the quantity required Items to be maintained in the Rescue and Assistance chest If the R&A team’s parent ship does not remain alongside. 2"(5). 10’ X 3" (2) Gaskets. Under normal circumstances. Salvage firefighters generally find that casualty fires are either well established or out of control by the time teams arrive. 50’ x 4" (1) Gaskets. etc. to gain immediate control and to prevent or minimize the spread of fire. 50’x1 1/2" (1) Dewatering. Reducer 2 1/2"F x 1 1/2" M (1)* Y-Gate (1)* Spanner Wrench (2) Portable Extinguishers CO 2 15 lb. the attack should begin as soon as possible. Table 7-3. ready for immediate deployment. 7-4.2 Attack and Control of Fires. Rescue and Assistance Team Required Equipment. Fireman’s (20) Lifejacket (20) P-250 Pump with accessories Aural Protection (20) International Shore Conn. even if hoselines are charged from the assisting ship. (2)* Fuel Tank with Fuel (1) Hose. 18 lb (2) Halon 1211 (1) (if available) First Aid Kit (1) Blanket (2) Stretcher (1) Communication Equipment AFFF 5-gallon container (2) Portable Radio (1) Very Pistol (1) Signal Flags (1 Set) Kits. 1 1/2" (10). Rubber Exhaust. 20’ X 2" (1) Suction. not flooding.S0300-A6-MAN-030 casualty's problem is fire. Damage Control Desmoking (1) Emergency Comms (1) Investigator/Tender (2) Electrical Repair (1) Pipe Patching (1) Plugging (1) Shoring (2) Protective Clothing Anti-flash Gloves and Hood (20) Fire-retardant Coveralls (20) Firefighter’s Ensemble (Req to outfit fire teams) Hoses Firefighting.—is boarded before attacking the fire. The R&A team need not wait until all ancillary equipment—test equipment. 50’x1 1/2" (4) Firefighting. Items not immediately required can be staged on the salvage ship near the boarding point. 1/2" 95 gpm (2) OBAs (6) Spare canisters (3 boxes. extra OBA canisters. the complete equipment inventory should be transferred to give the team greater independence and depth. so that fire teams will not be left without a source of water if the assist ship must break away suddenly. 7-20 . 2 1/2" (10) 4" (5) Vari-nozzles.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Chapter 5 of NSTM 555 gives Navy policy on basic firefighting tactics. 7-4.1 Hand-Held Hoseline Procedures. with the nozzle rotating in a clockwise manner.2. the following list of cautions learned in the real world of marine firefighting should be stressed. as shown in Figure 7-12. prevent surrounding material from igniting and to protect personnel. • Close all openings in the ship’s sides at an early stage to prevent additional air from reaching the fire. As reinforcement of NSTM 555 doctrine. heated gases and combustion products rise. • Check the temperature of smoke coming from ventilators or openings to assist in defining the severity and location of the fire. The clockwise rotation serves to: 7-21 . The hose stream must be kept moving over the whole fire area to reduce temperature. • Unaccompanied firefighters should always attach a safety line when entering compartments to ensure relocating an exit. The initial surge passes after about one minute and conditions tend to improve. the high-velocity fog stream is swept back and forth across the space. The line should be tended from outside the space. preference should be given to using the fixed system prior to opening the space unless it is obvious that an attack with hoselines will be successful. • In spaces containing workable fixed systems. cool the area with low-velocity fog nozzles. If heating occurs. • Position of the fire(s). Firefighters are often subjected to a sudden visibility loss and blast of moist heat as the stream strikes the burning material and creates large quantities of steam and smoke. With the door partially open as a shield and the hose party keeping as low as possible. These general strategies apply to the salvage firefighter as well. under most circumstances. • Keep watch on the temperature of bulkheads in all adjacent compartments. The best approach to attack a fire with handlines is dictated by three main factors: • The fact that hot air. • Layout of the ship. door or other access until charged lines of hose or fixed systems in that space are ready for action. Water used for firefighting is doing its best work only when being turned to steam. • Never open a hatch.

hose teams should attempt to descend to a level below the fire. pass under the space and ascend toward the fire similar to the strategies used 7-22 . Avoiding heat and smoke is compensated by difficulties in opening hatches for access or locating a suitable passage from below. Ship construction usually forces firefighters to attack horizontally on the same level as the fire and/or to come down through rising smoke and heat to reach the fire level. fog nozzles or applicators may be used as sprinklers (Figure 7-13) to extinguish a fire or cool it to the point where a direct attack can be made. but are thought to be related to the electrical charges on the smoke particles. When horizontal approach is not feasible. heated gases and smoke away from the nozzleman. firefighters should keep as close to the deck as possible to reduce the effects of the heat zone that starts 18 to 24 inches above the deck. • Increase fire knockdown and water efficiency. Being below the level of the fire is more desirable. Hoseline attacks may be direct—through open doors into the immediate fire area or indirect—through small openings in-line with or above the space where direct access is impossible. The reasons for this phenomenon are not well understood.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-12. For indirect attacks. • Drive flames. Application of Hose Stream. When approaching horizontally. • Generate steam in a more violent rolling action. but often more strenuous. Counter-clockwise rotation draws smoke and flames to the nozzle.

Agents applied against other faces of the fire. The decision of what agents to use and in what quantities rests with the STL and considers the type and size of the fire(s) and availability of agents. Where a machinery space is accessible from a shaft alley or lower adjacent space. An approach from above subjects the firefighter to a smoke/heat layer that must be passed through to reach the source of the fire. Since water extinguishes a fire by cooling the fuel below the ignition point and displacing oxygen by generating steam. Agents applied at this point will be drawn into the fire and function more effectively. which indicates the point where air is being drawn into the fire. a bottom approach will usually be successful. water achieves maximum effectiveness only when it is being turned into steam by direct contact with the seat of the fire. Figures 7-14. This challenges all but the most determined and experienced firefighter. it may be possible to access the lower level through the escape trunk and attack the fire on the same level or from below. 7-16A and 7-16B demonstrate attack approach techniques. Extinguishing agents and their uses are detailed in Chapter 3. Firefighters should attempt to locate an obvious vortex in the flames near the base of the fire. 7-15.1 Application of Water. 7-23 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-13. in fighting large building fires. In machinery spaces fitted with enclosed escape trunks. 7-4. 7-4. Indirect Hose Attack Using Low-Velocity Applicator as a Sprinkler. may be dispersed or beaten back from the fire by escaping combustion gases.3 Application of Agents. particularly those where smoke is billowing or flames are whipping violently.3. This method is often used following an indirect attack.

rotated in a clockwise direction. as the cooled smoke and gases hang in the area. the firefighter will have three to five seconds of relatively good visibility in which to orient himself and locate the fire before proceeding. instead of rising out of the area. provided there is an escape route for the smoke.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-14. any runoff will be hot. near boiling. Cool runoff is a sign that water streams are misdirected or that the seat of the fire is obstructed. Water streams should be directed to strike the seat of the fire or heated surfaces. cooling smoke only complicates matters. Often. When the nozzle is shut down. it will be necessary to cool surrounding areas with large quantities of water spray. Short bursts with a narrow cone of high-velocity fog. If water streams are reaching the seat of the fire or highly heated surfaces. Preferred Method-Enter Space and Attack Fire Directly. can clear smoke from an area. Unless needed to protect firefighters or exposures from accompanying heat. water directed at smoke accomplishes nothing. When the seat of the fire cannot be found or reached and great heat is generated that endangers other fuel sources. 7-24 .

7-25 . Fire Attack if High Temperature Denies Access.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-15.

7-26 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-16A. Fire-Fighting From Above through a Vertical Trunk.

the water is not reaching the seat of the fire or the flow rate is not great enough to extinguish the fire. giving the impression that the fire is out.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-16B. Fire-Fighting From Above. If a fire is not extinguished after about three minutes of water application. but the flames will re-appear when the hose stream is shut down or is moved. Water applied to the flames will knock them down. Flames may travel along the overhead through several spaces between firefighters and the fire. as is often the case. 7-27 . especially when flames are far from the fuel source. Water directed at the flame only has little extinguishing effect.

Use of steam. their uses and compatibilities. before the door of a compartment or cabin is opened. 7-28 . applied too early. Pressure drops due to friction in and elevation of hoselines and monitors must be considered to keep adequate water supplies to firefighters. Applied in insufficient quantities. 7-4. inertion or any other extinguishing agent will be governed by the types and locations of the fires. Certain areas of a casualty present greater risks than others. with hoselines charged. dry chemicals. • All fire-resisting or smoke-stop doors in the vicinity must be closed and fire containment boundaries established. can require large quantities of water—10. especially on tankers. The salvage firefighter may arrive on an unknown ship with little knowledge of the damage situation and be expected to fight large fires under adverse conditions.1 Accommodation Spaces. Water hydraulics make the choice of delivery devices critical. the foam will not cover completely. exuded from combustible materials in a compartment.000 to 6. Pumps. Fighting major ship fires.3 Application of Other Agents. nozzles. Knowledge of how to use foam and where and when to apply it. are heated to their flash points and burst into flame—frequently with explosive violence. speed of attack is vital to prevent the flashover that occurs when flammable vapors.000 gpm and the application of 3. 7-4.000 to 20.2 Application of Foam. 7-4. proportioners. It may not always be easy or timely to get another supply of foam when at sea under battle conditions. Chapter 4 outlines types of other agents.000 gpm of AFFF/ ATC foam. Special hazards make the job that much more difficult. 7-4.3. before sufficient cooling of surrounding structural steel. In accommodation fires. Fires in accommodation spaces must be tackled with the utmost speed. hoses and monitors should be properly sized and positioned to deliver the needed flows at effective ranges. foam will burn off and allow violent reflashes to occur. • Firefighting equipment must be laid out. Heat from fires can travel through ventilation ducting and radiate downward from overhead vents to ignite furniture and fittings in compartments remote from the initial fire. CO2.4.4 Precautions and Tactics for Specific Locations.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Firefighters should apply water in short bursts and shut down the nozzle to observe the effects (if heat permits) to avoid being cut off by fires they have passed while flames were knocked down but the fire remained unextinguished.3. the following points should be remembered if the salvor is very close to the casualty when the outbreak is reported: • Ventilation systems must be shut down and isolation dampers closed immediately upon arrival. Although an average accommodation fire will usually have burned out the accommodation before the salvor arrives. is of great importance.

Attacking from one side may only chase the fire out of one area into another. • Secure ventilators and close dampers. identifiable ignition source. The hold is first sealed off. should hose teams close in and systematically beat out the flames. Firefighters may have to combat more than a single.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • If there is a serious fire burning on the other side of a joiner door. chlorates or other materials that produce oxygen when heated. be permitted. The following actions should be taken: • Check all hatch covers to ensure that they are securely dogged down.2 Cargo Holds and Containers. • After a serious fire that has involved lined or panelled compartments. WARNING Fires involving nitrates. as needed. the lead hoseman should initially direct his hose towards the overhead to cool the atmosphere and to prevent the fire bursting out of the compartment. Figure 7-17 shows a typical cargo hold fitted with a fire extinguishing/flooding system. it is better not to open the door but to smash a bottom door panel and to direct a cooling stream towards the overhead in an indirect attack. to cool hot spots on deck and the exterior of the hull. Salvage firefighters may be faced with battle damage on auxiliary ships of the fleet. usually when the vessel reaches port. Generally. • Run out on deck and charge one or more hoselines. • It is essential to surround or boundary-off a compartment to prevent fire from spreading. • On entry. Lines will be used. cargo ships—commercial or Navy—will be of the break bulk (assorted packaged cargos) or container type. should NEVER be battened down. etc. Serious explosion may result. individual units may not be accessible without removing the surrounding vans. The seal must be maintained until adequate personnel and equipment are available to enter the hold and extinguish any remaining fires. all affected panelling should be removed to ensure that the fire is not still smoldering beneath. such openings should be made only to save life or as part of a coordinated ventilation and/or direct attack. With containers. then and only then.4. doors.. windows. 7-29 . Indirect attack using extra CO2 or Halon may be the best firefighting technique in these circumstances. • Once a fire is surrounded. Cargo holds and container cells on most modern ships are fitted with a fixed extinguishing system—CO2 or Halon. 7-4. A variety of cargoes may be carried in any one hold or container. • In no circumstances should the indiscriminate smashing of ports.

. CAUTION Check all hatch covers and vent dampers to ensure no agent leaks from the hold or air leaks in. • Continue cooling of surrounding areas as long as necessary. bleaches. Cargo Hold Layout of a Typical Break Bulk Ship.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-17. cannot be 7-30 . Otherwise. permanganates. pyrotechnics). Upon arrival of an appropriately equipped and manned firefighting team. the hold may be partially opened and investigators sent in to check the fire's condition. Fire involving oxidizing materials. the compartment may be naturally ventilated and overhauled. chlorates and chlorites (gunpowder. direct methods may be employed to complete the job. • Discharge agent into the hold and carefully monitor temperatures. explosives). If fires are still burning. Check for smoke or heat being pushed from openings and seal with sealant or tape. • Study instructions for the ship’s fixed systems to ensure that the proper number of cylinders are discharged to the affected hold and that there are sufficient cylinders available for follow-up applications. peroxides. such as nitrates and nitrites (fertilizers. etc.

7-31 . Figure 7-18 shows one method of attacking a small oil fire with foam. In all cases. Oxidizing materials should be indicated by placards or labels and on cargo manifests. causing a reflash. Open patches of burning fuel may heat and break down the blanket.4 Magazines and Weapons Hazards. Different oil products behave somewhat differently when exposed to heat. When the salvage firefighter encounters weapons that are damaged and/or threatened by fire. CO 2 flooding systems are also installed. for the purpose of extinguishing Class A or C materials in and around the missile(s).4. heat sensing devices (HSD) will automatically energize sprinklers when the temperature of the space reaches approximately 160 degrees Fahrenheit or as a result of a sudden rapid rise in temperature. In booster suppression systems. Heat causes oxidizing agents to evolve oxygen. but all can create problems for salvage firefighters. Table 7-4 lists common oxidizing agents. Only after sufficient cooling can large amounts of foam be applied with any chance of successfully smothering the fire. Weapons can be cooled in several ways: In their normal stowage condition. capable of manual or automatic activation. The only sound method to extinguish oxidizing fuels is to apply large quantities of cooling water.3 Fuel and Cargo Oil Tanks. NOTE The commanding officer’s permission is required prior to activating any magazine or weapons stowage flooding system.S0300-A6-MAN-030 extinguished by smothering or battening down. Tactics are essentially the same for fighting large oil tank fires in either bunker or cargo tanks. A flowing oil fire breaks down the foam blanket rapidly. Combustion in a confined space may cause the fuel bed to explode. supporting continued combustion. Cooling the tanks is vital to preparing for the application of foam and to prevent boil over or spill over. manual activation of installed protection is the first defense. Containing the fuel source is important to maintaining the blanket.4. the sudden shock from heat-induced rocket motor ignition causes the release of large amounts of water on the affected missile. flooding the hold or scuttling the ship. these tanks may be hit directly or be exposed to the heat of fire from surrounding areas. The primary consideration is controlling the fire while concurrently cooling affected weapons and awaiting qualified EOD personnel. Fuel and other oil tanks are an integral part of any ship and the major component of a tanker. if necessary. 7-4. Expanding combustion products may overpressurize the space or blow off hatch covers. Cooling the area around the fire and protecting adjacent tanks is the primary concern. 7-4. an unbroken blanket of foam must be maintained over the fuel until all sources of ignition are eliminated. Large amounts of cooling water must be directed by hoselines and monitors. rapid but cautious response is necessary. Foam attacks will not be successful until the steelwork surrounding the fire area is cooled below 212 degrees Fahrenheit because foam will be burned off. Small fuel or oil fires may be attacked directly with foam. typical to missile stowage. In magazine sprinkling systems. In battle. It is important to note that most systems typically serving weapons/munitions have automatic activation capability.

magnesium fabrication and as treatment for dermatitis (dilute solutions).S. Chlorates are frequent components of gunpowders and pyrotechnics. shipped and used as solution in water.5%. Both metallic and organic peroxides are water-reactive. OXIDIZING CLASS (LISTED IN APPROXIMATE DESCENDING ORDER OF STRENGTH) Fluorine Ozone Peroxide Hydrogen Peroxide Sodium Peroxide (Metallic Peroxide) Benzoyl Peroxide (Organic Peroxide) H2O2 Na2O2 EXAMPLES (NOT ALL-INCLUSIVE) COMMENTS Attacks virtually any material and supports hot “combustion” even in the absence of oxygen. some used in electroplating processes. Lead dioxide Metallic permanganates Metallic dichromates Nitric acid (concentrated) Nitrates and Nitrites Ammonium Nitrate NH4NO4 Potassium Permanganate Potassium Dichromat KMnO4 K2 CrO7 Used in industrial air pollution control systems. Important industrial gas. industrial chemicals. Important industrial acid. Navy Salvage Safety Manual. water treatment chemicals. domestic and industrial bleaches.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table 7-4. liberating heat and oxygen when exposed to water. may be liberated by the reaction of battery acid with seawater. May be generated by electrical arcs or as the decomposition product of pollutant gases. Industrial chemicals. Medical hydrogen peroxide is 3% solution. 50%. Large ships may have liquid oxygen plants. Commonly found as compressed gas. liberating free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide in the process. Metallic peroxides can initiate metal fires in the presence of water or acid. Organic peroxides are not strong oxidizers. Used in military and commercial explosives and fertilizer. but are intrinsically unstable and may decomposed explosively. Nitrites generally less active than nitrates. Chlorine Sulfuric acid (concentrated) Oxygen Metallic iodates Bromine Ferric Salts Iodine Sulfur Stannic salts Note: Oxidizing agents should be labeled with the NFPA 704M and/or the UN/DOT hazard symbols. 27. Industrial acids. S0400-AA-SAF-010 7-32 . Common Oxidizing Materials. 30%. Other nitrates and nitrites have important industrial uses. formed on the solution of bleaches or other oxychiorinated metal salts in water. Important industrial acid. Oxychlorinated acids Hypochlorous Acid Chlorous Acid Chloric Acid Perichloric Acid Sodium Hypochlorite Sodium Chlorite Sodium Chlorate Sodium Perchlorate Calcium Hypochlorite Ammonium Chlorate Ammonium Perchlorate HCIO HCIO2 HCIO3 HCIO4 NaCIO NaCIO2 NaCIO3 NaCIO4 Ca(OCI)2 2NH4CIO3 2NH4CIO4 Oxychlorinated metal salts Commercial. Common commercial strengths are 5%. as shown in Appendix C of the U. Hydrogen peroxide is an industrial bleaching agent and raw material. of ammonia or acid with chlorine bleaches or other reactions. although concentrations up to 99% have special application.

Protein foam is not used. as its insulating qualities will prevent. Typically. As conditions permit. efforts should be made to jettison damaged weapon(s). rather than assist. the ship will experience reduction in available firemain pressure. The salvor should have a basic knowledge of installed protection systems typically found aboard combatants and/or logistic support ships. while the wet system is typically installed on bagged powder and missile magazines. stability of the ship must be considered. such as boosting the casualty’s firemain pressure with salvage fire pumps. these will automatically commence water removal upon system activation. Regardless of the means used to keep weapons cool. The most convenient and effective means to cool weapons outside their normal stowage areas is application of water via hoselines. Appropriate action should be taken to counter the loss in pressure.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-18. In some cases. Many weapons stowage compartments and magazines are equipped with installed eductor systems. The dry system is typically installed on magazines for 5-inch and smaller fixed and semi-fixed ammunition. Figures 7-19 and 7-20 describe two of the most common magazine sprinkling systems found on board U. When sprinkling systems or booster suppression systems have been activated. if necessary. AFFF may also be used in this effort as the cooling qualities of finished foam are comparable to water. cooling of the weapon. two 2-1/2-inch hoses or four 1-1/2-inch hoses are utilized with the goal of applying 400-500 gpm of drenching spray. Navy ships. This degradation in firemain pressure may affect ongoing firefighting efforts.S. 7-33 . to ensure sufficient supplies are available for other firefighting activities. Attacking Small Oil Fire on Deck With Foam.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-19. Dry Magazine Sprinkling System. 7-34 .

7-4. the gas must be applied within 15 minutes of the outbreak. diesel exhausts.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 7-20. The salvor must understand that a critical time for introduction of the gas exists. Attacks on machinery spaces may be direct or indirect. For indirect attacks.4.5 Engine Rooms and Machinery Spaces. The ignition of oil gives rise to a very hot fire with large volumes of dense smoke. Wet Magazine Sprinkling System. Oil presents a grave hazard in any machinery space. Most oils will spontaneously ignite when contacting surfaces whose temperatures exceed about 550 degrees Fahrenheit. the attack must be immediate. boiler casings or overheated bearings. Although 7-35 . Numerous areas in engine rooms and machinery spaces have temperatures well in excess of 550 degrees Fahrenheit—superheated steam lines. the ship’s CO2 or Halon system is activated. as distinct from holding it in check. regardless of the method used. In all cases. Experiments have shown that if a machinery space fire is to be extinguished.

CO2 is not effective if surrounding metal has been heated above the fuel's spontaneous ignition point. if fitted. • A reflash watch must be maintained following either method. Halon is an extremely effective extinguishing agent. A charged hose and portable foam unit should remain in the space to cool or repair the blanket until no longer required. Fuel bed and structure cooling can be accelerated by boundary cooling. involved a large area or burned for a long time. 7-36 . a long cooling period is required.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Halon can prevent the ignition of diesel fuel impinging on extremely hot surfaces. Monitors should be positioned to cool exterior portions of the hull or bulkheads adjacent to the space. If the fire was fed by large pools of fuel. the attack will be most effective if the gas is introduced before surrounding metal is heated above the spontaneous ignition point of the oil. burning fuel source using standard foam procedures. Additional reflash protection can be provided by operating AFFF bilge sprinklers. It is important to establish effective boundary cooling prior to commencing the attack. a ventilating hatch at the overhead of the space is opened to create a flue for heat and flames. direct attack with handlines and monitors is the course of action. but does not cool hot surfaces. The length of time required depends on the amount of heat in the fuel bed and structure and the rate at which it can be dissipated.” foam may then be applied to the trapped. The hoseline attack may then be mounted as follows: • With all horizontal accesses from the machinery space secured to prevent spread to adjacent compartments. • An alternative application is a combination of water and foam. Water is used as above to drive the fire “into a corner. • Firefighters enter with at least two charged hoses at a low point in the space—through an enclosed escape trunk or from a shaft alley or adjacent boiler room—and drive the flames back and out the flue until reduced and extinguished. Reflash of a Halon-extinguished fire is prevented by keeping the space closed so the Halon concentration is not diluted until the fuel bed and surrounding structure have cooled below the ignition temperatures. When the fire is beyond the effective use of fixed systems. Reflash protection is provided only if the halon concentration remains high enough to prevent combustion.

S0300-A6-MAN-030

CHAPTER 8 SECURING THE SHIP
8-1 INTRODUCTION Operations described in this manual concentrate on firefighting tasks that require rapid and instinctive reaction from salvors. In most marine firefighting, the events are almost always fastmoving and operations are carried out under considerable physical and mental pressure. Because firefighting does not allow salvors the luxury of time to evaluate and test several options, there is urgency and danger throughout the task. Only after fires are extinguished and the immediate perils of fire and flooding are removed do salvors have time to consider the next phase of their work. Operations move from firefighting and damage control to a period of securing the ship when the casualty is stabilized and prepared for return to service or for withdrawal to a ship repair activity. To salvors, securing the ship means the work necessary to render the casualty safely afloat and fit to steam under her own power or to be taken under tow. Being safely afloat depends upon the nature and extent of damage and the ability of salvage personnel to deliver a manageable ship that can be kept afloat by her organic resources. A ship that is safely afloat may not be able to perform its mission and may be fit only to proceed to a repair facility. Work involved in securing the ship may be relatively straightforward or it may be a complex series of operations involving: • Making the ship as watertight as possible. • Transferring fuel, ammunition and stores to other ships. • Preparing the ship for tow to a repair facility. The work during the securing the ship phase depends on the nature of damage sustained by the casualty. It includes some or all of the following tasks: • Surveying the casualty in detail to determine services that are required from or should be provided by salvors. This work is usually performed in association with final dewatering and stabilizing of the casualty. • Upgrading and reinforcing temporary damage control repairs, including changing out soft patching and plugging with more durable and suitable steel patches. • Assisting the casualty crew to restore basic domestic, berthing and electrical services where necessary and practical. • Removing cargo, munitions or stores that may be urgently required or that are useful to other ships.
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• Preparing the casualty for ocean tow, including rigging, securing for sea and the general work associated with the ocean tow of damaged ships. • Cleaning, overhauling and making ready for use salvage and repair locker equipment and replenishment of damage control supplies on board both the salvage ship(s) and the casualty. Delivery of the casualty to its commanding officer or to those responsible for taking the casualty to a repair activity usually takes place after this work is completed. 8-2 SURVEYING THE CASUALTY Salvors usually begin a general survey of the casualty when major fires are extinguished and mopping-up operations are progressing satisfactorily. While the planned refloating condition of a stranded ship usually is known with a reasonable degree of accuracy, the post-salvage condition of a combat casualty cannot be predicted closely. By a post-firefighting survey and determination of the immediate post-salvage condition, salvors develop a plan to secure the ship. The survey detects any latent or potentially threatening situations that have been either ignored or bypassed during firefighting operations. Surveys combine physical inspections and walk-throughs with a theoretical analysis based on normal salvage calculations. Paragraph 8-2.6 of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1, S0300-A6-MAN-010, contains detailed descriptions of applicable salvage survey procedures. The first stage of the survey is a careful draft survey to establish: • Forward, aft and port and starboard midships drafts, together with freeboard measurements when draft marks are submerged or obliterated. • Extent of hull deflections—hog, sag and racking—for strength calculations. After completion of draft surveys, salvors should calculate a mean-of-quarter-means draft, as described in Paragraph 8-2.6.3 of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1, S0300-A6MAN-010. From the observed and calculated drafts, salvors establish the displacement and hydrostatic condition of the casualty. Salvors can then compare the casualty’s theoretical displacement, from DC, plates, etc., with the actual or observed displacement. An important part of the survey procedure is to reconcile all known solid and liquid weights in the predamaged condition with weights found or estimated in the casualty’s post-salvage condition. Usually, at this stage of post-firefighting surveys, some anomalies are detected, particularly with respect to flooding that was unnoticed during firefighting operations. A physical examination of all accessible compartments is imperative during the survey to enable salvors to:
8-2

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• Carry out detailed gas and toxic substance testing procedures as discussed in Paragraph 8-2.2. • Verify that all temporary patching and plugging are holding well. • Ensure that all estimates of floodwater in compartments are reasonably accurate. • Logically plan further temporary repairs and dewatering. 8-2.1 Underwater Survey. A survey by salvage divers is important to determine and measure the extent of underwater damage. Underwater surveys usually are carried out after all firefighting operations are completed. These surveys define the physical extent of underwater damage sustained by the casualty and serve as a basis for evaluating: • Extent of temporary underwater patching and sealing or plugging necessary to dewater flooded compartments that are open to the sea. • Requirements for underwater repairs before the casualty can be moved safely to a major repair facility. • Practicality and time required for making major underwater repairs and the structural effectiveness of temporary repairs. Often, when major underwater repairs are technically feasible, there are tactical and engineering reasons for taking the casualty to a repair facility in an unrepaired condition. 8-2.2 Toxic and Explosive Gases. Salvors must be particularly vigilant in making detailed examinations of actual or potential sources of toxic or explosive gas hazards. During the initial survey and securing ship activities, tests must be made in all spaces and compartments that have been closed up, unmanned or flooded by damage. Combat salvage operations have an unfortunate history of producing human casualties after the major threats of fire and flooding are subdued or removed. Many salvage crew fatalities have occurred because salvors’ vigilance lapsed when the major life-threatening risks of fire and flooding were controlled. Chapters 6 and 7 of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Safety Manual, S0400-AA-SAF-010, contain detailed guidance on safety precautions and testing procedures to be followed during and after a marine casualty. The importance of constant vigilance and safety consciousness cannot be overemphasized during the final stages of combat salvage operations. 8-2.3 Battle Damage Assessment. During the early stages of securing a casualty, a Battle Damage Assessment Team (BDAT) inspects the damaged ship. The BDAT assists the ship’s force in determining the extent of damage and repairs required. Reports by the BDAT are the basis on which decisions are made to: • Redeploy the casualty as a serviceable unit upon completion of salvage services and the temporary repairs necessary to enable the ship to perform all or some of its mission.
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• Remove the casualty to a repair facility upon completion of salvage services. The removal voyage may be made: (1) Under own power, with or without a salvage-capable escort ship. (2) Under tow by an ocean tug. (3) As float-on/float-off cargo on board a submersible transport ship or barge. Ideally, salvors should have completed post-salvage surveys of the casualty before BDAT personnel arrive, but this may not always be possible because of the extent of damage sustained by the casualty and the ongoing nature of patch and pump operations as part of salvage work. 8-3 ASSISTANCE WITH DAMAGE REPAIRS Salvors are not ship repairers; their mission in the broadest terms is to prevent the loss of ships from combat or marine accident. During salvage operations, salvors perform minor steelwork repairs, such as welding on patches or making a ship watertight by a variety of means. These are temporary, not permanent repairs. Navy salvors have neither the resources nor the skilled manpower to be efficient ship repair crews. There is a tendency to believe that salvors can be pressed into service as mobile repair crews. This belief is created partly because salvors are often willing to assist with repair work that is the job of other better-equipped organizations. Salvors are similar to ambulance crews and paramedics in that they provide emergency or “first aid” services. However, just as ambulance personnel do not perform major surgical operations, salvage crews should not try to perform large-scale battle damage repairs. On the other hand, the difference between temporary and permanent steelwork is often a matter of how neatly the work is done. Neat work that follows standard procedures takes more time than “good enough” work—time that is not available in a damage control situation. Time may be available, however, while making the ship safely afloat. Salvage repairs are often temporary only because of ignorance of correct procedures or the misguided belief that they must be temporary. Coordination with the BDAT can help to ensure that repairs are not needlessly performed twice. The tactical situation has considerable influence on the extent to which salvors should be involved in major battle-damage repairs. In a high-threat environment, salvors should not be committed to repair projects that restrict their ability to respond immediately to calls for assistance. Salvors are normally relieved when they have made the casualty as safely afloat as circumstances and the ship's condition permit. 8-3.1 Immediate Temporary Repairs. The physical survey and inspections of a ship that has been damaged by fire usually reveal a need for temporary repairs that must be made immediately. These repairs can be grouped as:
8-4

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• Dewatering of wholly or partially flooded spaces known to be structurally intact, but flooded by firefighting runoff. Usually, these spaces are given first priority, as there will be little or no further leakage into them. • Test-pumping of spaces where external damage has occurred but is suspected to be relatively minor. In many such compartments, leakage and flooding occurs because hull fittings, such as valves or machinery connections, have been damaged by blast, fire or contact damage from displaced objects. These leakages can be relatively difficult for divers to locate unless a positive suction is taken on the compartment. In some cases, it is faster to dewater the compartment before making a combined external (diver) and internal repair. • Measuring major underwater damage for large temporary patches or additional stiffening. Under some circumstances, large underwater patches must be fitted to the casualty; this is not always the case when a casualty is to be withdrawn to a repair facility. Chapter 4 of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 2, S0300-A6-MAN-020, contains detailed guidance for design and construction of large and small underwater patches. • Plugging or sealing above-water holes or blast and shrapnel punctures that are close to the waterline and may allow leakage if the weather changes. This patching, particularly where small holes are to be sealed, can utilize any convenient steel that is compatible with the damaged area. Sections of plate removed from above-water blast or firedamaged areas can be cut to shape and beat to fit before welding onto smaller damaged areas. These small patches do not have to be works of art, but must be strong enough to resist wave or water pressure. • Damage control repairs and temporary patching or shoring installed by either the casualty crew or salvage personnel during early phases of the salvage operation must be examined carefully. These repairs and stiffenings usually have been made under the immediate threat of fire and flooding. They are rarely more than temporary fixes. Postsalvage repair work usually involves systematically checking and changing out: (1) Temporary wooden shores, bracing and collision mats. (2) Wooden plugs and other temporary leak-stoppers. (3) Piping patches, jumper lines and other temporary water supply systems. • Temporary compressed air dewatering systems should be modified or re-installed in accordance with conventional salvage practice. Figure 8-1 shows a typical, temporary compressed air dewatering system for emergencies. These systems serve an immediate need during the stabilization of a damaged ship, but are not suitable for the long-term. Salvors should systematically change-out any of these temporary compressed air systems for fittings described in Section 5-3, “Compressed Air Dewatering,” of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 2 S0300-A6-MAN-020.
8-5

restoration of adequate margins of stability and reserve buoyancy takes precedence over machinery preservation and water damage protection. 8-3. There may be very good technical reasons for leaving large machinery spaces flooded until enough water damage protection chemicals and specialized personnel and equipment are on site. machinery preservation in conjunction with dewatering may not be a practical option and dewatering proceeds without water-damage protection. In some situations. On other occasions.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Figure 8-1. Water-damage pro8-6 . Emergency Compressed Air Fittings.2 Water Damage Protection.

Key elements in planning and making transfers or discharge of stores. Salvors may be required to provide ancillary services to a casualty while they are securing the ship. 8-7 . munitions and break-bulk cargoes. Each particular type and category of munitions cargo or stores has its own special requirements and handling methods. MUNITIONS. 8-3. munitions and cargo are: • Versatility – An improvised or adapted system should be able to handle as many different types of dry cargo or stores as possible. ships can be towed safely to a repair facility with a flooded machinery space and the machinery can be preserved and protected in the repair yard. • Supplying fresh water for domestic purposes on board the casualty. Sustaining overall mission requirements of the combat group may create urgent demands for removal of cargo from replenishment ships that become casualties. • Supplying saltwater under pressure for the casualty’s circulating systems or for washing down and cleaning out damaged or fire-affected spaces. munitions and other equipment. In other cases. are often expected to improvise workable handling systems. • Assisting the casualty crew to overhaul the casualty’s repair locker equipment and to repair damaged equipment. Each cargo.S0300-A6-MAN-030 tection and machinery preservation work priorities must be resolved between the salvors and those representing BDATs and repair facilities. In some circumstances. Salvors may have to adapt various equipment and machinery to perform dry cargo and munitions offloading and then instruct and supervise other personnel in their operation. STORES AND EQUIPMENT When a casualty is unable to perform its mission and must go to a repair facility. 8-4 REMOVAL OF CARGO. These services can include: • Supplying temporary distribution systems for electrical power for basic berthing and domestic services on the casualty. as trained riggers and heavy weight handlers. an improvised system requires a break-in and modification period to eliminate difficulties or to optimize the system.3 Ancillary Services. Each casualty presents different water-damage protection problems and options and each must be evaluated on its particular circumstances. On many occasions. By training and experience. Combatant ships and combat support auxiliary ships load and carry a wide range of stores. fuel. salvors. salvors see an immediate solution to the cargo handling problem. there may be a requirement for salvors to remove stores. When purpose-built systems are damaged or destroyed. salvors are well versed in cargo handling under the adverse circumstances that exist on damaged ships. subject to the amount of water that the salvage ship can make available. Major re-rigging each time different stores or cargo are handled should be avoided. stores or munitions offloading project should be approached with an open mind.

progressive flooding. Navy Ship Salvage Manual. S0300-A6-MAN-050. The circumstances under which a casualty’s POL cargo can be discharged in small parcels to multiple receiving ships are very limited. A variety of portable electric and hydraulic submersible salvage pumps are on the inventories of salvage ships and the ESSM system. a casualty cannot remain in the forward area. A damaged ship requires special tow preparation that considers: • Draft. damage control equipment and trained riding crews. • Safety – The cargo. with a reasonable margin for error built into the arrangement. large crawler cranes and construction-type equipment that may expedite the task. 8-5 PREPARING FOR TOW In many cases. • Residual strength and reserve buoyancy that may be lower than those acceptable in a peacetime planned tow. Salvors should take careful note of available facilities such as barges. Navy salvors should be actively involved in planning and accomplishing cargo transfer operations. The damaged ship that is not prepared adequately and manned properly for ocean tow runs a grave risk of developing serious difficulties. There are many cases where damaged ships under tow were lost to preventable. • Necessity of providing adequate portable pumps. Volume 5.S. trim and list of the casualty after temporary repairs and securing for sea. • Imagination – Most transfers of cargo stores and munitions from damaged ships take place in comparatively sheltered waters or at intermediate ports of refuge. The most efficient emergency POL transhipments from oil carriers are best made to only one or two large receiving ships that can carry the casualty’s entire cargo. contains detailed information on all aspects of emergency offloading of POL and fuel oil cargo and should be consulted for further information on that subject. In some cases.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Efficiency – The proposed system should perform the task as efficiently as possible under the circumstances without being unnecessarily complex. Ocean tows of damaged ships usually present several problems that must be examined carefully by those responsible for planning and executing the tow. An ocean tow may be the only alternative for removing a casualty to a repair facility when hull or machinery damage prevents a casualty from steaming under its own power. The U. stores and munitions handling system must be as safe as practical. When an oil-carrying replenishment or transport tanker sustains damage that makes its cargo transfer systems inoperable. Navy salvors have developed specialized equipment to offload cargo and fuel oils from combatant or bulk oil-carrying ships under emergency conditions. a ship may not be a seaworthy 8-8 .

Typical work required includes: • Ballasting. What may be an acceptable tow risk in the immediate aftermath of damage is not acceptable after salvage operations are completed. structural soundness and reserve buoyancy may be severely degraded in comparison with her intact characteristics. in a seaworthy condition. • Severe hull damage caused by collision. In practice. • A major flooded compartment that is open to the sea. trimming and bringing the ship into the best possible trim and list condition for the tow. such tows are acceptable risks provided the boundary bulkheads of the flooded compartment are strong enough for the voyage.3. some ocean rescue and ship control tow operations begin when the casualty is not. in some cases. • Bringing the rudder(s) amidship before securing the rudder(s) and propellers for tow. There is no contradiction in terms or doctrine in these circumstances. 8-9 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 tow as her watertight integrity. they may be almost entirely responsible for the preparation. Salvage personnel securing a ship after a casualty frequently become involved with ocean tow preparations.S. The Towing Manual does not address towing ships with: • Unusual trims and lists that cannot be corrected during tow preparation.2 and 6-3. In the second case. • Securing all spaces and compartments that should be made watertight for the tow. In situations of extreme urgency. If a ship is worth repairing. as described in paragraphs 6-3. this damage may create additional drag or influence the casualty's behavior in a seaway. Navy open ocean tows. Navy Towing Manual. Sections 4-1 and 4-2 and Appendix H of the U. conditions and considerations that apply to ocean towing during damage control and firefighting operations are not applicable to the planned tow of a secured casualty. the damaged ship’s condition has been evaluated.S. • Rigging main and emergency towing bridles and assisting the casualty crew to prepare the emergency towing pendants. SL740-AA-MAN-010. by any definition. In most cases. it is worth proper preparation and manning for the voyage-intow. In the first instance. The U. contains general and detailed guidance on ocean tow principles and practice that apply to all U. weapons strike or explosion. Navy Towing Manual contain general and specific guidance on tow preparation that serves as the basis for preparing a damaged ship for an ocean tow. The difference between the “as-designed” and “the best achievable” towing condition of a properly secured casualty usually rests upon an adequate riding crew. However. salvors have no choice and even less time to do anything other than use their best endeavors to make towing connection to a disabled burning ship prior to commencing firefighting and damage control operations.S.

strength and hydrostatic characteristic estimates of the casualty in both as-delivered and worst case scenarios of the towing voyage. • Rigging of salvage pumps for those spaces or compartments most at risk and devising simple and effective pumping plans for the casualty. • Installing and wiring up flooding alarms. has regained control of the situation and is prepared to move on to the next step.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Providing diving services to cut away or trim off damaged steelwork that projects outside the casualty’s hull lines. • Providing minor steelwork and general services usually associated with large-scale tow preparations and pre-tow securing. Safely afloat can be defined as occurring when the ship. 8-6 COMPLETION OF SALVAGE SERVICES Salvage services are complete when the casualty is safely afloat and salvage personnel and their equipment are no longer required on board. A precise definition of safely afloat depends largely upon circumstances on board the casualty. with assistance from salvage personnel. power circuits and navigation lights. • Preparing stability. 8-10 . suitable temporary lighting. • Improving berthing conditions of the ship for the riding crew and briefing or training embarked personnel where the riding crew is not mainly salvage personnel.

Navy Underwater Cutting and Welding Manual (S0300-BB-MAN-010) • ENGINEER’S HANDBOOK – U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Safety Manual (S0400-AA-SAF-010) • SALVAGE MANUAL – U.S. Navy Salvage Engineer’s Handbook Volume 1 (S0300-A8-HBK-010) Volume 2 (S0300-A8-HBK-020) • TOWING MANUAL – U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Volume 6 Strandings (S0300-A6-MAN-010) Harbor Clearance (S0300-A6-MAN-020) Firefighting and Damage Control (S0300-A6-MAN-030) Deep Ocean (S0300-A6-MAN-040) POL Offloading (S0300-A6-MAN-050) POL Spill Response (S0300-A6-MAN-060) • SALVOR’S HANDBOOK – U.S. Navy Salvor’s Handbook (S0300-A7-HBK-010) • UNDERWATER CUT & WELD – U. Navy Towing Manual (SL740-AA-MAN-010) • ESSM MANUAL – Emergency Ship Salvage Material Catalog (NAVSEA 0994-LP017-3010) • EXPLOSIVES MANUAL – Technical Manual for Use of Explosives in Underwater Salvage (NAVSEA SW061-AA-MMA-010) A-1 .S.S0300-A6-MAN-030 APPENDIX A DOCUMENTATION MATRIX A-1 PURPOSE The purpose of this matrix is to provide the user of this manual with a listing of additional reference documentation.S. A-2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS The following manuals/publications are referenced on the matrix (Table A-1): • SAFETY MANUAL – U. This is given by reference manual and topic area.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table A-1. A-2 .

000 newtons = 102 kgf = 1.000 newtons = 102.000 square millimeters (mm2) = 10. Metric System. Table B-1.000 milliliters (ml) = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3) = 1.807 newtons (N) = 0. Navy Ship Salvage Manual.000 kgf = 102 tonnes force (tonnef) 10 meters 100 meters 1. Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010) for more extensive conversion tables.S0300-A6-MAN-030 APPENDIX B CONVERSION TABLES The following tables include the conversion factors most commonly used by marine firefighters.000 square centimeters (cm2) = 100 square decimeters (dm2) VOLUME 1 liter (l) 1 kiloliter (kl) 1 milliliter (ml) = 1.000 meters B-1 . See Appendix B of the U.S.000 millimeters (mm) = 1 decameter (dam) = 1 hectometer = 1 kilometer (km) AREA 1 square meter (m2) = 1.000 grams (g) = 1 metric ton (tonne) FORCE 1 kilogram force (kgf) 1 newton (N) 1 kilonewton (kN) 1 meganewton (MN) = 9.000.000 kilograms = 1.102 kgf = 1. LENGTH 1 meter (m) = 10 decimeter (dm) = 100 centimeters (cm) = 1.000.000 liters = 1 cubic meter (m3) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc) MASS 1 kilogram (kg) 1.

016339 liters = 3.008897 MN 1 newton 1 meganewton B-2 .3048 meter = 2.54 centimeters = 25.0353 cubic foot = 0.023 cubic inches = 0.S.9072 tonne = 907.17 gallons 1 cubic foot (ft3) 1 cubic yard 1 cubic foot (ft3) 1 cubic inch (in3) 1 U.4 millimeters MEASURES OF VOLUME 1 cubic meter (m 3) 1 cubic meter 1 liter 1 liter 1 liter (1) 1 cubic meter (m 3) = 35.79 liters = 0.454 kilograms = 0. Basic Metric/English Equivalents.452 square centimeters = 0.4 short tons = 224.S.S.76 square feet = 1.0283 cubic meter = 0. gallon (yd3) = 0.0929 square meter = 0.31 cubic yards = 61.281 feet = 0.205 pounds force = 1.3937 inches = 0.009964 MN = 0.37 inches = 3.4 long tons = 112.448 newtons = 0.0038 cubic meter MEASURES OF WEIGHT AND MASS 1 kilogram (kg) 1 tonne = 2.264 U.196 square yards = 0.03937 1 inch 1 foot 1 inch 1 inch MEASURES OF AREA 1 square meter (m 2) 1 square meter (m 2) 1 square centimeter = 10.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table B-2. gallons = 264.9842 long tons = 0.016 tonne = 4.0254 meter = 0.836 square meter = 6.2 kilograms = 1.32 liters = 0.3 cubic feet = 1.1023 short tons = 2205 pounds = 0.799 pounds 1 pound mass (lbm) 1 short ton 1 long ton 1 pound force (lbf) 1 long ton 1 short ton = 0.155 square inches 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square inch = 0. MEASURES OF LENGTH 1 meter 1 meter 1 centimeter 1 millimeteR = 39.225 pounds force = 100.764 cubic meter = 28. gallon (gal) 1 U.

016 = 1.671 1.79 0.S. GPM B-3 .271 0.598 0.0005 0.475 = 4.233 0.282 1.0 15850. tonnes fresh water/hour Tonnes seawater per hour Long tons fresh water per hour M3/hour M3/second Ft3/min (cfm) U.36 = 4.00047 = 0.5 0.063 3.83 = 16 2.995 = 1.223 0.01 = 1.976 4. Common Flow Rate Conversions.229 = 0.0 0.2 2118 7.0 4.134 0.48 = 7.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table B-3.276 0.23 0.3 0.5 0.228 = 0.574 0.025 = 1.0 4.0353 261.714 1.278 1.8 = 262 4.295 = 4.0 1.26 = 0.98 = 1.741 0.472 = 0.23 BY TO OBTAIN gallons per minute (gpm) cubic feet per minute (cfm) gpm cfm gal/hour gpm cfm lps cubic meters per hour (m 3/hour) gpm cfm lps m3/hour gpm cfm lps m3/hour gpm cfm lps tons seawater/hour tons fresh water/hour tonnes seawater/hour gpm cfm gpm lps lpm tons seawater/hour tons fresh water/hour tonnes seawater/hour m3/second cfm lps lpm tons seawater/hour tons fresh water/hour tonnes seawater/hour m3/sec m3/hour.4 0.00006 0.588 0.4 0.12 0.25 0.583 0. MULTIPLY Liters per seconds (lps) Liters per minute (lpm) Long tons seawater per hour 15.32 1.5 28.

6 0.28 4. Water Equivalencies. kiloliters (kl) Barrels (bbl) Cubic feet U.26 220. Gallons Imperial Gallons Cubic Feet Cubic Meters (kiloliters) Barrels B-4 .0 1.025 1.240 lbs) 35 261.31 162.78 10.45 257.009 2.3 1.025 1.02 4. gallons Imperial gallons Cubic meters (m 3).260 359.5 223.66 64 29.04 = 220 1.33 264.016 = 1. MULTIPLY For Seawater Long Ton (2.991 = 1.73 = 258 214.976 6.S.0 6. gallons Imperial gallons Cubic meters.205 350.39 35.9 Cubic feet (ft3) U.56 3. (kl) bbl pounds (lbs) kg lb kg lbs kg tonnes kg long ton lbs lbs kg TO OBTAIN U.37 158.984 2.0 6.000 0.54 62.29 8.S.4 28.0 6.89 = 36 268.5 1.23 Tonnes 34.025 1.96 = 163 BY For Fresh Water 35.82= 262 218 0.34 3.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table B-4.88 10.14 8.S.

S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table B-5.7 0.08 = 10.31 0.S.) ounces Bars Barrels Cubic centimeters B-5 .0 14. MULTIPLY Feet of seawater Feet of fresh water Inches of fresh water Psi Psi Inches of mercury Psi Psi Atmospheres Atmospheres Bar BY 0.9 = 34 33.07 14.036 2.87 0. MULTIPLY Atmospheres BY 33.1 = 33 29.92 = 30 14.445 = 0.159 159 0.S. General Conversion Factors.0002642 0.615 42 0.25 2. Common Pressure Conversions. gallons (gal) kiloliters.04 = 2. m 3 liters gallons (U.49 = 0.200 5. Common Density Conversion.02 0.0 0.434 = 0.7 = 15 10.02 = 1.45 0.0624 35.5 2.5 1.43 0. MULTIPLY Lb/ft3 Kg/m 3 m3/tonne ft3/lton BY 16.0 TO OBTAIN psi psi psi feet of seawater feet of fresh water psi inches of mercury atmospheres psi meters of seawater psi kg/cm 2 Table B-6.987 14.0279 TO OBTAIN kg/m 3 lb/ft3 ft3/lton m3/tonne Table B-7.0338 TO OBTAIN feet of fresh water (ffw) feet of seawater (fsw) inches of mercury (in Hg) lb/in2 (psi) atmospheres psi kg/m 2 cubic feet (ft3) U.5 10.

0303 0.589 = 0.2 6.03124 312.0 0.785 0.9048 0.728 0.1337 0.355 0.833 231 0.178 1.4 0.S.6 0.S.29 1.77 62.32 0.445 1.0238 1.000 1 4.295 0.0305 304.) cubic meters/hour Cubic meters Cubic meters/hour Feet of fresh water Feet of seawater Foot pounds (ft-lb) Gallons (U. General Conversion Factors.882 0.003785 3.02832 35.5 28.) Gallons (Imperial) Gallons per minute B-6 . MULTIPLY Cubic feet BY 7.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table B-7 (Continued).201 0.4 0.48 = 7.228 TO OBTAIN gallons liters bbl in3 m3 ft3 gallons bbl liters kiloliters gallons/minute ft3/min atmospheres inches of mercury (in Hg) kg/cm 2 kg/m 2 lb/ft2 psi atmospheres in Hg kg/cm 2 kg/m 2 lb/ft2 psi newton-meters ft3 m3 liters Imperial gallons in3 bbl gallons (U.31 264.434 0.46 64.

68 0.225 0.000 0. General Conversion Factors.2 220.1 144 907.308 1.31 1.882 16.9072 0.785 0.1516 0.31 703.00132 0.1023 2.1 35.25 2.454 1.233 54.0193 0.488 0.6214 1 6.0446 13.02 2.000 BY lb/in2 (psi) lb/in3 ft-lbs feet/minute knots mph cubic meters bbl U.29 264.984 1.205 1.8532 1.0435 0.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table B-7 (Continued).5396 0. MULTIPLY Kilograms/m 2 Kilograms/m 3 Kilogram-meter Kilometers/hour 0.8929 0.S.0624 7.00142 0.006944 4.2 2. gal Imperial gal cubic ft cubic yds kilometers/hour statute miles/hour atmospheres feet of seawater feet of fresh water kg/m 2 lb/ft2 psi pounds (lb) kilograms kilograms/meter psi kg/m 2 kilograms/m 3 fsw ffw kilogram/m 2 pounds/ft2 kg lbs long tons tonnes long tons short tons lbs kg TO OBTAIN Kiloliters Knots Millimeters of mercury Newtons Pounds Pounds/foot Pounds/ft2 Pounds/ft3 Pounds/inch2 Tons (short) Tonne B-7 .6 2.

554.32) ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE Rankine (R) = Degrees Fahrenheit + 460 Kelvin (K) = Degrees Celsius + 273 B-8 .1 0.3404 778.0002928 3.S0300-A6-MAN-030 Table B-8.412.3 0. Temperature Conversion. Power Conversion.001285 0.75 BY kilowatts horsepower foot-pounds Btu horsepower hours Btu Kilowatt hours Btu TO OBTAIN Table B-9. MULTIPLY Horsepower Kilowatts Btu Foot-pounds Btu Horsepower hours Btu Kilowatt hours 0.0003927 2. Degrees Fahrenheit (°F) = (9/5 x degrees Celsius ) + 32 Degrees Celsius (°C) = 5/9 x (degrees Fahrenheit .746 1.

Special hazards: (1) Boil Over (2) Flowing (3) BLEVE (4) Tanks (5) Magazines (6) Weapons Systems (7) Unexploded Ordnance (8) CBR Hazards C-1 . Fires: a. FIRE/DAMAGE SITUATION 1. Status of fires (OOC. if available 3. Name/Hull Number/Type 2. Availability of ship’s power/Maneuverability 4. Maintain communications with casualty crew at all times during approach. Damage control organization and repair party personnel status B. UC. Number/Type/Size/Location b. Position—in Lat/Long and grid. OUT) c. SHIP INFORMATION 1. A. Status of command structure on casualty 5.S0300-A6-MAN-030 APPENDIX C SALVAGE FIREFIGHTING TEAM APPROACH CHECKOFF LIST To be completed as accurately as possible by STL prior to approaching and boarding the casualty.

Damage Control (1) Dewatering (2) Stability and trim control. Condition of on board systems a. Structural Integrity (1) Type of damage sustained (2) Special towing considerations. Firefighting (1) Agents used and stock remaining on board (2) Cooling and boundary controls established (3) Magazines flooded or spraying in progress b. Actions Taken a. Stability (1) Drafts—Fwd/Aft/midships P&S (2) List/Freeboard/Trim (3) Approximate GM/GZ and range of stability 3. by bow or stern (3) Requirements for immediate temporary patching or plugging c. if known (1) Size/Location (2) Flooding rate (3) Risks of progressive flooding b. Hull penetrations. Fire pumps/Fire main C-2 .S0300-A6-MAN-030 2. actions taken or necessary 4. Hull: a.

Lifting gear/fenders available c. Crew available to assist offloading salvage gear 2. Provide General Arrangement Plan or Damage Control plot to team OIC. Requirements to resupply casualty DC locker C. Actions taken E. CASUALTY DCA ASSISTANCE Casualty DCA or assistant to meet team OIC upon arrival to brief and assist embarked team. Fixed extinguishing systems c. Ship/Boat Approach a. Boarding access from boats/ships (1) Ladder (2) Cargo net (3) Gangway D. Helicopter a. Flight deck/Landing site condition and accessibility b. Foam availability and back-up supplies required d. Best approach/Wind/Seas/Drift aspect b.S0300-A6-MAN-030 b. C-3 . BOARDING INFORMATION 1. ASSISTING VESSELS ON SCENE 1.

There is an engine-driven hydraulic recharge pump on some units.100 rpm and incorporates: • Water-cooled exhaust manifold and turbocharger. This system allows quick and efficient hand starting. A typical 2.to 2. Paragraph 4-4. • Heat exchanger with header tank. portable monitor units or hoses. diesel-driven unit designed for easy transportation and rapid deployment.S0300-A6-MAN-030 APPENDIX D GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR COMMERCIAL PORTABLE FIREFIGHTING PUMPS D-1 INTRODUCTION The setting-up and operating procedures described in this appendix apply to 2. The engine is a turbocharged. foot-operated start valve. direct-injection diesel especially rated for fire pump duty. • Gear-driven positive-displacement raw water cooling pump.4 provides general details of these units. pressure gage. Some pumps have an additional discharge hose manifold for operating remote. The engine develops about 500 bhp at 2.1 Engine. D-2. Most portable pump units of this type have an automatic foam proportioner unit that can be adjusted for three. • Heavy-duty air.900-gpm portable firefighting pump unit consists of the components described in the following paragraphs. intercooled. • Duplex primary fuel filters of the water separator type. • Hydraulic starting system with starter motor. D-2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The portable firefighting pump described in this appendix is a self-contained. The exhaust is water-injected with a special manifold flange that has a quick connector and 20 feet (six meters) of flexible exhaust hose with a Camlock coupling.or six-percent concentrations of protein and synthetic foams and the standard AFFF compound. fuel and lubrication oil filters.900-gpm (US) portable firefighting pump units deployed by commercial salvors. Figure 4-22 illustrates a typical unit. D-1 . baseframe-mounted hydraulic oil tank. • Water-injected exhaust. accumulator and manually operated recharge pump.000. These pump units may be built with one or two manually controlled monitors.

A lightweight. Multiple suction hoses facilitate hose handling and reduce the possibility of complete suction blockage. D-2 . Two sets of suction hoses. efficient and maintenance-free. Suction hoses are attached to the pump suction manifold by up to five four-inch (100 mm) or four six-inch (150 mm) Camlock or Storz couplings. Suction manifold configurations vary with models and manufacturers. Alternatively. tug/supply vessels or other ships or barges of opportunity with freeboards less than 10 feet. The other set of hoses are deck or suction extension hoses. the suction lines may be primed from an external water supply. rescue tugs. A hand-operated diaphragm pump is provided for filling the suction lines before startup. flexible pipe coupling that isolates the engine-pump assembly from the discharge pipework and monitor units. Special adapter fittings may be required to couple hydraulic suction booster pumps for suction lifts in excess of 10 feet.05 meters). • Shut down safety systems. Figure 4-22 depicts a portable firefighting pump fitted with a five-suction manifold for 4-inch suction hoses. Hoses can be attached to a special hose mounted below the monitor units. This system is simple. The pump shaft is driven directly from the engine flywheel through a torsionally flexible coupling unit. • Soft-packed gland with water or grease lubrication.or grease-lubricated gland. The pump is a single-stage centrifugal pump with an end suction that has a low net positive suction head (NPSH) requirement.2 Pump. The pumps can be operated by: • Taking direct suction from the main decks of salvage ships. are provided. • Being supplied by suction booster pumps at freeboards greater than 10 feet. The pump discharge is fitted with a connection and shut-off valve for the injection of foam. multibranch suction manifold is provided. Discharge from the pump is through a high-pressure. • Marine-grade aluminum alloy casing. One set of hoses has an integral foot valve and strainer. The usual static suction lift is 10 feet (3. It is flange-mounted to the engine flywheel housing via an adaptor housing incorporating a pump shaft bearing and a water.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Lightweight materials for major components. The pump assembly features: • Stainless steel shaft. • Bronze impeller. D-2. usually 16 to 18 feet long.

5 Instrumentation.3 Mounting. • High cooling water temperature shutdown. D-2. gate-type control valves to enable one or both of them to be isolated from the discharge manifold. The following safety features are included for operations in potentially hazardous atmospheres. The base contains an integral fuel tank (five-hour capacity) with contents gage and a hydraulic oil tank for the starting system. All the systems are mechanical and include: • Low oil pressure shutdown. • Pump suction gage (liquid-filled). This system eliminates any bending by excessive handling or suction hose loads. The instrumentation panel is mounted within the protection frame in a water-resistant box. inside the protective framework. bonded rubber. D-3 .4 Base and Frame. All instrumentation is operated mechanically and includes: • Tachometer and hourmeter. There are two mounts at the front of the engine and a single mount supporting a yoke on the pump suction flange. antivibration mounts. • Low cooling water pressure shutdown. • Oil pressure gage. One (or two) hand-controlled monitors with full azimuth and elevation capability are mounted on top of the protective frame.S0300-A6-MAN-030 D-2.7 Safety Features. The monitors have spade-pattern. A discharge manifold with connections for up to six 2-1/2-inch diameter hoses is located on top of the pump casing. • Water temperature gage. • Engine speed control. D-2. lightweight assembly. Tool and equipment compartments are fitted. D-2. • Exhaust gas temperature gage. The base frame incorporates hardwood skids and forklift truck sockets for handling.6 Monitor(s) and Discharge Manifold. D-2. The base and frame are constructed from marine-grade aluminum alloy sheet. folded and welded to provide a rigid. • Overspeed shutdown by mechanical fuel shutoff and by aspiration air shutoff. • Pump pressure gage (liquid-filled). The engine-pump monobloc assembly is mounted on the base frame on three heavy-duty. The detachable protection frame is supported from six points with a top protective canopy fitted with a single point lift and hold-down shackles.

Suggested securing methods are: (1) Metal plate dogs inserted into the forklift handling sockets of the pump frame and welded to the ship’s deck. (2) Combinations of oil field cargo loadbinders or turnbuckles secured to padeyes or lugs welded on the ship’s deck and bulwarks. Remove the blank flange and its associated nuts and bolts from the suction flange. portable. The rated suction lift of the pump units is 10 feet (3. D-2. These specifications permit operation of certain types of approved diesel-engine-driven machinery on board tankers. The unit has foam injection by either pressure injection through a connection on the pump discharge or induction through a connection on the pump suction manifold. b. Systems are constructed in compliance with Lloyd’s Register of Shipping’s specifications for operation in Zone 2 Hazardous Areas. Secure the pump to the ship’s deck using a positive tiedown system that can resist both thrust from monitors and ship’s motions at sea. • Bronze (nonsparking) starter pinion. Not all diesel engines comply with the requirements for Zone 2 Hazardous Area operations. Do not weld brackets to the pump frame. • Antistatic v-belts. • Nonsparking hardwood skids on base.S0300-A6-MAN-030 • Inlet flame trap. D-3. c. • Flametrap on engine crankcase vent. • Water-cooled manifold/turbocharger. firefighting pump units comply with national and international flameproofing regulations. D-4 . D-3 PUMP SETUP INSTRUCTIONS The following setup instructions are based on pump units delivered to a platform of opportunity such as a hired tug/supply ship and set up as shown in Figure 6-7. Place the pump as low as possible for minimum suction lift.05 meters). The following procedures are for setting up the units: a.1 Pre-operation Setup.8 Foam Injection. Drain preservation oil from the pump casing. Most commercially operated. Store the flange and securing device in the spare parts box. • Water-injected exhaust.

Rig the suction hoses and strainer/footvalves. Keep the free end of the exhaust as low as possible to permit easy water flow (drainage). Tie off all lines making sure the footvalve lever lines are slack. The following engine checks should be made before starting up and after preparing the pump: (1) Check the coolant level (fresh water cooling). remount them on top of the 6-inch plate valve(s) on top of the framework. Connect a length of rope to each footvalve release lever and connect another line to the lower end of the hose for lifting. Keep the lines separate—the footvalve lever line must never be too tight. Tie off all cam levers on Camlock couplings with small stuff. j. Close the cams on the coupling and secure it with small stuff.2 Prestarting Procedures a. check the footvalves for correct seating and the lever lines for slackness. Flood the suction hoses and pump casing with water. Connect the exhaust hose to the exhaust manifold. k Check following valve positions: (1) Main six-inch discharge gate valves to monitors: (2) Foam valve from eductor to suction manifold: (3) Foam suction connection (on completion of flooding): OPEN CLOSED OPEN l. Position the monitor(s) so that the water stream will not strike and damage objects in the area. If the water level drops. Lower the suction strainers into the water making sure the strainers are well clear of propellers and rudders. e.S0300-A6-MAN-030 d. Connect the suction hoses to the pump suction manifold making sure the rubber sealing rings are in position in the Camlock couplings. D-5 . Make sure that the diesel engine cooling water pump suction pipe is flooded to the pump impeller. Connect the fire main adapter to the foam suction branch and connect it to the ship's fire main or another water source. Make sure the water level is maintained in hoses and casing. f. h. Fit the suction manifold to the pump suction flange and connect the foam eductor and engine saltwater cooling lines to appropriate points. D-3. g. i. If monitor(s) have been dissembled.

Set the throttle lever to the middle position. (3) Loss of seawater cooling pressure. D-3. Pull the throttle lever towards the slow running position (800 to 1. (4) Check the hydraulic oil level in the start system oil tank. (4) Engine overspeed. d. When all air is expelled. (5) High exhaust gas temperature. pressurize the fuel system with the same hand pump (5 to 10 strokes) to give the maximum starting ability. (5) Check that fuel pump stop lever is in full forward position. d.3 Starting.000 rpm). Check that the main pump and saltwater cooling pump have both picked up suction and are pumping water. bleed all air from the fuel injection system at the high point on the fuel filters and at the pressure equalizer on the Bosch fuel pump. D-6 . b. Recheck that the six-inch gate valves below the monitor(s) are fully open and that the waterway to the monitor(s) is clear. All shutdowns stop the engine by closing off the air inlet manifold.000 psi). Pump up the hydrostart system to between 150 and 200 bar (2. e. (2) High fresh water cooling temperature. c. With the hand-pressure pump on the side of the fuel pump. (3) Check the fuel level in the main fuel tank. Lift the small lever through 90 degrees and rotate the linkage downward until the pawl engages.250 to 3. The Amot control shuts the engine down for any of the following problems: (1) Loss of lubricating oil pressure.S0300-A6-MAN-030 (2) Check the crankcase lubricating oil level. b. Press down the pedal valve on the hydrostart system—release it immediately when the engine fires. c. To start the engine: a. Preset the Amot control valve under the frame canopy at the after end of the engine.

e. D-7 . f. open the throttle for the required revolutions and output. c. (3) Pull the stop lever at the back of the fuel pump towards the pump end of the engine until the latch engages. Check the fuel level and refill at regular (at least four-hour) intervals. (3) Shut down monitor(s) slowly and allow a gradual buildup of pressure in the remote delivery lines. d. To stop the unit: • Routine Stopping (1) Point the monitors in a safe direction. One person may be assigned to watch both pumps. g. D-3. f. h. Check the cooling water system for leaks. Check the lubricating oil system for leaks. Normally.4 Running Procedures. Check the fuel system for leaks. When changing over from monitor(s) to hose manifold operation: (1) Point the monitor(s) outboard in a safe direction. After about five minutes warmup. (2) Reduce the engine speed to approximately 1. Running procedures are: a.5 Stopping. g. two pump units are operating. (2) Open up the hose delivery valves slowly and charge the remote delivery lines carefully. Check all gages on the control board. D-3. Check that the Amot control valve has taken over the safety system and that the manual latch has released. b. Check the pump gland for heat and a very small leak off. Check all gages on the control board for steady readings of temperature and pressure. Never leave the pump running unattended.000 rpm and allow the engine to idle for about 10 minutes.S0300-A6-MAN-030 e.

Check the fuel system for air locks.1 Engine Will Not Start. If oil comes out and engine stops. D-3.6.2 Engine Stops While Idling.6 Miscellaneous Operating Notes. Carry out all “Before Starting” procedures and all “Engine Will Not Start” checks. The remedy is to lower the pump to reduce the suction head or to run the pump at slightly higher revolutions. The engine stopping while idling can be caused by too great a static suction head on main pump. Check that the Amot valve is set correctly.S0300-A6-MAN-030 (4) Once the engine has stopped return the stop lever to the fully forward position to facilitate restart. b. close the vent. check safety controls as follows: (1) Seawater cooling: Crack open the air vent on the pump discharge or connection to pressure gage to find out if the pump is functioning. Check that the main pump and the seawater cooling pump have retained their prime. When the lever is pushed. • Emergency Stop.6. If the engine stops running under load: a. Check that all footvalves are closed and that lines attached to footvalve levers are slack. e. D-3. Check the fuel level. These notes should always be read in conjunction with the appropriate instruction manual for the engine and pump unit on the specific firefighting system being operated. it trips the Amot control and stops the engine by closing the air inlet. D-3. oil pressure is correct. (2) Lube oil safety: Slowly slacken the nut retaining the pipe to the cock at start of the lube oil safety line. After restart.3 Engine Stops Running Under Load.6. If water flows. Check that the fuel pump stop handle is in fuel “ON” position. Check that the air intake valve is not stuck in the closed position. d. For emergency use only there is a stop lever connected to the main Amot safety control valve that is in turn connected to a butterfly valve in the air inlet of the engine. Check for broken V-belts and a defective fresh water pump. D-3. Reprime the suction system from deck salt water service line. c. d. Retighten the nut and restart engine and slacken the nut at the return end of vent D-8 . b. If the engine will not start: a. c. which gives too low cooling seawater pressure.

6. seaweed. the pump impeller must be checked for presence of plastic or garbage that may have drifted away from the casualty. Excessive revolutions (overspeed) can be caused by loss of load caused by a broken pump shaft. loose impeller.5 The Pump Fails to Deliver after Filling and Starting. Check the six-inch gate valves just below the monitor(s). loss of counter pressure or ingestion of oil vapors through air inlet. check the atmosphere adjacent to the engine air inlet.6. check strainers and footvalves for blockage by plastic. If the pump fails to deliver after filling and starting: a. one of the safety devices is bypassing oil because of not resetting. Check that the static suction height does not exceed 11. If the vacuum manometer gives a high suction reading. d.5 to 13 feet (3.5 to 4. e. If the strainer and footvalve are blocked badly.0 meters). b. f. If vapor ingestion is suspected. These valves should be open. If filling of the pump proceeds without overflowing. If there are leaks. Check all safety transmitters individually until the faulty unit is located. D-3.S0300-A6-MAN-030 line. D-9 . Correct the fault. tighten the securing bands or renew the coupling gaskets. check the footvalves to be sure they are closed and the trigger lines are slack. D-3. etc. If oil flows. Fill up the suction system and check the hoses and couplings for leaks.4 Overspeed. c.

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