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Waste Water Treatment Technology

Waste Water Treatment Technology

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Published by: JOSEPH HERBERT MABEL on Nov 28, 2012
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Waste water Treatment Processes

Sewage Treatment Processes: A. Preliminary B. Primary C. Secondary

D. Tertiary


Definitions: Sewage:
The content of sewer or drains

Sewage Treatment:
Removing of impurities so that the remaining waste water can be safely returned to the river or sea and become part of the natural water cycle again.


Introduction Cont’d Compositions:       Human waste paper Food Grease Mineral matter and almost any things that can be carried by water 3 .

© 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers 4 .Fig 21.21 Diagram of sewage treatment processes.

Disease-Causing Agents 5 .

6 .

Sewage Treatment Processes   Preliminary Primary   Secondary Tertiary 7 .

Sewage Treatment Processes Cont’d Preliminary Treatment  Solids like wood paper. rags and plastic are removed by screens 8 .

Sewage Treatment Processes Cont’d Primary Treatment  The remaining solids that passed from the preliminary treatment are removed  About 70% of solids settle out at this stage 9 .

Sewage Treatment Processes Cont’d Secondary Treatment  Biological treatment to reduce organic matter in the waste stream  Aerobic bacteria is the main cause for this reduction  The chemical reaction: Organic matter Bacteria O2 CO2 + H2O 10 .

11 .Sewage Treatment Processes Cont’d Secondary Treatment  This process can be speeded up by blowing air into tanks of sewage  These treatment units are called Aeration Tanks.

Sewage Treatment Processes Cont’d Secondary Treatment Bacteria Found in the Sewage Aerobic Require dissolved oxygen for their existence Ex: Earobacter Anaerobic Exist in the absence of dissolved oxygen Ex: Sulfate Reducer Facultative Can grow with or without oxygen Ex: Salmonella 12 .

Sewage Treatment Processes Cont’d Tertiary Treatment  Several forms of tertiary treatment are available for example: Passing the effluent over grass plots 2. 13 . Retaining the effluent in lagoons 3. Filtering through sand beds 1.

Sand Filters Advantages  Long history in the industry .known  Easy to operate  Easy to construct Disadvantages  Requires large water pumps  Operation smothers the nitrifying biofilm  Needs frequent backwashing 14 .

Trickle Filters Advantages  Good air exchange  Simple to construct  Almost any material will work Disadvantages  Uneven surface wetting  May promote solids retention & be hard to clean 15 .

Industrial RBC Advantages  Good air exchange  Least maintenance of all biofilters  Automatically maintains a thin biofilm  Most efficient Biofilter   Disadvantages No solids removal Have to maintain rotation  Needs space 16 .

Fluidized Beds Advantages  Constant movement of beads promotes thin biofilm  Large surface for nitrification Disadvantages  Hard to maintain constant bead movement  Beads tend to stick together  Loss of Beads from the filter  May promote growth of heterotrophic bacteria 17 .

Filter Comparison Filter Type Maintenance Sand Filter Clogging Potential Oxygen Limited Mechanical Ability high high high high yes yes good good Undergravel Filter Plenum Trickle Filter RBC Fluidized Bed Bead Filter low medium low med-high high medium medium low medium high yes no no yes yes none none none good good 18 .

19 .Activated sludge is a process for treating sewage and industrial wastewaters using air and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoans.

nitrogen. •oxidizing nitrogeneous matter: mainly ammonium and nitrogen in biological materials. •generating a liquor that is low in dissolved or suspended material. 20 .•oxidizing carbonaceous matter: biological matter. •generating a biological floc that is easy to settle. ammonia. •removing phosphate. etc. •driving off entrained gases carbon dioxide.

The result is that the oxygen content of the water will be decreased. Any oxidizable material present in a natural waste will be oxidized both by biochemical (bacterial) or chemical processes.Activated sludge process Activated sludge is a biochemical process for treating sewage and industrial wastewater that uses air (or oxygen) and microorganisms to biologically oxidize organic pollutants.+ 2 O2 → SO4-NO2.+ ½ O2 → NO3- . Oxidizable material + bacteria + nutrient + O2 → CO2 + H2O + oxidized inorganics S-. producing a waste sludge (or floc) containing the oxidized material.

Part of the waste sludge is recycled to the aeration tank and the remaining waste sludge is removed for further treatment and ultimate disposal. . an activated sludge process includes:  An aeration tank where air (or oxygen) is injected and thoroughly mixed into the wastewater.  A settling tank (usually referred to as a "clarifier" or "settler") to allow the waste sludge to settle.In general.

 An enclosure or a container which houses the bed of filter medium.Trickling filter system  A bed of filter medium upon which a layer of microbial slime is promoted and developed. A system for removing and disposing of any sludge from the treated effluent.  A system for distributing the flow of wastewater over the filter medium. • The treatment of sewage or other wastewater with trickling filters is among the oldest and most well characterized treatment technologies. .

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