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0 TITLE : CNC Milling (Non Traditional Machining)

2.0 OBJECTIVE
1. To develop more understanding about development and principle of CNC machine 2. To understand the fundamentals of NC programming which need to be taken for completing a successful CNC program 3. To learn how to produce a product through the process

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3.0

INTRODUCTION
Non-traditional manufacturing processes is defined as a group of processes that remove

excess material by various techniques involving mechanical, thermal, electrical or chemical energy or combination of these energies but do not use a sharp cutting tools as it needs to be used for traditional manufacturing processes. Extremely hard and brittle materials are difficult to machine by traditional machining processes such as turning, drilling, shaping and milling. Non -traditional machining processes, also called advances manufacturing processes, are employed where traditional machining processes are not feasible, satisfactory or economical due to special reasons Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to manually controlled or mechanically automated via cams alone. The first NC machines were built in the1940s and '50s, based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on paper tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers, creating the modern computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the design process. In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using CAD/CAM programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools, modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single “cell”.

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Figure 1: CNC Milling Machine

Modern CNC milling differs little in concept from original model built at MIT in 1952. Mills typically consist of a table that moves in the Y-axis, and a tool chuck that moves in X and Z (depth). The position of the tool is driven by motors through a series of step-down gears in order to provide highly accurate movements, or in modern design, direct-drive stepper motors. As the controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. One change has been to enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure, often with additional safety interlock to ensure the operator is far enough from the working piece for safe operation. Mechanical manual controls disappeared long ago. CNC like system are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movement and operations. This include laser cutting, welding, friction stir welding ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma cutting, bending, spinning, pinning, gluing, fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fiber placement, routing, picking and placing (PnP), and sawing.
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4.0

APPARATUS

Figure 3: Rough Stock Figure 2: CNC Milling Machine

Figure 4: Machine Controller

Figure 5 : NC Program

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Figure 6: Cutting tool

Figure 7: Work Holding Device

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4.1

INDUSTRIAL APPARATUS
Figure 8: CNC Milling Machine

Limitations: - Relatively high initial cost of the equipment. - The need and cost for programming and computer time. - Special maintenance with trained personnel. - High preventive maintenance since breakdowns are costly.

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5.0

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
We were only shown simplified procedure by the lecturer, machine setting and specification is done by lecturer on side. The below procedure is the simplified procedure:

1 . At first, we have to check the programs to ensure that the machinery will function properly and that the output will meet specifications. We downloaded the NC program to the controller by key in the data, cabling RS232 or APT after the programming work is completed. 2. Tool layout. Before the machining was started, the tool layout must be check so that we got the desired shape of work piece. 3. Work piece setting. In this step, operator loaded the proper cutting tools into the tool holder and positions the work piece that is piece of metal or plastic that is being shaped on the CNC machine tool. 4. In machining process, after operator load work pieces and cutting tools into a machine, after that the start button was pressed. Operator monitored the machine for problems, and measure the parts produced to check that they match specifications.

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6.0

RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS

Figure 9: Product design in CATIA
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Figure 10: product design in CNC Milling screen

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Figure 11: Final Product

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6.1

SAMPLE CALCULATION

NC programme code (G-Code)

Start Fifo N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N10 N11 N12 N13 N14 N15 N16 N17 \ N18 N19 N20 N21 N22 N23 N24 N25 N26 N27 G2 G1 G2 G2 G2 G3 G0 M5 M9 M30 11 G1 Z10 G40 X-26 Y18.5 X26 Y-18.5 X12.394 Y-22.856 R7.5 Y18.5 R7.5 F75 F100 F75 T2 G0 G01 G2 G2 M6 X-26 Z-15 X-12.394 X12.394 Y22.856 R7.5 F75 F75 Y18.5 Z10 ----- Tool 2 T1 M6 M8 ----- Tool 1

S1000 M3 G0 G1 G0 G0 G1 G0 G0

X18.5 Y18.5 210 Z-15 Z10 X-18.5 Z-15 Z10 Y18.5 F100 F100

Y22.856 R36

7.0

DISCUSSION OF RESULT

For our experiment, our aims are to learn and understand the use and capabilities of computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. For the set up of the CNC operation, the computer numerical control is attached to the milling machine. Firstly, Computer Aided Design (CAD) is used to make a design of a product. In CAD, it involves a special symbolic programming languages or codes that determine the coordinate points of corner, edges and surfaces of the work piece. Once the design is completed, we transfer the coding that we made using ISO NC programmed to the CNC milling machine. All the data about the process from the beginning to the end is included in those codes. Wrong coding will damage the work piece. In order to prevent damage, we need to view the simulation on the CNC screen and do some final editing so that the milling machine is operating in a good condition as we will obtain perfect work piece. Any errors or mistakes will affect the work piece as well as the machine. The machine‟s cutting tool might break. We have to set up the h of cutting tool, cutting fed, cutting speed , spindle speed that is suitable with the specimen to avoid error occur during the process. From the experiment, we can say that our product is perfect and thus our experiment is 100% success. The product follows the original design and the surfaces are completely smooth. From the product obtained, the coordinate system plays an important role to make sure the product is not defected. While CNC machines are expensive and complicated, they have a lot of advantages. These are some advantages of CNC machine: 1. It improves automation, removing the need of an operator for all but a few parts of the work. CNC machines can be left unattended for hours or even days if necessary, allowing operators to focus on other tasks. 2. CNC machines can be used continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and only need to be switched off for occasional maintenance. 3. CNC machines can be updated by improving the software used to drive the machines. 4. Training in the use of CNCs is available through the use of „virtual software‟. This is software that allows the operator to practice using the CNC machine on the screen of a computer. The software is similar to a computer game

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8.0

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, we learned the principle of CNC machine. We gained better understanding in the modes of operation of CNC machine. There is various type of modern CNC machines use in industrial. Different preparatory (G codes) and miscellaneous function (M codes) is used in CNC part programming for completing a successful CNC program. Specifically, CNC milling machine works with a computer numerical control that writes and read G-code instructions to drive machine tool to fabricate components with a proper material removal rate. G-codes are commands for CNC machines to follow so that they can operate on their own without human control. Zero set up is very important step to obtain an accurate geometry of the work piece. We also gain information about the advantages and disadvantages of CNC machines and its application. CNC machine can be used to cut complex shapes of metal and other solid materials. The advantages of CNC machine over Traditional Machine (TM) besides the availability of low cost programmable controllers played a major role in the successful implementation of CNC on manufacturing plants. From the experiment, we can conclude that the objective students with Numerical Control (NC) Programming and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling machine has been successfully achieved.

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9.0

RECOMMENDATION

Getting the appropriate feeds and speeds for the work piece material, tooling, and cutting conditions is the most important first step. Consistent speeds and feeds will make a huge difference on the surface finish. Getting the right speeds and feeds is just as important to obtain a good surface finish. Good chip clearing is essential to both surface finish and tool life. It's impossible to get good surface finish if chips are being re-cut over and over again. If chip clearance is minimal, clumped up chips can jam the cutter to the point where it breaks. Flood coolant or an air blast should be used to clear the chips at all times. Aside from cooling the tool, the coolant cools the work piece. Sometimes this is helpful to accuracy, as a work piece that heats up is a work piece that is moving due to thermal expansion. Another advantage of coolant is that it lubricates the tool/work piece interface. The primary impact of work holding on surface finish is vibration. In the worst case vibration will turn into chatter, which is a harmonic effect that will be very visible in your surface finish. Clearly, the more solid we can make our work holding, the less likelihood of vibration there will be. Make sure the work piece is supported and clamped over as much area as possible surrounding the cut while still leaving room for the cutter to get in there and do its job.

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10.0 REFERENCES
1) Kalpakjian, S., and R.S. Schmid, “Automation of Manufacturing Process”, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 4th. Edition, Prentice Hall, 2000. 2) Youssefi, K, “Computer Numerical Control (CNC)”, Product Design and Manufacturing Minicurriculum, 6 Oct. 2004. 3) Mikell P. Groover , Principles of Modern Manufacturing, 4th Edition, Wiley 2011. 4) http://www.technologystudent.com/despro2/cncsys1.htm 5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milling_machine

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